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INKOMPETENT’S REALISTIC FLIGHT MANUAL

FOR IL-2 STURMOVIK


BATTLE OF MOSCOW, BATTLE OF STALINGRAD, AND BATTLE OF KUBAN
Front-page picture is an official picture from 1C Gaming/777 Studios:
https://il2sturmovik.com/media/image/14/

TABLE OF CONTENTS

About this guide ...................................................................................................................................................... 3


Bell P-39L-1 ”Airacobra” ......................................................................................................................................... 4
Curtiss P-40E-1 ”Kittyhawk” .................................................................................................................................... 7
Douglas A-20B ”Havoc” ......................................................................................................................................... 28
Focke-Wulf Fw 190 “Würger” A-3 & A-5 ............................................................................................................... 46
Heinkel He 111 H-6 & H-16 ................................................................................................................................... 46
Henschel Hs 129 B-2.............................................................................................................................................. 46
Ilyushin IL-2 “Sturmovik” model 1941, 1942 & 1943 ............................................................................................ 47
Junkers Ju 52/3m .................................................................................................................................................. 51
Junkers Ju 87 “Stuka” D-3/G-1 .............................................................................................................................. 51
Junkers Ju 88 A-4 ................................................................................................................................................... 51
Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3 Series 29 ................................................................................................... 51
Lavochkin La-5 Series 8 ......................................................................................................................................... 52
Lavochkin La-5FN .................................................................................................................................................. 56
Macchi C.202 ”Folgore” Series VIII ........................................................................................................................ 56
Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-7 ..................................................................................................................................... 56
Messerschmitt Bf/Me 109 F-2 & F-4 ..................................................................................................................... 57
Messerschmitt Bf/Me 109 G-2 & G-4.................................................................................................................... 59
Messerschmitt Bf/Me 109 G-6 .............................................................................................................................. 63
Messerschmitt Bf 110 ........................................................................................................................................... 63
Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3 ...................................................................................................................................... 63
Petlyakov Pe-2 Series 35 & 87 ............................................................................................................................... 64
Polykarpov I-16 ”Ishak” Type 24 ........................................................................................................................... 64
Supermarine Spitfire Mk.VB.................................................................................................................................. 65
Supermarine Spitfire LF Mk.IX(e) .......................................................................................................................... 75
Yakovlev Yak-1 Series 69 & Yak-1B ....................................................................................................................... 93
Yakovlev Yak-7B .................................................................................................................................................... 93
ABOUT THIS GUIDE

This guide is made for those players of IL-2 Sturmovik who would like to fly with ”real” procedures, but who
either don’t have copies of original manuals, who don’t want to try to filter the relevant information from
manuals, or who don’t have the language skills to read some of them. Some of these procedures are more for
fun, immersion, or role-playing while others actually are useful within the game, like stall and spin recovery
procedures, glide speeds, plane-specific routines for emergency landings, etc.

Because IL-2 Sturmovik is a “soft” simulator with focus on the air combat rather than the detailed operation of
the planes’ avionics and mechanisms I have omitted operations like detailed engine starts, manual locking of
landing gear and flaps, radio operation, emergency systems, etc. from this guide. For those who are interested
in those features I’d like to refer to the original manuals.

For cases where manuals refer to specific control settings, like for example ”AUTO RICH” fuel mixture, I have
included what percentage of that particular setting is required in-game to make the manual more accessible.

I have attempted to use as many sources as I have been able to find, both American, British, German and
Russian. For cases where I have not been able to find model-specific manuals I have assumed similar operation
of similar planes. The manuals that I have used as sources for this guide are listed in the chapter for each
specific plane.

Because manuals are written very differently, with different focus and different layouts, I have attempted to
create a standardised layout in this manual to make it easier to read. This means that for some planes the
layout of the manual is significantly different from the original manuals.
BELL P-39L-1 ”AIRACOBRA”

Sources:

 ”T.O. No. 01-110FG-1 - Pilot's Flight Operating Instructions for the P-39 K-1 and P-39 L-1 Airplanes”
(1944)

AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATI ONS

AIRFRAME LIMITATIONS
Maximum landing gear operating speed (VLO): 200 mi/h (322 km/h)

Never exceed speed (VNE): 523 mi/h (842 km/h)

Maximum permissible diving speed (VD): 468 mi/h (753 km/h)

ARMAMENT
Fixed-aperture holographic sight with sun filter

Primary armament

1x 37 mm M4 cannon (30 rounds)

2x .50 cal. AN/M2 machine guns (400 rounds)

4x .30 cal. AN/M2 machine guns (1200 rounds)

POWERPLANT
Allison V-1710-63, liquid-cooled V12 engine with single-stage supercharger

Curtiss electrically controlled constant-speed propeller

UNDERCARRIAGE
Tricycle undercarriage with steerable nose wheel

SYSTEMS OPERATING PR OCEDURES

PROPELLER CONTROLS

FLYING PROCEDURES

TAXIING
1. Release parking brakes
2. Get the airplane moving before attempting any turn

TAKE-OFF
1. Trim rudder to 4° right and elevator to 3 – 4° nose up. Aileron trim should be neutral.
2. Adjust coolant and oil shutter controls to maintain nominal temperatures
3. Due to the tricycle landing gear it is important to get the nose off the ground as soon as possible. The
nose should be gently eased off the ground when a speed of 100 mi/h (161 km/h) is attained.
4. Raise landing gear once reasonable altitude has been gained and verify that it is up
5. Raise flaps, assuming they have been used during take-off
6. Throttle down to a manifold pressure of approximately 37.5 inHg and reduce engine speed to about
2600 rpm.

CLIMB
The best climbing speeds are as follows:

Altitudes up to 5000 ft. (1500 m) 162 mi/h (261 km/h) IAS


Altitudes 5000 ft.to 10,000 ft. (1500 – 3000 m) 160 mi/h (257 km/h) IAS
Altitudes above 10,000 ft. (3000 m) 158 mi/h (242 km/h) IAS
...with a drop of 1 mi/h (1,6 km/h) for every 1000 ft. (300 m) additional altitude

FLIGHT
1. To increase engine power during flight, set the fuel mixture to the ”AUTO RICH” position, adjust the
engine speed to the desired rpm, and then readjust the mixture controls if necessary.
2. To decrease engine power during flight, adjust the throttle to the desired manifold pressure, adjust
the engine speed to obtain the desired rpm, and then readjust the mixture controls as necessary.
3. In cruising flight, maintain instrument readings in the following regimes for optimal performance:
a. RPM 1600 to 2400
b. Oil inlet temperature 60 to 80° C
c. Oil pressure 60 – 70 psi
d. Coolant outlet temperature 100 – 120° C
Note: If any of the above mentioned readings are very irregular, lower throttle to determine if they
can be corrected. If not, land the airplane.

STALLS
The airplane has good stalling characteristics, at about 105 mi/h with flaps up, and 90 mi/h with flaps down.
The airplane will mush considerably at stalling speeds. A stall occurs first at the centre section of each wing,
and then progresses outwards. To recover, ease the pressure on the stick and allow the speed to build up
sufficiently, or approximately 130 to 140 mi/h (209 to 225 km/h), as to completely un-stall the centre sections.

SPINS
Deliberate spinning is not recommended. However if a spin occurs, rapid recover can be made as follows:

1. First apply full opposite rudder


2. Wait until rudder effect is noticeable then apply full forward stick
3. Aileron as follows and simultaneously with forward stick:
a. No ammunition in wings; aileron with spin will help
b. 300 to 1000 rounds in each wing gun box; aileron against (e.g. left stick in right spin) is
extremely important
4. The spin is usually oscillatory in rate and it is mandatory that the opposite rudder be applied when the
spin is at its slowest
5. If the procedure above is followed, the airplane will recover in one-half turn. If the procedure is not
followed closely, the airplane may not recover.
AEROBATICS
1. Normal loops, slow rolls and Immelmanns are all done with ease
2. The following aerobatics are not recommended:
a. Snap rolls
b. Outside loops
c. Spinning

DIVING
It is necessary to trim nose heavy when diving this airplane, otherwise the airplane will make a severe pull-out
as speed is attained. The maximum permissible diving speed is 523 mi/h (841 km/h). 475 mi/h (764 km/h) is the
maximum recommended indicated airspeed.

DO NOT CLOSE THE THROTTLE TO ALLOW A MANIFOLD PRESSURE OF LESS THAN 20 IN.HG. DURING A DIVE.

LANDING
1. Approaching the airfield, lower speed to 200 mi/h.
2. Lower the landing gear and verify that it is lowered.
3. Lower the flaps if desired or if necessary due to short runway
4. Land at 95 – 100 mi/h (153 – 161 km/h), in a conventional nose-up landing
Note: Do not land at higher speeds unless necessary, as it causes significantly longer landing runs.
5. Let the plane roll out until the nose gear settles without pilot input
6. Once rolled out, retract flaps
7. Open oil and coolant shutters fully

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

ENGINE FAILURE DURIN G TAKEOFF OR FLIGHT


1. Put the nose down to maintain flying speed
2. Raise the landing gear if level and firm ground is not ahead
3. Fully lower the flaps
4. Turn off the engine, and land straight ahead
CURTISS P-40E-1 ”KITTYHAWK”

Sources:

 ”Pilot Training Manual for the P-40” (1944)


 “TO01-25CF-1 - Pilot's Operating Instruction Manual for the Curtiss P-40 Series D&E Warhawk”
(10 April 1943)
 “ALD-3F2 Handbook of Operation and Maintenance for Allison V-1710 F Type Engines – 3rd Edition”
(1943)
 “AN01-25CN-1 - Pilot's Flight Operating Instructions for P-40N Series” (25 September 1944)

AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATI ONS

V-SPEEDS
Maximum flap extended speed (VFE): 140 mph (225 km/h) IAS

Maximum landing gear operating speed (VLO): 175 mph (280 km/h) IAS

Never exceed speed (VNE): 480 mph (770 km/h) IAS

Landing configuration stall speed (VS0): 84 mph (135 km/h) IAS

Clean configuration stall speed (VS1): 90 mph (145 km/h) IAS

Best rate of climb speed (VY): 150 – 160 mph (240 – 260 km/h) IAS

ARMAMENT
Fixed-aperture holographic sight with sun filter

Primary armament

6x .50 Cal AN/M2 machine guns (1410 rounds, 235 rounds per gun)

Optional armament/equipment

4x .50 Cal AN/M2 machine guns (940 rounds). Replaces the 6x machine guns

Additional ammunition for 6x machine guns: Increases ammunition load to 1686 rounds

Additional ammunition for 4x machine guns: Increases ammunition load to 2460 rounds

4x RS-82 high-explosive rockets with optional air burst

1x FAB-250sv general-purpose bomb

1x FAB-500M general-purpose bomb

Rear-view mirror
OPERATION AND DESCRIPTION

CONTROL SURFACES
The control surfaces are operated by a conventional pistol-grip stick and adjustable rudder pedals. Elevators
and rudder trim tab controls are on the left side of the cockpit forward of the flap control lever. The rudder
trim tab control is a round knob, marked in degrees beginning with zero in the neutral position, which turns in
either direction. The elevator trim tab is also a round knob, similarly calibrated. It is located in a vertical
position below the rudder trim tab control and is controlled by a small hand crank. The flap controls are on the
left side of the cockpit above the landing gear handle.

The aileron trim tab must be adjusted manually on the ground, except on some models which have an electric
aileron trim tab control.

ENGINE
The 1150-Hp Allison V-1710, a 12-cylinder, V-type, liquid-cooled engine, has a single-speed internal blower and
integral reduction gears through which the propeller is driven.

The Allison is a good, tough engine, but like all precision instruments it requires proper treatment. You, as a
pilot, are the controlling factor in how long the engine lasts and how well it operates. If you mistreat your
engine you can be sure of paying for your carelessness.

Watch your prop and throttle settings. Excessive manifold pressure and rpm cause the engine to detonate.

Detonation is an explosion in the cylinder head. The normal burning wave, as it travels across the cylinder
head, subjects the unburned portion of the fuel charge to tremendous temperatures and pressures. If these
forces are great enough, the remaining fuel charge explodes before it can burn, and the shock waves from this
explosion rob your engine of power. If the waves are strong enough, they can blow the cylinder heads off the
engine.

As long as you remain within the normal operating limits of the engine, you run no risk of detonation.

High oil and coolant temperatures can also cause detonation. These, then, are two more things you must guard
against.

Always make power changes smoothly and evenly. The engine won’t absorb a sudden blast of power without
acting up: Move the controls slowly and smoothly to the desired setting instead of trying to pick up the proper
setting with one swift movement.

If you reduce the rpm first you get a jump in manifold pressure which can cause detonation if the relation of
rpm to manifold pressure is greatly altered. An engine running at constant power settings receives a constant
amount of fuel and air from the blower. If you lower the rpm and the manifold pressure remains constant the
blower continues to supply the same fuel/air charge. The engine, running at lower speed cannot absorb this
charge, as a result pressures in the lower and cylinder heads build up and cause detonation. Therefore never
reduce rpm before manifold pressure.
TO INCREASE POWER:
1. Increase the rpm
2. Advance the throttle
If you advance the throttle before you increase the rpm the same thing happens as when you reduce rpm
before manifold pressure in decreasing power.
As the engine picks up speed, the manifold pressure drops. This is a normal and desired reaction. Note: Above
12,000 feet, increased rpm gives you increased manifold pressure.

ENGINE CONTROLS AND INSTRUMENTS


THROTTLE QUADRANT
The engine is equipped with a pressure type carburettor. The mixture control has four positions: IDLE CUT-OFF
(0%), AUTO LEAN (33%), AUTO RICH (66%), and FULL RICH (100%). When the mixture control lever is in AUTO
RICH or AUTO LEAN, altitude mixture control is automatically maintained.

Note: Never use the FULL RICH position except when the engine detonates or war emergency rating is used.
Before you increase the mixture setting to “FULL RICH”, reduce power as much as possible.
TACHOMETER
The speed of the engine is indicated in revolutions per minute on a tachometer calibrated in hundreds of rpm
up to 45.

MANIFOLD PRESSURE GAGE


This gage is calibrated in inches of mercury ranging from 10” to 52”.

PROPELLER
You can operate the propeller automatically or manually. For all ordinary purposes you use automatic
operation. Manual, or FIXED PITCH, operation is for emergencies.

When you operate the propeller automatically, the desired engine speed is held constant by a governor which
is set by the propeller control on the throttle quadrant.

When you operate it manually, the blade angle is varied by means of a dashboard selector switch which is
independent of the governor.

PROPELLER CONTROL
SELECTOR SWITCH
The selector switch has four positions:

1. AUTO CONSTANT SPEED


When the switch is in this position, constant engine speed is maintained and the propeller blade angle
is automatically varied by the propeller governor. This is your normal operating position.
2. FIXED PITCH
With the switch in this position the electrical circuits of the propeller are open and the propeller
operates as a fixed-pitch propeller.
3. INC. RPM / DEC. RPM
To vary the angle of the blades when the propeller is in FIXED PITCH, move the selector switch to INC
RPM or to DEC RPM and hold it there until desired rpm is reached. When you release it, it snaps back
to FIXED PITCH. The INC RPM and DEC RPM positions are your only means of varying the blade angle
when the propeller is in FIXED PITCH. When the propeller is in AUTO CONSTANT SPEED you use the
propeller governor lever on the throttle quadrant to increase or decrease rpm.
PROPELLER TROUBLE
If the propeller goes out, whether through propeller or electrical system failure, it is likely to go to either
maximum high or maximum low rpm. Here’s what you do:

1. Move the propeller selector switch from AUTO CONSTANT SPEED to the FIXED PITCH position.
2. Try to increase or decrease your rpm (whichever is needed) by moving the selector switch to the INC.
RPM or DEC. RPM positions.
3. If you can’t adjust the rpm immediately, re-set the manifold pressure ti the minimum that maintains
flight, and land at the nearest field.

Caution:
If the tachometer oscillates while the propeller is in AUTO CONSTANT SPEED, move the selector switch to
the FIXED PITCH position. If the oscillation continues while the propeller is in FIXED PITCH, you know that
the trouble is either the engine or instruments. If the oscillation stops the trouble is in the propeller or
propeller controls.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
A 24-volt battery and a generator supply power for the propeller, fuel gage, hydraulic system, starter, radio
equipment, needle and ball (if electric), guns, and gunsight, and all instrument, landing and navigation lights.

AMMETER
The ammeter is to the left of or below the circuit breaker switches and ranges from 0 to 150 amps. After flying
for a while, the ammeter should normally charge about 10 amps. When you are moving wheels or flaps up or
down, it indicates from 40 to 75 amps, depending on the charge in the battery.

FUEL SYSTEM
The P-40 contain a front wing tank, main wing tank and fuselage tank. Tank capacities are shown in the
following table:

P-40 M Front Main Fuselage


and Wing Wing
earlier 35 gal. 50.5 gal. 62.5 gal.
models
At the normal fuel consumption of 50 to 60 gallons per hour you have about 2½ hours of safe operation in a P-
40.

Note: Formation flying, in which power settings constantly change, greatly increases your fuel consumption.

FUEL GAGE
There is an electrically operated fuel gage for the fuselage tank on the instrument panel. Direct reading gages
for wing tanks are on the floor of the cockpit.

OIL SYSTEM
OIL OVERHEATING
If the oil temperature rises over 85° when you are cruising, open the coolant shutters all the way, reduce the
power, and dive the airplane slightly.
Caution:
Don’t dive faster than 250 mph with your shutters open. Return to the field and land if the
temperature stays high.
If the oil overheats when you are climbing, open the cowl shutters and level off. Reduce the power
and start a slight dive with the shutters open. If that does not help, go back to the field and land.

COOLANT SYSTEM
An engine-driven pump circulates the ethylene glycol coolant through the engine and back to the radiators. The
coolant tank capacity is 3.7 gallons.

You regulate the coolant temperature manually by opening and closing the cowl shutters. For normal ground
operations, on takeoff and on landing, the shutters should be in FULL OPEN. When climbing and cruising, adjust
the shutters to maintain a temperature of 85° to 125°. The desired temperature is between 95° and 105°.

COOLANT TEMPERATURE GAGE


The coolant temperature gage is on the right side of the instrument panel and is graded from -50° to 150°. On
all models except the N a warning light flashes on when the coolant temperature reaches 125°.

Whenever the coolant temperature reaches 115° during cruising or 125° when climbing, follow the procedures
for oil overheating described in the preceding section.

LANDING GEAR
TO RETRACT THE LANDING GEAR
1. Apply controls to retract the landing gear.
2. Observe the movement of the wheel indicators. It requires approximately 20 seconds to retract the
wheels completely. When the wheels are fully retracted you can usually hear a high-pitched whine
through the headset.
The gear may be raised at any speed.
TO LOWER THE LANDING GEAR
1. Slow the airplane to an indicated airspeed (IAS) of 175 mph or less.
2. Apply controls to lower the landing gear.
3. Observe the movement of the indicators. It requires approximately 20 seconds to extend the wheels.
4. Momentarily retard the throttle to see that the horn does not blow (if warning horn is installed).
NOTE: Do not operate the landing gear on the ground, because the wheels retract.

WHEEL INDICATORS
There is an electric wheel and flap indicator in the instrument panel. Three tabs in the indicator show the
relative position of the main landing gear and the tailwheel. (A pointer indicator shows the position of the
flaps.)

FLAPS
The flap controls have three positions – DOWN, NEUTRAL, and UP.

You can lower the flaps to an angle of 45° or stop them at any point before 45°.

The position of the flaps is shown by a pointer on the wheel and flap indicator on the instrument panel.
BRAKES
The brakes are single-shoe expansion type, hydraulically operated. The usual toe action on the rudder pedals
control each brake independently.

Test your brakes when you taxi out to the takeoff position. If either brake is soft, return to the line.

Never apply brakes suddenly; you may nose up the airplane. Take it easy on your brakes when you taxi. Don’t
ride them. Riding makes them heat rapidly, and the heat may glaze the brake drum. Control the airplane with
the steerable tailwheel as much as possible. If either or both brakes fail, stop the airplane by cutting off the
engine immediately.

To release the parking brakes, simply push down on the rudder brake pedals.

Caution: Never set the parking brake when the brakes are hot. The brakes may lock. Never set the parking
brake in flight.

COCKPIT
CANOPY
The cockpit is enclosed by a sliding plexiglas canopy and protected in front by a bullet-proof windshield.

The canopy has two emergency releases. One is above your head when the canopy is closed. This release
disengages the whole canopy and allows the slipstream to carry it off during flight.

The canopy must be closed and locked during all aerobatics and maneuvers in which the speed exceeds
cruising.

ENGINE WARM-UP AND GROUND TEST


Note: Engine warm-up is usually not relevant in IL-2 Sturmovik as the player generally starts with a warmed-up
engine.

1. Once the engine is running, set the throttle to maintain an engine speed between 800 and 1000 rpm
until oil pressure begins to come up.
2. Make sure that the propeller selector switch is in AUTO.
3. Engine warm-up:
a. Idle the engine between 500 and 800 rpm for 30 seconds after normal idling oil pressure (15
psi) as indicated, and then continue the warm-up at 1,400 rpm.
b. Set radiator shutters as required.
c. Continue running the engine until the temperatures for the oil inlet is at least 15° C and the
coolant is 60° C.
4. After warm-up has been completed, advance throttle to obtain 2300 rpm.
5. Set the propeller governor control at 2800 rpm.
6. Check fuel and oil pressures:
a. Oil pressure should not exceed 120 psi during warm-up, and the normal oil temperature
should be 60° C to 80° C, with a maximum of 95° C.
b. Fuel pressure for idling should be maintained at 10 psi, and for operating 16-18 psi.

HOT WEATHER TIPS


1. Open the coolant shutters before starting and on peel-off before landing. This procedure cools the
engine so you can taxi longer after you land.
2. Don’t start the engine until you are ready to taxi.
3. If the engine overheats, pull off to the side of the taxi strip (at least 200 feet from the runway in use),
point the nose of your airplane into the wind and shut off the engine until it cools. It takes about 15
minutes to cool an overheated engine.

COLD WEATHER TIPS


1. If warming the engine in extremely cold weather, start with radiator shutters closed.
2. Do NOT increase the engine speed to more than 800 rpm until the oil has reached a temperature of
40° C.

POWER SETTINGS
The following table of power settings for operating the P-40 with Grade 100 fuel:

ALLISON ENGINE

GRADE 100 FUEL MANIFOLD PRESSURE ENGINE RPM


IDLING 1000
TAKEOFF (Maximum) 52” (for 1 minute 3000
TAKEOFF (Recommended) 45” (for 5 minutes) 3000
CLIMB (Maximum) 45.5” (for 5 minutes) 2600
CLIMB (Recommended) 35” 2500
CRUISE (Maximum) 37.2” 2400
CRUISE (Recommended) 30” 2300
LANDING 2600

OIL OIL FUEL COOLANT


GRADE 100 FUEL
PRESSURE TEMP. PRESSURE TEMP.
MAXIMUM 85 psi 85° 18 psi 125°
MINIMUM 55 psi 60° 16 psi 85°
RECOMMENDED 60-70 psi 70°-80° 16-18 psi 95°-125°

FLIGHT CHARACTERISTI CS

The P-40 is a conventional modern fighting plane. It has no bugs and no tricky, unusual or undesirable
characteristics in take-off, landing and flight. It responds quickly to controls and is highly manoeuvrable. For a
fighter it is very stable in flight, but its stability depends on you. You must fly the airplane every second from
the second you start till you shut off the engine after landing. You cannot doze at the controls of a P-40.

TAXIING
1. Use only enough power to start rolling.
2. Wing flaps up.
3. Open the radiator shutters.
4. The view ahead is very poor when taxiing. It is therefore necessary to keep your canopy open and to
keep swinging the airplane from side to side for visibility directly ahead.
5. Taxi slowly, use brakes lightly and intermittently, and hold the stick well back. The P-40 noses over
easily!
6. For the pre-flight check, stop off the runway at an angle of about 45° to the runway so that rear and
forward vision of the runway is unobstructed.

