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ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE

IN ITALY

Ricci, Romanesque I
ROMANESQUE
ARCHITECTURE
IN ITALY
By

CORRADO RICCI

With 350 illustrations

NEW YORK, BRENTANO'S, INC.


NB

HK I N T K D IN a K 11 M ANY
Art! Grafidie Bergamo
of 12 th
Bari. Lower window-frame from the Cathedral apse (end cent.)

ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE IN ITALY

henceforth differentiate from the Byzantine style. The


We are continually told by compilers of architectural
manuals that Romanesque architecture begins with
the year 1000, and that from this date forth there was
latter attained to its highest and most florid deve-

lopment in Justinian's time, and then declined during

a complete revulsion both in ideas and construction. It is the Exarchate and the rule of the Langobards.
in the year 1000 there was a power- It is now more than a century ago that Arcisse de Cau-
perfectly true that
ful revival in art. It underwent a more rapid and impor- mont introduced the term Romanesque for the art of
tant development, and gained strength, greatness and western Europe after 814, the date of Charlemagne's
richness to an extent never experienced since the 6
th
death. This term seemed suitable, and is increasingly

and, as a matter of fact, this development is preferred to others which may be derived from the
century,
connected with the whole of social and political life of innumerable groups and sub-groups, whether we analyse
the period. In spite of being forced to limit our obser- the con-
single monuments, special regional features,
vations to a small number of monuments as compared tinuation of older forms, or particular sets of influence.
with those that have perished, we are not able to re- It would create fresh difficulties for the already laborious

this complete renewal as synchronizing with the study of architecture one were to coin new designa-
if
cognize
we tions for all the finest shades of artistic expression. But
year 1000, any more than are able to separate the
art of this period from that of previous centuries. we may state that there is no prominent edifice which
For us, Romanesque architecture begins with the end has not its own special features. And if we were to go as
of the 8 th
,
or if one prefers, with the end of the 9 th cen- consider the investigation of the exceptions as
far as to

tury, when changed customs of cult made new architec- more important than that of the types, it would be
tural forms necessary instance the campanile,
;
as for tantamount to discussing the appearance of a tree from
the spacious crypt (from which the apse steps ascend) and the point of view of the size and colour of the single
the pontile. Further more, tombs are admitted into the leaves and fruit being different.
interior of the churches. Narthex or loggia rise in front It is impossible to deny the derivation of Romanes-
of the doorway, and along the side of the church the que architecture from the Roman. This does not exclude
cloisters with their cells. Thus, since the year 1000 new a certain amount of oriental influence. For the rest, the
art
causes create different forms of expression. They intro- expression Romanesque is just as suitable for this
duce a more intensive development of the vaults and as for those languages derived from Latin or Roman which

supports, and lead to new possibilities in artistic con- are fused with other dialects and idioms. The essential

struction which are soon varied by the revival of sculp- point is that Rome is the chief source of this art and these
tural art. Nevertheless, Romanesque construction origi- languages. Hence we have excluded from our illustrations
nates in Italy in this period. Both interior and exterior all reproductions of monuments the general impression
are enriched by new constructional additions, and of which is more or less classical or Romanesque, but
yet at the same time
conforms to an art of other periods, consequently gaps and resulting errors. Beyond this,
little attention has been paid to old drawings which some-
or other conceptions.
Who would fail to note the Romanesque in the lower times supply valuable material for art history. Thus it
in Venice, and the Gothic in the has been stated that the pulvinar over capitals first
parts of St. Mark's
is considered on the whole as By- in the basilica of Giovanni Evangelista in Ra-
upper? And yet it appears
in Venice venna built example was revealed
by Galla Placidia. An
zantine, or rather, still
Byzantine in style, which
order to develop in some drawings of the basilica Ursiana in Ravenna,
actually skipped the Romanesque in

unluckily pulled down in the 18 century, and it is not


th
into Gothic. This interpretation of St. Mark's is due to
the number of Byzantine parts, the multicoloured mar- possible to state which was the earliest.

bles, to the gorgeous facade and close relationship therefore better to refrain from forming an inde-
It is

with local edifices. For this reason it is not dealt pendent opinion as to the origin or priority of certain
many
with in this volume, Nor is the so-called Norman art that forms, as they doubtlessly often pass through a period of
flourished so luxuriantly in Sicily and part of southern development which they sometimes remain practically
in

Italy, although, together


with the Romanesque develop- latent. Does one perhaps suppose that the history of the
ment, it evolved in connection with the classic form of pointed arch in Italy is clear? It is not. It is already met
the basilica. It is, as a matter of fact, an Arabo-Byzantine with here before the transition of the Romanesque style
art. Its chief elements are at the same time Arabic to the Gothic, and Bologna supplies such examples
and Byzantine Arabic in the greater parts of architec-
:
dating 11091119.
tural and ornamental motifs, Byzantine in the mosaic What has been established is, that in Italy the Roman
work which is considered to be the production of Greek '

tradition outlasted the Byzantine and Romanesque, ap-


or oriental artists. This interpretation of Norman art can :

pears in the Gothic and is finally absorbed in the


_

only be accepted if it is applied to the political period Renaissance, and that it


always resists foreign influence.
in which it
chiefly dominated in Italy; for Normandy never If it
accepts such, it is usually in decoration, and then
produced anything similar. Her art was related to the only with modifications and adaptations to the local
French Romanesque.
conceptions.
We have endeavoured to reproduce the most beau-
tiful
examples in which Romanesque art developed accord-
ing to its natural elements, in spite of employing One point of view of extraordinary, and in fact of
Byzantine or Norman forms of expression, or importing essential, import is the difference between construction
French and German traits. We have also reproduced such and decoration, especially during the first century of
examples of architecture in which individual forms and Christianity, because it is also of importance for the
methods of construction are already evident, and which spread of Byzantine art in Italy. The mediaeval archi-
attain to full development in later periods. tects built in the Roman style because they had the
All examples will not be found to be included, but example of innumerable Roman buildings of greatly
perhaps the most singular and those which have the varying form and technical vigour. They did not think
most to tell us. Owing to their large number it would of going east or west in order to see what had been
be impossible to reproduce in this volume all the monu- erected there under the influence of Rome when they
ments and decorative marbles of Italy from the 8 th to could always find magnificent basilicas and central struc-
the 11 th century. And it is tures in parts of Italy.
necessary to banish the legend all

that there are only a few the


contrary is the fact, but
; Distant countries may influence decoration with ma-
art histories only deal with a limited number. terial that is easily moved from one place to another,
There are edifices which have been such as fabrics, embroidery, ivory, intaglios, metals and
wrongly attri-
buted to the 5 th or 6 th century, and which are never-
jewelry. Thus, for instance, in the Mausoleum of Galla
thelessRomanesque, such as S. Claudio on the Chienti, Placidia in Ravenna everything is Roman with the ex-
and There are also some edifices of which impor-
others. of some mosaic paintings imitating oriental
ception
tant parts have been coated over with a cement face Roman
fabrics; so too is everything in the Mausoleum
and hidden under scroll-work or other ornamentations of Theodoric, with the exception of an ornamental band
of the 17 th and 18 th centuries and which have now of decoration which imitates the work of northern
gold-
been brought to light. And there are others, finally smiths; and in Nicola Pisano's sculptures Roman influence
scattered about in deserted and remote districts, which is sometimes set aside
by that of French ivories. Even
have not hitherto been visited and are concealed from if architects came to Italy from the East, it is
always
the student.
necessary to ascertain how much they introduced from
We
must therefore admit that the
history of architec- their native country and how much they were influenced
ture Italy from the 8
in th
to 11 th century is
generally by their new home. Doubtlessly the circular ambulatory
based on limited and
incomplete material, that there are of Byzantine churches
originated in Santa Costanza in

VI
of the strange misconception that the apse crypts and
the campaniles which were built contiguous to the chur-
ches of the 5 th and 6 lh centuries were erected at the same
of
period as these churches. In spite of the importance
this subjectit is not necessary, using Ravenna as an illu-

stration, to explain,by examining the buildings with the


assistance of documents, the reasons for this miscon-
since 1878. We
ception which has been firmly rooted
should only lose time by a controversy carried on with
all the disadvantages of historical criteria, whereas this

fact will naturally be recognized one day, and also


convert the most obstinate.
Before the 9 lh century there were no real crypts in
the churches, but only simple tombs under the altars
for the bodies of the saints. Those persons belonging to
the church who wished to be buried within its walls were

laid to restunder the pavement. Magnificent proofs of


this custom have recently been brought to light by ex-

cavations in S. Sebastiano and S. Cyriaco in Mezzo


I*? ? t
Cammino near Rome. Not even the bodies of the popes,
Ravenna. Baptistery of the Arians (after Gerola) archbishops, or the heads of states and princes
were
allowed to be buried in tombs which were raised above
owes whole appearance, the pavement of the church. If they were buried in the
Rome; and San Vitale its archi-

tecture and technique to the baptistery of Neon and that church, part of the soil was removed and only a slab

of the Arians, the groundplan of which was recently ex- of porphyry let into the pavement marked the spot. If

cavated and has proved a perfect revelation, and with its they were placed in sarcophagi, they remained outside
of the apse ambula- the church building in the narthex or cloisters. On the
large niches led to the development
Roman- other hand the imperial families, or the grandees of the
tory. Again later, predilection for the East gives
were in the habit of erecting their mausoleums
esque art numerous monsters that were unknown to early
court,

Christian art, or were rejected by it, as only real ani- near the church, and yet in these they were often laid

mals were depicted for symbols. These monsters were in the ground as in the Mausoleum of Honorius in Rome

and that of Galla Placidia in Ravenna.


represented as climbing on portals, altar canopies, capi-
tals, walls, cornices and font mouldings. But they do The of a pope, which was removed in 688
first tomb
not hail from the East. The powerful radiating influence from the vestibule of St. Peter's into the interior of the
of Etruscan art also transmitted them to mediaeval artists. church, was that of Leo the Great. But it was only in the
Of this we have proof positive in stucco reliefs of the 8 th to the 9 th centuries that the custom was introduced
Abbey of San Pietro on the hillsabove Civate (Pro- to erect tombs to the popes, cardinals and bishops in
vince of Como), as well as in a mosaic pavement of the church interior, and to exhume the remains of di-

stinguished persons who had been buried


Aosta Cathedral and on the pulpit of S. in for centuries,
Ambrogio
Milan. On
a portal of Genoa Cathedral Romanesque
sculptors carved an Etruscan chimera with a goat's head
on its back and a serpent for a tail a figure that was ;

quite well known Ages and resembling


in the Middle
another excavated near Arezzo in 1553. Nor is it pos-
sible to deny the Etruscan origin of the lions support-

ing Romanesque porticos, or of pictures of fighting


dragons and arms of Volterra. Nay,
griffins as seen in the
we shall discover many more such connections between
Etruscan and mediaeval art when they are more tho-
roughly studied. * *

If we turn our attention to the fact that the main fea-


tures of Romanesque reform of the churches begin in
the 8 th and 9 th centuries, we shall notice at once that
one reason why this has not been recognized is because Aversa. Cathedral Choir (after Rivoira)

VII
However the case may be, it is certain that already

in the following century crypts of this type have been


constructed in various parts of Italy: in S. Zaccaria and
S. Marco, Venice; in S. Vincenzo in Prato, Milan; in the
Parish Church, Agliate; in S. Michele, Capua, etc. Later
on the crypts increased considerably, both in size and
height, till they were supported by
a forest of columns,
as for instance in Verona, Pavia, Ancona, Offida, Tos-
canella, Trani, Bari, Otranto, and, not to mention others,
the crypts in the Province of Emilia amongst which Pia-
cenza Cathedral has one carried by one hundred columns.
S. Apollinare in Classe, near Ravenna, Crypt (Ricci) In the Gothic period their number gradually decreas-
ed, and finally they were rare. In the Romanesque
enclose them in new sarcophagi and place them in the period they added a new picturesque motif to the interior

church. If, therefore we find bodies of the 5 th or 6 th cen- of the churches, especially was this the case with the
turies in carved sarcophagi of the 8 th 9 th and 10 th cen-
,
pontile and choir steps since the 9
th
century. It is clear
a proof that the sarcophagi do not date
turies, this is
from the time of interment but to that of the excavation.
Before devoting our attention to the crypts we should
like to remind our readers that from the 9 th century
it became the general custom to erect tombs in the
interior of the churches. Henceforth they contribute

greatly to their peculiar features and gradually attain to


such magnificence that they fill high walls, the chapels,
and later on the interior of the apses (as for instance the
mausoleums of Robert of Anjou and King Ladislaus in

Naples).
The line of development is from the tomb under the
altar to the crypt destined to receive the bodies of the
saints. In conformity with the ancient oriental custom
the crypt was a semi-circular ambulatory. In Romanes-
que edifices it formed an ambulatory running along the
apse wall from which an entrance was gained to an open
"cella" in the main axis of the apse. This type is met
with in several places, particularly in Rome and Ra-
venna, the two chief seats of ancient Christian art. It

appears that it
begins in Rome
8 th century. That
in the
of S. Crisogono may be traced back to the
years 731 741.
Such crypts are found in S. Cecilia (817 824), in S. Marco
(827844), and in S. Prassede (9 ll>
century). In Ravenna
the same ground-plan is found in S, Apollinare Nuovo
dating from the 8 and 9 centuries, and in S. Apollinare
lh th

th
iji-Classe (12 century).
On the whole, these burial places are only an extension
of the tombs, and were not yet columned crypts. The
latter were at first under the apse, later they were extended
under the choir. Some of them were pushed to extra-
ordinary dimensions beneath the transept. Formerly the
opinion obtained that the Confessio or crypt of the
Rotonda or Duomo Vecchio of Brescia was of the 8 th
century, and therefore the oldest .type, but now it is
regarded as a 10 th or even ll lh century construction.
On the other hand one still insists on dating the
crypt
of San Salvatore, at least that situated under the
part
apse, as belonging to the second half of the 8' h
century. Parma. Cathedral (after Dartein)

VIII
that the steps were necessary in order to avoid placing fitting place after the necessity arose to join them to

the confession too far below the level of the ground, older edifices.
2. The building material of the campaniles is different
particularly in damp districts, and this elevating of the
more than from that of the adjacent churches, and contains frag-
pavement in the choir or apse (sometimes not
one or two steps) resulted in magnificent perspective ments of 7 th 8 th and 9 lh century sculptures.
,

effects: sometimes the steps extend along the whole' 3. In order to make place for the campaniles it was

width of the nave, sometimes there are similar steps sometimes necessary to demolish parts of the church, to
which are, however, reduced to half their width by two fill
up archways and pull down walls. All this would not
screens ornamented with sculptured pierced parapets; have been done if the campanile and church had been
sometimes they are found on both sides of the nave built at the same time. And as those parts which were

with a wall in middle pierced by small openings


the sacrificed always belonged to the churches, it is clear

that they were built first.


