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What Does OSHA Say?

OSHA makes a couple of important statements about crane ratings which govern crane
design and use. From 1910.180(c) and underlined by Crane Tech to indicate important
points:

“The margin of stability for determination of load ratings, with booms of stipulated
lengths at stipulated working radii for the various types of crane mountings, is
established by taking a percentage of the loads which will produce a condition of
tipping or balance with the boom in the least stable direction, relative to the mounting.
The load ratings shall not exceed the following percentages for cranes, with the
indicated types of mounting under conditions stipulated in paragraphs (c)(1)(ii) and (iii)
of this section.”

Taking a closer look at the important terms in the OSHA standard, there are a number of
statements made that will help make this clearer.

 Stability ratings must be provided for the least stable area of a crane (some
manufacturers provide stability ratings for ‘over the rear’ and ‘over the side’
working areas.)
 The margin of stability is specific for the various types of crane mountings.
 Stability load ratings a manufacturer provides must coincide with the boom
lengths, and working radii “stipulated” on the load chart.
 Last but not least, the most important thing is to always check the load rating
chart of your crane.
Looking at the Load Chart

While it is imporant to know that the maximum load ratings exist, when operators look
at a load chart they are reading a rating that has the reserve stability built in–they
don’t have to make any allowances for the reserve. Capacities in a load chart are either
based on stability (to keep the crane from tipping) or structural (to keep the crane from
receiving structural damage). A combination of methods may be used to indicate
stability ratings. Some manufacturers place these ratings below a bold line on the load
chart. This is typical of a hydraulic crane’s load chart. Others use an asterisk (*) beside
structural ratings or they place structural ratings in a shaded area; this indicates all other
capacities are based on stability.The key takeaway is to READ THE OPERATOR
MANUAL AND FULLY UNDERSTAND THE CRANE’S LOAD CAPACITY
CHART BEFORE LIFTING.

So now that you know how gravity, balance, and leverage work together to keep a crane
stable, how the crane is made, what the tipping point is, and what the standards and
OSHA say, in our final installment we will apply what we’ve learned by looking at
some examples of crane configurations and where things went horribly wrong, resulting
in a tipping accident. Stay tuned next week as we wrap our Mobile Crane Stability
Series up.

Cards

Term

Outriggers are only to be used in special circumstances

True/False?

Definition

False

Term

A crane is designed to pick up the same load in all 4 quadrants

True/False?
Definition

False

Term

Blocks under outrigger floats should be.....

Times the area of outriggers

Definition

3 times

Term

Load charts are charts that give the cranes gross capacity under various conditions and
situations

True/False?

Definition

True

Term

A cranes leverage is equal to the crane weight times the horizontal distance from its tipping
axis to its centre of gravity

True/False?

Definition

True

Term

The loads leverage is equal to the load weight times the horizontal distance from its tipping
axis to to the loads centre of gravity

True/False?

Definition

True

Term

A mobile crane is stable when the loads leverage exceeds the cranes leverage

True/False?

Definition

False

Term

A cranes centre of gravity changes as the upper works rotates


True/False?

Definition

True

Term

A cranes capacity changes when it upper works move from quadrant to quadrant

True/False?

Definition

True

Term

A cranes capacity increases as the boom telescopes out

True/False?

Definition

False

Term

Overloading a crane can cause:

Definition

Tipping and structural failure

Term

Important considerations before making a lift include:

Definition

Radius

Quadrants load will be rotated through

Loads weight

Wind speed and direction,

Load placement

Term

A loads chart is not crane specific

True/False?

Definition

False

Term
When using the load chart you must know?

Definition

Config of crane

Quadrants of operation

Boom length

Boom angle

Load radius

Weight of line,block,ball,etc

Term

A crane config includes:

Definition

Use of outriggers

Job or boom extensions

Term

The four quadrants are:

Definition

Over the front

Over the rear

Over the sides

Term

AT's capacity can vary from:?

Definition

30t to 1200t

Term

AT's boom length can vary from:?

Definition

30-100M

Term

AT's ability to resist tipping forward

On outriggers:

On tires:?
Definition

Outriggers 85%

Tires 75%

Term

RT's ability to resist tipping forward

On outriggers:

On tires:?

Definition

Outriggers 85%

Tires 75%

Term

Boom trucks ability to resist tipping forward

On outriggers:?

Definition

On outriggers 85%

Term

Crawler cranes ability to resist tipping forward

Definition

75%

Term

What is static load?