Caution: Avoid prolonged idling of the engine under 1,000 rpm to prevent fouling the plugs.

PRE-TAKEOFF CHECK
1. Wing flaps up (unless needed, at which point they should not be more than ½ down).
2. Trim tabs set to: Rudder and elevator trim tabs should be set to neutral.
3. Set the left aileron trim tab flush with the trailing edge of the aileron.
4. Engine speed set to 2800 rpm.
5. Mixture control “AUTO RICH”.
6. Propeller control set to “AUTO”.
7. Oil pressure 60 – 80 psi, and oil temperature between 60°C and 85°C.
8. Fuel pressure 12 – 16 psi.
9. Coolant temperature between 85°C and 125°C.
10. Set radiator shutter control to wide “OPEN”.
11. If a belly bomb is carried the arming handle should be in the “SAFE” position so that the bomb may be
safely dropped in an emergency.
12. Perform a propeller check:
a. Set the propeller lever to 2300 rpm.
b. Pull the propeller lever back until the tachometer drops a full 200 rpm, then return the
control lever back to the full forward position. Make sure the engine regains the original rpm
setting.
c. To check manual operation of the propeller, place the propeller switch to “FIXED PITCH”,
move the “DEC. RPM” until the tachometer shows a 200 rpm drop, then place the propeller
switch to the “INC. RPM” position until the tachometer shows that the original rpm has been
regained, then return the propeller switch to the “AUTO” position.
13. Set flaps as required, but never over one-half way down.

TAKEOFF
1. Select a reference point on the horizon that you can keep clearly in sight during the take-off.
2. Move the throttle forward steadily and evenly to 45.5” Hg. Apply the power smoothly as a sudden
burst of power might make your airplane turn strongly to the left. Even with smooth application of
power the airplane tends to the swing to the left, which must be compensated by the use of right
rudder.
3. As soon as you have sufficient speed, get the tail up slightly. Don’t take off in a three-point position.
a. Do not force the tail up violently in the early stages of the take-off run as this makes you lose
the use of the steerable tail-wheel before you gain rudder control.
b. During take-off torque tends to make the left wing drop; compensate with right aileron.
4. Keep going straight down the runway by the use of the rudder alone
5. Allow the airplane to fly itself off the ground.
6. Raise landing gear when safely off the ground and verify that it is raised.
7. Reduce the throttle to 33 inches Hg. and 2,350 rpm for climbing as soon as definitely airborne.
Note: If flaps were used for take-off, don’t raise them till at least 500 ft. (150 m) off the ground.
Caution: Anticipate the sudden resultant loss of lift caused by raising the flaps.

AFTER TAKE -OFF


1. Climb at a power setting of 33 inches Hg manifold pressure and 2,350 rpm engine speed. Climb at 150
– 160 mph (240 – 255 km/h) to the desired altitude.
2. Coolant and oil temperatures generally run higher than normal while climbing. If any temperature
persists in running high, level off until it drops.
3. When the desired altitude is reached, level off and reduce throttle to 27” Hg, and approximately 2,100
rpm for cruising.
4. Adjust the radiator shutters to keep the engine within nominal temperatures and re-trim the airplane
so that it flies straight ahead without your hands on the controls.
5. Check engine and fuel instruments at least once every 5 minutes.

LANDINGS
1. Circle the field at your desired altitude (not under 1000 feet). Remember, there may be other planes
in the pattern, some much slower than your P-40. While you maintain a constant turn, keep a sharp
lookout on both sides, above, behind, and in the front. Circle around the boundaries of the field,
staying close enough to the field and keeping enough altitude to make an emergency landing from any
position.
2. While circling make the following pre-landing check:
a. Mixture control AUTO RICH.
b. Manifold pressure set to 18 inches Hg and engine speed set to 2230 rpm.
c. Propeller control set to AUTO.
d. Radiator shutters adjusted to keep the coolant temperature below 105° C.
3. After the tower gives you landing instructions and clearance to approach the field for a peel-off, slow
to 170 mph and extend your landing gear.
4. Lock the canopy open.
5. Open the radiator shutters.
6. Verify that the landing gear is lowered.
7. Re-trim the airplane.
8. Make the last turn into the field at an altitude of no less than 500 feet and a distance of not more than
¼ mile from the end of the runway. Get squared away with the runway.
9. Lower flaps when below 140 mph IAS.
10. Establish a glide of 110 – 115 mph and re-trim the plane to be slightly tail-heavy. Because of the flat
angle of the glide, even with your flaps down, your forward view is poor. If you are not absolutely
certain that the runway in front of you is clear, go around.
11. Cut the throttle and land at 3-point. If you balloon or bounce, correct by using the throttle. If the
balloons or bounces are excessive, apply necessary power and go around. Don’t jockey the stick and
throttle, because this causes you to crow-hop down the runway.
12. Keep the airplane rolling straight down the runway by using rudder and brakes. Don’t try to turn off
the runway until the airplane has slowed sufficiently to give you complete control over it.

Note:
You need about 2000 feet of runway from the point of contact to the end of the
roll. If you are unable to land within the first third of the runway, go around.

CROSSWIND, GUSTY AND WET LANDINGS


Crosswind Landings
When landing in strong crosswind of more than 15° or in gusty wind, come in slightly hot, wheels first, and
don’t use more than 30° of flaps. The recommended way to correct for crosswind in the P-40 is by dipping a
wing into the wind. After the airplane is on the ground, be careful not to over-control it. In a crosswind the
nose tends to swing into the wind.
Experienced pilots can make 3-point landings in a crosswind or gusty wind, but it is a maneuver requiring a high
degree of skill. To be safe, land wheels first.
Avoid cross-wind landing whenever possible.
Wet Landings
When landing on a wet surface, take it easy with your brakes and control. Again, a wheels-first landing is your
best bet. Use ½ flaps. Taxi slowly and use your brakes sparingly.

GO-AROUND PROCEDURES
If you want to be an old pilot, go around whenever there is the slightest doubt about your approach or landing.
When you start to go around, advance the throttle smoothly to 37 inches Hg, set the engine speed to 2600 rpm
and climb to 500 feet (150 m). Because your flaps are down it takes longer to gain altitude.
Here is the general procedure:
1. Flap handle in NEUTRAL.
2. Retract landing gear.
3. Fly straight ahead until you reach 500 feet before you make a turn. Don’t turn with more than 30° f
flaps down unless it is absolutely necessary, and then only with the nose level or down.
4. At 500 feet (150 m) reduce the manifold pressure to 35 inches Hg and the engine speed to 2500 rpm.
5. Don’t try to retract the flaps below 500 feet (150 m). Here is why: When you put the flap handle in the
“UP” position the flaps rise instantly, thus causing the plane to lose altitude.
6. The best way to retract flaps without losing altitude is by “milking” them up. This is done by rapidly
shifting the flap handle between the “UP” and “NEUTRAL” positions until the flaps are all the way up.
7. Rejoin the traffic pattern and repeat the landing procedure.

LEVEL FLIGHT

TURNS
The P-40 has few equals in manoeuvrability below 15,000 feet (4,600 m). It turns inside nearly all other high-
performance fighters. You can make any kind of turn if you coordinate your controls smoothly. Always use a
steady pressure on the controls; don’t pull the control stick back hard. Constant use of the rudder trim tab
controls reduces the energy required to work the rudder and makes coordination easier.

Before the P-40 reaches the stalling point in a turn it gives you plenty of warning by shuddering violently. When
it begins to shudder, relax back pressure on the stick. You can make a turn just above the stalling point even
while the airplane is shuddering, if you coordinate your controls smoothly. Such a turn is a maximum turn. A
higher rpm setting allows you to make a tighter turn.

A sudden uncoordinated maximum turn usually results in a high-speed stall. If you don’t correct the stall
immediately, the airplane snaps into a spin. At low altitudes a spin is especially dangerous for you may not have
room to pull out of it.

CLIMBS
When you climb, right rudder pressure increases. Counteract with rudder trim tab control.

Climb at 35” Hg and 2500 rpm. Your best climbing speed is between 150 and 160 mph IAS, but you may climb
at a lower indicated airspeed without running any risks.

Your forward airspeed is greatly reduced while climbing. S constantly to see what is in front of you.

Don’t make turns in an ordinary climb because they reduce your rate of climb considerably. In a climbing turn
to the right you need extra rudder pressure. When you turn to the left however, you need little rudder
pressure. If your IAS decreases you need more rudder to enter climbing turns.

GLIDES
The glide ratio for the P-40 with power off is approximately 4½ feet (1.5 m) forward for every 1 foot (0.3 m)
down at a speed of 150 mph (240 km/h) with wheels and flaps up and no overload.
In an emergency, keep your gliding speed at 150 mph (240 km/h). Never let your speed fall below 140 mph
(225 km/h), and don’t make turns steeper than 45°.
When practicing long power-on glides, maintain a manifold pressure of at least 20” Hg. Clear your engine by
applying significant throttle every 2 or 3 minutes to keep the plugs from fouling and the engine from becoming
too cold. Don’t let your coolant temperature fall below 85° C.
When gliding in for a landing, use your trim tabs to establish an indicated airspeed of about 110 – 115 mph
(175 – 185 km/h).

STALLS
The stalling speed of the P-40 is approximately 84 mph (135 km/h) with wheels and flaps down, and 90 mph
(145 km/h) with wheels and flaps up.
But you can stall the P-40 at any speed, in any position, if you don’t coordinate your controls properly.
If a high-speed stall develops it usually snaps the airplane. Unless you immediately ease back the pressure on
the stick the plane will go into a spin. Avoid high-speeds stalls. They are dangerous – to you and to the airplane.
Low-speed stalls are safe and are an important part of your P-40 training. Learn low-speed stalls with wheels
and flaps up, wheels and flaps down, only wheels down and only flaps down. Low-speed stalls help you get the
feel of your airplane.
If you stall in an unusual position (like the top of a loop or an Immelmann) retard the throttle, neutralize the
stick and rudder and wait until the nose is well down before starting recovery.
Do not practice stalls below 8000 feet; you may not have room to recover.

DIVES
The P-40 is a great diving airplane. In dives at maximum allowable speeds it has shown no tendency to vibrate,
flutter or break to pieces. This doesn’t mean that high-speed dives are recommended, particularly at low
altitudes. Remember, you need 5000 to 8000 feet to recover from a high-speed dive. The P-40 is red-lined at
480 mph IAS, but while you are in training you should not dive at a speed exceeding 350 mph.

When diving, the P-40 tends to roll to the right. The higher the speed of the dive, the greater the tendency to
roll. Compensate by using left rudder pressure and left rudder trim tab control.

The P-40’s have short tails and that means greater rudder and elevator loads. Therefore the planes require
more rudder and elevator pressure.

Pull out of a dive firmly and smoothly. Don’t horse back on the stick. A sudden jerky pull-out may throw the
plane into a high-speed stall. This is especially dangerous close to the ground.

Vertical dives from above 20,000 feet (6,100 m) are not recommended because of the risk for suffering
compressibility.

Caution: Do not close the throttle to allow a manifold pressure of less than 20” Hg
during a dive! Failing to do so may result in engine malfunction.

SPINS
Never spin the P-40 intentionally. All spins should be avoided.
Spins in the P-40 are usually a result of the following:
1. Tight vertical turns.
2. Uncoordinated turns.
3. Stalling out in vertical manoeuvres like a loop or Immelmann.
4. Steep turns at low airspeeds.
NORMAL SPINS
In case of a normal spin (yaw and roll movement in the same direction), follow this procedure:
1. Retard the throttle.
2. Apply full opposite rudder to stop the turn.
3. Push the stick forward to build up normal diving speed.
4. Don’t use ailerons against the turn, because this has a blanketing action on the rudder surfaces.
5. Pull out of the dive smoothly. Do not hurry the airplane, or it will snap into another spin.

NOTE: If you are unable to break the spin, and if sufficient altitude remains, retard the
throttle completely, and take your hands and feet off the controls. The airplane
ordinarily recovers by itself in two or three turns.

You lose about 1000 feet (300 m) per turn in a spin. Recover takes about 2000 feet (600m) after the airplane
stops turning.

INVERTED SPINS
To recover from an inverted spin (yaw and roll movement in opposite directions), you must first change the
inverted spin into a normal spin, and then recovered in the usual manner. Follow this procedure:
1. Retard the throttle immediately.
2. Apply full back pressure on the stick.
3. Apply rudder pressure with the spin – not against it.
4. When the airplane goes into a normal spin, follow the normal spin recovery technique.

NOTE: If you can’t break an inverted spin, retard the throttle, and take your hands off
the controls. The airplane usually recovers itself after a couple of turns.

NORMAL SPIN RECOVERY PROCEDURES ONLY AGGRAVATE AN INVERTED SPIN

AEROBATICS
The following maneuvers are prohibited:
1. Outside loops.
2. Continuous inverted flight (because of engine lubrication limitations).
3. Inverted spins.
4. Snap rolls in excess of 140 mph IAS (225 km/h).
5. Slow rolls in excess of 285 mph IAS (460 km/h).
6. Spins of more than three turns.
7. Spins with baggage or any other overload.

Caution: All aerobatics are prohibited when a bomb is installed.

HERE ARE A FEW TIPS ON AEROBATICS IN THE P-40:


LOOPS
New P-40 pilots sometimes have trouble with loops. They apply too little back pressure on the stick at the
beginning of the loop and too much back pressure at the top of the loop. You will find loops easy if you:
1. Enter the loop at about 275 mph (440 km/h)
2. Greatly increase the back pressure on the stick until the airplane passes beyond the vertical position
and you can see the horizon behind you.
3. Release the back pressure on the stick and let the plane fly itself around the top of the loop.
IMMELMANNS
Start your Immelmann precisely as you start your loop. When rolling out of the top of the Immelmann be sure
to give enough right rudder pressure to keep the nose of the airplane from turning left.
BARREL ROLLS AND SLOW ROLLS
Perform barrel rolls and slow rolls between cruising speed and 285 mph (460 km/h). Do not perform them
above 285 mph (460 km/h).

AEROBATICS IN STRING FORMATION


When performing aerobatics in string formation, be sure to observe these rules:

1. Keep about 300 feet (or the length of ten P-40’s) between airplanes.
2. Keep the main in front of you in your view at all times.
3. Start a maneuver at the exact instant that the man in front of you does. Don’t hesitate, waiting to see
what he’s going to do. If you are alert, you have no doubt about his intentions.

HIGH-ALTITUDE CHARACTERIS TICS


The P-40 operates best around 12,000 feet (3,650 m), but you have plenty of occasion to fly at 20,000 feet and
higher. Above 15,000 feet (4,600 m) there is a marked decrease in reserve engine power. Remember this,
especially when you are flying in formation. If you lag behind it may be impossible to catch up. Be especially
careful to hold formation at high altitudes.

To get additional power above 15,000 feet (4,600 m), put the mixture control switch in AUTO LEAN and
increase rpm.

Caution: Do not increase rpm past 2,600

When flying at high altitudes, remember that the tendency of the airplane to mush and your own tendency to
over-control increases greatly. Anticipate the need for corrections and begin correcting sooner at high altitudes
than you would at low altitudes. Don’t wait too long to correct and then try to make up for lost distance by
jockeying the controls.

Perform high-altitude aerobatics with the same airspeeds and with the same control pressures that you use at
low altitudes, with one important difference: Because the air is thinner at high altitude you need more space to
manoeuvre your airplane.

Vertical dives from above 20,000 feet are not recommended because of the danger of compressibility.

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

IN AN EMERGENCY

1. Find out what’s wrong with the airplane.


2. Find out whether it can be corrected in the air.
3. If it can be corrected, take immediate measures.
4. If it can’t be corrected, land at the nearest airfield.

If the engine fails completely, but the airplane is controllable and not on fire and if the terrain is reasonably
level, it is better to land wheels up than to bail out. The P-40 is strongly built and the cockpit is in a well-
protected position. In a belly landing your chances of escaping injury are very good. Note: Land into the wind
whenever you can.

BAIL OUT ONLY WHEN

5. The airplane is out of control or burning.


6. You are flying over water.
7. You are over rough, craggy or mountainous terrain.
8. You are flying at night, if you can’t make it to an airfield.

FORCED LANDINGS
WITH POWER ON:
If there is an airfield that you can make, land wheels-down. If you can’t make an airfield, place the landing gear
handle in the UP position. Even if the wheels are partly extended they will collapse upon impact with the
ground.

WITH POWER OFF:


If the engine fails completely and there is any doubt you can make it to an airfield you are better off landing
wheels up than wheels down because:

1. You do much less damage to the airplane in a wheels-up landing than if you try a wheels-down landing
and mess it up.
2. You are personally in less danger.
3. It is difficult to determine the point of contact on the ground when you land wheels-down with power
off.
Note: It is better to overshoot than undershoot the point of contact.

FORCED LANDING ON TAKEOFF


If the engine fails on take-off and you have less than 1000 feet altitude do not try to turn back to the field.
More fighter pilots have been killed trying to turn back to the field after an emergency failure during takeoff
than in any other type of forced landing. They invariably try to stretch their glides, thus violating a basic rule of
flying.

Instead:
1. Release bomb if attached.
2. Nose down immediately to maintain speed.
3. Raise your landing gear, continue straight ahead. If possible, make sure that the landing gear is fully
retracted before the emergency landing.
4. Set mixture control to “IDLE CUT-OFF”.
5. Set ignition switch to “OFF”.
6. Lower the wing flaps.
7. Keep the nose of the airplane well down and maintain a gliding speed of approximately 110 mph (180
km/h) straight ahead.
Caution: Land the airplane on its belly! Do NOT attempt to lower the landing gear.

FORCED LANDING ON AIRFIELDS


When you must make a forced landing on an airfield, stay close enough to the field and keep enough speed and
altitude to land wheels down from any angle. If you are approaching the airfield and have too much altitude,
get near the edge of the field and S back and forth until you come down enough to land.
If you are overshooting, use a nose-low forward sideslip to lose altitude. The P-40 is an easy airplane to slip and
loses altitude fast. When you come in, it’s better to overshoot a little than undershoot. You can always lose
altitude, but you may find that it’s impossible to regain it.

FORCED LANDING AT NIGHT


If you must make a forced landing without power and you are near an airfield, turn on all landing lights and
come in wheels-up.

IF YOU ARE NOT NEAR AN AIRFIELD YOU HAVE ONE CHOICE – BAIL OUT.

SWAMPY AND ROUGH TERRAIN


The first rule for landing on rugged terrain is to keep your wheels up. Even if the ground seems smooth, land
wheels-up.

A wheels-up landing requires approximately 1/3 the landing space of a wheels-down landing.

LAND WHEELS DOWN ONLY ON ESTABLISHED AIRFIELDS.

DITCHING
The P-40 is not the best airplane in the world to ditch. If you are at 1,000 feet (300 m) or more and you run into
trouble over water it is generally a better idea to bail out than to ditch.

If you decide to ditch, follow this procedure:

1. Release bomb if attached. MAKE SURE THAT THE FUSE IS SAFE!


2. Open or emergency release the canopy.
3. You may use flaps to slow your landing, but it is not recommended. They act as diving vanes which
tend to force the airplane’s nose underwater.
4. Establish and maintain a glide at 110 mph (180 km/h).
5. The surface of the water indicates the force and direction of the wind:
a. On a calm surface, land upwind.
b. On a wavy surface with whitecaps but no spray, land along the top of the waves and parallel
with the swell.
c. On high waves with foam being whipped into spray, land upwind on the up-slope of the
waves.
6. When the airplane has stopped, immediately leave the airplane.

FIRE
The airplane has no fire extinguishing features, therefore if fire breaks out during flight, bail out immediately! If
there is insufficient altitude to do so, then attempt a swift forced wheels-up landing.
Note: Often a failure of the oil or coolant systems causes the engine to smoke. A smoking engine does not
mean the airplane is on fire.

GUNNERY

The airplane does with the standard ammunition load of 1410 rounds (235 rounds per gun) have ca 10 seconds
of firing time.

Never fire a burst longer than 3 seconds; a longer burst is harmful to your guns and may cause them to jam.
BOMBING

The P-40 can carry one bomb under its fuselage of up to 500 kg weight. There are two primary bombing
methods to deliver this bomb onto the target: Skip-bombing and dive-bombing.

MINIMUM-ALTITUDE BOMBING
Minimum-altitude or skip bombing is the most accurate kind of bombing that can be performed with a fighter.
Many unorthodox techniques and many rules you won’t find in any book have been successful in minimum-
altitude bombing in combat, so it is not the kind of thing that you can describe with a series of set principles.
There are however, these basic rules:

1. You should maintain a straight and level approach for at least 5 seconds before the bomb is released.
2. Try to undershoot the target, because undershooting allows the bomb to skip into its target.
3. Always used delayed-action bombs. They give the airplane time to get out of danger before the
explosion, and they delay the explosion until the bomb can skip onto the target.

DIVE BOMBING
In dive bombing you arm your bombs just before beginning the approach. Come over the target at 4500 feet,
pull up and slow the airplane to 150 mph. Roll over and start your dive. Be sure the airplane is properly
trimmed for high speed so that it won’t be necessary to use much left rudder. Do not dive faster than 350 mph
(560 km/h) IAS.

Put the bead of your gunsight on the centre of the target as you dive. The angle of the dive should not be
greater than 70° or smaller than 45°. Just as you start the pull-out, release the bomb.

Pull out of the dive at 1,000 feet (300 m) or more. Do not horse back on the stick during the pull-out because
you might go into a high-speed stall.

NAVIGATION

LOST PROCEDURES
IF YOU GET LOST:
Reduce the manifold pressure to 26” Hg. and the rpm setting to 2190 for maximum fuel economy.

INSTRUMENT FLYING
1. Your instruments work better at slower speeds: Slow your airplane and lower ¼ flaps.
2. Increase RPM to 2600.
3. If you want to climb, climb at a speed of 160 mph (260 km/h).
4. Make up your mind about how you are going to get out of the weather: Will you turn around, climb
above, or let down? When you have made a decision, stick to it.
5. Here are the best indicated air speeds:

Cruise 175 mph (280 km/h)


Climb 150 – 160 mph (240 – 260 km/h)
Let-down 140 – 150 mph (225 – 240 km/h)
NIGHT FLYING
The technique of night flying is closely related to instrument flying. A few suggestions:

1. Be super-careful when taxiing. Use your landing light intermittently except in extremely congested
areas. Never use your landing light for more than 10 seconds at a time.
2. Make an accurate check on your flight instruments.
3. On an especially dark night you may have trouble finding the horizon, therefore make sure to monitor
all gyro instruments frequently.
4. Do absolutely no acrobatics.
5. Know the location of emergency landing fields in the area over which you are flying.

NIGHT TAKEOFF
The things you have to remember when taking off at night are these:

1. Be sure your running lights are on before starting the engine.


2. If you use your landing light for taxiing, remember to retract it before starting the take-off or
immediately after take-off.
3. When taking off, pick a point on the horizon in front of you and hold to that point so that you can take
off on a straight course.

NIGHT LANDING

1. You are safer landing wheels first than 3-point because of reduced visibility and your own tendency to
level off high at night.
2. Whether you land with your landing light on or off is up to you. Some pilots always use their landing
lights; others say that having the light on causes a glare on the runway. If you plan to use the landing
light, extend it after your last turn into the field. Do not extend the landing light when you are flying
over 140 mph (225 km/h).

Caution:
The landing light should not be used when there is fog on the
ground because:
1. Glare and blindness may result.
2. Depth perception is distorted.
3. You may mistake the top of the fog for the ground.

“REMAINS” FROM OTHER MANUALS:

1. Brakes:
a. The brakes are operated with the rudder toe brake pedals
b. Never apply brakes suddenly as it may cause the airplane to nose over.
c. The plane is equipped with parking a brake. The parking brake will release automatically by
pressing on the toe brakes.
When engine power is increased or decreased the carburettor mixture control, propeller governor and throttle
must be readjusted in the following order:
1. To Increase engine power:
a. Adjust mixture control to obtain the fuel/air ratio specified for the power desired.
b. Adjust the propeller control to obtain the desired rpm.
c. Adjust throttle control to obtain the desired manifold pressure.
d. Readjust mixture control if necessary.
2. To decrease engine power:
a. Adjust throttle control to obtain the desired manifold pressure.
b. Adjust the propeller control to obtain the desired rpm.
c. Readjust throttle if necessary.
d. Adjust the mixture control to obtain the desired fuel/air ratio.