("fenestrellae confessionis") to permit of a view
into the

choir; then again there are two staircases confined to _


4. Among the mosaic paintings of S. Apollinare Nuovo

century) we find a view of Classe and one of


the aisles in order to leave room for a richly decorated (6
th Ra-

pontile like that of Modena. venna, and in that of Ravenna several churches are de-
picted. Now in such panoramic views
the towers would
have been conspicuous. But there is not a single one to
Not long ago art historians maintained that the cam- be seen. Nor are there any on the model of S. Vitale
534) offers to the
th
panile dated back as early as the 6 century, and that which the Archbishop Ecclesius (521
the oldest were in Verona, Ravenna, Rome and Milan. titular saint of his church.

To-day we know that no campanile is older than the 5. In the Ravenna documents of the year 1000, of
9 lh century (we are not discussing the towers erected which large numbers exist both in the Ravenna archives
for defensive purposes). The campaniles of Verona were and elsewhere, no mention is made of either a crypt
in fact built after the year 1000. The oldest (S. Lorenzo, or a campanile. Should in this case the ommission be
S. Fermo, the Cathedral, etc.) all date from the 11 th merely fortuitous, surely this cannot apply to the "Liber
century, and that of S. Zeno, which was commenced in Pontificalis" of the Ravenna churches written in the
1045, was only completed in 1178. Milan has perhaps first half of the 9 th century by Andrea Agnello. If such
but two that are earlier than the II" century, that of a diligent, exact and copious author, who describes Ra-
1

S. Satiro, which is said to date from 879, and the "Monks' venna edifices in all their details, does not even mention
Tower" of S. Ambrogio (9
th
or 10 th cent.). Between a crypt or campanile, must prove that they did not
it

the 11 th and 13 th centuries a great number were erected exist at his time. They were not such unimportant or
in Rome. They are of brick interposed with ceramic an
negligible structures as to have been passed over by
ornaments and fragments of porphyry and serpentine. ecclesiastical writer who even considered the works com-
These campaniles are square, tall and finely proportioned. pleted by individual archbishops as worthy of notice.
Their substructures form a special feature, the super- The campaniles of Ravenna have two different shapes:
structures are divided by marble or brick (denticulated) square and circular. The square ones of S. Giovanni
string courses into different stages; sometimes as many Evangelista and of Maggiore (afterwards S. Fran-
S. Pier
as seven. On each stage, and on all sides, there are cesco) are considered to be the oldest. In addition to
either two-light or three-light windows, or pairs of one this I am convinced that the earliest campaniles there
or two-light windows. But also those who finally admit must be ascribed to the Benedictine monks who took pos-
that the campaniles do not generally date earlier than session of the church of S. Giovanni in 893. Therefore

the 9 th century want to exclude those of Ravenna and the first campanile of Ravenna (S. Giovanni) would date

attribute them definitely to the 6 th century. Without from the end of the 9 th century.
going into details we shall draw attention to everything The peculiar manner of laying and bonding the brick-
that leads us to the conclusion that none of them were work narrow bricks and broad layers of mortar (a later
built earlier than the second half of the 9 th century. and poor copy of the jointing employed by the Romans
1. In the ancient and original plan of a church a and Justinian) shows that the campaniles of S. Pier
definite unalterable was given to each part.
position Maggiore and S. Giovanni were erected at the same time.
Why should this rule not have been adhered to for The circular form is later, and to my thinking derived
the campaniles, if they were contemporaneous with the from the square form. When the Benedictines wanted

adjacent church? However, the Ravenna campaniles are to add a campanile to the church of S. Vitale (which
not submitted to a fixed rule. Sometimes they are on the had been taken over by them in 910) they raised one
right and sometimes on the left; detached or attached of the flanking towers of the narthex which contained the
to the church. Occasionally they rise from the atrium, winding staircase to the women's gallery and which were
or from the nave. As a rule we find them in the most not higher than the vaults of the gallery itself. From this

IX
S. Apollinare in Classe near Ravenna (after Ricci)

a peculiarly graceful form was accidentally evolved which It is


perhaps not impossible that the first plan of the
/appealed to the public taste and was thus imitated. The Pisa campanile originated in Ravenna, where there were
same Benedictines built the other extremely beautiful already some towers crowned with a double arcade, each
campanile of S. Apollinare Nuovo which was taken over of which had five three-light openings, and which form
by them in 973. Later on the number of circular towers two nearly continuous galleries. We must not fail to
in Ravenna was increased to nine and served as models mention that the abaci placed immediately over the
for others in Romagna (Saiano, Fabriago, Parish Churches columns of the two and three-light windows developed
of Quinto). Whereas the Lombards clung to the square into the cushion-capital.
form and introduced it into districts as remote as Lan- For the rest, our statements about the Romanesque
guedoc and Catalonia, the circular form obtaining in origin of the campaniles are borne out by the history of
Ravenna was imitated in the Marches (S. Claudio on the the bells. ,,The name bell ('campana')" writes Augusto
Chienti, the so-called Towers of Belisarius in Fano, and Gaudenzi "is certainly derived from the name of the
in Cerreto d'Esi), in Venetia (Caorle, Tessera, Verona), Campanian bronze which was preferred to all others for
in Piedmont (S. Damiano in Asti and Castell' Albero) founding bells", and he then continues, "just as the small
and spread over the frontiers to Gaul and Germany. bells were called 'nolae' by Roman authors because they
were made of bronze from Nola, and as this name was and 13 th centuries. In a single quarter of Rome there

always employed the following centuries for a small


in were 44; Florence had 150; Ascoli Piceno 159; Bologna
bell, it is quite possible that the legend arose, unsupport- 180. Amongst those towns with the greatest numbers
ed by any of the older writers, that Bishop S. Paolino were Pavia, Cremona and Pisa. Fazio degli Uberti sees
:

of Nola (409431) invented bells." "It is quite certain "Lucca rise like a small forest". The general impression
that they East since the 6 th century. But
were used in the of so many vertical buildings must have been magnificent.
it is not
easy to discover at what date they attained their One example is still offered
to-day in the view of S.Gimi-
present dimensions, and when they were first hung in gnano, though only ten towers are left.

suitable edifices. It would also appear that for some time


no distinction of name was made between a large or
small bell, hence 'campana' meant either. The best-known

report of the hanging of a bell is that of John XIII. (965


to 972). But let us beware of the popular belief that
before this period the bells were not hung in belfries.
And we no more know the date when big bells were
introduced that we know when little ones were." "Their
use was unknown in the East, for the librarian
long
Anastasius, when translating the acts of the 2 nd Nicene
Council into Latin, makes the following marginal note
in the 4 th Chapter in which is said that when the
body
of St. Anastasius was approaching the populace of Cae-
sarea:*) .surgentes et sacra ligna percutientes congre-
gaverunt semetipsos in venerabilissimo templo, nota in
margine: orientales ligna pro campanis percutiunt". Ac-
cording to the Venetian historians the Orientals only
became acquainted with these instruments in the year
865 when Orso Papino sent one to the Emperor Michael.
In spite of this, according to the accounts of Canon

Albertus of Aix-la-Chapelle there were no bells in Je-


rusalem before Godfrey of Bouillon's time. And James
of Vitry (who died in 1240) reports that in the Orient

only the Maronites and Latini used bells." Therefore the


historical notices about them synchronize with the time
when campaniles were erected in which they were hung,
and which do not date earlier than the second half of
the 9 th century. Later on their number gradually augment-
ed till
by the year 1000 there were great numbers. This
development was quite natural for beyond the impression ;

made by the alternating delicate sounds of the small


bells with the peals of the big ones in those
days of pri-
mitive music, the belfries themselves lent a special note
of beauty to the outlines of the long low churches and Rom. S. Maria in Cosmedin (after Giovenale)
cities, be recognized in the mosaic panoramas
as will
of S. Pudenziana in Rome (4 th century) and of Not only did the crypts and campaniles introduce a
S-_Apol:
linare N.UOVQ in Ravenna (6*l The number of
century). new architectural element into the churches, but also the
towers owned by local communities and families was
porticos: arches projecting over the entrance-doors and
small. As
a rule they were not very high and only
supported by large consoles, side-walls, architraves and
found in connection with strongholds, town-walls, or, columns. At first the churches only had a narthex (or
in accordance with the Roman fashion,
flanking city gates. pronaos) extending along the whole width of the facade,
They became more numerous about the year 1000,
in sometimes an atrium with four columned galleries. But
especially in the time of the civil wars and great con- the simple projecting erections were meant to shelter a
and multiplied enormously between the ll lh
single porch. In the 8
flagrations, th
century the porch of the Ba-
silica of S. Felice in Cimitile near Nola was erected. That
and beating sacred wood (instruments) gathered in the holy
*) rising ;
on the north-east side of S. Vitale in Ravenna, which
temple; marginal note: the Orientals strike pieces of wood instead of
ringing bells. was foolishly demolished in 1890, was built in the 10 th

XI
the same time Ambrogio in Milan. In S. Maria in
in S.

Domnica (Rome) was built in 820, in Agliate (Monza)


it

the date is 881 and that of S. Vincenzo in Prato (Milan)


century. The apses are semicircular
th
is also of the 9

inside and outside ever since the custom in Ravenna to


build them semicircular in the inside and polygonal on
the outside fell into disuse.
This not the place to pile up statistics about monu-
is

ments, which could only be very incomplete, and even


if
complete in connection with those monuments that are
extant, would not be so for those buildings which no
longer exist or are hidden behind later erections. We
only mention a building in order to use it as an example

Ravenna. S. Apollinare Nuovo. Window (after Azzaroni)

century. Those of S. Prassede, S. Cosimato and S. Cle-


mente in Rome followed.
Later on the porches, especially those of the cathedrals,
underwent a magnificent development: the columns were
placed on lions or other symbolic animals. Sometimes
a niche or loggia was introduced over the main arch and
thus the middle part of the fagade was greatly enriched ;

sometimes, as in the case of Modena, the sides were also


adorned with columns. Such porticos were not often trans-
planted from Italy to Germany or southern France. Pa-
renthetically remarked, there nothing against the as-
is

sumption that the porches developed in the same ambitious


and creative period as that of the crypts and campaniles.
The same remark applies to the three apses at the ter-
mination of the basilica aisles; whereas formerly there
was a plain wall o/twji_chaejs-i_praihesis amLdiacpjaicpn
at the east If we look at the choir end of S.
end^ Apol-
linare in Classefrom the outside, the general impression
is that there are
terminating apses for the aisles. But
what we see are the apses of the prothesis and diaconi-
co&r Therefore the richtriple apse termination (consi-
dered by some to be of oriental
origin) appears in Italy
towards the end of the 8 lh century and, judging by
those monuments that have
been preserved, this termi-
nation begins to gain ground
slowly in the succeeding
centuries. In Rome, in S. Maria in Cosmedin, the
triple
apse dates back to the years 772795, and to about Milan. S. Ambrogio (after Dartein)

XII
to prove our general statements! It is useful to observe ficently developed in the vast Constantine basilicas of
here that the happy motif of the long attenuated strips Rome (S. Peter and S. Giovanni in Laterano, and others

of buttresses merging into a series of arched corbels such as S. Paolo, S. Prassede, S. Pietro in Vincoli, etc.).

