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Proceedings of the SMART-2017; IEEE Conference ID: 42281

6th Fifth International Conference on System Modeling & Advancement in Research Trends, 29th -30th December, 2017.
College Of Computing Sciences & Information Technology, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, India.


Jitendra Garg Alok Kumar Singh Bhavesh Vyas Jitendra Sharma
PG Scholar Associate Professor Assistant Professor Head of Department
Jaipur Institute of Technology, Jaipur Jaipur Institute of Technology, Jaipur Arya College of Engg. & I.T., Jaipur Jaipur Institute of Technology, Jaipur

Abstract—Traditional irrigation system in developing countries In this paper real time existing irrigation rich agriculture
led to disorganized growth in agricultural load which is creating area has been selected that is having the potential of abundent
unbroken pressure on grid by increasing losses. Therefore to solar generation. Also shunt capacitor banks are projected at
reduce the effective peak loads of the annual seasons 11 kV rural 0.415 kV level voltage buses for fulfilling reactive power
feeders emanating from Jaipur Discom, i.e Jamwa Ramgarh (33 requirements. Rajasthan holds first position in India's top
kV GSS) have been selected for case study. Rampura feeder is solar-recognized states sanctified with vegetation. It has
modeled of two hundred & thirty bus network designed as per maximum solar insolation in India & estimated solar potential
actual connection topology. Case study has been carried over 33 of 142 GW. The availability of rich infertile land provides
kV Jamwa Ramgarh GSS by collection & generation of solar PV.
scope for PV generation. To increase rapid developments in
The relative study of system With & Without solar integration
has been simulated.
solar power sector, the government of Rajasthan has
In an existing system if the power flow angles of system remains established a welcoming investment policy background. Since
low then the current drained will be high occasioning losses in Rajasthan is the leading state of India with total commissioned
equivalence with current relating to these situations. Different solar capacity of 1177 MW. The installed and upcoming CSP
loading conditions (50, 70 & 90 %) have been taken care as per plants, solar parks have missioned long term run up in
agriculture season of the fields. Power loss reduction has been promoting renewable energy sources. Out of 20436.32 MW
collectively observed; voltage profile improvement & stability total electricity generation of state 6237.80 MW comes from
readings over manifold loading situations will be provided. Power renewable energy sources. (Till 30/6/2017 as per CEA)
flow studies measuring the losses in feeder, loading of 11 kV
networks, transformers working in agriculture yards and
In this paper, simulation study of a test network has been
network profiles of test system is collected & analyzed. The carried to calculate the effect of solar PV generation and var
finally obtained model of solar integration at calculated points as absorption jointly in a grid. Compensating capacitive effect of
per desired needs are detailed shown in the paper. +/_ banks at 11 kV level and solar power integration on losses,
Keywords—capacitor bank placement; rural var integration; lines, loading level & voltage characteristics of system
distribution network; pv grid integration, loss reduction. equipment will be studied & detailed with cost saving at last.
Loss reduction in distribution network is an iterative task
In developing countries like India the distribution network
is full of irregularities and problems that timely various lots of research practices have been carried till date.
measures have to be taken up by utilities to reduce losses. The Researches have commissioned various regulations in
practical application of research carried till date must be there direction of managing voltage and reactive power of a system.
for overall development in power sector. The database Arraying shunt capacitor banks to compensate reactive power
pointing India’s terrestrial, only 46 per cent of the cultivated for consumer is an old technique but still a worthy option for
land is irrigated (as per MOA report, 2014). More than 19 agriculture belts.
million field connections lie in agriculture zone of India. The In 1982 Reference [3] went around the optimization
irrigation connection data submits for more than a fifth of the approach for reducing addition of weighted squares of
country’s total power sales [1]. Similarly the non-availability nonconformities from set-point values for controllable
of power leads to a stock of nine million diesels pumps rolling quantities of voltage, reactive power, to endorse application of
in irrigation fields. Sensitive to cost as well as regular automation in grid. Likewise in 1989, the combinatorial
repairing issues led to serious health problems. The network of method of var injection based on disintegration criteria, to
LT cables in agriculture belt to feed agriculture burden is determine the locations of placement were carried on. In 1996,
placed radially. But continuous placing of this unplanned a broad revision of capacitor placed with real-time control of
arrangement has resulted in high grid losses, further reflected an unstable delivery system was performed. Later with the
as poor power factor & ultimately poor grid operations. arrival of algorithms the solution is now obtained by using
Reactive power management has always been an untouched tools blended with algorithms. Various tools have been
part whenever agriculture season approach. Priority must be developed to solve the objectives through arranged techniques
given to shunt capacitor banks for installation at 11 kV voltage of genetic tools submitting direct result.
level in distribution network.