WAR EMERGENCY RATINGS


War emergency ratings are when the manifold pressure of the engine is pushed in excess of the engine’s
guaranteed ratings. These ratings can cause damage to the engine and should therefore only be used when
emergency conditions exist.

War emergency ratings are not guaranteed power ratings but are maximum manifold pressure ratings which
may be used for emergency power operation when certain airplane and engine requirements have been met:

1. In combat or pre-combat areas and then only when emergency conditions exist.
2. The mixture control must be set in either “AUTO RICH” or “FULL RICH” position.
3. All operation of emergency ratings must be with the propeller control set in “AUTO” position to
maintain 3000 rpm.
Caution: Never change propeller setting from the 3000 rpm automatic position using war emergency
rating manifold pressures. Changing propeller pitch to any setting below 3000 rpm will increase the
break mean effective pressure (BMEP) of the engine in excess of established safe limits and may result
in detonation with extremely damaging results to the engine.
4. During the use of war emergency ratings the oil inlet temperature must not exceed 95° C.
5. During the use of war emergency ratings the coolant outlet temperature should not be permitted to
exceed 125° C.

Caution: During operation at war emergency ratings the manifold pressure should be reduced immediately if
there is any indication of engine malfunctioning such as detonation, rough engine, overheating, etc.

DETONATION
1. Indications of detonation:
Engine roughness does not necessarily indicate that detonation is present, but when unusual
roughness is encountered it may be due to detonation.
2. Cause and prevention:
a. A too low fuel/air ratio. Do not operate at mixtures that are too lean.
b. Operating engine above permissible limitations, including too high oil and coolant
temperatures. Observe Specific Operation Instructions.
c. Rapid or uneven power change. Operate the throttle lever slowly, smoothly and evenly.
d. Stop detonation immediately if present by performing the following actions in the order
listed:
i. Reduce manifold pressure.
ii. Enrich mixture.

PROPELLER CONTROL
The airplane has a four-way selector switch for propeller control. The available positions are ”AUTO”, ”FIXED
PITCH”, ”INC. RPM” and ”DEC. RPM”.

1. The automatic constant speed control may be used by placing the switch in ”AUTO” position. When in
”AUTO” mode the propeller governor control lever is used to control the engine rpm.
Note: The markings on the propeller governor control lever are approximate. The desired rpm should
be optained accurately by reading the tachometer.
2. The propeller pitch may also be adjusted manually by putting the switch in the ”FIXED PITCH” position.
When in this mode the engine speed is adjusted with the the ”INC. RPM” and ”DEC. RPM” positions
until the desired rpm is obtained.

FUEL SYSTEM
1. Above desired cruising manifold pressure and speed, set the mixture control lever at “AUTO RICH”.
2. At or below maximum cruising manifold pressure and speed the mixture control may be set at “AUTO
LEAN” if fuel economy is important.
3. To regulate the fuel mixture to give a greater fuel economy, use the following procedure:
a. With the mixture control in “AUTO-RICH”, obtain the cruising conditions desired.
b. Change propeller selector switch from “AUTO” to “FIXED PITCH”.
c. Lean out the mixture until a drop of 10 to 20 rpm is indicated. The position may possibly be
between “AUTO LEAN” and “IDLE CUT-OFF”.
Caution: This procedure may lead to detonation. If this does happen, immediately enrich the
mixture and return the propeller switch to “AUTO”.
d. If any changes in cruising conditions or altitude are made the mixture control setting should
be checked by repeating the above operation.
Caution: When operating in “AUTO LEAN” mixture adjustment, change to “AUTO RICH” immediately before a
rapid change in altitude or a change in cruising conditions is made.

OIL SYSTEM
1. The oil system is regulated by manual control of the cowl shutters.
2. If the oil temperature rises above 85°C when you are cruising, open the coolant shutters all the way,
reduce the power, and dive the airplane slightly.
3. If the oil overheats when you are climbing, open the cowl shutters and level off, reduce the power,
and dive the airplane slightly.
4. Temperatures in excess of those listed below should not be the cause of forced landings, unless they
are also accompanied by oil pressures below the prescribed minimum. The minimum oil inlet
temperatures listed are conservative, but continued operation below the limits specified should be
avoided.

GRADE OIL 1120 (summer grade) 1100 (winter grade)


Air temperature at ground 4° C and above -7°C to 27° C
Safe maximum oil inlet 95° C 85° C
temperature
Safe minimum oil inlet 20° C 10° C
temperature

a. The low temperatures listed for each grade are sufficiently high that even under severe
conditions, starting or warming-up difficulties should not ordinarily result.
b. The minimum oil inlet temperatures listed are conservative, but continued operation below
the limits specified should be avoided.
c. At outside air temperatures above 38° C it may be impossible to stay within the 95° C
maximum oil inlet temperatures under some flight conditions.
Caution: If the oil overheats when you are climbing, open the cowl shutters and level off, reduce power, and
start a slight dive with the shutters open. If that does not help, go back to the field and land.
COOLING SYSTEM
1. The coolant system is regulated by manual control of the radiator shutters.
2. For normal ground operations, on take-off and on landing, the shutters should be in FULL OPEN.
3. When climbing and cruising, adjust the shutters to maintain a coolant temperature of 85°C to 125°C.
The desired temperature is between 95°C and 105°C.
4. Whenever the coolant temperature reaches 115°C during cruising or 125°C while climbing, follow the
procedures for oil overheating described in the preceding section.
Caution: Do not extend radiator shutters at IAS in excess of 175 mph (280 km/h).

FLAPS
1. The flaps are manually controlled
2. The flaps are gradually deployed, and have a maximum angle of 45°
3. The deployment angle of the flaps is indicated with a pointer on the flap- and landing gear position
instrument.

LIGHTS
The plane is equipped with a landing light. When turning on the landing light switch the lamp will be extended
to its operating position. Do not operate the landing light at speeds in excess of 175 mph (280 km/h)
Caution: Do not operate the landing light for more than 3 minutes.

TRIM
During certain flight conditions the plane should be trimmed as follows:

1. Landing gear DOWN – Nose heavy until re-trimmed


2. Flaps DOWN – No appreciable change
3. During dive – Strong yaw to right
4. During climb – Strong yaw to left

LANDING
1. At conclusion of landing run:
a. Close the throttle.
b. Fully open the radiator shutters.
c. Raise the wing flaps.
2. Emergency take-off if landing is not completed:
a. Open the throttle and after propeller rpm has stabilized, increase rpm to 2,800.
b. Do not retract the flaps until above a 500-foot (150 m) altitude.
3. Stopping of engine:
a. Apply toe-brakes and set parking brake lever.
b. Hold flight control stick back and run engine up to about 18 inches Hg for 30 seconds.
c. Move the mixture control to “IDLE CUT-OFF”.
d. When propeller stops rotating, turn ignition switch “OFF”.
Note: You need about 2,000 feet (600 m) of runway from touch-down to full stop.

ENGINE FAILURE DURIN G FLIGHT


1. Release bomb if attached.
2. Maintain an approximate 150 mph (240 km/h) glide.
3. Set mixture control to “IDLE CUT-OFF”.
4. Turn the ignition switch to “OFF”.
5. Lower the wing flaps.
6. Open the canopy.
7. Land at minimum safe speed. Land into the wind whenever you can.

Note: Only attempt a wheels-down emergency landing if you can land on an airfield or a sufficiently long, firm
stretch of road. Otherwise land wheels-up (belly-land). A wheels-up landing is easier to do right, and when
done right is very safe.
When you must make a forced landing at an airfield stay near it and keep enough speed and altitude to make a
gears-down landing. If having too much altitude, get near the airfield and approach it in S-turns. If you still are
overshooting, do a nose-low forward slip to bleed altitude fast. The P-40 does it well, but make sure to keep
the slip coordinated not to stall the plane. Remember that it is better to overshoot slightly than to undershoot
as regaining enough altitude might be impossible.
DOUGLAS A-20B ”HAVOC”

Sources:

 AP 1870B – Pilot’s Notes Havoc II Aeroplane Two Cyclone G.R. 2600 A5B Engines (January 1945)

SECTION 1 – PILOT’S CONTROLS AND EQUIPMENT AND GENERAL EMERGENCY EQ UIPMENT AND
EXITS

Note.- This section covers the controls and equipment in the pilot’s cockpit together with that equipment with
which the pilot should be acquainted, situated elsewhere in the aeroplane. The layout of the various
items is illustrated and annotated in the figs. 1-3 at the end of the section. The number quoted after an
item in the text refers to the reference number on the illustrations.

INTRODUCTION
1. The Havoc II aeroplane is a British adaptation of the Douglas D.B.7A, and there are two
variations of it in service, the Fighter and the Turbinlite. The aeroplane is fitted with two
Cyclone G.R.2600-A5B engines, Hamilton hydromatic propellers, and tricycle undercarriage.

MAIN SERVICES
2. Fuel system.

(i) Havoc II Turbinlite.- There are two fuel tanks, one fitted in each wing forward of the
main spar between the fuselage and the engine nacelle. The tanks are protected by
armour plate and sponge rubber, and each has a capacity of 113 gallons as a MAIN
supply, and 22 gallons as a RESERVE. The reserve supply is carried in the main fuel
tank, and is segregated by a stand pipe in each tank. Fuel from the main supply is
taken through the stand pipe. When the main fuel supply is exhausted, the reserve
fuel is drained through an outlet at the bottom of the tank by turning the tank
selector cock from MAIN to RESERVE. The fuel systems for the port and starboard
engines are separate so that the port wing tank feeds the port engine at the
starboard tank feeds the starboard engine, but the systems are connected by a
pressure balance cock (84) marked ENGINE CROSS-FEED and a suction balance cock
(85) marked TANK CROSS-FEED. These tanks are normally kept shut, but the ENGINE
CROSS-FEED may be opened in the event of failure of either pump, and the TANK
CROSS-FEED may be opened to enable either engine pump to be fed by tanks on the
other side. (See fig.5 for Fuel System Diagram.)

(ii) Havoc II Fighter.- There are four fuel tanks, one fitted in each wing as on the
Turbinlite, and two auxiliary tanks fitted in the bomb compartment. These two tanks
are joined by a pipe at the bottom, and from this, two pipes are led – one to each
tank selector cock. They are connected to the selector cocks (marked AUXILIARY) in
the place of the “main” pipes from the wing tanks. The “main” pipes are plugged up.
The MAIN fuel supply from the wing tanks is now taken through the original
“reserve” pipe. The wing tanks each have a capacity of 135 gallons and the two
auxiliary (bomb cell) tanks have a combined capacity of 107 gallons. The Havoc II
Fighter has ENGINE CROSS-FEED and TANK CROSS-FEED connection as described for
the Havoc II Turbinlite (See fig.6 for Fuel System Diagram).
3. Oil system.- There are two oil tanks, one serving each engine. These tanks are fitted, one in
each inboard wing directly above the nacelle, and they each have a capacity of 12¼ gallons.

4. Hydraulic system.- An engine-driven hydraulic pump on the starboard engine supplies


pressure to the complete hydraulic system, through a hydraulic pressure accumulator.
Services: Undercarriage
brakes
flaps
landing flaps
bomb doors
cowling gills
nose wheel steering controls.

5. Electrical system.- There are two 600w generators, one on each engine, and two batteries
one on each side of the nose wheel well. On aeroplanes fitted with A.I. the 600w generators
are replaced by one-1500w generator on the starboard engine and an alternator on the port
engine. Charging of the batteries by either or both generators is controlled by the generator
control switches on the gunner’s electrical panel.
A ground battery connection is provided in the left hand side of the nose wheel well just
forward of the battery and relays in the plug box automatically disconnect the aeroplane’s
battery when a ground battery is plugged in.
The generators feed the following services through the batteries:-
ignition booster coils
starting
feathering
landing and navigation lights
electrical instruments
instrument and cockpit lights
gun sights and firing switches
undercarriage signal lamps
undercarriage warning horn
pressure head heater
oxygen and suit heat control

An electric inertia starter is also mounted on each engine.

AEROPLANE CONTROLS
6. General.- The primary flight controls and several engine controls are duplicated in the
gunner’s cockpit, so that the aeroplane may be flown from the latter position in an
emergency. The control column in the rear cockpit has been removed, however from Havoc II
Turbinlites.

7. Control column.- A conventional control column and wheel (25) are provided in the pilot’s
cockpit for controlling the movement of the elevators and ailerons. When the aeroplane is on
the ground turning the control wheel also operates the steerable nose wheel (see para.18). A
control stick is installed in the Havoc fighter in the gunner’s cockpit for emergency control of
the aircraft; this stick is stowed on the aft face of the gunner’s forward bulkhead.

8. Rudder control.- Rudder movement is controlled by the conventional rudder pedal operation,
the pedals being adjustable fore and aft as required by a lever attached to the inboard edges
of each rudder pedal. To adjust a pedal, rotate the lever downward to disengage the plunger,
slide the pedal fore or aft to the desired position, and release the lever, ensuring that the
plunger is again properly engaged.

9. Control locking device.- To lock the controls, place the rudder and aileron controls in the
neutral position, and push the control column forward. Depress the lever on the upper right
hand side of the control column and pull out the rudder lock hook (24) which is in the
instrument panel directly forward of the control column lock hook. Engage both hooks by
pressing forward on the control column lock lever. When the hook on the panel is pulled out
it causes pins to be inserted in the rudder pedal arms preventing movement of the rudder.

10. Trimming tabs.- Control wheels are mounted on the starboard side of the cockpit for
operating the elevator tab (48), the rudder tab (36), and the starboard aileron tab (45); these
control wheels operate in the natural sense. The port aileron tab is adjustable on the ground
only.

11. Undercarriage controls.- The tricycle undercarriage is operated by a selector lever (82) at the
bottom of the bulkhead behind and on the left of the pilot’s seat. This lever has a large
orange coloured cylindrical knob which has to be pulled out before the lever can be
disengaged from the UP or DOWN positions. The lever also has to be moved sideways when
passing through the neutral position. The main wheels are held up by locking bolts but the
front wheel is held up by hydraulic pressure only. When in flight with the undercarriage
retracted the selector lever should be returned to the NEUTRAL position, but when the
undercarriage is lowered the selector should be left in the DOWN position. Two hydraulic
pressure gauges are fitted at the right side of the instrument panel. The top gauge (17)
indicates the pressure in the accumulator, and the bottom gauge (54) indicates the pressure
in the down pipelines to the undercarriage jacks. The lower gauge should give the same
reading as the upper gauge when the undercarriage is down, and should read zero when the
undercarriage is up.

12. Undercarriage visual indicators.- A combined undercarriage and flaps indicator (29) is fitted in
the bottom left hand corner of the instrument panel. The indicator has four pointers which
are all horizontal when the wheels and flaps are up, and vertical when they are down. The
flaps pointer is at the top right hand corner and the nose wheel pointer is at the top left. The
port and starboard wheel pointers are at the bottom left and right respectively. When the
wheels are locked down a green light appears; this is mounted below the undercarriage and
flaps indicator at the bottom left hand corner of the instrument panel. When the wheels are
locked up and the throttles are closed, a red light (4) mounted at the bottom left hand side of
the windscreen, lights up.

13. Undercarriage warning horn.- This is fitted on the forward side of the pilot’s switch panel, and
operates when the throttle is closed and the undercarriage is in any position other than fully
down and locked. The horn warning system may be disconnected by pushing down on the
warning horn release switch (73) on the electrical control panel. The horn circuit
automatically re-engages when the throttles are opened again.

14. Flaps control.- The flaps are of the trailing-edge type (i.e. not “split”). They are operated by a
lever (83) mounted on the port side of the bulkhead behind the seat. The lever has three
notched positons; UP, NEUTRAL and DOWN. The flaps can be locked in any position by
moving the lever to NEUTRAL as soon as the flaps reach the desired setting. After the flaps
have been raised or lowered the selector should always be returned to NEUTRAL.
15. Hydraulic handpump.- If the hydraulic engine pump fails, the undercarriage and flaps can be
lowered completely by using the hydraulic hand pump, which is operated by a horizontal
lever (80) at the left of the pilot’s seat. The system can still be operated by means of the hand
pump even if one of the pipes between the engine pump and the accumulator is broken, as
the quantity of fluid which can be drawn out of the reservoir by the engine is limited by a
stand pipe. This leaves a reserve for use by the hand pump, which pumps the fluid from the
reservoir to the jack through an independent pipeline via the appropriate selector valves.
For servicing operations when on the ground, a hand pump by-pass valve may be used. This is
controlled by a small lever under a cover on the bulkhead behind the pilot’s left shoulder. If
the cover is lowered and the lever is raised to the up position, the hand pump may be used to
pump up the pressure in the accumulator. When in flight this lever must always be down, and
its cover in position.

16. Undercarriage emergency operation.- If the hydraulic system fails completely the
undercarriage can be lowered setting the control in DOWN position and pulling out the red
toggle (43) at the bottom rear corner of the cockpit, on the starboard side. When pulled out
to its fullest extent this toggle withdraws the locks holding the main wheels up, and the
wheels are then pulled down and locked by the action of strong shock absorber cords. The
toggle also releases the hydraulic pressure which holds the nose wheel up, and allows it to be
forced down and locked by the action of a strong coil spring. The toggle must be held out
until all wheels are locked down and the green light shows. The position of the front wheel
may be seen through a small window in the cockpit floor just forward of the control column.
The action can be assisted by diving slightly and pulling up fairly sharply two or three times.

17. Wheel brakes.- These are operated hydraulically by means of pedals on the rudder bar. If the
brakes fail through loss of accumulator pressure, keep the pedals depressed and work the
handpump. The brakes may be set on for parking by depressing the pedals, pulling out the
black knob below the centre of the instrument panel, and then releasing the pedals before
the knob. If the pedals are again depressed momentarily, the brakes are automatically
released.

18. Nose wheel steering controls.- The nose wheel can be steered from the pilot’s cockpit as
explained in para.7. This is accomplished hydraulically by means of a steering cylinder and
normally the steering controls are operative at all times when the aeroplane is on the ground,
but a shut-off valve control (59), fitted on the left-hand side of the cockpit just forward of the
fuel valve control box, will disconnect the steering mechanism if required.

19. Pressure head heater.- The switch (65) controlling this heater is on the pilot’s electrical panel.

20. Throttle controls.- These controls (33) are mounted on the left-hand side of the pilot’s seat in
a quadrant which also contains the propeller speed controls, the supercharger and mixture
controls.

21. Mixture controls.- These controls (31) are mounted on the throttle quadrant and have four
positions which, reading from the rear to front, are:-
(a) FULL RICH. This cuts out the automatic altitude compensation and should only be used
when the automatic control unit is believed to be inoperative.
(b) AUTO RICH. For all conditions of flight except economical cruising.
(c) AUTO LEAN. For economical cruising.
(d) IDLE CUT-OFF. For use when starting and stopping the engine.
22. Propeller speed controls.- Hamilton hydromatic constant speed propellers are fitted. The
propeller control levers (32), located on the throttle quadrant between the throttle levers
and mixture controls, enable the pilot to set the constant speed units to give any desired
r.p.m. within the speed range of the unit. Forward movement of the controls increases the
engine r.p.m.

23. Propeller feathering controls.- Two electrically operated oil pumps, one for each propeller,
actuate the feathering mechanism. They are controlled by two red push-button switches (1)
mounted on the electrical controls switch panel. To operate, push in the respective switch for
the propeller to be feathered; the switch will automatically release when the blades reach
the fully feathered position. To unfeather, push in the switch and hold until the propeller
windmills at the required speed and then release the switch.

24. Two-speed superchargers.- These are controlled by two levers (30), one above the other, on
the side of the throttle quadrant. The top lever operates the supercharger on the port engine.
The superchargers are in “M” (low) ratio when the levers are fully back. The change from one
gear to the other must always be made rapidly and firmly to prevent clutch slip.

25. Carburettor air-intake heat controls.- These controls (86) are situated on the left hand side of
the cockpit behind the fuel tank selector cocks. When the control levers are fully back cold air
is admitted, and when they are moved forward pre-heated air is admitted. They may be set in
any position between fully back and fully forward to adjust the intake temperature as
required. Air intake thermometers for both engines are fitted at the bottom right hand corner
of the two square instrument dials (18) and (19) on the right side of the instrument panel.

26. Cowling gills.- These controls are fitted on the starboard side of the bulkhead behind the
pilot’s seat, and operate hydraulically:-
Upper gills: For ground use only.
OPEN (up) on ground, CLOSED (down) in air.
Controlled by single lever (41) with orange knob.
Pull out to move.
Return lever to NEUTRAL after each operation.
Lower gills: OPEN (down) on the ground.
1/3 OPEN for take-off and climb.
CLOSED (up) for normal flight.
Controlled by two levers (42) with white knobs.
Move levers sideways to operate.
Return levers to NEUTRAL.

27. Oil cooling.- This is thermostatically controlled, the oil radiators being automatically regulated
to give an optimum temperature of 65°C to 75°C.

28. Fuel cock controls.- Two tank selector cocks (87) are fitted on both the Havoc II Fighter and
the Havoc II Turbinlite and are on the port side of the cockpit. Each selector cock has three
positions.
(a) On the Havoc II Turbinlite these are marked CLOSED, MAIN TANK, and RES. TANK.
(b) On the Havoc II Fighter they are marked CLOSED, MAIN TANK, and AUXILIARY TANK.
Situated below the tank selector cocks are the controls for the pressure balance cock (INTER-
FEED ENGINES) (84) and the suction balance cock (INTER-FEED TANKS) (85); each has two
positions CLOSED and OPEN.
29. Wobble pump.- Two hand fuel pumps are connected between the TANK INTER-FEED pipeline
and the ENGINE INTER-FEED pipeline, one pump being fitted on each side of the balance
cocks. They are operated together by a handle (77) marked WOBBLE PUMP, fitted on the left
of the pilot’s control column, and are used for raising the fuel pressure for priming or in the
event of failure of one of the engine-driven pumps.

30. Fuel pressure warning lights.- Two red warning lights (11), one for each engine, are situated
at the top right hand corner of the instrument panel and light up when the fuel pressure falls
below about 12 lb/sq.in. The immediate action if a red light comes on during flight is to
operate the hand fuel pump, then proceed as follows:-
(a) If operation of the hand pump puts the light out, a pump failure is indicated, and the
engine balance cock must be turned to OPEN. This will allow the sound pump to supply fuel
to both engines. The tank balance cock should be opened.
(b) If operation of the hand pump fails to put the light out, lack of fuel on the affected side is
the probable cause, and the tank selector cock should be turned to RES. TANK (or AUXILIARY
TANK).
(c) If the light still remains on, failure of the pump relief valve is indicated. In this case the
engine balance cock must be turned OPEN and, to prevent fuel from passing through the
faulty valve and back to the tank, the tank selector cock on the affected side must be CLOSED.

31. Fuel pressure gauges.- These are fitted at the top right hand corners of the square instrument
dials (18) and (19) on the right hand side of the instrument panel. If these gauges begin to
oscillate violently when in flight and the red warning lights begin to flicker, this indicates that
there is air in the engine balance pipeline. In this event the air may be expelled by opening
the engine balance cock and turning one of the tank selector cocks to CLOSED. After a few
seconds the air will be expelled and the cocks should be returned to their normal positions.

32. Fuel contents gauges.- Two gauges (23) are fitted centrally at the bottom of the instrument
panel, to measure the contents in the wing tanks, and on the Havoc II Fighter another gauge
is fitted below the instrument panel, and measures the contents in the auxiliary tanks.

33. Ignitions switches.- Two wing-type ignition switches (2), one for each engine, are mounted on
the top left hand side of the pilot’s electrical panel. Each switch has three positions marked
“1” “2” and “1 + 2”. Both must be turned to “1 + 2” when in flight. Originally a master ignition
switch was fitted above the individual ignition switches, but this has now been deleted.

