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Output Devices

Name: Beanchor McFarlane


School: Montego Bay High School
Grade:10-1
Teacher: Mr. Osborne
Table of Contents
Title Pages
Define ‘Output’ 1

Define Output Devices 2

Pictures of Output Devices

Examples of types of Output

 Hard copy output


 Soft copy output
 Human readable output
 Machine readable output

Expounding on output devices:

 Visual display unit


 Printers
 Plotters
 Audio output devices
 COM
 Audio response system
 Glossary
 Bibliography

Commented [BM1]:
Output
Any information that has been processed by and sent out from
a computer or similar device is considered output. A simple
example of output is anything you view on your computer
monitor. The bottom half of the image to the right shows data
being sent from a computer to a printer, which is considered
output. That data is then printed onto a piece of paper, also
considered a form of output. Output can be meaningful information or
gibberish, and it can appear in a variety of forms -- as binary numbers,
as characters, as pictures, and as printed pages. Output
devices include display screens, loudspeakers, and printers.
For example, display screens output images, printers output print, and
loudspeakers output sounds.

Output Devices
An output device is any peripheral device that receives data
from a computer, usually for display, projection, or physical
reproduction. For example, the image shows an inkjet printer, an
output device that can make a hard copy of any information
shown on your monitor, which is another example of an output
device. Monitors and printers are two of the most common output
devices used with a computer.
Types of output devices
The following list contains many different output devices. For further information, select
any of the listings with blue text.
 3D Printer
 Braille embosser
 Braille reader
 Flat panel
 GPS
 Headphones
 Computer Output Microfilm (COM)
 Monitor
 Plotter
 Printer (Dot matrix printer, Inkjet printer, and Laser printer)
 Projector
 Sound card
 Speakers
 Speech-generating device (SGD)
 TV
 Video card
Tip:Keep in mind that drives such as a CD-ROM, DVD, Floppy
diskette drive, and USB Flash drive may be capable of receiving
information from the computer, but they are not output devices.
These are considered storage devices.

Why do computers need output devices?


A computer can still work without an output device. However,
without an output device, you'd have no way of determining what
the computer is doing, if there are errors, or if it needs additional
input. For example, you can disconnect your monitor from your
computer, and it will still function, but it's not going to be very
useful.
Pictures of Output Devices

Braille embosser

Speakers 3d printer
plotter
Computer output microfilm

Examples of types of Output


Types of Output are as follows:
 Hard copy output
 Soft copy output
 Human readable output
 Machine readable output

Hard copy output


A hard copy output is a printed copy of information from a computer.
Sometimes referred to as a printout, a hard copy is so-called because it exists
as a physical object. Hard copy output devices are devices that provide
output on printed paper or other permanent media that is human readable
(tangible). Examples of devices that produce hard copy are printers, plotters
and microfiche. Examples of hard copy documents would include a flyer, a
letter, a book, a card, and so on.

Soft copy output


A soft copy is a copy of text stored on the computer and only
accessible through the computer. The most common method of
displaying a soft copy is through a computer monitor or other
display. Soft copy output devices give screen displayed output that is lost
when the computer is shut off. Soft copy devices allow the viewing of
information that can be rearranged, modified or corrected to suit your
needs. Some examples of soft copy output devices are monitors,
projectors, video display terminals. A digital .JPG file, a digital Word
document, email attachment are all examples of soft copy. Once soft copy
is printed or burned, they are referred to as hard copy.

Human Readable Output


A human-readable medium or human-readable format is a representation
of data or information that can be naturally read by humans.
In computing, human-readable data is often encoded as ASCII or Unicode text, rather
than presented in a binary representation. Virtually all data can be parsed by a suitably
equipped and programmed computer or machine; reasons for choosing binary formats
over text formats usually center on issues of storage space, as a binary representation
usually takes up fewer bytes of storage, and efficiency of access (input and output)
without parsing or conversion
Machine Readable Output
Machine-readable data is data (or metadata) in a format that can be easily
processed by a computer.
In telecommunications and computing a machine-readable
medium (automated data medium) is a medium capable of storing data in
a format readable by a mechanical device (rather than human readable).
Examples of machine-readable media include magnetic media such
as magnetic disks, cards, tapes, and drums, punched cards and paper
tapes, optical discs, barcodes and magnetic ink characters.