under the eaves appears in the 8 th and 9 lh centuries and The round windows (rose-windows) are a later innova-
tion which attained to wonderful perfection and orna-
is met with in
frequently Romanesque art. These buttress-
architecture mental beauty when the Romanesque style was at its
strips, more popular in the ancient Christian
of Ravenna than anywhere else, and which always had a height. They look like embroidery or lace worked in

the roof, as in S. Vi- marble, delicate, fabulously rich, or akin to goldsmiths'


rectangular profile, reach either to
tale, or they are connected by an arch which sometimes
encloses windows (Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, S. Gio-
vanni Evangelista, S. Apollinare in Classe^S. Apollinare
Nuovo where the lower windows have already in the
sixth century a brickwork frame of triple gradines). The
Ravenna examples of a aerie* of arched corbels, which
are said to date from the 5 th and 6
th
centuries, owe
their presence to a superimposed story or structural
changes of ancient buildings, with perhaps the single
exception of the baptistery of the Cathedral,
where they
occur Later on the buttress-strips develop either
in pairs.

into clustered shafts or half-column piers, and these again


were decorated with shaft-rings or spiral fluting (Trani

Cathedral). The architectural principle of the earlier cen-


turies of enlivening the external plainness of the apses
also dates back to the 8 century, a period when the
th

galleries of the apses were likewise


arched in-
crowning
troduced (S. Ambrogio, S. Vincenzo al Prato, the Church
of Agliate, etc77~etc)7~Owing to French influence these

galleries develop into the rich and finely proportioned


de-
corative galleries which could be introduced into any part
of the structure. Although their effect is
comparable
with that of the continuous row of windows constructed
in the same period in S. Demetrius in Salonica and in

the Votive Church of Galla Placidia in Ravenna, they


are quite different. The windows only serve to light
the interior, being openings close under the eaves of the

apses, but the decorative and florid element of the

galleries rapidly developed extreme beauty.


to

The thin buttress-strips also break the monotony of


the side-wall spaces of tlie basilicas according to the old

example set by Ravenna. As long as they do not sup- Milan. Atrium of S. Ambrogio (after Dartein)

port the thrust of the vaults they do not project much,


and are only on the outer walls. But to return to the work inwhich the marble is treated like precious metals.
chief question: we must approach the problem of the Rome, which possesses in SS. Giovanni e Paolo its sole
choir and transept origins. S. Vitale in Ravenna is the apse galleries, has not a single rose-window of this
th
only basilica with a choir of the Byzantine period (6 period. Among the churches of Latium there is also only

century). The same idea that had formerly led to the one example (Toscanella). But wonderful creations are
lengthening of the east niche of the Baptistery of the found in other parts of Italy for instance in Lombardy,
;

Arians may have re-occurred to later architects. If we Venetia, Emilia, Tuscany, the Marches, and above all in
dispense with thissingle example, which is somewhat Apulia.
remote from the period when choirs became general, The rose-window is a unique Romanesque or mediaeval
we certainly find this sort of choir Ambrogio in
in S. "invention" which was neither known to Roman nor By-
Milan. This type of choir is something new when com- zantine architecture.It was greatly admired, and in the

pared with the early Christian basilica and much more Gothic period reached incomparable magnificence. Then,
remarkable than the transept which developed with the with the revival of the antique, it slowly disappeared.
cross form of church plan and was already most magni- Leon Battista Albert! reproached Matteo Pasti in 1454

X11I
and having their counterparts in Venice, belong to the
11 th century. Then other rose-windows of the following

century look down on us from the facades of S. Pietro


in Ciel d'Oro, and S. Michele in Pavia.

The ornamental galleries developed as facade and side-


wall decorations of Romanesque churches as magnificently
as did the rose-windows. We have remarked above that
they encircled the apses, and were then extended to va-
rious stages along the sides, were carried to the gable
of the facade, and finally encircled the domes like rows
of angels holding each others hands and looking like

graceful and delicate lattice work.


was Tuscany that revelled most in marbles, and
It

employed two or multicoloured stones. Sometimes the


restrained line of the architecture connected the columns,
or everything was enlivened by dwarf or sickle-shaped
arches, a peculiar Italian motif (which may be explained as
arches, formed out of two non-concentric curves diminish-
ing towards the points of intersection). The first modest
suggestion of such decorative design will be found on
the side-walls of the Ravenna basilica as was mentioned
when dealing with the buttress-strips. But the main ob-

ject of these, apart from the decorative, is the desire to


strengthen the walls at intervals, and thus break the
monotony of the long bare surfaces.
There is also an 8 th century building in Ravenna on
which, beside other valuable Romanesque features, there
a real ornamental dwarf gallery.
is

Wemust now discuss this structure (called "Calchi"


like its counterpart in Constantinople), as well as the city,
th th
which, it is true, is
only studied for its 5 and 6 century
monuments, but is nevertheless important for its Romanes-

que buildings. The edifice in question is one that cannot

lose its profane or military character in spite of an ad-


Ravenna. Calchi-Palace (Ricci)

for wanting to construct a rose-wmdow in the


Tempio
Malatestiano. He called it an old-fashioned illogical fea-
ture. To construct it, it was necessary to demolish the
wall on the right and left, and the lower half of the curve
was useless. He added that the ancient Romans introduced
horizontal circular
openings into the top of the domes
looking out onto the sky. But they never dreamt of wea-
kening vertical walls by openings that were dangerous
from the point of view of statics.
The advice was followed. No rose-window was intro-
duced into the facade of the Malatestiano! The
Tempio
oldest known rose-window seems to be that of S. Zeno
in Verona. It dates from about the last
twenty years of
the 12 lh
century, and is about
thirty years older than
that of
Cluny. One is naturally inclined to make special
mention of the monumental rose-windows. But as soon
as we wish to discover their
rudimentary form it is neces-
sary to go back to the 9 th century. The two windows in
Pomposa with decorated frames and pierced patterns, Ravenna. Calchi-Palace, Stair-tower (Ricci)

XIV
San Claudio al Chienti (after Rossi)

jacent church. Moreover this is betrayed by its structural staircase in the towers, was a dormitory. From the niche
type and the records of history. A
single transverse in the front announcements and laws were proclaimed
hall, the narrow loggia, the two circular staircase to- to the accompaniment of trumpets.
wers flanking the high portal at the east end and leading Behind building was a large court enclosed on
this

to an upper hall and the small door quite near the all sides by colonnades. The church of S. Salvatore was

portal are all integral parts of a guard-house or "praesi- behind. It is impossible that the round and square co-
dium". In the first half of the 8 th century with the ex- lumns were an integral part of the church of which the
tension Langobard power, the exarchs did not feel
of walls and semicircle of the apse were found in 1907.
their position to be secure. This was also due to dissatis- The two rows of round and square columns along the
factionamong the down-trodden citizens, they had there- sides do not fully coincide with the lines of the walls
fore surrounded their palace with a wall. The building and the apse. For the rest, it is pure imagination to
now was the main entrance into the walled enclo-
visible think of a sallyport at the side next to a church entrance,
sure, and same time the "static militaris" or "ex-
at the to say nothing of the staircase towers which must have
cubitorium". The little porch below was reserved for led to the women's gallery in the oratory of an excubi-
the guard or sentry. The big hall behind was the guard- torium, besides which the door posts still exist between
room, and the large hall over it, reached by a winding which one passed from the stairs to the dormitory. The

Portotorres. S. Gavino (after Scano)

XV
mixed with sand, but of the firm clay of the Ravenna
alluvium. Guido of Ravenna, the Abbot of Pomposa
who built the campanile and atrium for his church with
their magnificent terracottas, and who was at the head of
the monastery for more than a third of a century, cer-

tainly fetched the artisans from his native town. Such


terracotta ornaments decorate Ravenna churches: S.Pietro
in Vincoli and S. Alberto near that city. The clay is
not pressed but modelled and then baked. Sometimes
the ornaments were carved in the baked clay in the
same manner as stone and marble are treated. We have
still more
important proofs of Ravenna's influence beyond
the fact that the ancient city with her wealth of monu-
ments continually sent forth new artists, and apart from
the fact that the Ravenna towers were copied along the
shores of the Lagoons. Theobald, Bishop of Arezzo, gave
a present of money in 1026 to the "Maginardo arte archi-
tettonica optime erudito" to enable him to travel to
Ravenna and study the monuments there. He travelled
"et exemplar sancti Vitalis inde adduxit atque solers
fundamina in aula beati Donati instar ecclesiae sancti
Vitalis primus iniecit"*).
In same manner the architects of S. Claudio on
the
the Chienti were influenced by the Ravenna structures.
10 M
h H H S. Claudio was not built in the 6 lh
century, as one might
suppose, but about 1000, as shown by the circular towers,
Almenno (Bergamo). S. Tommaso in Limine
(after Dartein)

date when this building was erected is practically certain.


Itwas called "Chalki" (from the Greek word for bronze
because the doors had to be made of this material),
and, together with a church dedicated to the Saviour, it
shows that its origin dates in the period of the Exarchate.
Indeed, the building was erected in the same shape and
for the same purpose as that near the palace of the Em-
peror in Constantinople, on whom the Exarchate was
dependent. And this too was called Chalki and was also
connected with the church of the Saviour. This edifice has
already been mentioned as old and carefully described
century. And
th
by Agnello in the first third of the 9
when we see that in 751 the Langobard king Aistulf
resided in this palace, which means that the Chalki was
built in the last years of the Exarchate, we must pre-
sume that it was erected before the middle of the 8 th
century. Beyond the purely decorative rows of arches
in the front, we find the waggon vault is
supported by
compound piers and polygonal columns, some of which
have triangular bases. There are also two-light openings
with discharging arches or "sopracigliari", which are also
seen in the various campaniles in Ravenna, a type which
was found in many parts of Italy. For the rest this city
4
had remained a centre of culture and public activity, and Gravedona. S. Maria del Tiglio (after Dartein)
exercised conspicuous influence after the year 1000.
still

Indeed, the ornamental terracottas of Pomposa did not *) He brought from there the plan of S. Vitale and was the first to skil-
fully lay the foundation on the site of S. Donati according- to the pattern
originate in Venice. They are not made of Lagoon clay of S. Vitale.

XVI
(882), all of which are in Rome. These columns are no-
thing more or less than adaptations or transitionary
links between old and restored parts, or reinforcements
surrounding some of the columns, or, if one prefers,
points of attraction considered favourable to the per-
spective of the colonnade.
Two architectural types have been retained without a
break from the classical period to our own days, and
developed new forms and effects in the Romanesque
period : at first the square or oblong courts surrounded
by colonnades (also called peristyle, columned court or
cloisters,according to the purpose or position to the main
edifice); then the building with a central ground-plan
which developed in connection with the earliest aesthetic
requirements. Sometimes they are as rude as the circular
huts of primitive peoples, sometimes as
imposing as the
Pantheon, often magnificent, complex and richly orna-
mented like S. Vitale in Ravenna. Many are small and

graceful like S. Satiro in Milan, S. Tommaso in Limine


near Almenno and S. Maria del Tiglio in Gravedona, or
modest like the Baptistery of Biella,
bulky like the Ro-
tonda of Brescia, or delicate like S. Maria della Croce
in Crema, and finally, dignified and magnificent like
S. Lorenzo in Milan, unrivalled in harmonious proportions
such as those of the Consolazione in Todi,
classically
perfect like the Rotonda of S. Pietro in Montorio, or
gorgeous like the Salute in Venice. The central structure
was, and will ever be, a wonderful form for picturesque

Civate. S. Pietro (after Dartein)

the apses, the external walls of which are also circular


and ornamented with thin buttress-strips and arched cor-
bels under the eaves. Although these various motifs were
th
developed in the 11 century, they originated in the
second half of the 8 lh century and in the 9 th Moreover, .

we should not forget that the half-column in front of


the pilaster is already met with in the Church of SS. Fe-
lice e Fortunate near Vicenza (built in 985), as well as
the square column with four half-columns arranged in the

pattern of a clover leaf in S. Miniato al Monte on the


heights above Florence (built in the year 1013). At-
tempts have been made to antedate the period of the
alternating of round with square columns that break
the monotony of the rows of cylindrical columns in the
ancient Christian basilica. But, in the fully developed

Romanesque magnificent frequent and regular


style, the
alternation of square with cylindrical columns, supporting
a double arcade has the important task of carrying the
vault more firmly. This system of alternation only deve-
loped later. Cylindrical columns placed between a given
number of square ones are not subjected to a particular

principle, as for instance in S. Maria in Cosmedin (772


to 795), SS. Quattro Coronati (circa 850) and S. Prassede Montefiascone. S. Flaviano (after Sartorio)

R cci 1,1
XVII
i , Romanesque II
and decorative effects, and it is always to be regretted architecture was imbued with a new spirit, so that it

that the nave added by Maderno has disfigured the most created novel and characteristic forms. This spirit is ac-
tive till towards the year 1000 (though not conspicuously
magnificent church of the central structure type: St.