34. Engine starter switches.- Two switches are provided on the electrical panel for engine
starting. The inertia starter is energised by the INERTIA switch (69) and engaged by the clutch
switch (70). To start the starboard engine lift up the INERTIAL switch and then the inertia
wheel is up to speed, lift up the CLUTCH switch, still keeping the INERTIA switch depressed. In
starting the port engine, depress the switches while proceeding in a similar manner as when
starting the starboard engine.

35. Battery switches.- Two batteries are fitted and their switches are situated at the extreme left
of the pilot’s electrical controls panel. These switches (63) and (64) must be turned on (by
moving downwards) before the engines are started.

36. Generator switches.- Each generator circuit includes a control panel in each nacelle; the two
on-off switches, two ammeters and one voltmeter are all fitted on the gunner’s electrical
controls panel which is on the port side of the rear cockpit.
37. Telegon Instrument System.- The following instruments are controlled electrically, and are
switched on by a single switch (68) on the pilot’s electrical panel:- Boost gauges, fuel and oil
pressure gauges, undercarriage and flaps indicator. (The battery switches must also be on).

COCKPIT ACCOMODATION AND EQUIPMENT


38. Pilot’s seat.- This is mounted on a steel tube frame by means of four guides. The seat may be
raised or lowered when a lever, located on the forward right side, is moved into the full aft
position and may be locked when the lever is in the full forward position.

39. Safety harness and release control.- This is fitted on the right hand side of the pilot’s seat to
allow the pilot to lean forward without undoing his safety harness. A catch is provided hold
the control in the released position, and this catch must be released to allow the harness to
re-engage.

40. Cockpit entrance.- Normal entrance and exit is made from the port side through the roof
which is hinged on the starboard side. From outside, it is unlatched by a handle flush with the
surface of the rear corner of the roof. From inside, it is unlatched by a handle at the left side
between the forward and aft transparent panels. A brace is provided at the aft end to hold
the roof in the open position. When closing the roof from the pilot’s seat the knee joint of the
brace must be broken by turning a handle fitted on the centre line between the forward and
aft transparent panels.

41. Cockpit windows.- The windshield is composed of three panels, the centre panel is of glass
and the two side windows are of Plexiglass. There are two side windows on each side of the
pilot’s cockpit. The forward window on the right hand side of the fuselage is hinged at the
top, and may be opened from either inside or outside the fuselage. The forward window on
the left hand side is of the sliding type and may be moved aft. The two aft side windows are
stationary.

42. Pilot’s heating equipment.- An electrical connection (53) is provided on the pilot’s right-hand
pedestal, to permit the plugging in of connections from an electrically-heated flying suit
consuming five amperes.

43. Cockpit lighting.- The switch (74) controlling the cabin lights is fitted on the pilot’s electrical
panel, also an instrument panel light dimmer switch (62).

44. Oxygen.- The pilot’s oxygen panel is on the starboard side of the cockpit in line with the gun
charging brackets, and the supply socket is on the bulkhead above the cowling gill controls on
the starboard side.

45. Windscreen De-icing.- A glycol spray is provided for the pilot’s windscreen, and the hand
pump (16) for operating the spray is fitted above the instrument panel on the starboard side
of the cockpit.

46. Relief tube.- A relief tube (81) for the pilot is fitted near the floor on the left hand side of the
pilot’s seat.

47. Map case.- The pilot’s map case (34) is on the right side of the cockpit.
OPERATIONAL EQUIPMEN T AND CONTROLS
48. General.-

(i) The Havoc II Fighter carries a battery of twelve fixed Browning .303 calibre machine
guns mounted in a special easily detachable nose section. No bombs are carried, but
the bomb door controls (49) and (47) have not been removed from the cockpit.

(ii) The Havoc II Turbinlite carries no armament, but the armament controls such as the
gun-charging handles (53) and (76) and the bomb door controls have not been
removed from the cockpit.

49. Gun controls.- The guns are automatically fed and the gun-firing switch (21) is mounted on
the right side of the control column wheel. Two gun charging-handles (53) and (76) are
mounted on brackets just below the instrument panel, but are not required for use with the
present twelve-gun installation.

NAGIVATIONAL, SIGNALLING AND LIGHTING EQ UIPMENT


50. Radio control box.- A remote contactor (60) and electric controller (61) are fitted on the port
side of the pilot’s cockpit.

51. I.F.F. Master switch.- This switch (56) is fitted below the window on the port side of the pilot’s
cockpit.

52. Intercommunication.- The pilot’s mic./tel. socket (38) is fitted on the starboard side near the
seat, aft of the trimming tabs controls.

53. Signal pistol.- A signal pistol holster is fitted in the floor of the pilot’s cockpit on the starboard
side near the seat, and six cartridge stowages (51) are located below the compass (50).

54. Call light.- A pilot’s call light and switch (20) is fitted at the bottom right hand corner of the
instrument panel.

55. Identification lights.- These are controlled by two switches (57) (one an on-off switch for the
STEADY and the other a press-button switch for SIGNALLING) mounted on the port side of the
cockpit, immediately below the window.

56. Formation lights.- These are controlled by an ON-OFF switch (58) mounted beside the
identification lights switches.

57. Landing lamps.- Two landing lamps are fitted, one in the under surface of each wing, and may
be lowered hydraulically by two levers (39) (one for each lamp) mounted on the bulkhead
behind and to the right of the pilot’s seat. The levers have white disc-shaped knobs at their
ends, and to lower a lamp the appropriate lever must be held to LOWER (up) until the lamp is
at the desired angle. The lever returns to neutral automatically when released. The lamp is
retracted by holding the lever to STOW (down) until the operation is complete, and then
releasing it. A single switch (67) is provided on the electrical panel and lights both lamps
simultaneously.

EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT AND CONTROLS


58. Fire extinguisher system.- Each engine nacelle contains a separate fire extinguishing system
which discharges C.02 gas through distribution lines running into the engine accessory section
and nacelle. The systems are automatically worked by means of flame and impact switches.
Two hand type fire extinguishers are also provided, one stowed in the bulkhead on the
starboard side of the pilot’s seat, and the other in the rear compartment.

59. Parachutes.- Both the pilot’s seat and the seat in the rear compartment are constructed to
accommodate seat type parachutes.

60. Emergency exits.- These are shown in figure 4 and are as follows:

(i) Pilot’s cockpit.- The pilot’s roof is fitted with an emergency release handle at the aft
transparent panel. Pulling this handle unlatches the roof and also pulls the pins from
the hinges at the right-hand side and from the brace at the aft end. A push on the
roof allows the airstream to carry it away. If the emergency exit becomes
inoperative or is inaccessible, the right forward cockpit window, hinged at the top
right forward cockpit window, hinged at the top of the cockpit frame, may be used
as a crash exit by opening from inside or from outside. To open from within, pull aft
on the latch at the base of window. The latch may be reached from the exterior by
removing the fabric patch marked EMRGENCY – PULL.

(ii) Rear cockpit.- Emergency exit should be made through the lower door which is
opened by means of a latching handle in the centre of the door or by operating the
crank mechanism on the right side of the compartment. The upper hatch may be
used as a crash exit and is opened by releasing the two latches at the upper forward
end of the sliding section as far as it will go. A latch is provided to hold the section in
the fully forward position. The hatch may be opened from the exterior by tearing
open a fabric patch covering the upper left latch access opening and releasing the
latch.
Note: The upper right latch, when engaged, prevents the hatch being opened from
the exterior.

61. Dinghy.- Both members of the crew are provided with a K type dinghy.

62. Flares.- Two flare racks are fitted on the bulkhead at the aft end in the nose wheel well. The
flare release handles (45) and (47) are on the floor on the right side of the pilot’s seat.

63. I.F.F. Radio emergency switches.- Two emergency destruction switches (55) for the I.F.F.
receiver are mounted under a small flap marked DANGER on the port side of the pilot’s
cockpit below the window.

SECTION 2 – HANDLING AND FLYING NOTES FOR THE PILOT

Note.- The flying technique outlined in these notes is based on A.P.129, Flying Training Manual, Part I,
Chapter III, and A.P.2095, Pilot’s Notes General, to which references should always be made if further
information is required.

1. ENGINE DATA – CYCLONE G.R.2600 A5B.

(i) Fuel.- 100 octane only.

(ii) Oil.- See A.P.1464/C.37.


(iii) Principal engine limitations.

Boost Temp.
°C.
R.p.m In.Hg (Pz x 10) Cylr.
MAX.TAKE-OFF
TO 1,000 FT. M 2,400 45 15.2
MAX.CLIMBING M 2,300 37 12.4 220 (230)
½ HR. LIMIT S 2,300 41½ 14.1 220 (230)
MAX. RICH M 2,050 31 10.5 205
CONTINUOUS S 2,050 34 11.5 205
MAX. WEAK M 2,050 28½ 9.6 205
CONTINUOUS S 2,050 31½ 10.7 205
MAX.ALL-OUT M 2,400 45 15.2 230
5 MINS LIMIT S 2,400 44½ 15.0 230
Note (a) Where different boost limitations are quoted for M and S
gears, the lower of the two should be used, except when
necessary in operations.
(b) The climbing cylinder temperatures in brackets are
permissible for 15 minutes only.
OIL PRESSURE: Maximum in flight: 90 lb/sq.in.(62.1 Pz x 10)
Normal: 85 lb/sq.in.(58.6 Pz x 10)
Minimum in flight: 75 lb/sq.in.(51.7 Pz x 10)
Idling: 30 lb/sq.in.(20.7 Pz x 10)
MINM.TEMPS.FOR TAKE-OFF OIL: 10°C rise
CYLR: 120°C
Stopping engine: Max. cylinder temp: 150°C.

(iv) Fuel pressure 12 – 16 lb/sq.in.

(v) Important note.- Owing to the fact that certain r.p.m. cause high tip stresses in the
propellers, it is most important that these ranges should at all times be avoided. The
ranges are 1,500 – 1,650 r.p.m. and 2,050 – 2,150 r.p.m.

2. FLYING LIMITATIONS AND SPEEDS

(i) Maximum weight for all forms of flying:- 16,700 lb.


Maximum overload weight for take-off and straight flying only:- 19,245 lb.

(ii) Maximum speeds for:-

Diving 375 m.p.h. I.A.S (600 k.p.h.)


Flaps down 168 “ “ (270 k.p.h.)
Undercarriage down 355 “ “ (570 k.p.h.)
3. MANAGEMENT OF FUEL SYSTEM

(i) Without fuselage tanks.- Take-off with cocks set to MAIN, unless the tanks are not
more than half full, in which case take-off with the cocks are set to RESERVE, and
change over to MAIN when a safe height is reached. If one tank is found to be
emptying, turn off its cock and then open the TANK CROSS FEED (suction balance)
cock.

(ii) With fuselage tanks.- Take-off should be made on MAIN tanks but the AUXILIARY
tanks should be used as soon as possible after take-off.
(iii) The ENGINE CROSS FEED (pressure balance) cock is normally kept shut, but may be
opened in the event of failure of either engine pump.

(iv) The TANK CROSS FEED (suction balance) cock is normally kept shut, but may be
opened in emergency to enable either engine to be fed by tanks on the other side.

4. PRELIMINARIES

(i) Before entering the cockpit, check that the flaps are fully up, as the flaps indicator is
not entirely reliable.

(ii) On entering the cockpit, check:-


Undercarriage selector lever - LOWER
Both battery switches on left
of auxiliary switch panel - ON (Check green lights.)
Instrument switch - ON
Flaps - UP (Check by indicator)
Fuel tanks - Check contents.

5. STARTING THE ENGINE AND WARMING UP


Note:- Start the starboard engine first.

(i) Cooling is inadequate on the ground at engine speeds above about 1,400 r.p.m., and
the engine should only be run at higher speeds for the minimum time required to
make the necessary tests. All cowling gills must be fully OPEN for all ground running.

(ii) If the engines have been standing idle for 4 hours or more they must alwys be
turned over by hand in the normal direction of rotation for four or five revolutions.
This is ensure that sufficient oil has not drained into the bottom cylinders to fill the
compression spaces and damage the engines.

(iii) Turn the fuel tank selector cocks to MAIN.

(iv) See that both balance cocks are CLOSED (it is very important that the engine balance
cock should be CLOSED, otherwise when one engine is started the induction system
of the other will be flooded with neat fuel.)

(v) Set:-
Throttles - about 1 inch open
Mixture controls - CUT OFF
Propeller speed controls - Fully forward
Two speed supercharger - “M” ratio (levers fully back)
Upper and lower cowling gills - OPEN
Carburettor air-intake heat controls - COLD (fully back)

(vi) Work the hand fuel pump slowly to obtain a pressure of 10 lb/sq.in. (7.0 Ps x 10).

(vii) If the engine is cold, instruct the crew to prime it. About 4 – 5 full pumps are
required.
Note:- Over-priming should be avoided, as this causes fuel to flow from the exhaust
pipe and may result in a fire.

(viii) Set switch for starboard engine “1 + 2”.


(ix) Energise the starboard inertia starter by holding the LEFT hand switch UP for not
more than 15 seconds.
Note:- If the engine begins to turn, return the switch to neutral and turn the
propeller forward about half a revolution. This will free the starter from the engine.

(x) With the left hand switch still in the up position, maintain fuel pressure as in (vi) and
engage the starter by holding the RIGHT hand switch UP.

(xi) Keep both switches in the up position until the engine starts, but not for more than
15 seconds.

(xii) As soon as the engine is firing regularly move the mixture control back slowly to
AUTO RICH, and five the hand fuel pump one quick stroke to bring the fuel pressure
up to about 15 lb/sq.in.

(xiii) If the engine fails to pick up, return both switches to neutral, stop pumping at once,
move the mixture control to CUT-OFF, wait 15 to 20 seconds and make another
attempt.

(xiv) If the engine is hot, do not prime it, but act as follows:-

(xv) Put the left hand (energising) switch to the UP position and immediately afterwards
put the right hand (engaging) switch UP.

(xvi) Keep both switches in the up position until the engine starts, but not for more than
15 seconds.

(xvii) As soon as the engine is firing act as in (xii).

(xviii) If the engine fails to pick up, act as in (xiii).

6. TESTING ENGINES AND INSTALLATIONS

(i) While warming up, make the usual checks of temperatures, pressures and operation
of controls.
Hydraulic pressure should be 900-950 lb/sq.in. (59-62 HPz).

(ii) After warming up, open the throttle to give 20 in.Hg. Boost (8.5 Pz x 10) and test the
operation of the constant speed units and superchargers.

(iii) Open up to full throttle momentarily and check static r.p.m. And boost.

(iv) Reduce to 30 in.Hg. Boost (10 Pz x 10) and test magnetos. Drop in r.p.m. Should not
exceed 100. Also check oil pressure.

7. TAXYING OUT

(i) Before taxying out, instruct the ground crew to remove and hold up the safety
locking pins (if fitted) from the undercarriage and see that the hydraulic pressure is
at least 500 lb/sq.in. (34 HPz.)

(ii) When starting from rest, the engines must not be opened up on one side only for
turning, unless the nose wheel is also turned in the same direction.

(iii) When taxying do not overstrain the nose wheel by turning sharply.
(iv) The brakes are smooth but rather heavy in operation.

(v) If the nose wheel steering control is not being used, a damper, fitted to prevent
shimmying, also prevents the wheel from castoring freely at very low speeds. If the
nose wheel is found to shimmy when taxying, taking off or landing, the aeroplane
must be brought in at once.

8. DRILL OF VITAL ACTIONS FOR TAKE-OFF

Drill is “T.M.P., Fuel, Flaps, Gills and Superchargers”.


T – Trimming tabs - Elevator: about zero.
Rudder: 2° right.
Aileron: neutral.
M – Mixture controls - AUO RICH
Fuel - Both tank selector cocks set to MAIN TANK (On Turbinlite
aeroplanes if the latter are not half full, the take-off should be
made on the reserve tanks and changed over to main tanks
when at a safe height).
Flaps - UP (for take-off with a heavy load on a small aerodrome, flaps
may be set one-third down).
Gills – Upper Gills - CLOSED
– Lower Gills - One third open or less.
Superchargers - M ratio (levers fully back).

9. TAKE-OFF

(i) Taxy forward for a few yards to straight the nose wheel, then, taking care to keep
the toes clear of the brake pedals, open the throttles steadily, taking care not to
exceed the maximum take-off boost.

(ii) Hold the control column back slightly as the aeroplane accelerates, then as the
speed approaches 100-110 m.p.h. (160-175 k.p.h.) move it steadily further back until
the aeroplane leaves the ground. Considerable backward pressure is required on the
control column, as the aeroplane is nose heavy when on the ground and will never
fly itself off. After leaving the ground the nose heaviness disappears.

(iii) Do not start to climb until safety speed of 135 m.p.h. I.A.S. (220 k.p.h.) has been
reached.
Note:- On the Havoc II (Turbinlite) the above speeds should be increased by 5 – 10
m.p.h. (10 – 20 k.p.h.).

10. CLIMBING

(i) The speed for maximum rate of climb is 150 m.p.h. I.A.S. (240 k.p.h.) up to a height
of 18,000 feet (5,600 m) after which reduce the speed by 3 m.p.h. (5 k.p.h.) per
2,000 feet (600 m).

(ii) For maximum rate of climb, change to S ratio when boost has fallen to 32 inches
(about 9,500 feet). When climbing in a weak mixture, change to S ratio when boost
has fallen to 24½ inches (about 15,000 feet).

(iii) When changing supercharger gear throttle back in order to avoid the maximum
permissible boost from being exceeded when high gear is engaged.
11. GENERAL FLYING

(i) Stability.-
This aeroplane is exceptionally stable and all the controls are excellent.

(ii) Change of trim.-


Undercarriage down - Nose down
Flaps down - No change
Gills closed - Nose down

(iii) Maximum range.- Fly in weak mixture at 28½ inches boost and reduce speed by
reducing r.p.m., which may be as low as 1,650 if this will give the recommended
speed. S ratio should not be used if the recommended speed can be obtained in M
ratio. Recommended speeds:
Out (fully loaded) 190 m.p.h. I.A.S. (306 k.p.h.)
Home (light) 175 m.p.h. I.A.S. (281 k.p.h.)

(iv) Maximum performance.- For all out level flight, use S ratio above 9,000 feet.

(v) Flying in bad visibility.-


The flaps may be lowered 15° and the speed reduced to 140 m.p.h. I.A.S. (225 k.p.h.)
The propeller speed control should be set to give about 1,900 r.p.m.

(vi) Minimum drag.-


In the event of a total engine failure, fully close the cowling gills and feather both
propellers (one at a time). Glide at about 140 m.p.h. I.A.S. (225 k.p.h.)

12. FUEL AND OIL CAPACITIES AND CONSUMPTION

(i) Fuel capacity:-


Havoc II Fighter
Main tanks 2 x 113 gallons - 226 gallons
Reserve “ 2 x 22 “ - 44 “
Auxiliary “ 107 “ - 107 “
Total effective capacity 377 gallons
(1719 litres)
Havoc II Turbinlite.
Main tanks 2 x 113 gallons - 226 gallons
Reserve “ 2 x 22 “ - 44 “
Total effective capcity 270 gallons
(1225 litres)

(ii) Oil capacity:-


2 x 12¼ gallons 24½ gallons
(iii) Fuel consumptions.

(a) Rich mixture


R.p.m. boost in.Hg. Total galls/hr
(both engines)
2,400 43 approx. 350
2,300 36½ ” 260
(b)
1,850 23½ approx. 100
1,500 21½ ” 75
(c) Weak mixture at 15,000 ft. S ratio.
1,850 27 approx. 105
1,500 27 ” 90
13. STALLING

(i) Owing to the position of the pressure head, it is impossible to define an exact stalling
I.A.S. Reading. With flaps up some warning of the stall is given by slight oscillation
fore and aft on the elevator: with flaps down there is little warning other than some
tail vibration with the control column right back. The control is good right down to
the stall. At the stall a wing drops quickly, but can be easily recovered. The aeroplane
is not very prone to spin and the incipient spin is easily checked.

(ii) The approximate stalling speed in m.p.h. I.A.S. Are:-

Flaps and undercarriage At 15,000 lb. At 17,000 lb. At 19,000 lb.


UP. m.p.h. (k.p.h.) m.p.h. (k.p.h.) m.p.h. (k.p.h.)
Flaps and undercarriage 98 (155) 104 (165) 110 (175)
DOWN.
86 (150) 91 (145) 96 (150)
14. SPINNING AND AEROBATICS

Spinning and aerobatics are not permitted.

15. DIVING

(i) In a dive the aeroplane tends to become tail heavy and the trimming tabs should be
used carefully to correct this.

(ii) As no automatic boost controls are fitted the boost pressures will rise as altitude is
lost in a dive, and care must therefore be taken when diving with large throttle
openings, that the maximum permissible boost is not exceeded.

(iii) For speeds up to 355 m.p.h. I.A.S., the undercarriage may be lowered and used as a
dive brake.

16. APPROACH AND LANDING

(i) Close gills and turn fuel cock to RESERVE, or, on aeroplanes with auxiliary tanks, to
the tanks containing most fuel.
(ii) Check hydraulic pressure on top gauge.

(iii) Depress brake pedals and check that pedal pressure can be felt, and that hydraulic
pressure shows a momentary small drop.

(iv) Reduce speed to 180 m.p.h. I.A.S. And carry out the Drill of Vital Actions.

U ̶ Undercarriage ̶ Down (Check green lights and that hydraulic


pressure builds up on bottom gauge to the same
figure as on top gauge.
M ̶ Mixture controls ̶ AUTO RICH
P ̶ Propeller ̶ Controls fully forward.
Superchargers ̶ M ratio
Flaps ̶ Fully down (not above 155 m.p.h. I.A.S.)
(v) After lowering flaps, check that hydraulic pressure is still adequate on top gauge. If
not, handpump will be needed for brakes.

(vi) Landing is easy. When there is ample landing space, the easiest landing is as follows.
Approach in the normal manner but when flattening out ease the control column
back just too slowly for normal landing, so that the aeroplane sinks slowly on to the
main wheels in a slightly tail down attitude. On touching down continue to move the
controls column back so that the aeroplane pitches gently forward on to the nose
wheel.

(vii) The aeroplane must not be landed nose wheel first nor “three point” nor with a high
rate of descent. The brakes must not be applied until the nose wheel is on the
ground, nor should they be applied harder than necessary. Without them, however,
the aeroplane has a very long landing run. This must be borne in mind when the
ground is wet or slippery, when the brakes may be almost completely ineffective.

(viii) The landing run may be considerably reduced by increasing the tail down attitude.
Care must be taken not to drop the aeroplane on to the main wheels, otherwise it
will pitch forward violently on to the nose wheel.
Note.- For particulars of the tricycle undercarriage technique see A.P.2096/17.

(ix) The recommended approach speeds with the aeroplane loaded to about 17,000 lb.
are:-

Engine assisted 105 m.p.h. I.A.S. (170 k.p.h.)


Glide 115 ” ” (185 ” )
Note.- On the Havoc II (Turbinlite) these speeds should be increased by 5-10 m.p.h
(10-20 k.p.h.)
17. MISLANDING

(i) The aeroplane will climb satisfactorily with flaps and undercarriage down at a speed
of about 125 m.p.h. I.A.S. (200 k.p.h.).
(ii) The tail heaviness which results from opening the throttles with the elevator
trimming tab set for landing increases as the undercarriage retracts, and the
elevators should be retrimmed.

18. AFTER LANDING

(i) Before taxying in, the nose wheel steering control may be engaged.

(ii) After taxying in change supercharger gear to S ratio and back to M.

(iii) Stop the engines by running them at fast tick over and then put the mixture controls
to CUT-OFF (see para. 1 (iii)).

(iv) After the engines have stopped switch OFF the ignition, turn OFF the fuel cocks and
switch off all other electrical switches.

19. ENGINE FAILURE

(i) This aeroplane has very good single engine performance and is exceptionally easy to
control.

(ii) Safety speed is 135 m.p.h. I.A.S. (220 k.p.h.)