Examples of machine readable output


Important Output Devices
The following devices are important for most people in their
everyday lives. These are :
 Visual display unit
 Printers
 Plotters
 Audio output devices
 COM
 Audio response system
 Glossary
 Appendix

Visual display unit


A Visual display unit is a older British term used to describe
any device used with computers to display images. For
example, a flat panel display and a projector are both
examples of VDUs. However, VDU is most commonly used to
describe the CRT monitor, a now archaic standard that has
been replaced by flat panel displays.
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitor

Types of Visual Display Units


Two main technologies, liquid crystals and organic light-emitting diodes, currently
dominate the market for visual displays. An older technology, the cathode ray tube, has
all but vanished from the scene, and plasma monitors also see use in some
applications.

Liquid Crystal Displays

Liquid crystals are liquid materials that have some of the optical properties
of crystals. A display made of liquid crystals acts like an array of tiny
shutters that transmit or block light. A bright light source called a backlight,
situated behind the LCD screen, shines through the LCD, creating
thousands of tiny dots of red, blue and green that form a color image.
Because the backlight is sealed inside the display, you normally never see it
directly, only its light filtered through the LCD panel.
LCD with Fluorescent Backlight

Some LCD displays use a fluorescent lamp as the white backlight. The
lamps are thin, lightweight, inexpensive and produce a bright white light. On
the downside, fluorescents contain small amounts of mercury vapor.
Although the mercury does not pose a serious problem in household and
office settings, the environmental consequences of heavy metals from
monitor e-waste are significant.

LCD with LED Backlight

The LED backlight is a newer technology for LCD displays that uses light-emitting
diodes instead of a fluorescent lamp. The LED produces white light, but uses no
mercury.

Organic Light-Emitting Diode

Although the OLED screen is superficially similar to LCD technology,


OLEDs require no backlight; they produce their own light. Because of this
advantage, OLED displays can be much thinner than an LCD equivalent.
And because a backlight consumes significant amounts of energy, OLEDs
help improve battery life in mobile devices. Although the image quality of
OLED displays is very good, their working lifetime is currently not as good
as LCDs.

Cathode Ray Tube

Before the 1990s, nearly all computer displays, television sets and video
monitors used cathode-ray tube technology. A CRT is a thick glass vacuum
tube, one end of which is a flattened screen with a phosphor coating on the
inside. In the vacuum, a beam of electrons from a hot metal filament at the
end opposite the screen strikes the phosphors, producing a glow. An
electronic steering mechanism bends the beam, causing it to scan across
and down the screen, "painting" a series of visible images on it. Although
CRTs produce high-quality pictures, LCD and other new technologies are
much lighter and safer, and have led to the cathode-ray tube's
obsolescence.

Plasma

A plasma display screen consists of tiny gas capsules arranged in a grid; when
stimulated by electricity, the gas glows much in the same manner as a neon sign.
Some aspects of image quality, such as the darkness of blacks and the vividness of
colors, can be better in plasma screens than LCDs. However, LCDs are more energy-
efficient than plasmas; due to battery life concerns, virtually all laptop computers have
LCD screens and not plasma technology. Most plasma screens currently sold tend to
be in the 40-inch to 60-inch size range where image quality helps justify the greater
energy consumption.

Imaging technologies

As with television, many different hardware technologies exist for


displaying computer-generated output:

 Liquid crystal display (LCD). TFT LCDs are the most popular display
device for new computers.
o Passive LCDs produce poor contrast, slow response, and other
image defects. These were used in most laptops until the mid
1990s.
o Thin Film Transistor LCDs give much better picture quality in several
respects. Nearly all modern LCD monitors are TFT.

 Cathode ray tube (CRT)


o Raster scan computer monitors, which produce images using pixels.
These were the most popular display device for older computers.
o Vector displays, as used on the Vectrex, many scientific and radar
applications, and several early arcade machines (notably Asteroids) –
always implemented using CRT displays due to requirement for a
deflection system, though can be emulated on any raster-based
display.
o Television sets were used by most early personal and home
computers, connecting composite video to the television set using a
modulator. Resolution and image quality were strongly limited by
the display capabilities of television.