Copyright © SMART-2017 ISBN : 978-1-5386-1904-9

Proceedings of the SMART-2017; IEEE Conference ID: 42281
6th Fifth International Conference on System Modeling & Advancement in Research Trends, 29th -30th December, 2017.
College Of Computing Sciences & Information Technology, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, India.

Similarly harnessing the solar potential of a solar rich area feeder modeled in Mi-Power Software. Load flow studies
have been always remain tactful since they can work as big details the prevailing status of equipment’s working at 11 kV
potential source throughout the year if proper installation of voltage level. Initial Bus with 33 kV voltage level is
PV panels will be there. Thus similar efforts have been made considered as swing bus. Network has 129 No’s of 11 kV
in this paper after identifying the exact latitudes and longitudes buses & 100 No’s of 0.415 kV voltage buses. Limitation of
of agriculture belt which is suffering from power shortage and voltage up to 5 % percent has been entertained by the IEGC
poor voltage profile due to submersibles pumps deployed for standard.
harvesting. This paper emphasis on promotion and integration Collected data of every equipment’s of GSS such as the
of solar based irrigation setups and betterment of voltage impedance/reactance values of transformers & other necessary
profiles via maintaining var balance in the system. parameters are initially determined and are linked with the
libraries attached with gui interface. Also by obtaining solar
III. TEST SYSTEM DESCRIPTION PV reports from NREL the solar insolation & annual solar
Integration of solar PV array and VAR adjustment as per pattern is being directly organized for solar implementation.
situation will led to fulfillment of power requirements in terms Table I and II provides the values of input provided in the
of active & reactive power flows. Addition to this as good as software for the test system.
the voltage profile of the power injecting points will be there TABLE I BASIC SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS
losses will be least in the system. Otherwise losses amplified S.No. Input Data Data Values
with raise in distance from source. Thus practicing such events
1 Tot. Real Power Load 1 404.60 KW
will update the utilities & capable to provide new ways of 2 Tot. Reactive Power Load 1053.4 KVAr
power generation too. At agriculture level too huge scopes 3 No. of Power Producer Bus 1
awaiting for better responses. The purposes to be 4 Total Number of Buses 230
accomplished are detailed: 5 No. of 33 kV Bus 1
1. Simulating of actual losses for identified agriculture belt. 6 No. of 11 kV Buses 129
7 No. of .415 kV Buses HUNDRED
2. To access the impact of solar & Var integration on rural 8 No. of Total Lines 130
network concerned with managing of reactive power, 9 No. of Total Transformers 101
angles, network voltage and losses. 10 No. of 33/11 kV Transfomers 1
3. To find out the optimal configuration for solar and capaci. 11 No. of 11/0.415 kV Transfomers HUNDRED
banks allocation as per requirement. 12 No.of 0.415 kV level load bus HUNDRED

The system taken for case study is a part of Rampura village IV. LOAD FLOW STUDIES & PV PLANNING
(Rajasthan) basically it is a 11 kV feeder of 33/11 KV Jamwa The electricity authority is giving electricity source (3-
Ramgarh GSS between Rampura & Jaipur Dis. Com. Figure 1 phase) for 8 hours a day as per agriculture load at 0.415 kV
is conventional layout portraying users of village. It is the level voltage is consired. There are 100 load buses & for all
laymen layout long chains of agriculture loads majorly as loads, 0.8 power factor has been inserted. The model consist
motors do exist in this agriculture belt. . of a wide varity of load shown as constant power load for
agricultural & domestic does.
Mon. Sol. Rad. (KWh/m2/day) AC Eng. (KWh)
Jan. 5.20 484
Feb. 6.16 504
Mar. 6.72 587
Apr. 7.12 580
May 6.84 590
Jun. 6.34 590
Fig. 1 Lineman’s Rough Sketch of GSS
Jul. 5.34 538

Aug. 5.26 486

Sep. 6.27 473

1 2 3 5 6 7 67
76 66
8 32 75 74 65

9 11 25
10 31 73 72 71 64




30 29

35 37


46 60
Oct. 6.55 550
Nov. 5.69 580
18 16 19 20 21 22 26 27 33 34 36 38 42 45 48 51 54 58 59 63

17 57
41 81 82 83
49 91 90 88

Dec. 5.00 496

84 92 87
104 100 98
85 86
108 103 95
101 99
93 96
107 106 105 102 53 50 89

111 110 109 97


113 117
Ann. Avg. 6.041 6458
127 114 115 116

130 129 128 126 124 118 119 120



Table II highlights the solar insolation data based on
assumptions obtained from past 30 years of historical weather
Fig. 2 Identified Power Injecting Node Points of GSS data as collected by National Energy renewable Limited.
Average recorded load on transformers is 75 % of original
The effect of power generation & var compensation on low capacity. Thus for base case every load bus is connected to 90
tension network losses and all other system constituents will % of transformer capacity. Further after case considerations
be identified for present system. 230 Bus network of Rampura
Proceedings of the SMART-2017; IEEE Conference ID: 42281
6th Fifth International Conference on System Modeling & Advancement in Research Trends, 29th -30th December, 2017.
College Of Computing Sciences & Information Technology, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, India.