(iii) Recommended climbing speed on one engine is 170 m.p.h. I.A.S. (275 k.p.h.)

(iv) When on the final approach great care must be taken not to lower the flaps too
early and thereby undershoot, as it is impossible to fly level with flaps and
undercarriage down.

(v) The initial speed of approach should be about 130 m.p.h. I.A.S. (210 k.p.h.) reducing
to about 115 m.p.h. I.A.S. (185 k.p.h.) after lowering the flaps.

20. FEATHERING

(i) Hold the button in only long enough to ensure that it stays in by itself; then release it
so that it can spring out when feathering is complete.

(ii) Close throttle immediately.

(iii) Switch off only when the engine has stopped.

21. UNFEATHERING

(i) Set throttle closed or slightly open, propeller control fully back and ignition on.

(ii) Hold the button in until r.p.m. Reach 1,000 to 1,300.

(iii) If the propeller does not return to normal constant speed operation, open throttle
slightly.

22. PROCEDURE IN EVENT OF HYDRAULIC FAILURE

(i) If the checks of paras 16(ii) and (iii) are not satisfactory, or if after these checks the
undercarriage fails to go down under power, then the flaps should be lowered
before the undercarriage, so that any hand pumping of the flaps may be followed by
a check of the brakes, and the undercarriage only lowered if this check is
satisfactory.

(a) Select flaps down.

(b) If the handpump has to be used, watch the flap indicator; if the flaps do not
begin to move, stop pumping and return selector to neutral to conserve
fluid for brakes.

(c) Check brake pedal pressure again while working handpump.

(d) If the brake operation is satisfactory, do not risk wasting fluid by using the
handpump to lower the undercarriage.
Use the mechanical lowering system.

(ii) If no hydraulic failure is apparent until after undercarriage has been lowered
normally, and flaps then fail to go down under power.

(a) Do not risk wasting fluid by handpumping to lower flaps.

(b) Return flap selector to neutral.

(c) Check brake pedal pressure without operating handpump. If not


satisfactory, handpump will be needed for brakes.

23. UNDERCARRIAGE AND BRAKES EMERGENCY OPERATION

(i) To lower undercarriage mechanically.

(a) Select undercarriage down.

(b) Reduce speed to 140 m.p.h. I.A.S.

(c) Pull out emergency lowering handle and keep it fully aft until all three
wheels are locked down.

(d) Depress the nose and pull up sharply to assist the undercarriage into place.
Repeat if necessary.

(e) Return selector to neutral.

(ii) To supply pressure to brakes with handpump

(a) Depress pedals fully, and lock on.

(b) Work handpump until required degree of braking is obtained.

Note.- A check valve directs the handpump output first to the brakes,
whatever the position of the selector levers; but it is preferable, as
a precaution against loss of fluid, that all selectors should be neutral
while the brakes are being applied by the handpump.
24. CORRECTION FOR POSITION ERROR
At any weight the correction may be taken as constant at -5 m.p.h. (8 k.p.h.) at all speeds
from 140 to 300 m.p.h. I.A.S. (225-485 k.p.h.)
FOCKE-WULF FW 190 “WÜRGER” A-3 & A-5

HEINKEL HE 111 H-6 & H-16

HENSCHEL HS 129 B-2


ILYUSHIN IL-2 “STURMOVIK” MODEL 1941, 1942 & 1943

Sources:

 ”Инструкция Летчику по Эксплуатации Самолета Ил-2 с Мотором АМ-38” (1942)


”Pilot's Operating Instructions for the Airplane IL-2 with AM-38 Engine” (1942)

AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATI ONS

ARMAMENT
Fixed-aperture holographic sight with sun filter

IL-2 MOD.1941
Primary armament

2x 7,62mm ShKAS machine guns (1500 rounds)

2x 20mm ShVAK cannons (420 rounds)

With any combination of:

4x FAB-50sv general-purpose bombs

4x FAB-100M general-purpose bombs

8x RS-82 high-explosive rockets with optional air burst

Optional armament/equipment

2x 23mm VYa-23 cannons (300 rounds). Replaces the 20mm ShVAK cannons.

6x FAB-50sv / FAB-100M general-purpose bombs

2x FAB-250sv general-purpose bombs

8x RBS-82 armour-piercing rockets

8x ROFS-132 high-explosive rockets

IL-2 MOD.1942
Primary armament

2x 7,62mm ShKAS machine guns (1500 rounds)

2x 20mm ShVAK cannons (500 rounds)

With any combination of:

4-6x FAB-50sv general-purpose bombs

4x FAB-100M general-purpose bombs

8x RS-82 high-explosive rockets with optional air burst


Or with:

6x FAB-100M general-purpose bombs

Optional armament/equipment

2x 23mm VYa-23 cannons (300 rounds). Replaces the 20mm ShVAK cannons.

2x 37mm Sh-37 cannons (80 rounds). Replaces the 20mm ShVAK cannons.

2x FAB-250sv general-purpose bombs

8x RBS-82 armour-piercing rockets / 8x ROFS-132 high-explosive rockets

Rear turret with 1x 7,62mm ShKAS machine gun (500 rounds)

POWERPLANT
Mikulin AM-38, liquid-cooled V12 engine with single-speed supercharger

UNDERCARRIAGE
Conventional tailwheel undercarriage with rotating tail wheel. Manual tail wheel lock.

SYSTEMS OPERATING PR OCEDURES

POWER SETTINGS
Engine mode Manifold pressure (mm Hg.) Engine RPM
Take-off 1180 2150
Nominal 1180 2050
Cruise (Maximum) < 950 -
Cruise (Recommended) < 950 1850

WHEEL BRAKES
1. The brakes are pneumatically operated
2. Brakes are applied with the use of a single brake lever on the control column
3. Differential control is provided through the rudder pedal linkage bar. Brake force on a single wheel is
proportional to amount of rudder kicked in that direction.

FLYING PROCEDURES

START-UP AND TAXIING


1. Fully open oil shutters
2. Open water radiator shutters depending on outside air temperature. You want the temperature to be
between 80 – 110° C
3. Unlock the tail wheel
PRE-FLIGHT CHECKS
1. Tail wheel locked
2. Open shutters for oil and water radiators
3. Test engine on nominal power
4. Inlet oil temperature between 40 – 60° C
5. Outlet oil temperature between 70 – 115° C
6. Water temperature between 80 – 110° C

TAKEOFF
1. Apply full throttle
2. Maintain direction with the rudder. Do not use the brakes
3. After lift-off, hold the plane steady till an airspeed of 240 – 250 km/h is reached, then start climbing
4. Check instruments. They should be as follows:
a. Engine RPM 2150
b. Water temperature 90 – 115° C
c. Outlet oil temperature 80 – 120° C
5. Retract the landing gear and control that it successfully retracts

AFTER TAKEOFF
1. Decrease pressure on the stick by trimming the elevator
2. Set climbing airspeed to 240 – 250 km/h
3. After the proper height is reached, level out and reduce throttle till manifold pressure is at 950 mm
Hg. or less
4. Re-adjust elevator trim, engine rpm, and throttle for cruising. The most fuel-economical cruise setting
is achieved at 1850 rpm and a speed of 250 – 270 km/h
5. Make sure to maintain nominal water and oil temperatures:
a. Water temperature 80 – 110° C
b. Inlet oil temperature 40 – 80° C
c. Outlet oil temperature 70 – 115° C

FLIGHT IN ENEMY AIRSPACE


1. Adjust propeller pitch for an engine RPM of 2050
2. Increase speed according to flight plan
3. Before approaching the target area, do:
a. Close oil radiator shutters to protect it from enemy fire
b. Adjust airspeed to 300 – 320 km/h
4. When leaving the target area, open the oil radiator shutters
LANDING
1. Reduce airspeed to 240 – 250 km/h
2. Lower the landing gear and verify that it is lowered
3. Reduce airspeed to 220 – 230 km/h
4. Close water radiator shutters to maintain a temperature of 90° C or higher
5. Approach the runway by gliding towards it in a straight line at 210 – 220 km/h
6. Lower the flaps
7. Trim the elevator to balance out the plane
8. Lowered the speed to 185 – 190 km/h for the final approach
9. During landing with lowered flaps, pull the control stick full back to perform a stable 3-point landing
During landing with raised flaps, don’t pull the control stick all the way back or the tail will touch
ground first
10. Use brakes on the runway smoothly. Apply brakes with caution and first after rolling 30 – 40 m
11. Maintain control stick full back until landing run speed is reduced to taxiing speed
12. Raise the flaps, unlock the tail wheel and open the cockpit to taxi off the runway.
JUNKERS JU 52/3M

JUNKERS JU 87 “STUKA” D-3/G-1

JUNKERS JU 88 A-4

LAVOCHKIN-GORBUNOV-GUDKOV LAGG-3 SERIES 29


LAVOCHKIN LA-5 SERIES 8

Sources:

 “Инструкция Летчику по Зксплуатации Технике Пилотирования Самолета Ла-5 с Мотором М-82


ФН” (21 апреля 1944)
“Pilot's Manual for Operation and Piloting Technique of the La-5 with the M-82 FN Engine” (April 21,
1944)
 “Методические указания по технике пилотирования самолета Ла-5 с мотором М-82” (12 июля
1943)
“Methodical instructions on the technique of piloting the La-5 aircraft with the M-82 engine” (July 12,
1943)

AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATI ONS

ARMAMENT
Fixed-aperture holographic sight with sun filter

Primary armament

2x 20mm ShVAK cannons (340 rounds)

Optional armament/equipment

2x FAB-50sv general-purpose bombs

2x FAB-100M general-purpose bombs

RPK-10 radio compass

Flat windscreen

Special guns ammo load. Allows use of pure high-explosive or pure armour-piercing belts for the cannons

SYSTEMS OPERATING PR OCEDURES

SUPERCHARGER CONTROL
The plane has a two-stage supercharger with manual control.

To change stage on the supercharger, reduce the engine speed to 1900 – 2000 rpm not to burn the clutch, and
once the supercharger is in second stage increase engine speed back to previous setting.

Note: Regardless of height, use of the second stage of the supercharger is forbidden at take-off settings.

WHEEL BRAKES
1. The brakes are pneumatically operated
2. Brakes are applied with the use of a single brake lever on the control column
3. Differential control is provided through the rudder pedal linkage bar. Brake force on a single wheel is
proportional to amount of rudder kicked in that direction.
FLYING PROCEDURES

TAXIING AND PREPARATION FOR TAKE -OFF


1. Open oil radiator to maintain nominal oil temperature
2. Ensure that propeller pitch is set to 100 %
3. Open the cowling shutters
4. Bring the plane to a halt and test engine before take-off at 1700 – 1800 rpm.
5. Check instrumentation. The readings should be:
a. Cylinder head temperature between 140 – 205° C
b. Oil temperature between 50 – 75° C

Take-off is forbidden:
1. At the following settings:
At rated settings less than 2350 rpm
At take-off settings less than 2450 rpm
At take-off settings more than 2500 rpm
2. When temperature of cylinder heads is higher than 205° C or lower than 140° C
3. When oil temperature is less than 50° C

6. Check that runway is clear of obstacles

TAKE-OFF
1. If needing a short take-off run, lower flaps 15 – 20°
2. Smoothly apply throttle and control the plane’s yaw with the rudder
3. Gently push the stick forward to lift the tail off the ground
4. Once airborne, increase the speed to 250 km/h and begin climbing
5. Raise the landing gear and verify that it is raised
6. If taking off with flaps extended, do not retract them until at least 100 m above ground
7. Use the trim wheel to stabilize the plane, and increase speed to 260 km/h
8. At a height of 100 – 150 m reduce throttle and engine speed settings to nominal power

AFTER TAKE -OFF


1. At heights up to 3000 m, keep an indicated air speed of 260 km/h. At heights above 3000 m, reduce
the speed by 10 km/h per 1000 m
2. When reaching 3500 m in the climb, engage the second stage of the supercharger.
3. Once height is reached you can raise the cylinder head temperature to a maximum of 250° C
(maximum duration 15 minutes). In the case of overheating the engine, increase the engine speed to
2300 rpm.

LEVEL FLIGHT
1. At all heights horizontal velocity must be at least 250 km/h IAS
2. To achieve the longest possible duration of flight it is imperative to follow the charts for calculation of
the range and duration of flight
3. In the case of economy cruise or patrol at 4000 – 4500 m it is recommended to use the first
supercharger stage, since using the second stage consumes significantly more fuel.
4. Periodically check the instruments to see that the engine runs within acceptable limits:
a. Oil temperature:
i. Recommended 65 – 75° C
ii. Maximum 85° C for no more than 10 minutes
b. Cylinder head temperature:
i. Recommended 180 – 215° C
ii. Maximum 240° C for no more than 10 minutes
c. Oil pressure: 5.5 – 6.5 kg/cm2
d. Fuel pressure: 1.4 – 2.0 kg/cm2
5. In horizontal flight, do not allow the cylinder head temperature drop below 140° C

COMBAT
1. To gain maximum speed when meeting an opponent, ensure that you:
a. Close the canopy. A closed canopy increases the maximum speed by 15 – 18 km/h
b. Close cowling and radiator shutters. Excess exposure to airflow will reduce speed by 45 – 50
km/h and increase turn time by 1.5 – 2 seconds
c. Ensure that the flaps are completely raised. The drag from even slightly deployed flaps can
reduce the maximum speed by up to 20 km/h
d. For flights at an altitude of 1500 – 2000 m, use the boost by pushing the throttle and
propeller pitch controls as far forward as possible, and ensure that engine reaches a speed of
2500 rpm and that the manifold pressure reaches 1180 mmHg.
2. When the second supercharger stage is used, do not let the manifold pressure build up to more than
1000 mmHg to avoid degenerating engine performance
3. At heights greater than 4000 m, engage the second stage of the supercharger
4. Monitor the instruments to ensure that the cylinder head temperature does not go past 240° C and
that the oil temperature doesn’t go past 85° C

AEROBATICS

TURNS
Perform turns with a bank of 60 – 70° at speeds of 320 – 340 km/h. The aircraft is stable in a turn, but if
excessive force is applied on the control stick the plane will rock from wing to wing.

The plane reacts well to deflection of ailerons and will quickly go from one turn to another.

If speed is lost in a turn so that the aircraft begins to fall to one side, push the stick forward to bring the nose
down to build speed.

DIVING
The plane is stable in a dive, and regardless of if running the plane at high or low throttle it has little tendency
to roll or yaw.

1. Make sure that plane is flying with a minimum speed of 260 km/h, an engine rpm of at least 2200, and
that the undercarriage is fully raised
2. Initiate the dive by banking the plane at least a 15-20° to gain visibility of the planned dive path
3. Maximum speed in a dive is 625 km/h
4. Maximum engine rpm in a dive is 2600

COMBAT TURN
ROLL

BARREL ROLL

SIDE SLIP

LOOP

SHAVIAR LOOP

IMMELMANN

STALLING

STEEP CLIMB

HAMMERHEAD
LAVOCHKIN LA-5FN

MACCHI C.202 ”FOLGORE” SERIES VIII

MESSERSCHMITT BF 109 E-7

AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATI ONS

ARMAMENT
Fixed-aperture holographic sight with sun filter

Primary armament

2x 7,92mm MG 17 machine guns (2000 rounds)

2x 20mm MG FF/M cannons (120 rounds)

Optional armament/equipment

4x SC 50 general-purpose bombs

1x SC 250 general-purpose bomb

Armoured windscreen

Removed headrest

Additional armour plates


MESSERSCHMITT BF/ME 109 F-2 & F-4

Sources:

 “Versuchs-Bericht No. 109 05 E 43 – Hochgeschwindigkeitsversuche mit Me 109” (15 April 1943)


“Test Report No. 109 05 E 43 – High speed tests with Me 109” (15 April 1943)

AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATI ONS

V-SPEEDS
Never exceed speed (VNE): 735 km/h (at 4.5 km)

ARMAMENT
Fixed-aperture holographic sight with sun filter

BF 109 F-2
Primary armament

1x 15mm MG 151 cannon (200 rounds)

2x 7,92mm MG 17 machine guns (1000 rounds)

Optional armament/equipment

1x 20mm MG 151/20 cannon (200 rounds). Replaces the 15mm MG 151

4x SC 50 general purpose bombs

1x SC 250 general purpose bomb

BF 109 F-4
Primary armament

1x 20mm MG 151/20 cannon (200 rounds)

2x 7,92mm MG 17 machine guns (1000 rounds)

Optional armament/equipment

2x 15mm MG 151 cannons (270 rounds) in under-wing gun pods

2x 20mm MG 151/20 cannons (270 rounds) in under-wing gun pods

4x SC 50 general purpose bombs

1x SC 250 general purpose bomb

POWERPLANT

BF 109 F-2
Daimler-Benz DB 601 N, liquid-cooled V12 engine with fluid-coupling supercharger
VDM 9-12087 propeller, constant-speed, electrically adjustable, automatically controlled. The propeller can be
manually controlled in a variable-speed/fixed-pitch mode.

BF 109 F-4
Daimler-Benz DB 601 E, liquid-cooled V12 engine with fluid-coupling supercharger

VDM 9-12010 propeller, constant-speed, electrically adjustable, automatically controlled. The propeller can be
manually controlled in a variable-speed/fixed-pitch mode.
MESSERSCHMITT BF/ME 109 G-2 & G-4

Sources:

 ”10056 - Messerschmitt Bf 109 G-2 Flight and Maintenance Manual” (March 1943, United States State
Aircraft Factory 112)
 ”Bv-FI 109 G-2, Ga-2 - Bedienungsvorschrift-FI” (Juni 1942) (incorporated in later L.Dv.T.2109 G-2/Fl)
”Bv-Fl 109 G-2, Ga-2 - Operating Instructions-Fl” (June 1942)
 ”L.Dv.T.2109 G/Fl Exerzier-Karte, Bf 109 G, Ausgabe Dezember 1942”
”L.Dv.T.2109 G/Fl Drills-Card, Bf 109 G, December 1942 Edition”
 “Versuchs-Bericht No. 109 05 E 43 – Hochgeschwindigkeitsversuche mit Me 109” (15 April 1943)
“Test Report No. 109 05 E 43 – High speed tests with Me 109” (15 April 1943)

AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATI ONS

V-SPEEDS
Design manoeuvring speed (VA): 240 km/h IAS

Maximum flap extended speed (VFE): 250 km/h IAS

Maximum landing gear extended speed (VLE): 350 km/h IAS

Maximum landing gear operating speed (VLO): 250 km/h IAS

Never exceed speed (VNE): 750 km/h IAS (at 4.5 km)

Best rate of climb speed (VY): 250 km/h IAS

ARMAMENT
Fixed-aperture holographic sight with sun filter

Primary armament

1x 20mm MG 151/20 cannon (200 rounds)

2x 7,92mm MG 17 machine guns (1000 rounds)

Optional armament/equipment

2x 20mm MG 151/20 cannons (270 rounds) in under-wing gun pods

4x SC 50 general purpose bombs

1x SC 250 general purpose bomb

POWERPLANT
Daimler-Benz DB 605 A, liquid-cooled V12 engine with fluid-coupling supercharger.

VDM 9-12087 propeller, constant-speed, electrically adjustable, automatically controlled. The propeller can be
manually controlled in a variable-speed/fixed-pitch mode.

Radiators: One automatically controlled oil cooler under the nose. One water radiator under each wing with
automatically controlled shutters. The water radiator shutters can be manually controlled.
UNDERCARRIAGE
Conventional tailwheel undercarriage with rotating tail wheel. Manual tail wheel lock.

SYSTEMS OPERATING PR OCEDURES

AIRSCREW SYSTEM
1. For general operation, fly with airscrew pitch control in ”Automatic” mode.
2. For gliding with idle throttle at less than 200 km/h indicated the automatic system must be switched
off to ensure that the airscrew’s end limit is not exceeded.
3. Manual setting must be used when:
a. Flying with economy-cruise settings. The throttle and propeller pitch must be kept in
compliance of the recommended engine RPM and manifold pressure. For dives the automatic
system must be re-enabled.
b. Flying sailing-flight with fully coarse airscrew pitch (0 pitch), or when the constant-speed
governor fails.
4. When flying with manual airscrew control, make sure that the airscrew is not adjusted beyond 12
o’clock as the airscrew pitch end limiter is at 12:30 o’clock and must not be exceeded.
Maintain awareness of engine RPM and manifold pressure so that desired values are maintained and
limits not exceeded.
Note: If a dive is initiated by pushing the stick forward and while being at full throttle, or if suddenly applying
full throttle mid-flight, be advised that you may over-rev the engine.

FLAPS
1. The flaps are manually controlled.
2. The flaps are gradually deployed, and have a maximum angle of 40°.
3. The flaps should never be fully extended at speeds above 250 km/h.
4. The deployment angle of the flaps are indicated with lines on the left wing’s flap’s forward edge. Each
line indicates 10° of deployment, where the first solid line is 10°, the two-sectioned line 20°, the three-
sectioned line 30°, and the last solid line is 40°. When the flaps are fully raised no line should be
visible.

FUEL SYSTEM
The low-fuel warning light will be turned on when there is fuel for only 20 minutes of flight left (100 litres).
OIL SYSTEM
1. The oil system and its associated radiator shutter is automatically controlled.
2. The temperatures should be maintained within the below parameters:

Oil inlet temperature


Minimum 30° C
Normal 75 – 80° C
Short duration 85° C

BE ADVISED: At the point of writing (IL-2 Sturmovik version 2.009d) there is no way to see the oil temperature
in the Bf 109 G. The temperature indicator only shows water temperature, and cannot be toggled (with the
button above and to the right of the indicator) to show oil temperature.

COOLING SYSTEM
1. The coolant system and associated water radiator shutters are automatically controlled, but can be
manually controlled when required.
2. Maximum temperature is 110°C at sea level. The altitude should be taken into account for the coolant
water’s boiling temperature.
3. If the thermostat fails or in special cases, the thermostat can be shut off and the radiator flaps can be
operated manually.
4. If the cooling system suffers a leak because of fire, immediately shut off the cooling system by
operating the corresponding lever on the left or the right side in the cockpit.

POWER SETTINGS
Bf 109 G-2
Engine mode Engine RPM +/-2 % Manifold pressure (ata) Altitude (km)
Take-off, climb and combat power 2600 1.30 + 0.02 0
Maximum continuous power 2300 1.15 + 0.02 0
Climb and combat power 2600 1.30 + 0.02 5.8
Maximum continuous power 2300 1.15 + 0.02 5.5
Economy cruise 2100 1.00 + 0.02 5.7
Bf 109 G-4
Engine mode Engine RPM +/-2 % Manifold pressure (ata) Altitude (km)
Take-off and emergency power 2800 1.42 + 0.02 0
Climb and combat power 2600 1.30 + 0.02 0
Maximum continuous power 2300 1.15 + 0.02 0
Emergency power 2800 1.42 + 0.02 5.7
Climb and combat power 2600 1.30 + 0.02 5.8
Maximum continuous power 2300 1.15 + 0.02 5.5
Economy cruise 2100 1.00 + 0.02 5.7
FLYING PROCEDURES

START-UP AND TAXIING


1. Make sure flaps are completely raised.
2. Make sure cooling water temperature does not go above 110° C.
3. Unlock the tail wheel.
4. Horizontal stabilizer trimmed to -1° to lighten the tail wheel.
5. Taxi by zig-zagging along the taxiway to improve visibility. Apply throttle for left turns, and cut throttle
and use brakes for right turns.

PRE-FLIGHT CHECK
1. Flaps in take-off position; 20°.
2. Airscrew pitch control set to “Automatic”.
3. Oil temperature is not below 40° C.
4. Radiator shutters in open position.
5. Horizontal stabilizer trimmed to +1° for the G-2, and +/- 0° for the G-4.

TAKE-OFF
1. Make sure that the plane is aligned with the runway and that the tailwheel is locked.
2. Increase throttle in increments to ”Take-off” power setting.
3. After reaching 180 km/h, gently let the airplane off the ground.
4. Raise the landing gear and verify that it is up.
5. Reduce throttle to 1.25 ata.
6. At 230 km/h raise the flaps (only if at safe altitude!).
7. Reduce throttle to 1.15 ata.
8. Set radiator control to “Automatic”.
9. Trim the aircraft as needed for climb and cruising.