 Video projectors use CRT, LCD, DLP, LCOS or many other technologies to
send light through the air to a projection screen. Front projectors use
screens as reflectors to send light back, while rear projectors use screens
as diffusers to refract light forward. Rear projectors are often integrated
into the same case as their screen.

Performance measurements

The performance parameters of a monitor are:

 Luminance, measured in candelas per square meter (cd/m²).


 Viewable image size, measured diagonally. For CRTs the viewable size is
typically one inch (25 mm) smaller than the tube itself.
 Display resolution, the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that
can be displayed. Maximum resolution is limited by dot pitch.
 Dot pitch, describes the distance between pixels of the same color in
millimeters. In general, the smaller the dot pitch (e.g. 0.24 mm), the
sharper the picture will appear.
 Refresh rate, the number of times in a second that a display is
illuminated. Maximum refresh rate is limited by response time.
 Response time, the amount of time a pixel in a monitor takes to go from
active (black) to inactive (white) and back to active (black) again. It is
measured in milliseconds (ms). Lower numbers mean faster transitions
and therefore fewer visible image artifacts.
 Contrast ratio, the contrast ratio is defined as the ratio of the luminosity
of the brightest color (white) to that of the darkest color (black) that the
monitor is capable of producing.
 Power consumption, measured in watts (W).
 Aspect ratios, which is the horizontal size compared to the vertical size,
e.g. 4:3 is the standard aspect ratio, so that a screen with a width of
1024 pixels will have a height of 768 pixels. A widescreen display can
have an aspect ratio of 16:9, which means a display that is 1024 pixels
wide will have a height of 576 pixels.
 Viewing angle, the ability to be seen from an angle without excessive
degradation to the image, measured in degrees horizontally and
vertically.

Problems

Dead pixels

A few LCD monitors are produced with “dead pixels”. Due to the desire for
affordable monitors, most manufacturers sell monitors with dead pixels.
Almost all manufacturers have clauses in their warranties which claim
monitors with fewer than some number of dead pixels are not broken and
will not be replaced. The dead pixels are usually stuck with the green, red,
and/or blue sub-pixels either individually always stuck on or off.
Like image persistence, this can sometimes be partially or fully reversed by
using the same method listed below, however the chance of success is far
lower than with a “stuck” pixel. It can also sometimes be repaired by
physically flicking the pixel, however it is always a possibility for someone
to use too much force and rupture the weak screen internals doing this.
Stuck pixels

LCD monitors, while lacking phosphor screens and thus immune to


phosphor burn-in, have a similar condition known as image persistence,
where the pixels of the LCD monitor can “remember” a particular color and
become “stuck” and unable to change. Unlike phosphor burn-in, however,
image persistence can sometimes be reversed partially or completely. This
is accomplished by rapidly displaying varying colors to “wake up” the stuck
pixels.
Plasma burn-in
Burn-in re-emerged as an issue with early plasma displays, which are more
vulnerable to this than CRTs. Screen savers with moving images may be
used with these to minimize localized burn. Periodic change of the colour
scheme in use also helps.
Glare

Glare is a problem caused by the relationship between lighting and screen,


or by using monitors in bright sunlight. LCDs and flat screen CRTs are less
prone to reflected glare than conventional curved CRTs, and aperture grille
CRTs, which are curved on one axis only, are less prone to it than other
CRTs curved on both axes.
If the problem persists despite moving the monitor or adjusting lighting, a
filter using a mesh of very fine black wires may be placed on the screen to
reduce glare and improve contrast. These filters were popular in the late
1980s. They do also reduce light output.
The above will only work against reflective glare, direct glare (such as
sunlight) will completely wash out most monitors’ internal lighting, and can
only be dealt with by use of a hood or transreflective LCD.
Colour misregistration

With exceptions of correctly aligned video projectors and stacked LEDs,


most display technologies, especially LCD, have an inherent misregistration
of the color channels, that is, the centers of the red, green, and blue dots
do not line up perfectly. Sub-pixel rendering depends on this
misalignment; technologies making use of this include the Apple II from
1976, and more recently Microsoft (ClearType,1998) and XFree86 (X
Rendering Extension).
Incomplete spectrum

RGB displays produce most of the visible color spectrum, but not all. This
can be a problem where good color matching to non-RGB images is
needed. This issue is common to all monitor technologies with 3 color
channels.