practices have been observed at three different loading

contions of 50, 70 & 90 percent respectively.
Location And Station Identification
Location Jamwa Ramgarh, Jaipur India
Weather Data Source (IN) Gridded 10 KM Satellite Data 4.8 KM
Lat./Long. 27.05’N/76.05’E
PV System Mod. Type Std.
Arr. Type Fixed-Open Rack Type
Arr. Tilt 200 Fig. 4 11 kV buses LFA for voltages of Base Case I
Arr. Azimuth 180
B. Loadings Levels of Transformers & Losses
Inverter Efficiency 96 %
Power flow studies of transformer for over various loading
The energy output range depends on the sizing of PV panel level suggests shifting of majority of transformers to 100
and inverter assemblies applied. The power flow studies are percent loading level. As shown in Fig 5.
taken for feeder coming from Jaipur to 33/11 kV GSS
Rampura by using Mipower software detailed in Table III.
Cases categorized below have been deliberated as case studies
carried over 0.415 kV level of Rampura feeder:-
C I: LFS of present-day 11 kV Rampura feeder.
CII: LFS of 11 kV Rampura feeder with solar & var
LFS results of test system for C-I is shown in Figure. 3.
During agriculture season the complete belt of rampura feeder
is in need of excessive reactive power. As a result losses and
power flows are obtained by power flow studies. Fig. 5 LFA of 11 kV buses voltages of Base Case I

Higher loading level of transformer obtained from graph

depicts the incremental losses in system. Also raising the
chances of early maintenances. Similar effects have been
observed in line loadings, power factor values and system
requirements for reactive power shown in Table IV.
Loading Level
50% 70% 90%
KW losses 95.99 208.84 392.39
KVAR losses 68.93 149.58 280.17

Fig. 3 Kilowatt’s & KVAr power flow after LFA of CASE – I

Thus before providing compensation actual status of all
feeders, lines, transformers and bus bars is identified through
load flow studies. Following subsections detailed the go
through analysis of 230 Bus network.
A. Effect on 11 KV Bus Voltages
The load flow analysis of 11 kV buses is depicted in Fig.4
The key results acquired from the graph show that as the load
increases from 50-70 and lastly to 90 percent than position of
power factor at all node points decreases consistently. This Fig. 6 KW/KVAR losses of Case I
reduction is reflected into system as major losses and poor
profiles of downstream 0.415 kV buses. Real/reactive power losses are shown in Fig. 6.
Proceedings of the SMART-2017; IEEE Conference ID: 42281
6th Fifth International Conference on System Modeling & Advancement in Research Trends, 29th -30th December, 2017.
College Of Computing Sciences & Information Technology, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, India.

V. TEST STUDY OUTCOMES reduction of 237.89 KW has been obtained. Seeing a load
factor of 80 percent (0.8) succeeding calculations is executed.
Simulated prototype of agriculture network is examined for
considered cases i.e. C I: of present Rampura Feeder without Loss Load F actor = 0.3 (LF) + 0.7 (LF) 2 (1.1)
solar & VAR Integration & Case II i.e. with PV & VAR LLF = 0.688
Integration. Annual E nergy Saving (AES)
The effect of practices implemented for rural tests system Enr. Sav. = [237.89 x 365 days x 8 hour x LLF / (1.2)
is examined in the simulation studies. The PV integration & 105LUs/Annum]
placement of capacitor bank have intruded the scheme for a AES = 4.78 LUs/Annum
steady network operation by creating redundancy through
availability & by harnessing the actual potential of identified A supply of eight hour’s is provided to agricultural load of
latitude/longitude as shown in simulated Fig. 7. rural belt in Rajasthan. Therefore, actual calculations
determining the losses for 8 hours have been determined.
Annual savings found by loss reduction practices at 0.415 kV
the level of voltage in terms of money is shown.
Ann. cost sav. = Units Saved X tariff rate
ACS = (4.78)X(Five Rs Rate) (1.3)
ACS = Rs.23.90 Lakhs/Annum
Basic price of capacitor banks going to be planned for 11
kV Rampura village GSS is approx. 1.50 Lakhs & the price of
energy saved is approx.23.90 Lakhs/annum. Spare capacity
generated in the network can be utilized to meet the future
load growth on 11 kV feeders thus avoiding layout of
increased no.’s of lines in the system
3. Effect on Distribution Network Lines Loadings
The 11 kV line section at Rampura feeder deployed Weasel
Fig. 7 KW & KVAr load flow results of C-II conductor. Simulations based methodology for reactive power
bank at particular current level suggests a reduction in
1. Consequences As KiloWatt’s & KVAr Losses percentage of loading of network lines which were previously
in the zone of higher loading when the system is operated
Network damage has been reduced from 392.39 to 154.50 without capacitor shown in Table VI.
has been obtained by the application of solar and var
integration for the system as submitted in Table V. TABLE VI LINE LOADINGS of C I & C II