Peter's in Rome
as planned by Bramante and built by so)when numerous important events carried humanity,
Michael Angelo. This type of building was permanently and with it art, to new heights. It is astonishing to see
adhered to in the Middle Ages, particularly in the bap- what had become of art, especially sculptured figures,
which, although separated from the cathedrals,
tisteries, during the Langobard period all animals are monstrous,
:

were near them, and numerous in Upper Italy. There are even if they are supposed to be copied from nature.
alsosome examples in Latium and in the Marches. They And the human figures are still more monstrous: the
met with in Tuscany and Emilia. Some
are likewise often figures on the font of the Episcopal Palace in Pesaro,
had been destroyed or abandoned when the fonts were those of the lunette of S. Colombano in Vaprio, those
removed for conveni- of the parapet panel
ence sake into the inte- with Adam and Eve in

rior of the cathedrals. the Brescia Museum


But we may say that and of the parapet pa-
they were continually nels with the Ascension
used from the 5 th to in Cividale, of the font

the 14 lh century, al- of Gemona by Daniele

though less so from of Bovino, and finally


the 8 th century. of the parapet panels
The oldest bapti- by Ursus of Ferentillo
steries are the halls of exceed all power of
the Thermae or Nym- imagination. It is incre-
phae. At first the faith- dible that art rose again
ful only underwent the by degrees from these
ceremony of washing, hideous forms to the
therefore baptism was marvels of the Medici
performed on the banks tombs. In fact it is

of the river and in the almost startling that it


Thermae. The Bapti- should degenerate so
stery in Ravenna, orna- Ravenna. S. Apollinare in Classe. Coffin (8 th
century)
far from the perfection
mented by Archbishop of the Charioteer of
Neon with mosaic paintings and stucco work (449 452), Delphi and the Venus of Cyrene. Nevertheless we must
was certainly a 3 rd century "laconicum". The Lateran Bap- recognize a certain artistic quality in the ornament with
great works of Sixtus III. (432-440),
tistery, the first of the its wealth of details and the
diversity of the leafage
I was a "Calidarium". Thus the public or private bath and osier patterns, also in many a monster of Etruscan
I became the Christian "baptismal bath". The shape of the origin (Mausoleum of Theodat in Pavia, 720) and in
I
building was suitable for this purpose. There was a basin many a Roman
face naively inserted between degenerated
in the middle, some niches, one for the altar, the others elements.
Byzantine Naturally technique has sunk to its
for dressing cubicles (behind curtains). No windows were lowest levels. There is no longer any attempt at plastic
permitted the lower stage in order to exclude the
in
figures or high-relief. The marble was merely sawn into
gaze of the curious. We
must not forget here the churches slabs upon which ornament or figure was outlined and
with opposite apses such as S. Pietro in Civate, S. Gavino the surrounding background partly cut away. The features
in Portotorres, and as we and drapery folds, or the wings, fur and scales of the
firmly believe S. Flaviano
in Montefiascone. animals, the ribs and the fasciae of the ornament are
*
simply scratched into the surface. But the technique is
By what has been said we may conclude that the low- very poor. The sculptor was only able to use chisel and
est phase of Italian art
practically synchronizes with the mallet correctly from right to left. On a sarcophagus
Lombardic occupation which lasted from 568 - 774. To- in S.Apollinare in Classe the wool of two sheep facing
wards the end of their rule the Roman tradition seems each other lies in the same direction, which for one of
to revive. At any rate the Lombards exhaust their them is of course quite unnatural. The tendency is to
in
strength endeavouring to subjugate Rome, and at attribute these works to Greek artists. But if one sees
this Steven II. called on the Franks how
period (who belong great an area they cover, from the Alps to Cape
to the Latin race) to assist him. We
know that in the Passero, one would at least presume that many native
last part of the 8 th and above all in the 9 th were not
century, ,
sculptors particularly loath to imitate the

XVIII
11 th century, for it may be read in
any manual. All
we wish to draw attention to here is that the Italian
communes developed towards the middle of the century.

They were peculiar products of freedom and activity,


often inclined to be violent and bellicose. And we
may add the Crusades begin at the end of this
that

century, awaken the spirit of adventure, increase the


number of Irade routes, and establish the power of the
great coastaltowns. Furthermore, the University of

Bologna founded.
is Guilds, trading companies and em-
poria spring up. The people are finally able to take their
stand on Roman law in their against the
struggles
demands of feudal law. Rome had
always set the ex-
ample that a Roman city subjugated and humiliated by
the barbarians always casts off the yoke, assembles the
inhabitants of the country, inspires them to resume their
handicrafts and participate in the new freedom. The
fathers of the city leave the churches and move into

special buildings of their own. And thus town-halls are


erected to which lofty towers are added.

Rivolta d 'Adda. Church (after Rivoira)

Greeks. But we read on


a canopy in S. Giorgio in Val-

policella (712),and on a parapet panel in Ferentillo (739)


the inscription of one or two sculptors of the name of
Ursus, which is certainly not a Greek name.
The reasons are numerous why from the end of the
year 1000 the human mind was obsessed with exaggerated
ideas. To say that there is only one reason would be a
much too limited explanation, namely that the Christians
ceased to fear that the end of the world was coming.
The feeling of security after this dread was dispelled
(it has been much overrated by historians), and the circum-
stance that people again turned to life and looked for-
ward with confidence to the future might have induced
them to work with more hope and zeal. But we must
remember that it is at least exaggerated to say humanity
had renounced all forms of activity in the 10 th century.
Even in those days noteworthy edifices were erected:
churches, baptisteries, campaniles. Nor did the work of
the Benedictines cease.They were very productive through-
out the Middle Ages.
In the renascence of a people physical and moral forces
of all kinds are at work. And, if 1
may venture to say
so, hidden powers too. Human society is like the indi-
vidual. After a period of sustained it tires,
activity only
develops slowly, and finally becomes dormant. Then it
awakens to renewed strength. What are hours for the
individual become centuries for a nation.
It is not our intention to describe the history of the Pavia. S. Giovanni in Borgo (after Dartein)

XIX
situation of the cities.The rule of the Imperial governors
had kept them peaceful. But suddenly, after a civil revolt,
the citizens of Pisa and Lucca took up arms against each
other in the year 1004, and received the royal privilege
to carry on war independently. From this date on, in ad-
dition to the wars between the cities, internal troubles
were added. In addition to this there was the gigantic
struggle between the Papacy and the Imperial power.
And the decline of the latter resulted in the internecine
wars of the communes. Even if the tocsin of the Cinzica,
which awoke Pisa and saved her from being sacked
by the Saracens, is a legend, it is quite certain that alone
twenty years of the 12 century the Pavians
th
in the first

destroyed Tortona, Henry V. Novara; and the Milanese


destroyed Lodi and Como. There were also dreadful acci-
dental conflagrations in which whole quarters of the cities

perished. The great fire of Milan in 1070, known as


that of Castiglione has been famous throughout the
centuries. This was followed five years later by one

equally terrible. In 1106 fire twice destroyed different


quarters of Venice seven years later Cremona was deva-
;

stated by fire, and in 1147 two thirds of Bologna suffered


the same fate. It would take us too far to quote all

reports of conflagrations. It suffices for our purposes to


know that in the 11 th 12 th and 13 th centuries the Italian
,

Pavia. S. Pietro in Ciel d'oro (after Dartein)

All the houses, including the mansions, were made


of wood in those days. The great fires reported by the
Chronicles prove this. The towers are another proof.

They were erected by the wealthy near their dwellings


inorder to provide a place of retreat in case of fire.
From them they could descend to the street. The few
houses left over from the Middle Ages show to what a
great extent wood was employed. Galleries, ceilings,
framework, attics and staircases were all of wood. And

there are various laws which go to prove this. Lodovico


Antonio Muratori draws attention to the fact that the
numerous fires in the Italian cities
during the 11 and th

12 th centuries are a sign that the number of houses


covered with shingles must have been very great.
They,
as well as the thatches, often caused fire to
spread
quickly. Then the number of conflagrations increased
towards the year 1000 owing to the changed political Pavia. S. Michele (after Dartein)

XX
Milan. S. Ambrogio (after Dartein)

cities were gradually rebuilt. Some of them arose out also note that the art of vaulting was never quite lost.
of their own ashes, many may have been rebuilt as a Indeed, it
improved in the 8 th and 9 lh centuries. The
result of the misfortunes of the others. And henceforth "Comacini", who chiefly flourished in the valleys of
more and fire proof material was employed.
substantial the North Italian Lakes, were either handicraftsmen (on
At same time constructional methods were improved.
the whom the bricklayers and stonemasons "collegae" or
Houses were built of brick and stone, and numbers of - were
"consortes" dependent), or they were the celeb-
towers arose. The chur- rated companies of
ches were vaulted. This architects and stone-
necessitated improving masons. They boldly
or renovating old and solved the main part of
weak parts for statical the constructional pro-
and constructional rea- blems, and even work-
sons. Hence it is a mis- ed beyond the Alps.
take to maintain that But the fertile imagi-
the vaults of the Roman nation of unknown
world, magnificent in Milan. S. Ambrogio (after Dartein) architects created
their manifoldness and beautiful works and
magnitude, had been practically completely forgotten in bold designs in various parts of the country, espe-
the 7 lh century, and were only re-introduced in about Rome and Ravenna: the two
cially in citieswith the
the year 1000. The cupolas on the baptisteries had most splendid examples. When we see the great
been retained. Then it became the fashion to construct early Christian basilicas, it seems incredible that such

apses with a double curve, and we find crossvaulting masses of marble, the wooden beamed ceilings and roofs
over square spaces in the 8 th and 9 th centuries in the of which were very high above the ground, could have

"Langobard Tempietto" at Cividale del Friuli, in the burnt at all. And yet history tells us of so many great
Chapel of S. Zeno (in S. Prassede in Rome) which is fires, commencing with that of the Temple of Diana in

attributed to Paschal I.
(817824), further in the Chapel Ephesus (336 B. C.) down to the fire that destroyed
of S. Barbara (in SS. Quattro Coronati, also in Rome) the Aemilia Basilica in Rome (410 A. D.), and those of
which is ascribed to Leo IV. (847 853) and, as an exam- S. Sophia in Constantinople (404 and 532). There were
ple of the 8 th century, the magnificent waggon-vault another hundred fires till S. Paolo near Rome was burnt
over the large hall of the Chalki Palace in Ravenna. in th
1823. In the 6 century one decided to replace the
It is
only possible to give a few examples, but these timbered ceilings by vaults; the only safeguard against
suffice to prove that one does not meet with any edi- the great fires of the 11 th and 12 th centuries. At first it
ficeswith a complete vault system developed from a appears that the vaults were only carried over the nar-
consonant agreement of form, artistic feeling and techni- rower and lower aisles. This may have been due to the
que before the beginning of the year 1000. We should lesser constructional difficulties. Or the explanation

XXI
Phot. R. Gab.

Parma. Cathedral Details of the side facade. (ll th -12 th


cent.)

may be that itwas considered preferable to remove the in Italy were begun and completed from the 11 th to the
timber where was near the ground because in this
it end of the 13 lh century. The greatest sculptors of the
it was more exposed to the danger of fire. Then The
position period assisted in embellishing them. first of these
came the great nave vaults, firstwith simple piers, then were Wiligelmus and his companion Nicholas who worked
with finely profiled groin-ribs. The construction of domes in Modena, Ferrara and Verona, further the
great Bene-
over the crossing of the nave and transept (combination detto Antelami whose works we find in Parma, Borgo,
of basilica and central San Donnino and other places.
structure) synchronizes with the
construction of the vaults. The But how are we to give a selection of the churches
square plan of the crossing
became polygonal (mostly octagonal) by the insertion and the artists of a whole epoch, or of the town-halls
of corner niches. We
have not mentioned that in the plan from the rise of the communes? Here we have an extra-
of the Romanesque church there was as a rule one
bay of ordinary collection of monuments which give us pause
the nave to two of the aisles. This is when we the injustice of those who will not
doubtlessly the think of
average scheme (also transferred to the Gothic style), allow construction and decoration to be mentioned in
but not the only one. It was certainly necessary to thesame breath with the ideal beauties of antique art,
strengthen the walls owing to the great thrust of the and prattle of the Middle Ages as a miserable, dark
vaults, as also to
group the windows and to reduce them and down-trodden art epoch. We no longer mock at
to proper scale, as well as to construct
pilasters and the mosaics of Ravenna with Taine, we have rather learnt
abutments. There arises a whole anew
system of piers and abut- to appreciate their value.
ments branching off into
groin-ribs, as well as a very
picturesque combination of rich capitals. These again
are cubiform, or constructed on the We
principle of the have seen that the process of renewal which led
cube with sloping sides, sometimes
they are in a straight to so many Romanesque art phenomena goes back to
line or convex. Another constructional
form, which often the 9 th and even to the end of the 8 th
century. Ancient
developed highly decorative features, is the compound Rome may be considered as an essential model of all
column with projections from which
heavy curtains could these works of art. Indeed, common
sense points to this.
be suspended. The most The antique buildings scattered over
magnificent Romanesque churches
Italy were very

XXII
Modena. Cathedral (after Dartein)

numerous and varied. It was impossible not to reco- that it


always asserted itself in spite of foreign influence.
gnize their model. This does not mean that other, oriental We also recognize a relapse into the Roman style in the
or occidental, influences were exluded. This is manifested Castel del Monte and in the Castel in Prato, both dating
in the 12 th and 13 th centuries. But the constructional plan back to Frederick II., also in the Apulian sculptures of
is Roman. In fact the spirit of Rome was so obstinate Nicola Pisano, and in single forms of the Cosmati. On

Phot. Gab. delle Gallerie Firenze

Scarperia (Florence). Fragments of the pulpit of S. Agata al Cornocchio (12"' cent.),


now used as parapet-panels.