Resolution.

Resolution is defined as the smallest discernible or measurable detail in a visual presentation.


For example, the resolution of a CRT display can be expressed by the maximum number of
lines that can be displayed in a given space, as usually done with the resolution of photographic
films. One can also describe the minimum spot size that a device can display at a given
luminance (brightness). The smaller the minimum spot, the better the device. Thus, the number
of dots of minimum size (picture elements—also known as pixels) per inch (dpi) represents the
quality of the device, e.g., a 72 dpi device is inferior to a 200 dpi display.

In general, the resolution of most computer displays is well below 100 dpi: some graphic
displays may achieve 150 dpi, however, only with limited brightness. This means, if a high
contrast is required, the resolution will be lower. Compared with the resolution of print, e.g.,
300 dpi or 600 dpi for laser printers, the quality of VDUs is inferior. (An image with 300 dpi
has 9 times more elements in the same space than a 100 dpi image.)
Printer
A printer is an output device that prints paper documents. This includes text
documents, images, or a combination of both.
The printed output produced by a printer is often called a hard copy, which is
the physical version of an electronic document. While some printers can only
print black and white hard copies, most printers today can produce color prints.
In fact, many home printers can now produce high-quality photo prints that rival
professionally developed photos. This is because modern printers have a
high DPI (dots per inch) setting, which allows documents to printed with a very
fine resolution.

Types of Printers
There are two types of printers.
Impact printers
An impact printer makes contact with the paper. It usually forms the print image by
pressing an inked ribbon against the paper using a hammer or pins. Following are some
examples of impact printers.
Dot-Matrix Printers
The dot-matrix printer uses print heads containing from 9 to 24 pins. These pins
produce patterns of dots on the paper to form the individual characters. The 24 pin dot-

matrix printer produces more dots that a 9 pin dot-matrix printer, which results in much
better quality and clearer characters. The general rule is: the more pins, the clearer the
letters on the paper. The pins strike the ribbon individually as the print mechanism
moves across the entire print line in both directions, i-e, from left to right, then right to
left, and so on. The user can produce a color output with a dot-matrix printer (the user
will change the black ribbon with a ribbon that has color stripes). Dot-matrix printers are
inexpensive and typically print at speeds of 100-600 characters per second.
Dot matrix printers from companies such as Epson and OKI provide fast printing for
busy locations.

Fast, Accurate Printing


Dot matrix solutions can reach close to 600 characters per second, letting you print an
entire month's billing or the entire day's worth of shipping invoices quickly. Dot matrix
printers use specialty computer paper that features holed margins to guide the paper
through the printing feed. Extra page guidance reduces the chance of jams, letting staff
concentrate on work instead of babysitting printer functionality.

Durable Hardware
Dot matrix printers from Epson and OKI carry a range of manufacturers' warranties,
including 1-, 2-, and 3-year guarantees. Some printers are rated at 20,000 hours of
reliable printing, ensuring you receive maximum value from your hardware purchase.
Many impact printers include ribbons with a life up to 4 million characters.

Green Printer Options


The Epson and OKI dot matrix printer lines include models that carry environmental
certifications. Select from printers that feature Energy Star compliance certifications to
reduce power draw in your office and comply with internal environmental processes.
Green printers offer the same capacity and flexibility as other dot matrix models.

Multiple Connectivity and Form Options


Select the dot matrix printer that's right for your office. Options include printers that
connect via USB or parallel ports. You can also select printers that meet your form
needs; options include units that accept five-, six-, or seven-part forms.