CLIMBING
1. Climb at 270 km/h to the desired altitude (Note that Indicated Air Speed drops by ca 2% per 1km
altitude, and climb speed should be adjusted accordingly).

DIVING
1. Adjust the horizontal stabilizer so that the plane stays in the dive only when you push the stick
forward. Due to forces on the elevator and stabilizer increasing with speed the horizontal stabilizer
must be continuously adjusted.
2. The pitch control must be set to ”Automatic”.
3. Adjust the throttle lever to the white line (Ca. 35%).
4. Maximum allowed RPM in a dive is 2800.
5. Maximum allowed speed in a dive is 750 km/h.
6. Do not allow the oil- and coolant temperatures to drop below 20° C.

Using full stick deflection in a dive may cause fractures in the airframe. If done in a high-speed dive these
fractures could be so severe that the airframe falls apart.
LANDING
1. Make sure that airscrew pitch control is set to ”Automatic”. If manual control is needed, set the
airscrew pitch to the 11:30 position.
2. Reduce throttle to 0.65 ata.
3. Reduce speed to 250 km/h.
4. Lower landing gear and verify that it is lowered.
5. Set flaps to take-off position; 20°.
6. Control throttle to maintain 230 km/h.
7. When in the turn before landing approach, deploy flaps fully, trim the plane to -5°, and maintain a
glide speed of 200 km/h.
8. Set radiator flaps to open position.
9. Approach the runway in a 180 km/h glide.
10. Once rolling on the runway, raise the flaps. Use the brakes as little as possible during roll-out.

GLIDING
1. Decrease the throttle to idle.
2. Take care that oil and coolant temperatures do not drop below 40° C.

EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

EMERGENCY LANDING
1. When flying at low altitude (less than 1000 m), take note of if there is ground in the immediate vicinity
that allows a landing with extended undercarriage or not, for example a road. If the terrain doesn’t a
wheels-up landing (belly landing) is required. A low-altitude, wheels-up landing is performed as
follows:
a. Make sure that the approach speed is 200 km/h.
b. Deploy flaps fully.
c. Turn off the engine.
d. Do not remove the canopy as it protects you in the case of rolling over.

2. When flying at higher altitude (more than 1000 m), attempt to find an airfield or road to land on to
allow a landing with extended undercarriage. A higher-altitude wheels-down landing is performed as
follows:
a. In order to travel as far as possible, only deploy the landing gear and flaps below 1000 m
altitude.
b. The airscrew pitch control should be switched to manual mode and the pitch set to full coarse
(100 % pitch, 8:30 o’clock indicated).
c. Deploy landing flaps fully.
d. Turn off the engine.

MESSERSCHMITT BF/ME 109 G-6

MESSERSCHMITT BF 110

MIKOYAN-GUREVICH MIG-3
PETLYAKOV PE-2 SERIES 35 & 87

POLYKARPOV I-16 ”ISHAK” TYPE 24


SUPERMARINE SPITFIRE MK.VB

Sources:

 “A.P.1565E - Pilot’s Notes - Spitfire VA, VB, and VC” (February 1943, later reprint by Air Data
Publications)
 “Operational Notes for Pilots on Merlin 46 Engines” (Unknown date or document number, Archives of
M. Williams)

GAME EQUIPMENT AND O PTIONS

ARMAMENT
Adjustable-aperture holographic sight with sun filter

Primary armament

2x 20mm Hispano Mk II cannons (120 rounds)

4x .303 in. Browning Mk II machine guns (1400 rounds)

Optional armament/equipment

Merlin 45 engine

External rear-view mirror

SECTION 1: AEROPLANE CONTROLS

1. Flying instruments:
A standard blind flying instrument panel is incorporated in the main panel. The instruments comprise:
airspeed indicator, altimeter, directional gyro, artificial horizon, rate of climb and descent indicator,
and turn and bank indicator.
2. Trimming tabs:
The elevator trimming tabs are controlled by a hand wheel on the left hand side of the cockpit,
indicator being on the instrument panel.
The rudder trimming tab is controlled by a small ahand wheel and is not provided with an indicator.
The aeroplane tends to turn to startboard when the hand wheel is rotated clockwise.
3. Undercarriage control and indicators:
a. The undercarriage lever moves in a gated quadrant on the right-hand side of the cockpit. A
hydraulic valve indicator in the quadrant shows DOWN, or IDLE, or UP depending upon the
position of the hydraulic valve. UP or DOWN should normally show only when the selector
lever is operated to raise or lower the undercarriage, and IDLE when the lever has sprung
back into the gate after raising or lowering the undercarriage. If, with the engine not running,
the indicator shows DOWN, it hould return to IDLE when the engine is started.
b. Electric visual indicator:
The electrically operated visual indicator has two semi-transparent windows on which the
words UP on a red background and DOWN on a green background are lettered; the words are
illuminated according to the position of the undercarriage.
c. Mechanical position indicator:
A rod that expands through the top surface of the main plane is fitted to each undercarriage
unit. When the wheels are down the rods protrude through the top of the main planes and
when they are up the top of the rods, which are painted red, are flush with the plane
surfaces.
4. Flap Control:
The flaps are split-type and pneumatic. The split flaps have two positions only: up and fully down.
They cannot, therefore, be used to assist take-off. They are operated pneumatically.
5. Wheel brakes:
The control lever for the pneumatic brakes is fitted on the control column spade grip; differential
control of the brakes is provided by a relay valve connected to the rudder bar. Brake force on a single
wheel is proportional to amount of rudder kicked in that direction. A triple pressure gauge, showing
the air pressure in the pneumatic system cylinders and at each brake, is mounted on the left hand side
of the instrument panel.

ENGINE CONTROLS
1. Throttle and mixture controls:
The throttle and mixture levers are fitted in a quadrant on the port side of the cockpit. A gate is
provided for the throttle lever in the take-off position and an interlocking device between the levers
prevents the engine from being run on an unsuitable mixture.
Mixture adjusters for the controls are fitted on the side of the quadrant.
The carburettor provides automatic adjustment of mixture strength for variation of altitude and boost
pressure by aneroid operated needle valves. The aneroids are in communication with the air intake
and supercharger respectively.
2. Automatic boost cut-out:
The automatic boost control may be cut out by pushing forward the small red painted lever at the
forward end of the throttle quadrant.
3. Airscrew controls:
The constant speed airscrew affords the pilot a wide choice of engine r.p.m. without changing the
boost pressure. Each setting of the constant r.p.m control will maintain a definite engine r.p.m. Thus
adjustment of the throttle and constant speed unit provides any desired combination of boost
pressure and engine r.p.m.
The control levers for the de Havilland 20° or Rotol 35° constant speed airscrew is on the throttle
quadrant. The de Havilland 20° airscrew has a Positive Coarse Pitch position which is obtained in the
extreme aft position of the control lever, when the airscrew blades are held at their maximum coarse
pitch angles and the airscrew functions as a fixed airscrew.
a. Take-off:
Move the control lever to the forward position to give approximately 3,000 RPM at plus 12
lbs. sq. in. boost.
b. Climbing:
When 1,000 feet has been reached under take-off condition the engine should be throttled
back to the gate throttle position (Plus 9 lbs. sq. in. boost) and the constant speed control
lever set to control at 2,850 RPM.
c. Maximum all out level:
Move the control lever to the forward position (3,000 RPM) and set the throttle up to the
gate to give plus 9 lbs. sq. in. boost. This condition is limited to 5 minutes duration.
d. Diving:
When going into a dive always throttle back first, then open up gradually to required boost
pressure (not exceeding plus 9 lbs. sq. in.). This will safeguard the engine over-revving in the
event of a cut-out occurring when entering a steep dive.
Approximately 2,600 RPM will give the maximum speed in the dive.
e. Cruising:
For economical cruising the RPM should be reduced first and if this does not give as low as
A.S.I. as is required, the boost pressure should be subsequently reduced as well.
f. Landing:
When gliding in to land, with the engine throttled, move the constant speed control lever to
the high RPM position in order to prepare for an emergency take-off.
g. General remarks:
For dog-fighting, the best position of the constant speed control lever is that which gives
approximately 2,850 RPM.
For stretching a glide, in the event of a forced landing, the lever should be returned to the
low RPM position.
4. Radiator flap control:
The flap at the outlet end of the radiator duct is operated by a lever and a ratched on the left hand
side of the cockpit. The normal minimum drag position of the flap lever for level flight is shown by a
red triangle on the top of the map case fitted beside the lever. A notch beyond the normal position in
the aft direction provides a position of the lever when the warm air is diverted through ducts into the
main planes for heating the guns at high altitude.
5. Fuel cock controls and contents gauges:
The fuel cock controls, one for each tank, are fitted at the bottom of the instrument panel. With the
levers in the up position the cocks are open. Either tank can be isolated, if necessary. The fuel contents
gauge on the instrument panel indicates the contents of the lower tank, but only when the adjacent
button is pressed. On later aircraft there is only one fuel cock control.
6. Engine instrumenst:
The engine instruments are grouped on the right hand side of the instrument panel and consist of an
engine-speed indicator, fuel pressure gauge, boost gauge, oil pressure gauge, oil inlet temperature
gauge, radiator outlet temperature gauge, and fuel contents gauge. On later aircraft the fuel pressure
gauge is replaced by a fuel pressure warning lamp which lights when the pressure drops to 6 lb./sq. In.

COCKPIT ACCOMODATION AND EQUIPMENT


1. Direct vision panel:
A small knock-out panel is provided on the right hand side of the hood for one use in the event of the
windscreen becoming obscured.
2. Cockpit lighting:
A floodlight is fitted on each side of the cockpit.
3. Mirror:
A mirror providing a rearward view may be fitted at the top of the windscreen.

OPERATIONAL EQUIPMENT AND CONTROLS


1. Guns and cannon:
The machine guns and cannon are fired pneumatically by means of push-buttons on the control
column spade grip. The compressed air supply is taken from the source as the brake supply, the
available pressure being shown by the gauge.
2. Reflector gun sight:
For sighting the guns and cannon a reflector gun sight is mounted on a bracket above the instrument
panel. If the background of the target is very bright, a sun-screen can be slid behind the windscreen by
pulling on the ring at the top of the instrument panel.
NAVIGATIONAL, SIGNALLING AND LIGHTING EQ UIPMENT
1. Navigation and identification lamps:
a. The switch controlling the navigation lamps is on the instrument panel.
b. The upward and downward identification lamps are controlled from the signalling switchbox
on the right-hand side of the cockpit. This switchbox has a switch for each lamp and a
morsing key, and provides for steady illumination or morse signalling from each lamp or both.
The switch lever has three positions: MORE, OFF, and STEADY.
2. Landing lamps:
The landing lamps, one on each side of the aeroplane, are housed in the undersurface of the
mainplane. They are raised and lowered by a finger-lever below the instrument panel. A lever is
provided to control the dipping of both landing lamps. On pulling up the lever the beam is dipped. On
later aircraft no landing lamps are fitted.
3. Signal discharger:
A straight pull of the toggle control fires the cartridge out of the top of the fuselage, aft of the cockpit.

EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
1. Hood jettisoning:
The hood may be jettisoned in an emergency by pulling the lever mounted inside the top of the hood
in a forward and downward movement, and pushing the lower edge of the hood outboard with the
elbows.

SECTION 2: HANDLING AND FLYING NOTES FOR THE PILOT

Note: The flying technique outlined in these Notes is based on AP.129, Flying Training Manual Part I, Chapter
III, and AP.2095, Pilot’s Notes General, to which reference should always be made if further information is
required.

ENGINE DATA
Merlins 45, 45M, 46, 50, 50A, 50M, 55M and 55M.

1. Fuel: 100 octane only.


2. Oil: See AP.1464/C.37.
3. Engine limitations:

Boost Temp °C.


R.p.m. (lb/sq. in.) Coolant Oil
Max Take-Off 3,000 +12 - -
(to 1,000 feet)
Max Climbing 2,850 +9 125 90
(1 hr. limit)
Max Diving 3,000 +9 - -
(Less than 1/3rd Throttle)
Max Diving 3,600 +9 - -
(More than 1/3rd Throttle)
Max Rich 2,650 +7 105 (115) 90
(continuous)
Max Weak 2,650 +4 105 (115) 90
(continuous)
Combat 3,000 +12 135 105
(5 min. limit)
Combat 3,000 +16 135 105
(3 min. limit)
Note: a. +16 lb/sq. in. boost is obtained by operating the boost control cut-out,
bypassing the automatic boost control limiter.
b. Combat boost is permitted only at 2,850 – 3,000 r.p.m.
c. The figure in brackets is permitted for short periods if necessary.
d. For the Merlin 46:
Maximum power altitude: 21,500 feet.

Normal: 60/80 lb/sq. in.


OIL PRESSURE:
Minimum: 45 lb/sq. in.
Oil: 15° C
MINIMUM TEMPERATURE FOR TAKE-OFF:
Coolant: 60° C
FUEL PRESSURE: 8 – 10 lb/sq. in.
Note: When starting up from cold the pressure may rise above the normal reading until the oil has
reached working temperature.

4. Coolant:
The engine operates pressure water cooled, with coolant being 70 % water and 30 % ethylene glycol
to D.T.D. 344.
The cooling system is closed to atmosphere, except for a relief valve built into the header tank. This
valve allows the pressure in the system to build up to prevent boiling until the maximum coolant
outlet temperature of 120° C is reached.
When the system cools off, air is drawn through the relief valve. During the warming up period this air
expands and is driven off from the vent pipe, frequently carrying with it a certain amount of coolant.
This is quite normal, and provided liquid if not driven off in normal flight it should cause no alarm.

FLYING LIMITATIONS
1. Maximum speeds:
Diving: 450 m.p.h. I.A.S.
Undercarriage down: 160 m.p.h. I.A.S.
Flaps down: 140 m.p.h. I.A.S.
Landing lamps lowered: 140 m.p.h. I.A.S.
2. Restrictions:
When carrying a bomb, spinning is not permitted and violent manoeuvres must be avoided. The angle
of dive must at no time exceed 40°.

PRELIMINIARIES
On entering the cockpit check the following:

1. Undercarriage lever DOWN


2. Flaps UP
3. Landing lamps UP
4. Contents of lower fuel tank.

STARTING THE ENGINE AND WARMING UP


1. Run the engine as slowly as possible for half a minute, then warm up at a fast tick-over.
2. If fitted with the de Havillant 20° constant speed propellor, move the speed control slowly fully
forward when the engine has been running for a minute or more.
MERLIN 46 ENGINE
1. After the engine is running, when the oil pressure is steady, open up and run at 1,200 r.p.m. until
working temperatures have been reached (oil inlet temperature 15° C, coolant outlet temperature 60°
C).
2. With the constant speed control in the high r.p.m. position the engine should be opened up to take-off
boost and the ground r.p.m. and ignition systems checked. The r.p.m. drop when running on single
ignition (One magneto) should not exceed 5 %.

TESTING ENGINE AND INSTALLATIONS


1. While warming up:
a. Make the usual checks of temperatures, pressures and controls. Brake pressure should be at
least 120 lb/sq. in.
2. After warming up:
a. See that there are TWO men on the tail, and with the propeller speed control fully forward,
test as follows:
i. Open up to maximum boost for WEAK mixture cruising; exercise and check the
operation of cosntant speed propeller.
ii. Open the throttle fully and check take-off boost and r.p.m.
iii. At maximum boost for RICH mixture cruising test each magneto in turn. The drop
should not exceed 150 r.p.m.
b. Running of the engine must not be unduly prolonged because, if the coolant temperature
before taxying out exceeds 100° C, it may become excessive before take-off is completed.
c. Avoid long periods if idling. Open up periodically to assist the volute drain which clears the
supercharger of surplus fuel.

FINAL PREPARATIONS FOR TAKE -OFF


The Drill of Vital Actions is ”T, M, P, Fuel, Flaps and Radiator.”

T- Trimming tabs - Elevator: About one division nose down from neutral.
Rudder: Fully to starboard.
M – Mixture control (if fitted) - RICH
P – Pitch - Propeller speed control fully forward.
Fuel - Cock levers ON and check contents of lower tank.
Flaps - UP
Radiator shutter - Fully open.

TAKE-OFF
1. Open the throttle slowly to the gate (RATED BOOST position). Any tendency to swing can be
counteracted by coarse use of the rudder. If taking off from a small airfield with a full load, maximum
boost may be optained by opening the throttle through the gate to the TAKE-OFF BOOST position.
2. After raising the undercarriage, see that the red indicator light -UP- comes on.
3. Do not start to climb before a speed of 140 m.p.h. I.A.S. is attained.
CLIMBING
The speed for maximum rate of climb are as follows:

From S.L. to 10,000 feet: 170 m.p.h. I.A.S.


“ 10,000 to 16,000 feet: 160 m.p.h. I.A.S.
“ 16,000 to 21,000 feet: 150 m.p.h. I.A.S.
“ 21,000 to 26,000 feet: 140 m.p.h. I.A.S.
“ 26,000 to 31,000 feet: 130 m.p.h. I.A.S.
“ 31,000 to 37,000 feet: 120 m.p.h. I.A.S.
Above 37,000 115 m.p.h. I.A.S.

GENERAL FLYING
1. Stability: The aircraft is stable about all axes.
2. For normal cruising flight the radiator shutter should be in minimum drag position (0 %) if possible.
Recommended cruising outlet temperature: 85 – 95° C.
3. Change of trim:
a. Undercarriage down - Nose down
b. Flaps down - Nose down
4. For combat manoeuvres climbing r.p.m. should be used.
5. For stretching a glide in the event of a forced landing, the propeller speed control should be pulled
right back and the radiator shutter set to the minimum drag position.

MAXIMUM RANGE
1. Climbing:
Climb at +9 lb/sq. in. boost and 2,850 r.p.m. at the speed recommended for maximum rate of climb.
Mixture control (if fitted) at RICH.
2. Cruising:
Maximum range will be obtained at intermediate heights. The recommended speeds are as follows:

Below 8,000 feet: 180 m.p.h. I.A.S.


Between 8,000 and 15,000 feet: 160 m.p.h. I.A.S.
Above 15,000 feet: 150 m.p.h. I.A.S.
At very low altitude the speed may be increased to 200 m.p.h. I.A.S. without seriously affecting range.

Fly in WEAK mixture (if control is fitted) at maximum obtainable boost not exceeding +4 lb/sq. in. (the
mixture richens automatically at higher boosts) and reduce speed by reducing r.p.m., which may be as
low as 1,800 if this will give the recommended speed. If at 1,800 r.p.m. the speed is higher than that
recommended, reduce boost.

STALLING
1. At the stall one wing will usually drop with flaps either up or down and the aircraft may spin if the
control column is held back.
2. This aircraft has sensitive elevators, and if the control column is brought back too rapidly in a
manoeuvre such as a loop or a steep turn, stalling incidence may be reached and a high speed stall
induced. When this occurs there is a violent shudder and a clattering noise through the aircraft which
tends to flick over laterally, and unless the control column is put forward instantly, a rapid roll and spin
will result.
3. Stalling speeds when loaded to about 6,400 lbs are:
Flaps and undercarriage up: 73 m.p.h. I.A.S.
Flaps and undercarriage down: 64 m.p.h. I.A.S.

SPINNING
1. The loss of height involved in recovery may be very great, and the following height limits are to be
observed:
a. Spins are not to be started below 10,000 feet.
b. Recovery must be started not lower than 5,000 feet.
2. A speed of over 150 m.p.h I.A.S. should be attained before starting to ease out of the resultant dive.

AEROBATICS
The following speeds are recommended:

1. Looping: Speed should be about 300 m.p.h. I.A.S., but may be reduced to 220 – 250 m.p.h. I.A.S. when
the pilot is fully proficient.
2. Rolling: Speed should be anywhere between 180-300 m.p.h. I.A.S. The nose should be brought up
about 30° above the horizon at the start, the roll being barrelled just enough to keep the engine
running throughout.
3. Half-roll off loop (Immelman turn): Speed should be 320 – 350 m.p.h. I.A.S.
4. Upward roll: Speed should be about 350 – 400 m.p.h. I.A.S
5. Flick manoeuvres: Flick manoeuvres are not permitted

DIVING
1. The aircraft becomes very tail heavy at high speed and must be trimmed into the dive in order to avoid
the dangers of excessive acceleration in recovery. The forward trim should be wound back as speed is
lost after pulling out.
2. A tendency to yaw to the right should be corrected by use of the rudder trimming tab.

APPROACH AND LANDING


1. During the preliminary approach see that the cockpit hood is locked open.
2. Reduce speed to 140 m.p.h. I.A.S. and carry out the Drill of Vital Actions “U, M, P and Flaps”.

U - Undercarriage - DOWN (Watch indicators and check green lights).


M - Mixture control - RICH
P - Propeller control - Fully forward
Flaps - DOWN
3. Approach speeds (m.p.h. I.A.S.):

(flaps up)
Engine assisted: 85 (95)
Glide: 95 (100)
4. As soon as the undercarriage is locked down the undercarriage lever should automatically spring into
the gate and the hydraulic valve indicator return to IDLE.
5. If the undercarriage is lowered too late on the approach, with insufficient engine speed to develop
fully hydraulic pressure, the selector lever may not automatically spring from the fully back position
into the gate, so indicating that the operation is not complete. This may cause the undercarriage to
collapse on landing. It is advisable, therefore, to lower the undercarriage early on the circuit prior to
landing and not in the later stages of the approach.
6. Mislanding: Climb at about 120 m.p.h. I.A.S.

AFTER LANDING
1. Raise the flaps before taxying.
2. If fitted with a de Havilland 20° constant speed propeller, after taxying in set the speed control fully
back and open up the engine sufficiently to change pitch to coarse.
3. Run the engine at 800 – 900 r.p.m. for two minutes, then pull the slow-running cut-out and hold it out
until the engine stops.
4. Turn off the fuel cocks and switch OFF the ignition.

FLYING AT REDUCED AIRSPEEDS


In conditions of bad visibility near the ground, reduce speed to about 120 m.p.h. I.A.S. and lower the flaps. The
radiator shutter must be opened to keep the temperature at about 100° C and the propeller speed control
should be set to give cruising r.p.m.

POSITION ERROR
From 100 140 160 180 200 240 270 & m.p.h. I.A.S.
To 140 160 180 200 240 270 over m.p.h. I.A.S.
Add 4 2 0 - - - - m.p.h.
Subtract - - - 2 4 6 8 m.p.h.

FUEL CAPACITIES AND CONSUMPTION


1. Fuel:
The fuel system has two internal tanks located in front of the cockpit; one top tank and one bottom.
The tanks are connected in series with the bottom tank being connected to the fuel cock and fuel
pump. The top tank automatically flows into the bottom tank.
Normal capacity:

Top tank: 48 gallons


Bottom tank: 37 gallons
Total: 85 gallons
2. Oil:
Normal capacity: 5.8 gallons
3. Fuel consumption (approximate gals/hr.):
a. WEAK mixture (or as obtained at +4 lb/sq. in. boost and below if control not fitted( at 6,000 –
20,000 feet:

Boost R.p.m.
(lb/sq. in.) 2,650 2,400 2,200 2,000 1,800
+4 56 53 51 47 43
+2 51 48 46 43 39
0 47 44 42 39 335
-2 43 40 38 35 31
-4 39 36 34 31 26
b. RICH mixture (or as obtained above +4 lb/sq. in. boost if control not fitted):

Boost
R.p.m. lb/sq. in. Gals/hr.
3,000 +9 88
2,850 +9 84
2,650 +7 67
SUPERMARINE SPITFIRE LF MK.IX(E)

Sources:

 A.P. 1565J, P & L – P.N. – Pilot’s Notes for Spitfire IX, XI & XVI – Merlin 61, 63, 66, 70 or 266 Engine
(September 1946)

PART I – DESCRIPTIVE

Note.- The numbers quoted in brackets after items in the text refer to key numbers of the illustrations in Part V.