XXIII
the other hand the Lombards, who lived near the Alps, the rest, the Porta Appia in Rome, the Arch of Augustus
were influenced by Germany. And they again influence in Fano, and innumerable other Roman edifices had
south-eastern France and Burgundy by their vault con- graceful colonnades. Thus the Romanesque artists copied
structions. In other
parts of
Italy Romanesque art is many decoration motifs, if
they did notmake actual use
influenced by the French. But we should cease to main- of antique fragments. The Byzantines ornamented the

tain "that the Norman style spread in Italy by virtue of interior oftheir edifices very richly and the exteriors

Norman rule in Sicily and Apulia". In this way one is very simply. The Christian saying that "beauty is not
prone to confound the Romanesque art of Normandy on my countenance but within me" seems to have given
with the Arabo-Byzantine of which we have spoken. expression to this leading characteristic. The Romanesque
artists gradually ornamented the exterior
It is
very difficult to write the history of transference according to
and exchange of art forms from one country to another. Roman patterns, and later on we find relief ornament
Both may only be the contemporaneous appearance of divided into stages. Were there is neither marble nor
one and the same form, and we ascribe to one particular stone, nor sculpture, artisans decorate the walls by laying

place an activity which compared with that of another the bricks in geometrical and multicoloured patterns;
centre might only deserve the name of passivity. The more often with rich patterns of inlaid marble in a

influence in the field of decoration is greater because fashion known as "opus sectile". But this too is Romano-
of the ease with which things like fabrics, embroidery, Byzantine, and probably never ceased in the intervening
wood-carving, goldsmiths' work and ivories may be trans- centuries. In this connection it is
necessary to remark
ported from one place to another. But there is also such that the "opus sectile", after having fallen somewhat
a thing as direct and indirect influence: such for instance into disuse, was revived
as that exercised by the monastic system, particularly that after the 9 th century,
of Burgundian Cistercians and the Benedictines of Cluny.
particularly in Rome, as
Thus all these reciprocal influences reveal themselves the pavement mosaics
more or less clearly. But the Roman remains the nucleus of S. Cecilia, S. Marco,
of Romanesque art. There is also an archaelogical school S. Prassede and the
which ascribes the introduction of the vault in occidental S.Zeno Chapels prove.
churches to Byzantine or Syrian influence. However, we The transenna is also
consider this denial of direct Roman influence as very a Roman inheritance.
extraordinary view of the fact that owing to this
in Those with little arches
influence all parts of Italy and many parts of Europe and cross patterns are
show the most various and powerful examples of vaults, always Roman. Later
cupolas and domes: domes as gigantic as those of the on the lattice pattern
Thermae halls, as that of the Pantheon and of other is met with. We have
buildings with a central plan. Some of the domes, as already mentioned the
that of the Mausoleum on the Via Traenestina, ascribed cubic capitals and the
to Gordian, that of the
Ambulatory of the Circus bracked To
capitals.
Maxentius, and of the Mausoleum of S. Helen on the this we must add that
Via Labicana which is called Tor Pignattara just be- on nearly all the other
cause the vessels were made of pieces of terracotta. more or
capitals a less
There were waggon and cross vaults with intersecting extensive remodelling
ribs, such as are found in the ruins of the of the classical Corin-
aqueducts
of Aqua Vergine, the Thermae of Diocletian, the Villa thian or composite ca-
Sette Bassi on the Via Latina, and the so-called Arch
pitals is recognizable.
of Janus. And did not domes crown the gigantic Basilica In S. Saba in Rome the
of Constantine? 8 th century makes use
Together with numerous ground-plans and forms of of the Ionic example.
ceilings, Romanesque architecture adopted from Rome Etruria and Rome set
arches of dimensions, the shape of the walls, embattled
all
the example of the em-
gates, bridges, and what is more important, the motif of
ployment of stucco
the various colonnades surmounted
architraves, as
by throughout the Middle
for instance in the
Baptistery of Parma and the Parish Ages. It is an esta-
Church of Arezzo. And the whole of the Middle
Ages, blished fact that the
as well as the Renaissance have admired these on the stucco reliefs in Civate
Triumphal Arch of Septimus Severus (built 203 and Phot. R. Gab.
are derived from Etrus-
destroyed towards the end of the 6 th century). For Cori. Candelabrum in S. Maria can patterns. It is not

XXIV
necessary for us to examine how many and which Roman stratedits
spirit, organization and powers of expansion.
elements, either recognized as such or not, have passed Mention of the building guilds, the so-called "Comacini"
into Gothic art. The Gothic appears to be that style was made in the Langobard laws of the 7 th century.
which is most removed from the classic. In fact it con- The "Comacini" were companies who travelled through

Italy and abroad,


tradicts Certainly, Romanesque
it. art helped
pave to all parts of

the way for the Gothic. And it actually appears that and who gradually evolved J>\
since the middle of the 12 th century the style which was observation and practice a well-
at its make room for the one that was
zenith had to regulated system of construc-
just developing. The pointed arch gradually gained tion.

ground till it
triumphed. The tendency towards the verti- The Lombard architects show
cal continually increases. The vaulting compartments from the very start that pro-
develop from square to oblong with closer placing of nounced tendency towards sculp-
the piers.The apse again becomes polygonal. The crypts tural ornament which later on,

disappear, whereas the choir ambulatories and but- during the Renaissance, culmi-
tresses multiply. Finials occur abundantly, single forms nated in Bergamo and in Certosa
are multiplied, and a whole world of animals and plants di Pavia. The church of S. Michele
are copied from nature and replace fantastical ornament in Pavia is another proof. They
with interwoven monsters. prefer a single gable crowned by
The tendency to-day is to attribute the totality of arched galleries to the Toscan
the Romanesque innovations to a uniform training of facade with four roof-inclines,
the artists, and to their common
desire to obtain parti- from which later on the great
cular light effects. This induces critics, at least that is our development of the ornamental
opinion, to ascribe aesthetic intentions to the old masters loggias sprang. Their technical
of architecture which they neither had nor could have skillinduces them to cheerfully
had. They were possessed of a much simpler and more risk difficulties, such as the erec- I

natural spirit than one is inclined to presume. At the tion of boldand magnificent to-
best they were imbued with a desire for colour which wers, domes, cupolas and vaults.
was a condition of their love of rich decorations and There is one church that seems
ornament. This particularly revealed
is on the exterior to assemble the results of the
of the edifices. For in those days the life of the cities four centuries of experiments:
was warm-blooded and had become superficial. The the magnificent edifice of S. Am-
citizens no longer regarded religion as something to be brogio in Milano, and to such
exercised in solitude and as offering a retreat for the a degree that, although the struc-
soul. But that the architects of that period should have ture is not always prototypal, it

carefully planned to subject everything to light effects isyet the greatest and most com-
isan anachronistic conception and tantamount to con- plicated example of Lombardic
founding effect with cause. constructive ability during the

Romanesque period.
To the Lombards are also due
A history of Italian Romanesque art dealing with all the pure Romanesque edifices
its varieties and so-called natural affinities, as well as in Piedmont, and above all in
with the mutal interchange of influences and ideas with Venetia, as for instance S. Zeno
France, Germany and the Orient would be too long. in Verona and the Trentino Phot. Moscioni

So too would a history of the various characteristics and Cathedral built


by Adam of
Capua. Candelabrum in

peculiarities in the singleprovinces of mediaeval Italy Arogno. But Venice on her the Cathedral (first half
which cling like mistletoe to the great Roman tree. In Lagoon still wraps herself in of 13 th cent.)
France and Germany Romanesque art was more unified Byzantine splendours owing to
and occupied with static problems. In Italy such unity the large amount of her building material accumulated
willnot be found, not only because of the different in the 5 th and 6 th centuries, and owing to her connection

temperament of the various peoples, but also on account with the East, and the neighbouring examples of Ravenna,
of the civic political conditions. The differences of
and Grado, Aquileja and Parenzo. On the other hand the
government, habits, traditions and taste and the neces- Province of Emilia pays tribute to Lombardy with her
sities of different climatic conditions are all causes which superb cathedrals of Piacenza, Borgo S. Donnino, Parma,
have on influence on art. Modena, Ferrara (those of Reggio and Bologna are very
Already in the advanced Middle Ages Lombardy demon- beautiful, but transformed). The sculptors were passiona-

XXV
tely fond of ornamenting them. Amongst these Antelami and Christian edifices, adapts them to new purposes,
was the greatest. Ravenna stands lonely and silently aside enlarges or reduces them. The new work done by the

meditating new forms. She supplies models


and masters sculptors incredibly poor, and the period of Robert
is

for distant of the surrounding country till she Guiscardo's depredations (1084) seems to synchronize
parts
renounces all activity and seems to vanish and lose herself with the depth of decadence. But suddenly, with the

in the solitude of her coasts. Tuscany, with its pure "Marmorari", there is a great outbreak of sculptural
and precise spirit,
full of taste and decorum, prefers magnificence. The Vassaletto, Ranucci, Cosmati: all great
architectural sculptural decoration.
to It satisfies its artificers in marble, bend and form it into spirals as

sense of beauty by the infinite successions and stories though were plastic material; they decorate it with
it

of arched loggias by bi-coloured marbles, also favoured mosaics, and are able to emulate the Byzantine sump-
between the Lombards tuousness of Rome and Ravenna, and the Arabic splen-
by the Ligurians who oscillated
and Tuscans.And if Tuscany turns to sculptural art, she dours of Sicily. In this manner they enrich the ancient
does so to subordinate it to architecture, as in the marble works of art. They erect porticos in front of the
cathedrals of Modena, Borgo S. Donnino, S. Zeno in churches, amongst which that of Civita Castellana (1210)
Verona and the Baptistery in Parma. Nor is the narrative isthe most magnificent with its great arch that seems
form of relief favoured any more than detached statues. to anticipate the boldness of the Renaissance. They

Tuscany may be divided into three great


centres build cloisters of unique splendour (S. Giovanni in

of architectural activity. Florence has already lost herself Laterano, S. Paolo near Rome), the columns and capitals
in a dream of graceful classicism. Rich in the elegance of which appear to vie with the beauty and grace of the
and harmony that led to the miracles of a Brunellesco flowers on the lawns they enclose. In the churches they
Florence seems to be a bridge between ancient Rome stretch splendid and highly coloured marble carpets in

and the Renaissance with her Baptistery, S. Miniato al which porphyry and serpentine set the dominant note
Monte, San Salvatore and the Badia of Fiesole. Lucca, of varied colours. They ornament innumerable churches
on the other hand, endeavours to combine Pisan vivacity with an ever-growing wealth of rich works of art by
with Lombardic richness, and appears less characteristic. erecting screens, pulpits, candelabra for the Paschal
She develops within her own walls and exercises no candles, altars, canopied shrines, ambones, carved seats,
influence beyond them. Pisa, with her innumerable arcaded episcopal thrones and tombs. The "Marmorari" did not
galleries, her multicoloured fasciae
and rhomb patterns, stray far from Rome, hence their sphere of activity is
finds imitators throughout Italy. The monuments of roughly limited to Latium, although some of their works
Sardinia are Pisan; as well as many churches in other are found further afield, as for instance in Sassovivo

neighbouring Lucchesia, in Pistoja, Vol-


districts; in the sopra Foligno. They carved the tombs of Edward the
terra Gimignano, and further south in Massa
and S. Confessor and Henry III. in London. Some even ascribe
Marittima, nay, as far as Sannio (Benevento), Apulia the pulpits of Amalfi and Gaeta to these artists. Added
(Troia and Siponto) and Dalmatia (Zara). to all this we should remember that, even if the art of
It
quite natural that Pisa, with her incomparable
is Amalfi and Salerno terminated in the 12 century (though
lh

groups of architectural monuments (Cathedral, Campanile these cities possessed schools of sculpture), a Campanian
and Baptistery), was bound to appeal deeply to the art developed with unique force. It followed the example

imagination. of Sicily in the 13 th century, and produced gorgeous


In the Marches there is a breath of Lombardic influence. creations of magnificent colouring (as for instance the

However, translated into those simpler forms which


it is pulpits of Sessa Aurunca, Salerno and Ravello) and
thisprovince always favoured. But the Umbrian Romanes- forms which are to a certain extent in contradistinction

que monuments (Assisi, Foligno, Spoleto, Narni) are consi- to the masculine severity of those of Apulia.
dered to be the works of native sculptors who had not Speaking generally, however, we can recognize in
emancipated themselves from the powerful Lombardic southern Italian art a prodigious revival of antique in-
influence. Their works are to be met with in Upper fluence which shows itself in Ruvo and Castel del Monte,
Latium in Viterbo, Tarquinia, Montefiascone and in as well as in Capua and Ravello, and which is due to
Toscanella, where there are two of the most interesting the active spirit of Frederick II.