Daisy-wheel printers
In order to get the quality of type found on typewriters, a daisy-wheel impact printer can
be used. It is called daisy-wheel printer because the print mechanism looks like a daisy;
at the end of each “Petal” is a fully formed character which produces solid-line print. A
hammer strikes a “petal” containing a character against the ribbon, and the character
prints on the paper. Its speed is slow typically 25-55 characters per second.
Line printers
In business where enormous amount of material are printed, the character-at-a-time
printers are too slow; therefore, these users need line-at-a-time printers. Line printers,
or line-at-a-time printers, use special mechanism that can print a whole line at once; they
can typically print the range of 1,200 to 6,000 lines per minute. Drum, chain, and band
printers are line-at-a-time printers.
Drum printer
A drum printer consists of a solid, cylindrical drum that has raised characters in bands
on its surface. The number of print positions across the drum equals the number
available on the page. This number typically ranges from 80-132 print positions. The
drum rotates at a rapid speed. For each possible print position there is a print hammer
located behind the paper. These hammers strike the paper, along the ink ribbon, against
the proper character on the drum as it passes. One revolution of the drum is required to
print each line. This means that all characters on the line are not printed at exactly the
same time, but the time required to print the entire line is fast enough to call them line
printers. Typical speeds of drum printers are in the range of 300 to 2000 lines per minute.
Chain printers
A chain printer uses a chain of print characters wrapped around two pulleys. Like the
drum printer, there is one hammer for each print position. Circuitry inside the printer
detects when the correct character appears at the desired print location on the page.
The hammer then strikes the page, pressing the paper against a ribbon and the character
located at the desired print position. An impression of the character is left on the page.
The chain keeps rotating until all the required print positions on the line have filled. Then
the page moves up to print the next line. Speeds of chain printers range from 400 to
2500 characters per minute.
Band printers
A band printer operates similar to chain printer except it uses a band instead of a chain
and has fewer hammers. Band printer has a steel band divided into five sections of 48
characters each. The hammers on a band printer are mounted on a cartridge that moves
across the paper to the appropriate positions. Characters are rotated into place and
struck by the hammers. Font styles can easily be changed by replacing a band or chain.
Non-impact printers
Non-impact printers do not use a striking device to produce characters on the paper; and
because these printers do not hammer against the paper they are much quieter.
Following are some non-impacted printers.
Ink-jet printers

Ink-jet printers work in the same fashion as dot-matrix printers in the form images or
characters with little dots. However, the dots are formed by tiny droplets of ink. Ink-jet
printers form characters on paper by spraying ink from tiny nozzles through an electrical
field that arranges the charged ink particles into characters at the rate of approximately
250 characters per second. The ink is absorbed into the paper and dries instantly.
Various colors of ink can also be used.
One or more nozzles in the print head emit a steady stream of ink drops. Droplets of ink
are electrically charged after leaving the nozzle. The droplets are then guided to the
paper by electrically charged deflecting plates [one plate has positive charge (upper
plate) and the other has negative charge (lover plate)]. A nozzle for black ink may be all
that’s needed to print text, but full-color printing is also possible with the addition of
needed to print text, but full-color printing is also possible with the addition three extra
nozzles for the cyan, magenta, and yellow primary colors. If a droplet isn’t needed for
the character or image being formed, it is recycled back to its input nozzle.

Several manufacturers produce color ink-jet printer. Some of these printers come with
all their color inks in a cartridge; if you want to replace on color, you must replace all
the colors. Other color ink-jet printers allow you to replace ink individually. These
printers are a better choice if user uses one color more than other colors. These
printers produce less noise and print in better quality with greater speed.

Best for: Home offices or small businesses that don't need to print a lot, or businesses
and companies that need to print high-quality images and photos

Pros:

 Lower startup costs than laser printers

 Ink cartridges are cheaper to replace than toner and can be refilled

 Produce high-quality prints and better output than laser printers

 Can print on different types of paper (such as glossy photo paper), textures and
fabrics

 No warm-up required, can be used immediately

 Smaller and can fit in tighter office spaces

 Easier to maintain

Cons:

 Slower than laser printers

 Not economical if you print a lot

 Water-based ink, so prints can fade and be easily damaged

 May produce fuzzy text


Laser printers
A laser printer works like a photocopy machine. Laser printers produce images on paper
by directing a laser beam at a mirror which bounces the beam onto a drum. The drum
has a special coating on it to which toner (an ink powder) sticks. Using patterns of small
dots, a laser beam conveys information from the computer to a positively charged drum
to become neutralized. From all those areas of drum which become neutralized, the
toner detaches. As the paper rolls by the drum, the toner is transferred to the paper
printing the letters or other graphics on the paper. A hot roller bonds the toner to the
paper.