Definition

Stationary load under hook

Term

Dynamic load?

Definition

Loads change in motion

Ex. Sudden stoping,

Snatching the load

Term

Most blocks on cranes are?


Definition

Laced

Term

If a block is reeved 6 parts, it's a mechanical advantage of

Definition

6:1

Term

Sheave diameter rule of thumb

D/d

Definition

20:1

Term

Crane blocks have what on the sides to help down haul the block when unloaded

Definition

Weights

Term

If a block has a mechanical advantage of 6:1

The lead line will travel

Definition

6ft for every 1ft the load is lifted and will travel 6 times as fast

Term

The relationship between a rope sheave and friction is called?

Definition

Efficiency and usually expressed in %

Term

How to calculate lead line pull?

Definition

Weight of load divided by chart ratio= lead line pull

Term

Friction loss for

Roller bearings:
Bronze bushings:

Bronze bushed fibre rope

Definition

3%

5%

10%

Term

Calculate maximum load

Definition

WLL multiplied by Ratio=

Maximum load

Term

Determine parts of line required using ratio chart

Definition

D2 times 45 divided by 5= WLL

For IWRC

Total weight of load divided by chart ratio=

Parts of line

Term

When both blocks have the same # of sheaves the becket is attached to?

Definition

The stationary block

Term

When the # of sheaves varies the becket is attached to?

Definition

The traveling block

Term

The most popular methods of reeving are:

Definition

Lacing

Skip reeving
Square reeving

Term

Lacing advantages:

Definition

It's easy to reeve

Blocks pull close together

No reverse bends

Term

Lacing disadvantages

Definition

Rope and sheave speed is faster on one side

Blocks tilt together on one end

Blocks rotate and lines twist together

Term

Skip reeving

Advantages

Definition

Line speed is balanced

Blocks remain more level

Term

Skip reeving

Disadvantages

Definition

2 reverse bends

Term

Square reeving

Advantages

Definition

Blocks are balanced

Blocks run smooth and level

Term
Square reeving

Disadvantages

Definition

The blocks can not be brought close together, this will cause the wire rope to come off the
sheaves

Wire rope continually goes through reverse

Bending, this can cause premature fatigue

Term

When is the most weight transferred to the lead crane on a tailing lift

Definition

80-90degres

Term

Load block positions

Definition

A= NC2 divided by NC1 multiplied by B

B= NC1 divided by NC2 multiplied by A

Term

Load on crane one

Load on crane 2

Definition

Nc1

B divided by A+B multiplied by load weight

Nc2

A divided by A+B multiplied by load weight

Term

Weight shift

Definition

Crane one
Crane 2 touch down first

C+D divided by B+C+D multiplied by load weight

Term

What is the number 1 cause of crane accidents?

Definition

Improper setup

Term

Equalizer beams do what?

Definition

Distribute weight of load to 2 cranes

Term

By adjusting the crane and or attachment points on the beam it is possible to share the load in
any proportion desired

T/F

Definition

True

Term

Disadvantages of a EQ beam

Definition

Limited rotation

Communication and signalling requires a higher degree of planning and ability

Term

The greatest transfer of load share from the tailing crane to the lead crane occurs when the
load is?

Definition

80-90* from the horizontal

Term

When 2 or more cranes are used to lift one load one -------- person shall be responsible for the
operation

Definition

Competent person
Term

Who is allowed to deviate from the lift plan?

Definition

Nobody

Term

Is a lift plan necessary for a multi crane lift?

Definition

Yes

Term

What could happen if the cranes are not synchronized when making the lift?

Definition

The weight can transfer

Term

When operating the crane you should operate it ---------- & ---------

Definition

Slowly and smoothly

Term

Why is there a rule for 75% on multi crane lift?

Definition

Allow for a safety margin

Term

Boom torque is due to what

Definition

Block not centred on the boom

Term

What % of injuries happen when getting on and off the machine?

Definition

20%

Term

The outriggers are the fulcrum point for the crane

T/F
Definition

True

Term

At high boom angles much of the load is on

Definition

The boom cylinders

Term

The highest loss of capacity when out of level occurs when

Definition

Long boom minimum radius

Term

For high speed duty cycle operations most crane manufacturers reduce the load chart by

Definition

20%

Term

What must you be aware of when using a crane on retracted outriggers

Definition

Backwards stability

Term

The sweep area is defined as

Definition

The total area the crane can swing over