Parti. C1 C II 1 100 -125 % 04 00
KW losses 392.39 KW 154.50 KW
2 75%-100 % 10 00
KVAR losses 280.17 KVAr 131.70 KVAr 3 25% - 75% 26 22
Case study suggests that losses will be reduce by various 4 00% - 25% 90 108
practices deployed functionally in rural areas at 33/11 kV
GSS. 4. Effect on Minimum & Maximum Bus voltage Limits
The application of solar and var through control of lines &
specially those who are on outline of crossing minimum
voltage limit as shown in Table VII
S.No. No. of Buses Exceeding CI C II
1 Min Voltage Limit 208 87
2 Max Voltage Limit 0 0

The simulation studies observed a better voltage profile

Fig. 8 Test System Loss Reduction with optimal utilization of energy generated by swing
2. Loss Reduction find out & Savings Calculation
In C II losses of total system are reduced from Case I. 5. Effect on Bus voltages
392.39 KW (18.88 %) to 154.50 KW (8.39 %). A loss Research operations shows that reactive power submitted
in C II have been significantly reduced as compared to Case I.
Proceedings of the SMART-2017; IEEE Conference ID: 42281
6th Fifth International Conference on System Modeling & Advancement in Research Trends, 29th -30th December, 2017.
College Of Computing Sciences & Information Technology, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, India.

Compensating banks submit reactive power in the network. Saving of system losses, with shunt capacitors as compared
Reactive power demand is compensated by introducing the to without shunt capacitor, is also increased with increase of
banks installed in the set up overall reduction of reactive feeder load.
power requirement has been observed in the test network.
Accomplishing power loss reduction for a big distribution
network provides significant savings of energy and cost to the
utilities. This paper provides a feasibility report and case
studies for establishment of solar PV generation unit.
Reactive power management has been consent very much with
solar power generation in the agriculture field. . From
simulation studies various conclusions can be made for Case I
(C-I) and Case II (C-II).
Case study results in KW & KVAr loss reduction from 392.39
to 154.50 KW & 280.17 KVAr to 131.7 KVAr by
maintaining basic theme of reactive power management in the
Fig. 9 Case I & Case II comparisons of power flow paper.
6. Effect on Transformer Loadings Overall improvement in operating voltage profile of lines has
Power factor in Case II have been considerably enriched been observed.
than Case I. The compensating effect on transformers results Improvements in power a factor, reduction in loading levels of
in reduction of loading levels. Overall improved power factor system reduces the pressure of system and provides necessary
has been collectively shown in Case II comparatively with space for future load growth.
Case I in graph. Saving in Units has resulted in energy equivalent to 23.90
Saving of system losses, with shunt capacitors as compared to
without shunt capacitor, is also increased with increase of
feeder load.
[1] Yearly Report, Scheduling command,
[2] J. B. Bunch, R. D. Miller, and J. E. Wheeler, ―Distribution System
Integrated Voltage and Reactive Power Control‖, IEEE Trans. Power
App. Syst., vol. PAS-101, no. 2, pp. 284–289, Feb. 1982.
[3] M. E. Baran and F. F. Wu, ―Network Reconfiguration In Distribution
Systems For Loss Reduction And Load Balancing‖, IEEE Trans. Power
Del., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1401–1407, Apr. 1989
Fig. 10 Reactive Flow on 33/11 kV transformers for Case I & Case II [4] J.-C.Wang, H.D. Chiang, K. N. Miu, and G. Darling, ―Capacitor
Voltage in distribution network depends on feeder load. Placement and Real Time Control in Large-Scale Unbalanced
With difference of feeder load, consumer end voltage also Distribution Systems: Loss Reduction Formula, Problem Formulation,
Solution Methodology and Mathematical Justification‖, IEEE Trans.
varies which deteriorate the performance of consumer’s Power Del., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 953–958, Apr. 1997.
electric devices. [5] A., S. & Jain, A. Solar Pumps for Sustainable Irrigation by Council on
Energy, Environment and Water. New Delhi. (2015).
[6] Mipower software ―Developed by PRDC Pvt. Ltd. Bangalore,
[Online] Available:
[7] Rajasthan Electricity Regulatory Commission Grid Code, Jaipur,
(As per Electricity Act, 2003),
[Online] Available:

Fig 11 Effect of shunt capacitor on losses for various loading conditions