Laser printers use buffers that store an entire page at a time. When a whole page is
loaded, it will be printed. The speed of laser printers is high and they print quietly
without producing much noise. Many home-use laser printers can print eight pages per
minute, but faster and print approximately 21,000 lines per minute, or 437 pages per
minute if each page contains 48 lines. When high speed laser printers were introduced
they were expensive. Developments in the last few years have provided relatively low-
cost laser printers for use in small businesses.

Best for: Fast, high-volume printing

Pros:

 Lower cost per page and long-term costs for businesses that have high printing
volumes

 Faster than inkjet printers

 Larger paper tray capacities, so fewer refills

 Produce sharper text on office paper

 Toners are less wasteful than replacing ink cartridges

Cons:

 Higher purchase price

 Bigger and need more space

 Heavier than and not as portable as inkjet printers

 Produce heat, thus can generally only print on office paper


 Not meant for colored, graphic-heavy prints

 Need to warm up at start

 Harder to maintain than inkjet printers


Thermal printers

A thermal transfer printer is a non-impact printer that uses heat to register an


impression on paper. A thermal transfer printer has a print head containing many small
resistive heating pins that on contact, depending on the type of thermal transfer printer,
melt wax-based ink onto ordinary paper or burn dots onto special coated paper. A
microprocessor determines which individual heating pins are heated to produce the
printed image. The print head spans the entire width of the paper or medium to be
printed on. Thermal transfer printers are popular for printing bar codes, labels, price
tags, and other specialty print jobs. There are two types of thermal transfer printers:
direct thermal and thermal wax transfer.

Direct thermal: The direct thermal printer prints the image by burning dots onto coated
paper as it passes over the heated print head. Direct thermal printers do not use
ribbons. Early fax machines used direct thermal printing.

Thermal wax transfer: This type of printer uses a thermal transfer ribbon that contains
wax-based ink. Heat is applied to the ribbon using a thermal print head that melts the
ink transferring it to the paper where it is permanent after it cools. A typical thermal
transfer ribbon consists of three layers: the base material, the heat melting ink, and the
coating on the print side of the base material. The coating and base material help keep
ink from adhering to the print head which can cause poor print quality. Monochrome
and color thermal transfer ribbons are available. It is recommended that the print head
be cleaned between each ribbon change with a cotton swab and isopropyl alcohol.

There are many advantages in using a thermal printer such as costs, printing speed,
efficiency, quality of print and mobility. For cost, the thermal printer is very economical
since it is inkless. It does not use any ribbons or cartridges, so it means that
companies can save a lot of money and avoid unnecessary expenses on ribbon
supplies. The only consumables for printing would be the paper itself. Organizations
have benefited from
this technology because it is cost-effective and at the same time a reliable choice.
Employees can now work continuously and avoid interruptions during their working
hours since there is no need for them to change the ribbons or cartridges whenever the
ink level becomes low. There is zero downtime in the operations which would
maximize the working hours. The printing speed is one attribute that is always being
considered and for thermal printers it is not a problem. Thermal printers print faster and
more quietly. Labels are printed quickly with the use of thermal printers and it leaves a
lasting impression on the customers being served.

Customer satisfaction is important in businesses and it significantly improves by using


thermal printers. Efficiency is another advantage of a thermal printer because it
ensures good quality printouts. Labels are more legible and provide a lasting output for
it eliminates smudges which is evident for printed inks that may fade easily over time.
Also, thermal printing has shown that it can be weather resistant for it can last a long
time even with extreme temperatures. Another feature of the thermal printer which
makes them advantageous is mobility. They are lightweight and are easy to carry
around and bring the thermal printer to different locations. They do not consume a lot
of space at home or in the office and the good thing about them is that they are easy to
use and operate.