Romanesque churches in Italy. The Lombardic style only Nicolo di Pietro transplants the same love of the
reached Rome like an echo which reverberated in the
antique to Pisa, and acquires by his works there both
apse of SS. Giovanni e Paolo. the rights of a new home and the name of Nicola Pisano.
The use of ancient fragments of marble in mediaeval In southern Italy we set foot in the zone in which
restoration work is
particularly frequent in Rome. The Arabo-Byzantine art irradiates. This art has been wrongly
so-called House of Cola di Rienzo (11 th century), and termed Norman. It extends from Sicily to the Abruzzo
the Chapel of S. Barbara in SS. Quattro Coronati may mountains, to Lower Latium and to Apulia. One is in
serve as examples. Rome also restores the ancient pagan the habit of attributing the great basilicas of Bari to

XXVI
this school of art, but there are many who maintain, Finally, there is nothing more beautiful in the world
and rightly too, that together with the surviving Byzantine
, than the cathedrals of Apulia; rich, graceful, the colour
motifs, thereis Lombardic influence here. Indeed, we of old gold and ivory, they rise above a crowd of low
meet the work of Lombard artists in the churches of the white houses which resemble a gathering of choir-girls
Campania, and even in the "heel" of Italy. And it is kneeling in adoration at their feet. We
shall never forget

really very difficult to classify the churches of Bari the churches of Barletta, Bitonto, Altamura, Ruvo, Trani,

together with the Cappella Palatina of Palermo and Giovinazzo, Troia and of other cities, some of which
the cathedrals of Monreale and Cefalu. Perhaps there are on the sea-shore, others on the slopes overlooked
is a Norman trait in them too, but, if so, Normano- by Castel del Monte. But, in reference to the latter, this
In if we
connection with church "utensils", wonderful building cannot, to our thinking be Romanesque,
Romanesque.
may employ such a term for candelabra, altars and am- and it should come between the Classic and the Gothic
bones, the rich work of southern Italy may be compared periods.
with that of the "marmorari romani", but the latter show Southern Italy felt the influence of the East and Europe:
fewer oriental traits. The "opus sectile" pavements alter- on the one hand Romano-Byzantine art, and on the other
nate with mosaics richly decorated with monsters, Saracen, Tuscan, Lombardic, French and German. In its
chivalresque figures, symbolical, historical and astro- pavements are patterns from the Levant contrasting with
nomical representations. The most beautiful are in the figures of Arthur and Roland. Thus the Orient and
Otranto. This fashion was favoured throughout Italy. Occident meet here. The impressionability and adap-
There are examples, though fragmentary, in Ravenna, tabilityof the hot-blooded inhabitants lead them to

Pomposa, Reggio, Emilia, Aosta, etc. accept all inspirations, and yet a typical art is born here;
Bronze doors, metal-castings and inlaid-metal work powerful and varied in its forms of decoration.
are more frequent there than in other parts of Italy. If that part of Italy situated on the Mediterranean
Bonannus of Pisa completed the bronze doors for the is "louder" and more fiery, the Adriatic is subdued by a
main entrance of Monreale Cathedral in 1186. But Bari- more masculine note. How pleasant it would be to dwell
sano daTrani, who was also a bronze-founder and likewise on the contemplation of the single monuments, and to
worked in Monreale, Ravello and his native town, hailed catch the echo of foreign tongues, or to hear the dulcet
from southern Italy. Ruggero delle Campane da Melfi language of Italy telling us her own tales. But to do
tomb of Bohemund in Canosa; Oderisio
cast doors for the thiswe should require volumes, and not a brief foreword
of Benevent for Troia Cathedral, and perhaps for his in which, as in a fleeting vision, we can only obtain a
native town. On these doors we find relief work which rapid view of everything, and admire from afar the mar-
differs from that on the inlaid doors with Byzantine vellous garden with one short glance, and not, as Dante
features in Montecassino, S. Michele on Gargano, S.Paolo has it "cull flowers from among flowers".
near Rome and Salerno.

Phot. Muirioni
Pianella (Teramo). Details of S. Angelo pulpit by Master Acuto (12 th cent.)

XXVII
Phot. Alinari

Milan. S. Ambrogio. Left side of the forecourt (12 th cent.) and the Belfry of the Canons (1128)

Ricci, Romanesque 1
Phot. Alinari

Milan. The hall of the forecourt


(12> cent.) adjoining the fagade of S. Ambrogio
Phot. Alinari

Milan. th
Right wing of the forecourt of S. Ambrogio (12 cent.)
1)

<o
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Phot. Alinari

th
Milan. Main Porch of S. Ambrogio (12 cent.)
re
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Phot. Alinari

Phot Alinari

Ambrogio. Arch in the atrium


Milan. lh
S. Pulpit erected in the 13 cent, partly out of fragments
from the pulpit destroyed in 1196 by the fall of the vaulting
10

ft. CN

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12

Phot. Alinari

Chiaravalle Milanese. Exterior of the church (founded 1135, dedicated 1221)


13

Phot. Arti Grafichc

Phot. Arti Grafichc

th
Agliate (Monza). Apse of the Abbey Church(end of 9 cent.) Galliano near Cantii.
lh
Baptistery (beginning of ll cent.)
14

Phot. Arti Grafiche

Agliate (Monza). Interior of the Abbey Church with pulpit and a part of the pontile (9 lh - 10 lh cent.)
15
16

Phot. AIMI.II i

Pavia. Main doorway of S. Pietro in Ciel d'Oro (12 th cent.)


17

T --, Phot. Alinari

Pavia. Side porch of S. Michele (12 th cent.)

Ricci, Romanesque 2
18

Phot. Alinari

Pavia. Main porch of S. Michele (12 lh


cent.)
19

Phot. Alin

Pavia. th
Facade of S. Michele (12 cent.)
20

Phot. Alinari

Almenno, San Salvatore (Bergamo). Exterior of S. Tommaso in Limine (11 U|


cent.)
21

Phot. AHnari

Almenno, San Salvatore (Bergamo). Interior of S. Tommaso in Limine (11 th cent.)


22

Phot. Alinari

Crema. Cathedral facade (13 lh


cent.)
23

Phot. Alinari

Cremona. Baptistery (1167).


24

Phot. Alinari

Como. Palazzo del Broletto (1215)


25

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o
4)
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26

Phot. Alinari

Como. Apse and towers of S. Abbondio (end of 11 l "


cent.)
27
28
29

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30

Phot. Arti Grafichc

Phot. Alinari
Civate. Parapet-panels (stucco) in S. Pietro (10"' -II* cent.)
1 '

Verona. Font in S. Giovanni in Fonte th


(end of 12 cent.)
31

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32

Phot. Alinari

Verona. S. Zeno. Main portal by the sculptors Nicolaus and


Wiligelmus (1139)
33

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t/5

Ricci, Romanesque 3
34

Phot. Alinari
Verona. S. Zeno. Left entrance to the and to the choir >_ 12"'
crypt (11 cent.)
Phot. Alinari

th
Aosta. Belfry of St. Ours (13 cent.)
36

Phot. Alinari

Aosta. Cloisters of the Collegiate Church of St. Ours (1135-1159?)


37

Phot. Alinari

Cavagnolo Po. Main Portal of the Abbey Church of S. Fede (12 th


cent.)
38
39

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42

Phot. Alinari

Genoa. Side portal of the Cathedral (IS* 1-


cent.)
43

Phot Alin.ri

Genoa. Section of the Cathedral side portal (13 th cent.)


44

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Right side of the Palazzo Comunale (13


th
Piacenza. cent.)
46
47

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6
48

Phot.Alinari

Piacenza. Cathedral facade (12 th - 13 th cent.)


Phot. Alinari

Piacenza. Interior of the Cathedral (12 l >>-13 lh cent.)

Ricci, Romanesque 4
50

Phot. Alinari

Borgo San Donnino. Main portal of the Cathedral


(12"' cent.)
51

Phot. Alinari

th
Borgo San Donnino. Right side portal of the Cathedral (12 cent.)
52

Phot. Alinar

Borgo San Donnino. Section of the Cathedral facade with


sculptures by Benedetto Antelami
th
(12 cent.)
53

Phot. Alinari

Borgo San Donnino. Section of the Cathedral facade with sculptures by Benedetto Antelami
">
(12 cent.)
54

CQ
55

Phot. R. Gab.

Parma. Part of the Cathedral facade with the central portal by Giovanni Bono da Bissone (1281)
56

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57

Phot. Alinari

Phot Alinri

Parma. Baptistery. Lunette of the south portal carved by Benedetto Antelami, and font
lh
(both end of 12 cent.)
58

Phot. R.Gab.
Parma. Interior of the th
13 "
Baptistery (12 cent.)
59

Phot. Alinari

Parma. Details of the outside of the Baptistery with statues by Benedetto Antelami (end of 12 th cent.)
60

Phot. R. Gab.

Parma. Main portal of the th


Baptistery (end of 12 cent.)
61

Phot Alinari

th
Modena. Facade and belfry of the Cathedral (12 cent.)
62

c
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63
64

Phot. Emilia

Bologna. Casa Isolani (13 th cent.)


65

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Ricci, Romanesque 5
66

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67

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68
69

Phot* Alinari

Facade and belfry of S. Maria (11 th cent.)


Pomposa (Ferrara).
70

Phot. R. Gab.

Pomposa (Ferrara). Details of the


belfry and fa ? ade of S. Maria (11 *
cent.)
71

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'Z

5J
u
i

c/5

i.
E
72

C
9

"'it
I

g.
i
-a
s
44

I
o

Ia.
c
3
73

5
9
CO
l-H

V
.2
'

8
a

o
E
74

Q
V

s
V
~
<u

Q.
nl
CO
75

Phot. Aliniri

lh
Florence. Part of the interior of the Baptistery (12 cent.)
76

Phot. Alinari

Florence (Vicinity). Badia of Fiesole (11 th


cent.)
77

I
bo

'5

j
-a
re

c
n
to

8.

re
u
78
79

i
80

Phot. Alinari

Pisa. The Leaning Tower, begun 1174, and the Cathedral th


-12 th
(11 cent.)
81

Phot. R. Gab.
Pisa. Section of the south side of the Cathedral (ll lh -12 lh cent.)

R i cc i
,
Romanesque 6
82
83

Phot. Alinari

Cagliari. Side portal of S. Cecilia th


(13 cent.)
84

Phot. Alinari

Cagliari. Torre dell* Elefante, built by Giovanni Capula (1305)


85

Phot. Alinari

Side of S. Pantaleo (12 th


Dolianova. cent.)
86

CM
r-t

o
c
">
a
o
c/5

"2
-o

s
U

T3
c/5

o
"o

o
cu
87

-o
B
O
s

U
a
5
88

Phot. Alinari

Phot. Alinari

Oristano. Knocker on the Cathedral by Piacentino (1228). Arezzo. Detail of the left side-portal
of S. Maria della Pieve
(1216)
89

Phot. R. Gab.

Pistoia. Portal of S. Pietro (about 1265)


90

Phot. A! MI. LI i

Lucca. Main Portal of S. Maria Forisportam (12 th cent.)


91

Phot. Aim.,,!

Lucca. Apse of S. Maria Forisportam (12 th cent.)


92

CO
CN
<M

V
_Q
-o

a
.2
5

S
o
93
94

Phot. R. Gab.

Lucca. S. Michele (12 th


cent.)
95

Phot. R. Gab.

Lucca. Cathedral S. Martino (11 th - 13 th cent.)


96

Phot. Alinari

Como 13"- cent.)


Pier in the Cathedral narthex by Guidetto
da (beginning of
Lucca.
97

Phot Alinari

Lucca. Facade of S. Giusto (12


*- 13 th cent.)

Ricci, Romanesqne 7
98

Phot. Alinari

Phot. Alinari

Details of the main portal of S. Giusto and font of S. Frediano by Master


Lucca. (12>-13> cent.),
Robertus (1151)
99

Phot. Arti Graflche

Colle di Val d'Elsa (Siena). Side of the Cathedral (13 th cent.)


100

~o
O

-o

U
"u
-a

c/j
101

q
Q
Q

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ra
c
102

Phot. Alinari

Sant'Antimo (Siena). Side portal of the church (13 th cent.)


103

Phot. Alinari

Phot. Arli (irafichc

th
Sant'Antimo (Siena). Details of the main portal of the church (13 cent.)
104

Phot. Alinari

Sant'Antimo (Siena). Apse arcade of the church (11th cent.)


105

Phot. Alinari

Arezzo. Facade of S. Maria della Pieve by Marchionne Aretino (1216)


106

Phot. Arti Grafiche

Arezzo. Left entrance to the crypt and choir in S. Maria della Pieve (1216)
107

Phot. Arti Grafiche

Arezzo. S. Maria della Pieve. Details of a colonnade of the facade (1216)


108

-a
V
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CB
u

a
R)
109

Phot. R. Gab.

lh
Massa Marittima (Grosseto). Detail of the Cathedral facade (13 cent.)
110

I
o
H

C/,
o

I
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t/i
111

C
D

g
JC
o!
l/i
112

Phot. R. Gab.