INTRODUCTION
1.
(i) The variants of the Spitfire IX, XI and XVI are distinguished by prefix letters denoting the general
operating the general operating altitude or role and the suffix letter (e) is used where .5-in. guns replace
.303-in. guns. The aircraft are all essentially similar, but the following table shows the main features that
give the various versions of the distinguishing letters:

F IX Merlin 61, 63 or 63A; two 20-mm and four .303-in. guns.


LF IX Merlin 66; two 20-mm. and four .303-in. guns.
LF IX (e) Merlin 66; two 20-mm. and two .5-in guns.
HF IX Merlin 70; two 20-mm. and four 303-in. guns.
HF IX (e) Merlin 70; two 20-mm. and two .5-in. guns.
PR XI Merlin 61, 63, 63A or 70.
F XIV Merlin 266; two 20-mm. and two .5-in guns.
(ii) Merlin 61 and 63 engines have S.U.float-type carburettors, but on Merlin 66, 70 and 266 engines these
are replaced by Bendix-Stromberg injection carburettors.
(iii) All these marks of aircraft are fitted with Rotol 4-bladed hydraulic propellers and on the majority of the
aircraft the wing tips are clipped.
(iv) Later Mk. IX and XVIs have “rear view” fuselages which incorporate “tear drop” sliding hoods.

FUEL, OIL AND COOLAN T SYSTEMS


2. Fuel tanks (see Fig. 4).- Fuel is carried in two tanks mounted on above the other (the lower one is self-
sealing) forward of the cockpit. The top tank feeds into the bottom tank and fuel is delivered to the
carburettor, through a filter, by an engine-driven pump. On Merlin 61 and 63 engine installations there is
a fuel cooler, while on Bendix-Stromberg carburettor installations a deaerator in the carburettor, for
separating accumulated air from the fuel, is vented to the top tank. Later Mk. IX and all F. Mk. XVI aircraft
mount two additional fuel tanks with a combined capacity of 75 gallons (66 gallons in aircraft with “rear
view” fuselages); they are fitted in the fuselage behind the cockpit. These tanks should only be filled for
special operations at the discretion of the appropriate Area Commander and normally their cocks should
be wired OFF. If fitted in aircraft with “rear view” fuselages, they must not be used in any circumstances.

The capacities of the main tanks are as follows:


Top tank .. .. 48 gallons
Bottom tank .. .. 37 gallons or 47 * gallons
Total .. .. 85 gallons or 95 * gallons
* On some aircraft; generally those which have “rear view” fuselages.
An auxiliary “blister” drop tank of 30, 45 or 90 gallons capacity (on the PR XI, of 170 gallons capacity)
can be fitted under the fuselage; the fuel from these tanks feeds the engine direct and docs not
replenish the main tanks. To meet the possibility of engine cutting due to fuel boiling in warm weather
at high altitudes, the main tanks are pressurised; pressurising, however, impairs the self-sealing
properties of the tanks and should, therefore, be turned OFF if a tank is holed.
3. Fuel cocks.- The cock control for the main tanks is a lever (47) fitted below the engine starting
pushbuttons and the pressurising control (50) is below the right-hand side of the instrument panel.
The cock control (58) and jettison lever (59) for the auxiliary drop tank are mounted together on the
right-hand side of the cockpit, below the undercarriage control unit. The jettison lever is pulled up to
jettison the drop tank, but cannot be operated until the cock control is moved forward to the OFF
position. The cock for the rear fuselage tanks (when fitted) is to the left of the seat.
4. Fuel pumps.- On Bendix-Stromberg carburettor installations an electric booster pump, operated by a
switch on the left-hand side of the cockpit, is fitted in the lower main tank. On early aircraft this pump
is not fitted, but a hand wobble pump is provided instead, just forward of the remote contactor.

Note.- On aircraft which have rear fuselage tanks a second pump is fitted (in the lower rear tank)
and the control switch described above then has three positions.
5. Fuel contents gauges and pressure warning light.- The contents gauge (19) on the right-hand side of
the instrument panel indicates the quantity of fuel in the lower main tank when the adjacent
pushbutton is depressed. On aircraft with rear fuselage tanks a gauge (for the lower rear tank only) is
mounted beside the main tanks’ gauge. This also operates when the main tanks’ gauge pushbutton Is
depressed. On later L.F. Mk. XVI aircraft the two gauges are mounted together, the left-hand dial
(which is calibrated only up to 50 gallons) indicating the contents of the main tanks.
The fuel pressure warning light (18) is operative when the switch (34) on the throttle quadrant is on
and comes on at any time when fuel pressure at the carburettor falls appreciably below normal.
6. Oil system.- Oil is supplied by a tank of 75 gallons oil capacity under the engine mounting, which is
pressurised to 2½ lb./sq.in., and passes through a filter before entering the engine. An oil cooler is
fitted in the underside of the power wing and oil pressure (20) and temperature (17) gauges are fitted
on the instrument panel. When carrying an auxiliary drop tank of 170 gallons capacity a larger oil tank
of either 8.5 or 14.5 gallons capacity must be fitted.
7. Engine coolant system.- On early aircraft only, circulation of the coolant through the underwing
radiators is thermostatically controlled, the radiators being by-passed until the coolant reaches a
certain temperature. The header tank is mounted above the reduction gear casing and is fitted with a
relief valve. On all aircraft the radiator flaps are fully automatic and are designed to open at a coolant
temperature of 115°C. A pushbutton is fitted on the electrical panel for ground testing; and there is a
coolant temperature gauge (16) on the instrument panel.
8. Intercooler system.- On all aircraft the high temperatures resulting from two-stage supercharging
necessitate the introduction of an intercooler between the supercharger delivery and the induction
manifolds, particularly when S (high) gear is used. An auxiliary pump passes the coolant from a
separate header tank to a radiator under the starboard wing, and thence through the supercharger
casing to the intercooler, where the charge is cooled by loss of heat passing to the coolant. On early
aircraft a thermostatically operated switch in the induction pipe is connected to the supercharger
operating ram and causes it to change the supercharger to M (low) gear in the event of the charge
temperature becoming excessive. This change of gear ratio is indicated to the pilot by a pushbutton,
which springs out on the instrument panel. The supercharger will change back to high gear after the
temperature of the charge has returned to normal and the pushbutton has been pushed in. If,
however, the excessive temperature is of permanent nature, due to failure of the intercooler system,
the pushbutton will continue to spring out and the flight should be continued in low gear.

MAIN SERVICES
9. Hydraulic system.- Oil is carried in a reservoir on the fireproof bulkhead and passes through a filter an
engine-driven pump for operation of the undercarriage.
10. Electrical system.- A 12-volt generator supplies an accumulator which in turn supplies the whole of the
electrical installation. A voltmeter (10) across the accumulator is fitted at the top of the instrument panel,
marked POWER FAILURE, is illuminated when the generator is not delivering current to the accumulator.

Note.- If the electrical system fails, the supercharger will be fixed in low gear and the
radiator flaps will remain closed.
11. Pneumatic system.- An engine-driven air compressor charges two storage cylinders to a pressure of 300
lb./sq.in. for operations of the flaps, radiator flaps, supercharger ram, brakes and guns.

Note.- If the pneumatic system fails, the supercharger will be fixed in low gear, but the position of
the radiator flaps will depend on the nature of the failure.

AIRCRAFT CONTROLS
12. Trimming tabs.- The elevator trimming tabs are controlled by a handwheel (30) on the left-hand side of
the cockpit, the indicator (24) being on the instrument panel. The rudder trimming tab is controlled by a
small hand-wheel (27) and is not provided with an indicator. The aircraft tends to turn to starboard when
the handwheel is rotated clockwise.
13. Undercarriage control.- The undercarriage selector lever (52) moves in a gated quadrant on the right-
hand side of the cockpit. To raise the undercarriage the lever must be moved downwards and inwards to
disengage it from the gate, and then moved forward smartly in one movement to the full extent of the
quadrant. When the undercarriage is locked up the lever will automatically spring to the forward gate.
To lower the undercarriage the lever must be held forward for about two seconds, then pulled back in
one movement to the full extent of the quadrant. When the undercarriage is locked down the lever will
spring into the rear gate.

Warning.- The lever must never be moved into either gate by hand as this will cut off the hydraulic
pressure.
14. Undercarriage indicators
(a) Electrical visual indicator.- The electrically operated visual indicator (2) has two semi-transparent
windows on which the words UP on a red background and DOWN on a green background are lettered; the
words are illuminated according to the position of the undercarriage. The switch (34) for the DOWN
circuit is moved to the on position by a striker on the throttle lever as the throttle is opened.
(b) Mechanical position indicators.- On early aircraft a rod that extends through the top surface of the
main plane is fitted to each undercarriage unit. When the wheels are down the rods protrude through the
top of the main planes and when they arc up, the tops of the rods, which are painted red, arc flush with
the main plane surfaces.
15. Undercarriage warning horn.- The horn, fitted in early aircraft only, sounds when the throttle lever is
nearly closed and the undercarriage is not lowered. It cannot be silenced until the throttle is opened again
or the undercarriage is lowered.
16. Flaps control.- The split flaps have two positions only, up and fully down. They are controlled by a finger
lever (5) on the instrument panel.
17. Wheel brakes.- The brake lever is fitted on the control column spade grip and a catch for retaining it in
the on position for parking is fitted below the lever pivot. A triple pressure gauge (25), showing the air
pressure in the pneumatic system cylinders and at each brake, is mounted on the instrument panel.
18. Flying controls locking gear.- Two struts are stowed on the right-hand side of the cockpit, aft of the seat.
The longer strut and the arm attached to it lock the control column to the seat and to the starboard
datum longeron, and the shorter strut, attached to the other strut by a cable, locks the rudder pedals. The
controls should be locked with the seat in its highest position.
ENGINE CONTROLS
19. Throttle.- The throttle lever (33) is gated at the climbing boost position. There is a friction adjuster (31) on
the side of the quadrant. The mixture control is automatic and there is no pilot’s control lever.
20. Propeller control
(i) On early aircraft the speed control lever (35) on the inboard side of the throttle quadrant varies the
governed r.p.m. from 3,000 down to 1,800.
(ii) On later aircraft the propeller speed control is interconnected with the throttle control. The inter-
connection is effected by a lever, similar to the normal speed control lever, which is known as the
override lever. When this is pulled back to the stop in the quadrant (the AUTOMATIC position), the
r.p.m. are controlled by the positioning of the throttle lever. When pushed fully forward to the MAX.
R.P.M. position it overrides the interconnection device and r.p.m. are then governed at approximately
3,000. The override lever can be used in the same way as the conventional propeller speed control lever
to enable the pilot to select higher r.p.m. than those given by the interconnection.
It must be remembered that the interconnection is effected only when the override lever is pulled back
to the stop in the quadrant; indiscriminate use of the lever in any position forward of this stop will
increase fuel consumption considerably.
At low altitudes (and at all altitudes just above that at which high gear is automatically engaged) the
corresponding r.p.m. for a given boost with the override lever set to AUTOMATIC are as follows:

Boost (lb./sq.in.) R.P.M.


Below +3 .. .. 1,800-1,850
At +7 .. .. 2,270-2,370
At +12 (at the gate) .. .. 2,800-2,900
At +18 (throttle fully open) .. .. 3,000-3,050
(iii) A friction dampening control (46) is fitted on the inboard side of the throttle quadrant.
21. Supercharger controls.- The two-speed two-stage supercharger automatically changes to high gear at
about 21,000 feet (14,000 feet on Merlin 66 and 11,000 feet on Merlin 266 installations) on the climb and
back to low gear at about 19,000 feet (12,500 feet on Merlin 66 and 10,000 feet on Merlin 266
installations) on the descent. An override switch is fitted on the instrument panel by means of which low
gear may be selected at any height. There is a pushbutton (42) on the electrical panel for testing the gear
change on the ground, and a red light (13) on the instrument panel comes on when high-gear is engaged,
on the ground or in flight.
22. Intercooler protector.- See para. 8 and note. On early aircraft, should excessive charge temperatures
cause the pushbutton (15) to spring out, it may be reset manually to allow the supercharger to return to
high gear; it will, however, only remain in if the charge temperature has returned to normal.
23. Radiator flap control.- The radiator flaps are fully automatic and there is no manual control. A pushbutton
(41) for testing the radiator flaps is on the electrical panel.
24. Slow-running cut-out (Merlin 61 and 63 installation only).- The control on the carburettor is operated by
pulling the ring (37) below the left-hand side of the instrument panel.
25. Idle cut-off control (Merlin 66, 70 and 266 installations only).- The idle cut-off valve on the Bendix-
Stromberg carburettors is operated by moving the short lever on the throttle quadrant through the gate
to the fully aft position. On early Stromberg carburettor installations this lever is not fitted, but the cut-off
valve is operated by the ring (37) which on other aircraft operates the slow-running cut-out.

Note.- The idle cut-off control must be in the fully aft position, or cut-off position, at all times when a
booster pump is on and the engine is not running; otherwise, fuel will be injected into the
supercharger at high pressure and there will be, in consequence, a serious risk of fire.
26. Carburettor air intake filter control.
On tropicalised aircraft the carburettor air intake filter control on the left-hand side of the cockpit has two
positions OPEN and CLOSED (NORMAL INTAKE and FILTER IN OPERATION on later aircraft). The CLOSED
(or FILTER IN OPERATION) position must be used for all ground running, take-off and landing and when
flying in sandy or dust-laden conditions.

Note.- (i) In the air it may be necessary to reduce speed to 200 m.p.h. I.A.S. or less, before the filter
control lever can be operated.
(ii) The filter control lever must always be moved slowly.
27. Cylinder priming pump.- A hand-operated pump (48) for priming the engine is fitted below the right-hand
side of the instrument panel.
28. Ignition switches and starter buttons.- The ignition switches (1) are on the left-hand side of the
instrument panel and the booster-coil (22) and the engine starter (21) pushbuttons immediately below it.
Each pushbutton is covered by a safety shield.
29. Ground battery starting.- The socket for starting from an external supply is mounted on the starboard
engine bearer.

OTHER CONTROLS
30. Cockpit door.- The cockpit door is fitted with a two-position catch which allows it to be partly opened,
thus preventing the sliding hood from coming forward in the event of a crash or forced landing. It will be
found that the catch operates more easily when the aircraft is airborne than when on the ground.

Note.- On aircraft with “tear-drop” hoods, the two-position catch should not be used.
31. Sliding good controls
(i) On later Mk. IX and XVI aircraft the “tear-drop” hood is opened and closed by a crank handle mounted
on the right-hand cockpit wall, above the undercarriage selector lever. The handle must be pulled
inwards before it can be rotated. The good may be locked in any intermediate position by releasing the
crank handle which then engages with the locking ratchet.
(ii) From outside the cockpit the hood may be opened and closed by hand provided the pushbutton below
the starboard hood rail is held depressed.
(iii) The hood may be jettisoned in emergency (see para. 59).
32. Signal discharger.- The recognition device fires one of six cartridges out of the top of the rear fuselage
when the handle (39) to the left of the pilot’s seat is pulled upwards. On some aircraft a pre-selector
control (38) is mounted above the operating handle.

PART II – HANDLING

33. Management of the fuel system

Note.- Except for special operations as directed by the appropriate Area Commander, the rear
fuselage tanks must not be used and their cocks should be wired OFF. On aircraft with “rear
view” fuselages they must not be used.
(i) Without a drop tank
Start the engine, warm up, taxy and take-off on the main tanks; then, at 2,000 ft., change to the rear
fuselage tanks (turning off the main tanks cock after the change has been made) and drain them; then
revert to the main tanks.
(ii) When fitted with a drop tank
(a) Without rear fuselage tanks: Start the engine, warm up, taxy and take-off on the main tanks; then
at 2,000 ft. turn ON the drop tank and turn OFF the main tanks cock. When the fuel pressure
warning light comes on, or the engine cuts, turn OFF the drop tank and cock and reselect the main
tanks. (See Note (i) below.)
(b) With rear fuselage tanks: Start the engine, warm up, taxy, and take-off on the main tanks; then, at
2,000 ft. change to the rear fuselage tanks and continue to use fuel from them until they contain
only 30 gallons. Turn ON the drop tank (turning OFF the rear fuselage tanks cock when the change
has been made) and drain it, then change back to the rear fuselage tanks and drain them. Revert to
the main tanks.

Note.- (i) When it is essential to use all the fuel from the drop tank its cock must be turned
OFF and the throttle closed immediately the engine cuts; a fresh tank should then
be selected without delay. The booster pump in the newly selected tank should be
switched ON, or the hand wobble pump operated, to assist the engine to pick up,
but in addition to this it may be necessary to windmill the engine at high r.p.m. to
ensure an adequate fuel supply.
(ii) Drop tanks should only be jettisoned if this is necessary operationally. If a drop tank
is jettisoned before it is empty a fresh tank should be turned ON before the drop
tank cock is turned OFF.
(iii) At no time must the drop tank cock and the rear fuselage tanks cock be on together
or fuel from the rear fuselage tanks will drain into the drop tank since the
connection from these tanks joins the drop tank connection before the non-return
valve.
(iv) The drop tank cock must always be off when the tank has been jettisoned or is
empty, otherwise air may be drawn into the main fuel system thus causing engine
cutting.
(iii) Use of the booster pump(s)
(a) The main tanks booster pump should be switched ON for take-off and landing and at all times
when these tanks are in use in flight.
(b) The rear fuselage tanks booster pump should be switched ON at all times when changing to, or
using fuel from, these tanks.
34. Preliminaries
(i) Check that the undercarriage selector lever is down; switch on indicator and see that DOWN shows
green.
(ii) Check the contents of the fuel tanks. If fitted with auxiliary tank(s) check that corresponding cock(s) are
OFF.
(iii) Test the operation of the flying controls and adjust the rudder pedals for equal length.
(iv) On aircraft with Bendix-Stromberg carburettors ensure that the idle cut-off control is in the fully aft
position, or cut-off position (see para. 25), then check the operation of the booster pump(s) by sound.
35. Starting the engine and warming up (Aircraft with Merlin 61 or 63 engines)
(i) Set the fuel cock ON
(ii) Ignition switches OFF
Throttle ½ in. - 1 in. open
Propeller speed control lever Fully forward
Supercharger switch AUTO. NORMAL POSITION
Carburettor air intake filter control CLOSED or FILTER IN OPERATION (see para. 26)
(iii) If an external priming connection is fitted, high volatility fuel (Stores rfc. 34A/III) should be used for
priming at temperatures below freezing. Work the Ki-Gass priming pump until the fuel reaches the
priming nozzles; this may be judged by a sudden increase in resistance.
(iv) Switch ON the ignition and press the starter and booster-coil buttons. Turning periods must not exceed
20 seconds, with a 30 seconds wait between each. Work the priming pump as rapidly and vigorously as
possible while the engine is being turned; it should start after the follow number of strokes if cold:

Air temperature °C +30 +20 +10 0 -10 -20


Normal fuel 3 4 7 12 - -
High volatility fuel - - - 4 8 18
(v) At temperatures below freezing it will probably be necessary to continue priming after the engine has
fired and until it picks up on the carburettor.
(vi) Release the starter button as soon as the engine starts, and as soon as the engine is running
satisfactorily release the booster-coil button and screw down the priming pump.
(vii) Open up slowly to 1,000 to 1,200 r.p.m., then warm up at this speed.
36. Starting the engine and warming up (Aircraft with Merlin 66, 70 or 266 engines)
(i) Set the fuel cock ON
(ii) Ignition switches OFF
Throttle ½ in. - 1 in. open
Propeller speed control (or override) lever Fully forward
Idle cut-off control Fully aft
Supercharger switch AUTO. NORMAL POSITION
Carburettor air intake filter control CLOSED or FILTER IN OPERATION (see para. 26)
(iii) Switch ON the main tanks booster pump for 30 seconds (or operate the hand wobble pump for that
period) then switch it OFF and set the idle cut-off control forward to the RUN position.

Note.- If the idle cut-off control is operated by the ring described in para. 25, this must be held out
(i.e. in the cut-off position) while the booster pump is ON or the hand wobble pump is being
used.
(iv) An external priming connection is fitted and high volatility fuel (Stores Ref. 34A/III) should be used for
priming at temperatures below freezing. Operate the priming pump until fuel reaches the priming
nozzles (this may be judged by a sudden increase in resistance to the plunger) then prime the engine (if
it is cold) with the following number of strokes:

Air temperature °C +30 +20 +10 0 -10 -20


Normal fuel 3 4 7 12 - -
High volatility fuel - - - 4 8 18
(v) Switch ON the ignition and press the starter and booster-coil pushbuttons.
(vi) When the engine fires release the starter button; keep the booster-coil button depressed and operate
the priming pump (if required) until the engine is running smoothly.
(vii) Screw down the priming pump then open up gradually to 1,000-1,200 r.p.m. and warm up at this
speed.
(viii) Check that the fuel pressure warning light does not come on then switch ON the main tanks booster
pump (if fitted).
37. Testing the engine and services while warming up
(i) Check all temperatures and pressures and the operation of the flaps.
(ii) Press the radiator flaps test pushbutton and have the ground crew check that the flaps open.
(iii) Test each magneto in turn as precautionary check before increasing power further.
(iv) If a drop tank is carried check the flow of fuel from it by running on it for at least one minute.
After warming up to at least 15°C (oil temperature) and 60°C (coolant temperature).
(v) Open up to 0 lb./sq.in. boost and exercise and check the operation of the two-speed two-stage
supercharger by pressing in and holding the test pushbutton. Boost should rise slightly and the red
warning light should come on when high gear is engaged. Release the pushbutton after 30 seconds.
(vi) At the same boost, exercise (at least twice) and check the operation of the constant speed propeller by
moving the speed control lever over its full governing range. Return the lever fully forward. Check that
the generator is charging the accumulator by noting that the power failure warning light is out.
(vii) Test each magneto in turn; if the single ignition drop exceeds 150 r.p.m., the ignition should be
checked at higher power – see sub. para. (ix) below.

Note.- The following additional checks should be carried out after repair, inspection other than
daily, when the single ignition drop at 0 lb./sq.in. boost exceeds 150 r.p.m., or at any time at
the discretion of the pilot. When these checks are performed the tail of the aircraft must be
securely lashed down.
(viii) Open the throttle to the take-off setting and check boost and static r.p.m.
(ix) Throttle back until r.p.m. falls just below the take-off figure (thus ensuring that the propeller is not
constant speeding) then test each magneto in turn. If the single ignition drop exceeds 150 r.p.m. the
aircraft should not be flown.
(x) Where applicable (see para. 20) throttle back to +3 lb./sq.in. boost and set the override lever to
AUTOMATIC; r.p.m. should fall to 1,800-1,850. Return the lever to MAX R.P.M.
(xi) Before taxying check the brake pressure (80 lb./sq.in.) and the pneumatic supply pressure (220
lb./sq.in.).
38. Check list before take-off

T - Trimming tabs
At training load (full main At normal full load (full At max. load (full main and
tanks, no ammunition or main tanks, ammunition + 1 rear fuselage tanks, full
external stores) 7,150 lb. x 45 gallon “blister” drop ammunition, + 1 x 90 gallon
(All Marks) tank) 7,800 lb. “blister” drop tank) 8,700
(Max. Mk. XI) lb.
(IX & XVI)
Elevator 1 div. nose down Neutral 1 div. nose down
Rudder Fully right Fully right Fully right
P – Propeller control Speed control (or override) lever fully forward.
F – Fuel Main tanks cock – ON
Drop tank cock – OFF
Rear fuselage tanks cock – OFF
Main tanks booster pump – ON
F – Flaps UP
Supercharger Switch – AUTO-NORMAL POSITION
Red light out.
Carburettor air intake filter control CLOSED or FILTER IN OPERATION (see para. 26)
39. Take-off
(i) At training and normal loads +7 lb./sq.in. to +9 lb./sq.in. boost is sufficient for take-off. After take-off,
however, boost should be increased (where applicable) to +12 lb/sq.in. to minimise the possibility of
lead fouling of the spark plugs.
(ii) There is a tendency to swing to the left but this can easily be checked with the rudder.
(iii) When the rear fuselage tanks are full the aircraft pitches on becoming airborne and it is recommended
that the undercarriage should not be retracted, nor the sliding hood closed, until a height of at least 100
feet has been reached.
(iv) After retracting the undercarriage it is essential to check that the red warning light comes on, since if
the undercarriage fails to lock UP the airflow through the radiators and oil cooler will be much reduced
and excessive temperatures will result.