Some additional direct thermal label advantages include the following:

 No issues with ribbons wrinkling when printing


 Less physical inventory to store
 Eliminates issue of ordering/using wrong label and ribbon sizes
 Direct Thermal Printers don’t need capacity for ribbons so they are more
compact

There are a couple disadvantages to consider when using direct thermal labels.

disadvantages:
 Labels cannot withstand long exposure to sunlight or extreme heat. Leave a gas
station receipt on your dashboard and you will see it fade from the exposure.
These receipts use similar direct thermal technology.
 Even without sun exposure, the labels will fade over long periods of time. For
labeling boxes kept in inventory for years, direct thermal is not the best choice.
 Print speeds tend be slower.
 Depending on the market environment, direct thermal labels can cost a little more
than thermal transfer labels with ribbons.
 Putting acrylic adhesive tape over a direct thermal label will cause the label to
fade.

General printer troubleshooting

First, make sure that the printer is on. When a printer is on, it should have
some light or LED (usually green) indicating it's receiving power.
If you do not have any indicator light, make sure the printer is connected to
a working power outlet by verifying each end of the power cable. Next,
press the printer power button.
If after doing the above steps, the printer still does not display a power
status indicator light, you have a serious printer issue and we suggest
contacting the printer manufacturer for repair or replacement.
Cables not connected properly

Your printer should have two cables connected to it: the power cable and
the data cable. Make sure the power and data cables (parallel
cable or USB cable) are connected to both the printer and computer.
Printer error (orange or blinking light)

After your printer has completed its initial startup, you should see a solid
colored light. If the indicator is blinking or is orange, often this is an
indication of a printer error, like a paper jam or an issue with the ink or
toner cartridge. As there are not standards for all printers, if you see a
blinking light.
No paper or paper jam

Without paper, your printer will not be able to print. Make sure you have
paper loaded into the printer paper cartridge or tray. Next, verify that no
printer paper is jammed or partially fed into the printer. If you suspect
paper is stuck somewhere it shouldn't be, .
Inkjet printer ink related issues

Often when you're encountering an ink related issue, your printer status
indicator light (mentioned above) should be flashing. If this is not occurring,
you may want to skip to the next section. However, if you've recently
inserted a new ink cartridge, you may want to try the below suggestions.

Printer self tests

Most printers have a way of printing a test page. A printer test page allows
you to determine if the printer is working. The printer self test is usually
accomplished by holding down a series of keys.
You can also perform a software self-test to determine if the computer can
see the printer and it's able to print. Follow the steps below to perform this
test.
1. Open the Control Panel .
2. Click or double-click the Printers, Printers and Fax, or Devices and
Printers icon.
3. Right-click on the printer you want to test and select the Properties or Printer
Properties option. If you do not see your printer listed, your printer is not
installed.
4. In the printer's Properties window, click the Print Test Page button.

5. If the printer can print a test page, your printer is installed and set up properly.
However, if you are unable to print in other programs, the program you are
attempting to print from likely has issues.
Plotters

A plotter is a computer hardware device much like a printer that is used for
printing vector graphics. Instead of toner, plotters use a pen, pencil,
marker, or another writing tool to draw multiple, continuous lines onto
paper rather than a series of dots like a traditional printer. Though once
widely used for computer-aided design, these devices have more or less
been phased out by wide-format printers. Plotters are used to produce
a hard copy of schematics and other similar applications.
Advantages of plotters

 Plotters can work on very large sheets of paper while maintaining high resolution.
 They can print on a wide variety of flat materials including plywood, aluminum,
sheet steel, cardboard, and plastic.
 Plotters allow the same pattern to be drawn thousands of times without any
image degradation.
Disadvantages of plotters

 Plotters are quite large when compared to a traditional printer.


 Plotters are also much more expensive than a traditional printer.
Audio Output Devices
What is the meaning of Audio Output Devices ?