Perugia. Portal of S. Costanzo (12 ll


>
cent.)
113

Phot. Alinari

Foligno. Side portal of the Cathedral (1201)

Ricci, Romanesque 8
114

o
a
I

3
o

o
115

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15
U

S.

'3

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c

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v
W

e
g
"o
o

I
o

V
c
o

1
116

Spoleto. Top: sarcophagus of S. Isacco Siro (8 thand 12 th cent.). Middle: portal arch of the old
parish church of Castelvitaldi (1141). Bottom: relief in the museum (12 lh cent.)

Phot. R. Gab.
117

5
<N
1-*

2
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cu
to

u
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3.

"

a.
118

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^5
119

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a

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h.
R)

2
120
121

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a.
o
cu
"3
-o

6
122

Phot. R. Gab.

Ancona. Part of the fa?ade of S. Maria di Piazza


by Filippo (1210)
123
124

Phot. Arti Grafichc

Phot. R. Gab.

San Claudio on Chienti (Macerata). Facade Apses and side


th
(11 cent.). San Vittore (Fabriano).
th
(10 cent.)
125

Phot. R. G.b.

lh
Ascoli Piceno. Baptistery (12 cent.)
126

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c
B
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2
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o
cu

o
bo
c
U
127

Phot. R. Gb.

Phot. Moseioni

Ascoli Piceno. Part view of the so-called casa Langobarda (8 th 9 th cent.). -


lh
Lugnano in Teverina (Perugia). View of the crypt. (12 century)
128

Phot. R. Gab.

Ascoli Piceno. So-called Langobard House (8


th
9 4ll
cent.)
Phot. Alinari

Tarquinia. Towers of the Palazzo dei Priori (11 th cent.)

Romanesque 9
130
131

Phot K. Gab.

Phot. R. Gb.
th
Montefiascone. Capital in S. Flaviano (11 cent.)
Viterbo. Museum, marble lunette (13 th cent.)
132

Phot. R. Gab.

Phot. R. Gab.

th
Montefiascone. Capitals in S. Flaviano (11 cent.)
133

u
o

ra

i/i
134

Phot. Arti Grafiche

Phot. Moscioni

S. Gimignano Well
(Siena). (13th cent.). Viterbo. Interior of S. Giovanni in Zoccoli (ll h cent.)
135

'So
60

t/
136

g
o
o

E
o

o
a.

bo

-a

u
c
ra
u
(A

- '*>'"' lit
137

Phot. Alinaii

Toscanella. Main portal of S. Maria Maggiore (13 th cent.)


138

n
3

a
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<u

O.
o

S
o
'So
bn

(8

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a,

O
139

B
9

2
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Is

'i

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5
c
140

Phot. Alinari

Toscanella. Part of nave of S. Maria th


Maggiore (11 cent.)
141

Phot. Alinari

Toscanella. Crypt of S. Pietro (12h cent.)


142
143

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2
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Ou
t/5

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o

i/5

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144

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J= r-

s^ 3

O
o
o
s
2

o
"n

O
0.

c
o
s.
145

Phot. Art! Grafiche

Phot. Alinari

Lunette of the portal of the Nosocomium (12 th th


13 cent.). -
Capranica.
lh
Civita-Castellana. Back wall in the Cathedral by Diodato and Luca dei Cosmati (13 cent.)

ci, Romanesque 10
146
147

s
1

Phot. Alinari

Civita-Castellana. Arch of the Cathedral Porch by Lorenzo and Jacopo dei Cosmati (1210)
148
149

Phot. Alinari

Rome. Apse of SS. Giovanni e Paolo (12 th cent.)


150

Phot. R. Gab.

Rome. Belfry of S. Francesca Romana al Foro (13 th cent.)


151

Phot. Alinari

Rome. Facade and campanile of S.Maria in Cosmedin (8


th and 12 th cent.)
152

Phot. Moscioni

fl^^H

Phot. Arti Grafiche

Rome. Well in the cloisters of S. Giovanni in Laterano (8 th cent.) and well near
S. Giovanni di Porta Latina (9 lh cent.)
153

c
v
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CO

0)
B
C
V
o
V
-o

ca
B
O
O
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a
a
C/5

2
V
ts

j3
U
v

I
154
155

E
B

_o
o

t/5

E
u
.2
_o
U
v
o
156
157

Phot. Moscioni

Pliot. Moicioni

Rome. Details of the cornice of the cloisters of S. Giovanni in Laterano


by the Vassallettos
th
(first third of 13 cent.)
158

Phot. Alinari

Phot. AHnari

Rome. Parapet slabs in S. Sabina (824827)


159

Phot. Moscioni

Anagni. Detail of the episcopal throne by Vassalletto from Rome (1263). Rome. Parapet slabs in the
Museum of the Castel Sant'Angelo (9 th cent.)
160

a
QJ
161

Rome. Candelabrum of the Easter Candle in the Basilica Church of S. Paolo by Nicola d'Angelo dei
lh
Cosmati and Pietro Vassalletto (towards end of 12 cent.)

Romanesque 11
162

Phot. Moscioni

Phot. Moscioni

Rome. Paliotto in S. Maria in Cosmedin, tomb of Alfano, the Chamberlain of Calixtus II.
(1123).
Pavement mosaic in S. Clemente (ll lh 12 th cent.)
163

Phot. Moscioni

Phot. Alinari

Rome. Paliotto in S. Cesareo (12 th cent.) and in S. Prassede (13* cent.)


164

n
165

Plic.t. Alin.in

Rome. Pulpit in S. Clemente (9


th
cent.) and candelabrum (13 th cent.)
Phot. R. Gi.b.

Anagni. Apse and candelabrum of the Cathedral (13 th


cent.)
163

Phot. Moscioni

Anagni. Apses of the Cathedral (11 th cent.)


169

Phot. R. G.b.

Ferentino. Apse of S. Valentino (13 th cent.)


170

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v ; ,
<
,
, v ,/<, ?;,
;
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4 |

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Phot. Arti Grafiche

Phot. Moscioni
Terracina. Details of the pulpit and
pavement in the Cathedral (13"> cent.)
171

Phot. R. Gab.

Phot. Moscioni

Atri. Font in the Cathedral (12 lh cent.). Rome. Wooden chest, formerly in Terracina Cathedral,
th
now in the Palazzo Venezia (11 cent.)
172

Phot. R. Gab.
r
MagHano de' Marsi
(A q ui,a). Apse of S. Maria in Valle Pordaneta
(13* cent.)
173

Phot. R. Gab.

th
Rosciolo near Magliano de' Marsi (Aquila). Interior of S. Maria in Valle Porclaneta (12 cent.)
174

O
oi

o
Cu

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bo

a
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"3
175

ISM
176

Phot. R. Gab.

Rosciolo near Magliano de' Marsi


(Aquila). Pulpit of S. Maria in Valle Porclaneta (circa 1150)
177

Phot. R. Gb.
Pentima (Aquila). Apse of the Cathedral of S. Pelino or Valva (12 th 13"> cent.)

Romanesque 12
178

Phot. R. Gab.

Phot. R. Gab.

Pentima (Aquila). Part of Alba Fucense (Aquila)'


pulpit of the Cathedral of S. Pelino or Valva (end of 12'* cent.)
Screen in S. Pietro by Andrea of Rome
(about 1225), destroyed by the earthquake of 13 January 1915
th
179

Phot. R. Gab.

Pentima (Aquila). th
Pulpit of the Cathedral of S. Pelino or Valva (end of 12 cent.)
180

U
I
181

C
V

2
b
c

u
-o
182

Pliot. Alinari

Torre dei Passeri (Teramo). Vestibule of S. Clemente di Casauria (11761182)


Phot. Art! Grafiche

of S. Clemente di Casauria
Torre dei Passeri (Teramo). Capitals on the fagade (11761182)
184

o
6
IB
M
V

a
a.

'5
-o
u
k
o
185

Phot. Alinari

Torre dei Passeri (Teramo). Canopy of the main altar of S. Clemente di Casauria (12 th cent.)
186
187

Phot. R. G.b.

Torre dei Passeri (Teramo). Pulpit of S. Clemente di Casauria (end of 12 th cent.)


188

Phot. Arti Grafiche

Moscufo (Teramo). Pulpit of S. Maria del Lago by Nicodemus (11581159)


189

Phot. Arti Grafichc

Fossacesia (vicinity). Detail of the facade of S. Giovanni in Venere (circa 1230)


190

Phot. Arti Grafichc

Troia. Fa?ade of the Cathedral (12th 13th cent )


191

Phot. Art! Grafidie

Troia. Rose-window of the Cathedral (13 th cent.)


192

Phot. Arti Grafiche

Troia. Main portal of the Cathedral


(1119)
193

Phot. Arti Grafichc

Troia. Details of a bronze door of the Cathedral by Master Oderisio of Benevent


(1119)

cci, Romanesque 13
194
195

Phot. Arti Gr.fiche

Troia. Exterior of the Cathedral Apse (13"- cent.)


196

Phot. Alinari

Troia. Cathedral Pulpit (12 lh


cent.)
197

Phot. Alinari

Leonardo. Detail of the Church side-portal (end of 12 th or th


S.
beginning of 13 cent.)
198

.. .

'
*

Phot. Alinari

S.Leonardo. Apse window of the Church (end of 12"' or beginning of 13- cent.)
199

Phot. Alinari

S. Maria di Siponto. Portal of the Church (early 12 th cent.)


200
201

c
V
u
a

U
u

o
V

B
O
0.
i/5

n
202

Phot. Alinari

Canosa. Exterior of Tomb of Bohemund (11111120)


203

Phot. Alinari

Canosa. Bronze door of Bohemund's Tomb by Ruggero da Melfi (ca. 1115)


204

Ov
00 -C

-,
fll

H
Is t/5

0-8

o.
o
_c
cfl

JQ

O
B
CO
U
205

I I

Phot. R. Gab.

Irani. Fa?ade (12


lh
cent.) and Belfry (l^ 14 lh cent.) of the Cathedral
206

Phot. R. Gab.

Trani. Side view of the Cathedral (12 th cent.)


207

Phot R. Gab.

Apses and Belfry of the Cathedral (12


Irani. th
cent.)
208

Phot. Alinari

Irani. Main Portal of the Cathedral (12 th cent.)


209

Phot Alinwi

Trani. Detail of the bronze door by Barisano of Trani (ca. 1179)

:ci Romanesque 14
210

Phot. Arti Graficlie

Ruvo. Fa 9 ade of the Cathedral


(early 13th cen t.)
211

Phot Alinari

Ruvo. Main Portal of the Cathedral (13 h


cent.)
212

Phot. Arti Grafiche

Ruvo. Interior of the Cathedral th


(13 cent.)
213

Phot. Alinmri

Bitonto. Main Portal of the Cathedral (end of 12 th cent.)


214
215

5
5
C
'So
u
-o
1
5

-o

i
"3

JS

-o
u

'
.

u
T3
t/5

OQ
216

Phot. Alinari

Jitonto. Detail of the wall arcade of the


Cathedral (end of 12* and beginning of 13* cent.)
217

Phot. Alinari

Bitonto. Detail of the wall arcade of the Cathedral (end of 12 th and beginning of 13 th cent.)
218

Phot. Arti Grafiche

Phot. Arti Grafiche

Bitonto. Detail of the wall arcade of the Cathedral (end of 12 th and beginning of 13 th cent.) and
of the lectern by Master Nicola (1229)
219

Phot. Alinari

Phot Arti Grafiche

Bitonto. Detail of the Cathedral pulpit by Master Nicola (1229) and Font
11
(13* cent)
220
221

_
o
u

co

13
l
o
J8

u
u
_e
*-

_c
e

I J3

5
222

o
o
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CO

I)
-o
a
o-

ca
CO
223

Phot. Arti Grafiche

Bari. Outside of right aisle of S. Nicola


224

Phot. Arti Grafiche

Bari. Cupola and Belfry of S. Nicola (12 th 13 th cent.)


225

Phot. R. Gab.

Bari. Side portal of S. Nicola (so-called Lion Portal) by Master Basilio (12 th cent.)
226

Cu
c

J
V

T3

c
u
o

u
G
a
"c

R
cc
227

Phot. Arti Grafiche Phot. Arti Grafiche

Phot. R. Gab. Phot. Arti Grafiche

Bari. S. Nicola. Three capitals; the two upper ones in the crypt (ca. 1090), the third in the church (12 th cent.)
San Severino (Marche). Capital in the old Cathedral
228

Phot. Arti Grafiche


Bari. of the main altar of S.
Canopy Nicola (12- cent.)
229

Phot. Alinari

Bari. Throne of Elias in S. Nicola (ca. 1098)


230

Phot. Alinari

Bari. Windows of S. Gregorio (beginning of 11 th cent.)


231

Phot. Arti Grafichc

Bari. Porch of the side entrance of the Cathedral (12 th cent.)