Note.- It may be necessary to hold the undercarriage selector lever hard forward against the
quadrant until the red warning light comes on.
(v) If interconnected the throttle and propeller controls are fitted move the override lever smoothly back to
AUTOMATIC when comfortably airborne.
(vi) After take-off some directional retrimming will be necessary.
(vii) Unless operating in sandy or dust-laden conditions set the carburettor air intake filter control to OPEN
(or NORMAL INTAKE) at 1,000 ft.
40. Climbing
At all loads the recommended climbing speed is 180 m.p.h. (155 kts) I.A.S. from sea level to operating
height.

Note.- (i) With the supercharger switch at AUTO, high gear is engaged automatically when the
aircraft reaches a predetermined height (see para. 21). This is the optimum height for
the gear change if full combat power is being used, but if normal climbing power (2,850
r.p.m. +12 lb./sq.in. boost) is being used the maximum rate of climb is obtained by
delaying the gear change until the boost in low gear has fallen to +8 lb./sq.in. This is
achieved by leaving the supercharger switch at MS until the boost has fallen into this
figure.
(ii) Use of the air intake filter reduces the full throttle height considerably.

41. General flying


(i) Stability
(a) At light load (no fuel in the rear fuselage tanks, no drop tank) stability about all axes is satisfactory
and the aircraft is easy and pleasant to fly.
(b) When the rear fuselage tanks are full there is a very marked reduction in longitudinal stability, the
aircraft tightens in turns at all altitudes and, in this condition, is restricted to straight flying, and
only gentle manoeuvres; accurate trimming is not possible and instrument flying should be avoided
whenever possible.
(c) When a 90-gallon drop tank is carried in addition to full fuel in the rear fuselage tanks the aircraft
becomes extremely difficult and tiring to fly and in this condition is restricted to straight flying and
only gentle manoeuvres at all altitudes.
(d) On aircraft which have “rear view” fuselages there is a reduction in directional stability so that the
application of yaw promotes marked changes of lateral and longitudinal trim. This characteristic is
more pronounced at high altitudes.
(e) When 90 (or 170) gallon drop tanks are carried on these aircraft, they are restricted to straight
flying and gentle manoeuvres only.
(ii) Controls
The elevator and rudder trimming tabs are powerful and sensitive and must always be used with care,
particularly at high speed.
(iii) Changes of trim
Undercarriage up Nose up
Undercarriage down Nose down
Flaps up Nose up
Flaps down Strongly nose down
There are marked changes of directional trim with change of power and speed. These should be
countered by accurate use of the rudder trim tab control. The firing of salvos of R/P’s promotes a nose-
up change of trim; this change of trim is most marked when the weapons are fired in level flight at about
300 m.p.h. (258 kts) I.A.S.
(iv) Flying at reduced airspeed in conditions of poor visibility
Reduce speed to 160 m.p.h. (140 kts) I.A.S., lower the flaps and set the propeller speed control (or
override) lever to give 2,650 r.p.m.; open the sliding hood. Speed may then be reduced to 140 m.p.h.
(120 kts) I.A.S.
42. Stalling
(i) The stalling speeds, engine “off”, in m.p.h. (knots) I.A.S. are

Aircraft without “rear-view” fuselage


At training load At normal full load At maximum load (full
(full main tanks, (full main tanks, full main and rear
no ammunition or ammunition + 1 x 45- fuselage tanks, full
external stores) gallon “blister” drop ammunition + 1 x 90
7,150 lb. tank) 7,800 lb. gallon “blister” drop
tank) 8,700 lb.
Undercarriage and 90 (78) 93 (80) 100 (86)
flaps up
Undercarriage and 75-79 (65-69) 80 (69) 84 (72)
flaps down
Aircraft with “rear-view” fuselages
Undercarriage and 95 (83) 98 (85) 115-117 (100-102)
flaps up
Undercarriage and 83-84 (71-73) 85 (98) 95 (83)
flaps down
The speeds above apply to aircraft which have “clipped” wings. On aircraft with “full span” wings these
speeds are reduced (at all loads) by some 3-6 m.p.h. (or kts) I.A.S.
(ii) Warning of the approach of a stall is given by tail buffeting, the onset of which can be felt some 10
m.p.h. (9 kts) I.A.S. before the stall itself. At the stall either wing and the nose drop gently. Recovery is
straightforward and easy.
If the control column is held back at the stall tail buffeting becomes very pronounced and the wing drop
is more marked.

Note.- On L.F. Mk. XVI aircraft warning of the approach of a stall is not so clear; faint tail buffeting
can be felt some 5 m.p.h. (or kts) I.A.S. before the stall occurs.
(iii) When the rear fuselage tanks are full there is an increasing tendency for the nose to rise as the stall is
approached. This self-stalling tendency must be checked by firm forward movement of the control
column.
(iv) Warning of the approach of a stall in a steep turn is given by pronounced tail buffeting (and on F. Mk.
XVI by hood rattling). If the acceleration is then increased the aircraft will, in general, flick out of the
turn.
43. Spinning
(i) Spinning is permitted, but the loss of height involved in recovery may be very great and the following
limits are to be observed;
(a) Spins are not to be started below 10,000 feet.
(b) Recovery must be initiated before two turns are completed.
(ii) A speed of 180 m.p.h. (156 kts) I.A.S. should be attained before starting to ease out of the resultant
dive.
(iii) Spinning is not permitted when fitted with a drop tank, when carrying a bomb load, or with any fuel in
the rear fuselage tank.
44. Diving
(i) At training loads the aircraft becomes increasingly tail heavy as speed is gained and should, therefore,
be trimmed into the dive. The tendency to yaw to the right should be corrected by accurate use of the
rudder trimming tab control.
(ii) When carrying wing bombs the angle of dive must not exceed 60°; when carrying a fuselage bomb the
angle of dive must not exceed 40°.

Note.- Until the rear fuselage contains less than 30 gallons of fuel the aircraft is restricted to
straight flight and only gentle manoeuvres.
45. Aerobatics
(i) Aerobatics are not permitted when carrying any external stores (except the 30-gallon “blister” drop
tank) nor when the rear fuselage tanks contain more than 30 gallons of fuel, and are not recommended
when the rear fuselage tanks contain any fuel.
(ii) The following minimum speeds in m.p.h. (knots) I.A.S. are recommended:
Loop 300 (260)
Roll 240 (206)
Half-roll off loop 340 (295)
Climbing roll 330 (286)
(iii) Flick manoeuvres are not permitted.
46. Check list before landing
(i) Reduce speed to 160 m.p.h. (138 kts) I.A.S., open the sliding hood and check:

U – Undercarriage DOWN
P – Propeller control Speed control (or override) lever set to give 2,650
r.p.m. – fully forward on the final approach
Supercharger Red light out
Carburettor air intake filter control CLOSED (or FILTER IN OPERATION) – see para 26.
F – Fuel Main tanks cock ON
Main tanks booster pump (if fitted) – ON
F – Flaps DOWN
(ii) Check brake pressure (80 lb./sq.in.) and pneumatic supply pressure (220 lb./sq.in.).

Note.- The rate of undercarriage lowering is much reduced at low r.p.m.


47. Approach and landing
(i) The recommended final approach speeds* in m.p.h. (knots) I.A.S. are

At training load (full main tanks, no ammunition or external


stores) 7,150 lb.
(a) Aircraft without “rear-view” fuselages
Engine assisted Glide
Flaps down 95 (82) 105 (90)
Flaps up 105 (90) 110 (95)
(b) Aircraft with “rear-view” fuselages
Engine assisted Glide
Flaps down 100-105 (86-90) 115-120 (100-104)
Flaps up 115 (100) 120-125 (104-108)
(ii) Should it be necessary to land with the rear fuselage tanks still containing all the fuel the final engine-
assisted approach speeds given in (i) above should be increased by 10-15 m.p.h. (9-13 kts) I.A.S. The
tendency for the nose to rise of its own accord at the “hold-off” must be watched (see para. 42 (iii)); the
throttle should be closed only when contact with the ground is made.
(iii) The aircraft is nose-heavy on the ground; the brakes, therefore, must be used carefully on landing.
48. Mislanding
(i) At normal loads the aircraft will climb away easily with the undercarriage and flaps down and the use of
full take-off power is unnecessary.
(ii) Open the throttle steadily to give the required boost.
(iii) Retract the undercarriage immediately.
(iv) With the flaps down climb at about 140 m.p.h. I.A.S.
(v) Raise the flaps at 300 ft. and retrim.
49. Beam approach

Preliminary Inner Marker on Outer Marker on Inner Marker on


Approach Q.D.R. Q.D.R. Q.D.M.
SPITFIRE Mk. XVI,
“training” load
Indicated height (ft.) Down to 1,000 1,000 700-800 150
Action – Lower the under- Lower the flaps Throttle back
carriage† slowly
Resultant change of – Nose down Nose down Slightly nose
trim down
I.A.S. m.p.h. (knots) 170 (146) 160 (138) 130 (111) 110 (95)
R.P.M. 2,650 2,650 3,000* 3,000*
Boost (level flight) -2 -2 -3
Boost (-500 ft./min) -3 -3 -4
Boost (overshoot) – – – +7
Remarks OVERSHOOT
† Reduce speed to 160 m.p.h. (138 kts) I.A.S. before Open the throttle to give +7 lb./sq.in.
lowering the undercarriage boost.
* With the override lever at MAX. R.P.M., r.p.m. may be Raise the undercarriage and climb at
3,000-3,050 (see para. 20) 130 m.p.h. (112 kts) I.A.S.
Altimeter error at take-off –50 ft. Raise the flaps at 300 ft. and retrim.
Altimeter error at touchdown –60 ft.
Add 2 mbs. To Q.F.E. to give zero reading at touchdown.
50. After landing
(i) Before taxying
Raise the flaps and switch OFF the main tanks booster pump (if fitted).
(ii) On reaching dispersal
(a) Open up to 0 lb./sq.in. boost and exercise the two-speed two-stage supercharger once (see para. 35 (v)).
(b) Throttle back slowly to 800-900 r.p.m. and idle at this speed for a few seconds then stop the engine by
operating the slow-running cut-out or idle cut-off control.
(c) When the propeller has stopped rotating switch OFF the ignition and all other electrical services.
(d) Turn OFF the fuel.
(iii) Oil dilution (see A.P.2095)
The correct dilution procedures are
At air temperatures above – 10°C 1 minute
At air temperatures below – 10°C 2 minutes

PART III – OPERATING DATA

51. Engine data: Merlins 61, 63, 66, 70 and 266


(i) Fuel–100 octane only.
(ii) Oil–See A.P.1464/C.37.
(iii) The principal engine limitations are as follows:

Temp. °C
Sup. R.p.m. Boost Coolant Oil
MAX. TAKE-OFF
M 3,000† +18* 135 -
TO 1,000 FT.
MAX. CLIMBING M
2850 +12 125 90
– 1 HOUR LIMIT S
MAXIMUM M
2650 +7 105 (115) 90
CONTINUOUS S
COMBAT M
3000 +18† 135 105
5 MINS. LIMIT S
The figure in brackets is permissible for short periods.
† With interconnected controls there is a tolerance on “maximum” r.p.m.–see para.
20.
* +12 lb./sq.in. on Merlin 61 and 63 engines.
‡ +15 lb./sq.in. on Merlin 61 and 63 engines.
OIL PRESSURE:
MINIMUM IN FLIGHT 30 lb./sq.in.
MINIMUM TEMP. °C FOR TAKE-OFF:
COOLANT 60°C
OIL 15°C
52. Flying limitations
(i) Maximum speeds in m.p.h. (knots) I.A.S.

Diving (without external stores), corresponding to a Mach. No. of .85.


Between S.L. and 20,000 ft. – 450 (385)
20,000 & 25,000 ft. – 430 (370)
25,000 & 30,000 ft. – 390 (335)
30,000 & 35,000 ft. – 340 (292)
Above 35,000 ft. – 310 (265)
Undercarriage down – 160 (138)
Flaps down – 160 (138)
Diving (with the following external stores):
(a) With 1x 500 lb. AN/M 58 bomb, or 1x 500 lb. AN/M 64 bomb, or
1x 500 lb. AN/M 76 bomb, or 1 x 1000 lb. AN/M 65 bomb
Below 20,000 ft. * – 440 (378)
(b) With 1 x 500 lb. S.A.P. bomb or Smoke bomb Mk. II
Below 25,000 ft. * – 400 (344)
(c) With 10 lb. practice bomb
Below 25,000 ft. * – 420 (360)
* Above these heights the limitations for the “clean” aircraft apply.
(ii) Maximum weights in lbs.

For take-off and gentle manoeuvres only Mks. IX & XIV – 8,700*
For landing (except in emergency) Mks. IX & XVI – 7,450
For take-off, all forms of flying and landing Mk. XI – 7,800
* At this weight take-off must be made only from a smooth hard runway.
(iii) Flying restrictions
(a) Rear fuselage tanks may be used only with special authority and never on aircraft with “rear view”
fuselages.
(b) Aerobatics and combat manoeuvres are not permitted when carrying external stores (except the
30-gallon “blister” type drop tank) nor when the rear fuselage tanks contain more than 30 gallons
of fuel (but see para. 45).
(c) When a 90 (or 170) gallon drop tank or a bomb load is carried the aircraft is restricted to straight
flying and only gentle manoeuvres.
(d) When wing bombs are carried in addition to a drop tank or fuselage bomb, take-off must be made
only from a smooth hard runway.
(e) When carried, the 90 (or 170) gallon drop tank must be jettisoned before any dive bombing is
commenced.
(f) The angle of dive when releasing a bomb load must not exceed 60° for wing bombs or 40° for a
fuselage bomb.
(g) Except in emergency the fuselage bomb or drop tank must be jettisoned before landing with wing
bombs fitted operationally.
(h) Drop tanks should not be jettisoned unless necessary operationally. While jettisoning, the aircraft
should be flown straight and level at a speed not greater than 300 m.p.h. I.A.S.
(i) Except in emergency landings should not be attempted until the rear fuselage tanks contain less
than 30 gallons of fuel. Should a landing be necessary when they contain a greater quantity of fuel
the drop tank (if fitted) should be jettisoned.
53. Position error corrections

From 120 150 170 210 240 290


m.p.h. I.A.S.
To 150 170 210 240 290 350
Add 4 2 0
m.p.h. or kts.
Subtract 0 2 4 6
From 106 130 147 180 208 250
Knots I.A.S.
To 130 147 180 208 250 300
54. Maximum performance
(i) Climbing
(a) The speeds in m.p.h. (knots) for maximum rate of climb are

Sea level to 26,000 ft. – 160 (140) I.A.S


26,000 ft. to 30,000 ft. – 150 (130) “
30,000 ft. to 33,000 ft. – 140 (122) “
33,000 ft. to 37,000 ft. – 130 (112) “
37,000 ft. to 40,000 ft. – 120 (104) “
Above 40,000 ft. – 100 (95) “
(b) With the supercharger switch at AUTO, high gear is engaged automatically when the airplane
reaches a predetermined height (see para. 21). This is the optimum height for the gear change if
full combat power is being used, but if normal climbing power (2,850 r.p.m. +12 lb./sq.in. boost) is
being used the maximum rate of climb is obtained by delaying the gear change until the boost in
low gear has fallen to +8 lb./sq.in.
This is achieved by leaving the supercharger switch at MS until the boost has fallen to this figure.
(ii) Combat
Set the supercharger switch to AUTO and open the throttle fully.

Note.- On those aircraft which do not have interconnected throttle and propeller controls the
propeller speed control lever must be advanced to the maximum r.p.m. position before the
throttle is opened fully.
55. Economical flying
(i) Climbing
On aircraft not fitted with interconnected throttle and propeller controls.
(a) Set the supercharger switch to MS, the propeller speed control lever to give 2,650 r.p.m. and climb
at the speeds given in para. 54 (i), opening the throttle progressively to maintain a boost pressure
of +7 lb./sq.in.
(b) Set the supercharger switch to AUTO when the maximum obtainable boost in low gear is +3
lb./sq.in., throttling back to prevent overboosting as the change to high gear is made.

On aircraft fitted with interconnected throttle and propeller controls


(a) Set the supercharger switch to MS, set the throttle to give +7 lb./sq.in. boost and climb at the
speeds given in para. 54 (i).
(b) As height is gained the boost will fall and it will be necessary to advance the throttle progressively
to restore it. The throttle must not, however, be advanced beyond a position at which r.p.m. rise to
2,650. Set the supercharger switch AUTO when, at this throttle setting, the boost in low gear has
fallen to +3 lb./sq.in.

Note.- Climbing at the speeds given in para. 54 (i) will ensure greatest range, but for ease of control
(especially at heavy loads and with the rear fuselage tanks full of fuel) a climbing speed of
180 m.p.h. (155 kts) I.A.S. from sea level to operating height is recommended. The loss of
range will be only slight.
(ii) Cruising
The recommended speed for maximum range is 170 m.p.h. (147 kts) I.A.S. if the aircraft is lightly loaded.
At heavy loads, especially if the rear fuselage tanks are full this speed can be increased to 200 m.p.h.
(172 kts) I.A.S. without incurring a serious loss of range.

On aircraft not fitted with interconnected throttle and propeller controls


(a) With the supercharger switch at MS fly at the maximum obtainable boost (not exceeding +7
lb./sq.in.) and obtain the recommended speed by reducing r.p.m. as required.
Note.- (i) R.p.m. should not be reduced below a minimum of 1,800. At low altitudes, therefore, it
may be necessary to reduce boost or the recommended speed will be exceeded.
(ii) As the boost falls at high altitudes it will not be possible to maintain the recommended
speed in low gear, even at maximum continuous r.p.m. and full throttle. It will then be
necessary to set the supercharger switch to AUTO. Boost will thus be restored and it
will be possible to reduce r.p.m. again (as outlined in (a) above).
(iii) In both low and high gears r.p.m. which promote rough running should be avoided.

On aircraft fitted with interconnected throttle and propeller controls


Set the supercharger switch to MS and adjust the throttle to obtain the recommended speed. Avoid a
throttle setting which promotes rough running.
Note.- At moderate and high altitudes it will be necessary to advance the throttle progressively to
restore a falling boost and thus maintain the recommended speed.
Now as the throttle is opened r.p.m. will increase and at a certain height the recommended
speed will be unobtainable even at a throttle setting which gives 2,650 r.p.m. At this height the
supercharger switch should be set to AUTO and the throttle then adjusted as before to maintain
the recommended speed.
56. Fuel capacities and consumption
(i) Normal fuel capacity:

Top tank .. .. .. .. .. 48 gallons


Bottom tank .. .. .. .. .. 37 gallons
Total .. .. .. .. .. 85 gallons

(ii) Long range fuel capacities:

With 30 gallon “blister” .. .. .. .. 115 gallons


drop tank
With 45 gallon “blister” .. .. .. .. 130 gallons
drop tank
With 90 gallon “blister” .. .. .. .. 175 gallons
drop tank
With 170 gallon “blister” .. .. .. .. 255 gallons
drop tank
With rear fuselage tanks
Early aircraft .. .. .. .. 160 gallons
Later aircraft .. .. .. .. 151 gallons
Note.- On some aircraft these capacities are increased by 10 gallons
(iii) Fuel consumptions:
The approximate fuel consumptions (gals./hr.) are as follows:
Weak mixture (as obtained at +7 lb./sq.in. boost and below):
R.p.m.
Boost
lb./sq.in. 2,650 2,400 2,200 2,000 1,800
+7 80 - - - -
+4 71 66 61 54 -
+2 66 61 57 50 43
0 60 55 51 45 39
-2 53 49 45 40 35
-4 45 42 38 34 30

Rich mixture (as obtained above +7 lb.sq.in. boost):


Boost
lb./sq.in. R.p.m. gals./hr.
+15 3,000 130
+12 2,850 105
Note.- The above approximate consumptions apply for all marks of engine. Accurate
figures giving the variation in consumption with height and as between low and
high gear are not available.

PART IV – EMERGENCIES

57. Undercarriage emergency operation


(i) If the selector lever jams and cannot be moved to fully down position after moving it out of the gate,
return it to the fully forward position for a few seconds to take the weight of the wheels off the locking
pins and allow them to turn freely, then move it to the DOWN position.
(ii) If, however, the lever is jammed so that it cannot be moved either forward or downward, it can be
released by taking the weight off the wheels off the locking pins either by pushing the control column
forward sharply or inverting the aircraft. The lever can then be moved to the DOWN position.
(iii) If the lever springs into the gate and the indicator shows that the undercarriage still does not lock down,
ensure that the lever is in the DOWN position (this is essential) and push the emergency lever forward
and down through 180°.

Note.- (a) The emergency lever must not be returned to its original position and no attempt must be
made to raise the undercarriage until the CO2 cylinder has been replaced.
(b) If the CO2 cylinder has been accidentally discharged with the selector lever in the up
position, the undercarriage will not lower unless the pipeline from the cylinder is broken,
either by hand or by means of the crowbar.

58. Failure of the pneumatic system


(i) If the flaps fail to lower when the control is moved to the DOWN position, it is probably due to a leak in
the pipeline, resulting in complete loss of air pressure and consequent brake failure.
(ii) Alternatively, if a leak develops in the flaps control system the flaps will lower, but complete loss of air
pressure will follow and the brakes will become inoperative. (In this case a hissing sound may be heard
in the cockpit after selecting flaps DOWN.)
(iii) In either case the flaps control should immediately be returned to the UP position in order to allow
sufficient pressure to build up, so that a landing can be made with the brakes operative but without
flaps.
Note.- As a safeguard pilots should always check the pneumatic pressure supply after selecting flaps
DOWN.
59. Hood jettisoning
The hood may be jettisoned in an emergency by pulling the rubber knob inside the top of the hood
forward and downward and then pushing the lower edge of the hood outwards with the elbows.
Warning.- Before jettisoning the hood the seat should be lowered and the head kept well down.
60. Forced landing
In the event of engine failure necessitating a forced landing:
(i) If a drop tank or bomb load is carried it should be jettisoned.
(ii) The fuel cut-off control (if fitted) should be pulled fully back.
(iii) The booster pump (if fitted) should be switched OFF.
(iv) The sliding hood should be opened and the cockpit door set on the catch (see para. 31).
(v) The flaps must not be lowered until it is certain that the selected area is within easy gliding reach.
(vi) The final straight approach should be made at the speeds given in para. 47.
(vii) If oil pressure is still available the glide can be lengthened considerably by pulling the propeller
speed control (or override) lever fully back past the stop in the quadrant.
61. Ditching
(i) Whenever possible the aircraft should be abandoned by parachute rather than ditched, since the
ditching qualities are known to be very poor.
(ii) When ditching is inevitable any external stores should be jettisoned (release will be more certain if the
aircraft is gliding straight) and the following procedure observed:
(a) The cockpit hood should be jettisoned.
(b) The flaps should be lowered in order to reduce the touchdown speed as much as possible.
(c) The undercarriage should be kept retracted.
(d) The safety harness should be kept tightly adjusted and the R/T plug should be disconnected.
(e) The engine, if available, should be used to help make the touchdown in a taildown attitude at as
low a forward speed as possible.
(f) Ditching should be along the swell, or into the wind if the swell is not steep, but the pilot should be
prepared for a tendency for the aircraft to dive when contact with the water is made.
62. Crowbar
A crowbar for sure in emergency is stowed in spring clips on the cockpit door.
YAKOVLEV YAK-1 SERIES 69 & YAK-1B

AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATIONS
SYSTEMS OPERATING PR OCEDURES
FLYING PROCEDURES

YAKOVLEV YAK-7B

AIRCRAFT SPEFICATIONS
SYSTEMS OPERATING PR OCEDURES
FLYING PROCEDURES