232

Phot. Alinari

Bari.
Apse window of the Cathedral
(end of 12- cent.)
233

Phot Alinari

Lecce. Main Portal of SS. Nicolo e Cataldo (1180)


234

-a
u

u
J2

n
<u

Q
n
03

o c
O OJ
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CO
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c
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a
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Q
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235

Phot. Arti Grafiche Phot. Arti Grafichc

Matera. Details of the Cathedral Portal (13 th cent.). Bari. Two capitals of the Loggia in the
court of the castle (13 th cent.)
236

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r
o
ex
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-c

o
=-

I
o

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237

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o

Ou
eg

P
u

2
-o

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c
2
O
238

Phot. Moscioni

Soleto. Font in the Cathedral (1 4 th cent.). Galatina. Capitals of monument for


Raimondello del Balzo (14 th cent.) and of S. Caterina (14 th cent.)
239

Phot. R. Gab.

Sessa Aurunca. Pavement of the Cathedral (13 th cent.)


240

Phot. R. Gab.

Sessa Aurunca. th
Pulpit of the Cathedral (mid 13 cent.)
241

Phot. Mnsrioni

Phot. Moscioni

Sessa Aurunca. Details of the Cathedral pulpit (mid 13 th cent)

icci, Romanesque 16
242

Phot. R. Gab.

Sessa Aurunca. Lower part of the Cathedral candelabrum, and details of the pulpit (mid 13
h
cent.)
243

Phot. Alinari

Caserta vecchia. Ambo of the Cathedral (13 th cent.)


244

Phot. Moscioni Phot. Moscioni

Phot. AHnari Phot. AHnari

Salerno. Capital of the larger Cathedral Pulpit (ca. 1175). Fondi (Caserta). Head of the candelabrum
in the Cathedral (13- cent.).
-
Caserta vecchia. Aspersorium and
th
Candelabrum in the Cathedral (13 cent.)
245

Phot. Art! Gr.fiche

Benevent. Cloisters of S. Sofia (12"' cent.)


246

c
u
o

2
T3

Id
u

'3

v
Q
S
I
<u
oa
247

Phot. Arli Grafichc

Benevent. Main Portal of the Cathedral (12"1 13"- cent.)


248

-D
V

I
13
c
as

JU
ra
249

-o
u
_c

n
a.

a.
250

g
re

re
CO

=
o

-o
u
-C

o
J2
3

u
re
Oi
251

Phot. Alinari

Ravello (Amalfi). Details of the bronze door of the Cathedral by Barisano da Trani (1179)
252

Si-.'.*.."'CZ 8uf.-M-

(N
t^
CN

8
I
o
V
S
_o
_0
C
n
00

n^^=^ ^
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mW-mr:

-
k-
o

<

,Yn
253
254

Phot. Alinari

Monreale. Main Portal of the Cathedral


by Bonannus of Pisa (1186)
255

LITERATURE
Agnelli, G., Ferrara e Pomposa. Bergamo 1904. putazione di Storia Patria per le province di Romagna.
Agostinone, E. II Fucino. Bergamo ,
1908. Modena 1877.
Annoni, A- Le Chiese di Pavia, parte , I. Milano 1913. Bragato, G., Da Gemona a Venzone. Bergamo 1913.
Annon i , C., Monumenti spettanti all' arcivescovo Ariberto. Ki .mi In ll.i, C., La basilica di S.Maria del Popolo di Pavia
Milano 1872. e il suo musaico. Pavia 1876.
A rat a, G. U., Antonino di Piacenza (Rassegna d'arte
II S. - Pavimento di musaico
scoperto in S. Pietro in Ciel d'oro
antica e moderna) 1919, 54 segg. (R. Ist.-Lomb. di scienze, lettere ed arli, seric II, vol. XIX,
- L'architettura Arabo-Normanna in Sicilia. Milano 1914. 1886, p. 724.)
Arc on i Restauri della Rotonda
i
,
I ... (di Brescia) in ,,Comen- Campanari, S. , Tuscania e i suoi monument!. Montr -

tarii dell' Ateneo", 1881, p. 191. fiascone 1856.


Aru, C., Chiese pisane in Corsica. Roma 1908. Campari, A. , La nuova facciata della cattedrale di Pavia
Atz , K., Kunstgeschichte von Tirol und Vorarlberg. 2. Aufl. e le antiche basiliche di S. Stefano e di S. Maria del Popolo.
Innsbruck 1909. Pavia 1896.
Aus'm Weerth, Der Mosaikboden in St. Gereon zu Koln. Canestrelli, A., Arte antica senese, Siena, 1904 I (v. pure
A vena, Monumenti dell' Italia meridionale. Roma 1902.
A., in Bollettino senese di storia patria 1908, 181 segg.).
Barelli, V., Monumenti comaschi. Como, 1899 (con tav.). Siena monumentale. Siena 1910 ss.
S. Maria del Tiglio in Gravedona (in ,,Rivista archeol. della Canevali, F., Elenco deglie difici monumentali, operc d'arte

provincia di Como" fasc. 5. Giugno 1874, p. 1). e ricordi storici esistenti nella Valle Camonica, Milano 191 2.
La Chiesa di S. Giacomo in Como (in ,,Rivista archeol. Caprin, Istria nobilissima. Trieste 1905.
della provincia di Como", 30 ottobre 1887). Carabellese, F., Bari. Bergamo 1909.
- La basilica di S. Abbondio nei sobborghi di Como (in Cattaneo, R. L'architettura italiana dal , sec. VI al 1000.
,,Rivista archeol. della provincia di Como", 30 ottobre 1887). Venezia 1889.
S. Pietro in Monti di Civate (in ,,Rivista archeol. della pro- Cavagna-Sangiuliani, II
portico di S Celso in Milano.
Como" fasc. settembre 1881).
vincia di - II di S. Fedelino sul lago di Mazzola. Pavia
tempietto
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l
Ricci, Romanesque
'

17 ( t)
258

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIO NS
page paje

Agliate (Monza)
Capranica
13 14 Nosocomium 144, 145
Abbey Church .

Alba Fucense (Aquila) Capua


S. Pietro 178, 180 Cathedral XXV
Almenno, San Salvatore (Bergamo) Caserta vecchia
S. Tommaso in Limine XVI, 20, 21 Cathedral 243, 244

Anagni Castellarquato (Piacenza)


Cathedral 159, 167, 168 Cathedral 46

Ancona Castel S. Elia


S. Maria di Piazza 122 Basilica church 148
Aosta Church 144, 146
36
St. Ours 35,
Cavagnolo Po
Arezzo Abbey Church of S. Fede 37
S. Maria
^ella
Pieve 88,105-107 Chiaravalle Milanese
Ascoli Piceno Church 12
Baptistery 125
Cingoli
Langobard House 127, 128
S. Esuperanzio 126
Assisi
Civate
Cathedral S Rufino Ill
S. Pietro XVII, 27 30
Asti
Civita-Castellana
S. Pietro 41
Cathedral 145, 147
Atri
Colle di Val d'Elsa (Siena)
Cathedral 171
Cathedral 99
Aversa
Cathedral VII
Coma
Palazzo del Broletto 24
Bari
Porta-Torre 27
Castle 235
S.Abbondio 26
Cathedral V, 231, 232, 234
San Fedele 25
S. Gregorio 230
Cori
S. Nicola 222-229
S.Maria XXIV
Bazzano (Aquila)
S. Giusto 174, 175
Crema
Benevent Cathedral 22

Cathedral 246, 247


Cremona
S. Sofia 245 Baptistery 23
Bitonto Dolianova
Cathedral 213-221 S. Pantaleo 85
Bologna Ferentino
Casa Isolani 64 S. Valentino 169
S. Stefano 65
Fermo
Tomb of Egidio Foscherari 66
Cathedral 126
Bolsena
Ferrara
Collegiata 138
Cathedral 72
Borgo San Donnino
Cathedral 50
Florence
53
Brindisi Baptistery 73-75
S. Giovanni al Sepolcro S. Salvatore 78
236
Cagliari Florence (Vicinity)
S. Cecilia
3 Badia of Fiesole 76
'
Torre dell'Elefante 4 Foligno
Canosa Cathedral 113
Cathedral
204 Fondi (Caserta)
Tomb of Bohemund 202 203 Cathedral . 244
259

Fossacesia (Vicinity) Pavia


189 S. Giovanni in Borjfo XIX
S. Giovanni in Venere
S. Michele XX, 17-19
Galatina
Monument for Raimondello del Balzo 238 S. Pietro in Ciel d'Oro ... XX, 15, 16

S. Caterina
'
238 Pentima (Aquila)
Galliano near Cantu
Cathedra! of S. Pelino or Valva .... 177179
Baptistery Perugia
Palazzo della Universita 120
Genoa
S. Costanzo 112
Cathedral 42, 43
Piacenza
Gravedona
Cathedral 47-49
S. Maria del Tiglio XVI
Palazzo Comunale 44-45
Lago d'Orta Pianella (Teramo)
Church of Isola di S. Giulio 40
S. Angelo XXVII
Lecce
Piedivalle (Spoleto)
SS. Nicolo e Cataldo 233, 234
S. Eutizio 118
Lucca
Pisa
Cathedral S. Martino 95, 96
Baptistery 77
S. Cristoforo 93
Cathedral 77-82
S. Frediano 92, 98
Leaning Tower 77, 80
S. Giovanni 93
S. Giusto 97, 98 Pistoia
Maria Forisportam S. Pietro 89
S. 90, 91
S. Michele 94 Pomposa
Lugnano in Teverina (Perugia) S.Maria 69-71
Crypt 127 Ponzano Romano
Massa Marittima (Grosseto) S. Andrea al Fiume 148
Cathedral 108, 109 Portotorres
Matera Cathedral S. Gavino . .... XV, 86
Cathedral 235 Ravello (Amalfi)
Milan Cathedral 250-252
Palazzo della Ragione 11 Ravenna
S. Ambrogio XII, XIII, XXI, 1-9 Baptistery
VII
S. Eustorgio 10 Calchi-Palace XIV, 68
Modena S. Apollinare in Classe VIII, X, XVIII, 66
Cathedral XXIII, 61-63 S. Apollinare Nuovo XII, 67

Monreale S. Francesco 67

Cathedral 253, 254 Rivolta d'Adda


Montefiascone Church .... XIX
S. Flaviano XVII, 131, 132 Rom
Monte S. Angelo Basilica Church of S. Paolo 161
S. Michele 204 Castel Sant' Angelo 159
Palazzo Venezia 171
Moscufo (Teramo)
S. Balbina 166
S. Maria del Lago 188
S. Cesareo 163. 166
Narni
S. Clemente 162, 164, 165
Cathedral 119 150
S. Francesca Romana al Foro
Oristano SS. Giovanni e Paolo 149
Cathedral 88 S. Giovanni in Laterano 152, 154, 156, 157
Orvieto S. Maria Cosmedin
in XI, 151, 162
Palazzo del Capitano del Popolo 121 S. Paolo fuori le mura 155
S. Lorenzo 120 S. Prassede 163

Otranto SS. Quattro Coronati 153, 160

Cathedral 237 S. Sabino 158


Well near S. Giovanni di Porta Latina 152
Parma
Baptistery 54, 5760 Rosciolo near Magliano de'Marsi (Aquila)
Cathedral VIII, XXII, 54-56 S. Maria in Valle Porclaneta 172-174, 176
260

page
Ruvo Spoleto
Cathedral 210-212, 220 Sant'Eufemia 115

Salerno
S. Pietro H7
Cathedral 244, 248, 249
Susa
Cathedral 40
Sant'Antimo (Siena)
Church 101-104 Tarquinia
Palazzo dei Priori
San Claudio al Chienti (Macerata) ... XV, 123, 124
S. Maria di Castello
129
130
S. Gimignano (Siena)
110 Terracina
Towers
Well 134 Cathedral 17Q

S. Leonardo Torre dei Passeri (Teramo)


Church 197, 198 S. Clemente di Casauria 180 187
S. Maria del Giudice Toscanella
Old parish church 100 S. Maria Mag-giore 135140
S. Maria di Siponto S. Pietro 141143
Church 199-201 Trani
San Severino (Marche) Cathedral 205-209
Old Cathedral 227
Troia
San Vittore (Fabriano) 124
Cathedral 190-196
Sassovivo (Foligno)
Uta
Cloisters 114
Church 87
Scarperia
Verona
S. Ag-ata al Cornocchio . -. XXIII
Cathedral 31
Sessa Aurunca
S. Giovanni in Fonte 30
Cathedral '...... T-.^ 24? S .0 3234
Signa (Florence) 74 VCZZOU.UG (Ci.ieri)
Soleto
Abbey 38, 39
Cathedral 238
Viterbo
Spoleto Lunette 131
Cathedral 115 S. Giovanni in Zoccoli 134
Reliefs 116 S. Pellegrino
>
Way 133
BINDING SECT.
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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY

NA Ricci, Corrado
405 Romanesque architect;
R5 in Italy

Sig. Sam.

SIGMVND SAMUEL UBRART