Speakers
Speakers are the most common type of audio output device. On
laptops and other mobile computing devices, speakers are
usually built in. External speakers can attach to a computer
using a variety of
audio plugs, or they can attach using a USB connection. Some
external speakers require a separate energy supply, and must be
plugged into the wall or a power strip.
Headphones
Headphones are another type of audio output device. Variations
on the headphone concept include ear buds, which fit inside the
ear, and headsets which include both headphones and a
microphone.
Sound Card
A sound card is a computer component that converts information
from digital audio files into electronic sound signals. These
signals are then passed on to an audio output device, such as
speakers or headphones. Although sound cards do not
themselves play sound, they do output audio signals. For this
reason, they can be considered audio output devices.
Device Drivers
A device driver is a small computer program that tells your
computer how to access and use devices attached to it,
including sound cards. Some specialized speakers and
headphones require their own device drivers, particularly if they
attach using a USB connection.

Error Messages
If a computer cannot find the device driver for its own internal
sound card, users may receive an error message stating that no
audio output devices have been installed. This might happen, for
instance, if a user accidentally deletes the driver file, or if the file
becomes corrupted. Replacement device drivers can usually be
downloaded for free from the product manufacturer's website.
Computer output on microfilm (COM)
Microfilm is a special type of photographic film which can store images at greatly
reduced sizes (about 1/50th of the original size). Traditionally companies that
needed to store a lot of documents would photograph the documents and store the
images on microfilm. The original documents would then be destroyed and the
microfilm photographs of the documents would be kept instead. The microfilm
photographs were much smaller than the original documents so they could be stored
more efficiently and cheaply.

Images stored on microfilm can be viewed using a special reader that magnifies the
images and projects them onto a screen. Suitable readers are fairly cheap to buy.

Computers can output information directly to microfilm for long-term storage. This
is known as Computer Output on Microfilm (COM).

Microfilm is rarely used today. Documents which need to be stored are


usually scanned and saved electronically on high capacity storage media.
Documents stored electronically can be indexed and searched more efficiently than
documents stored photographically on microfilm.

An important advantage to using computer output microfilm for document


archival is its storage capacity. The Indiana Commission on Public Records
states that a single microfiche card can hold 230 images, and a 1-cubic-foot
storage box, containing 6,000 cards, can hold 1,380,000 images. The
commission concluded that if each of these images were to be printed on a
single sheet of paper, their storage would require 460 boxes, as each would
only hold 3,000 pages.
In addition to increased storage efficiency, the commission found that newer
COM technology offers superior image quality at a cost that is comparable
to that of paper printing. If their per-sheet cost of printing a black-and-white
document on standard-sized paper from a centralized printer is 3 cents, the
same document could be produced on COM microfiche for 0.003 cents per
sheet. These figures do not include the additional cost reduction from
savings on storage space.
Audio Response System or unit

(ARS)

audio response unit (ARU): A device that provides synthesized voice responses to dual-tone
multi frequency signaling input by processing calls based on (a) the call-originator input,
(b) information received from a host data base, and (c) information in the incoming call, such as
the time of day. Note: ARUs are used to increase the number of information calls handled and
to provide consistent quality in information retrieval
An ARS can be deployed in several ways:
1. Equipment installed on the customer premises
2. Equipment installed in the PSTN (public switched telephone network)
3. Application service provider (ASP)

An automatic call distributor (ACD) is often the first point of contact when calling many
larger businesses. An ACD uses digital storage devices to play greetings or
announcements, but typically routes a caller without prompting for input. An ARS can
play announcements and request an input from the caller. This information can be
used to profile the caller and route the call to an agent with a particular skill set. (A skill
set is a function applied to a group of call-center agents with a particular skill.)
Interactive voice response can be used to front-end a call center operation by
identifying the needs of the caller. Information can be obtained from the caller such as
an account number. Answers to simple questions such as account balances or pre-
recorded information can be provided without operator intervention. Account numbers
from the ARS are often compared to caller ID data for security reasons and additional
ARS responses are required if the caller ID does not match the account record.

ARS systems are used to service high call volumes at lower cost. The use of ARS allows callers' queries to
be resolved without a live agent. If callers do not find the information they need, the calls may be transferred to
a live agent. The approach allows live agents to have more time to deal with complex interactions. When an
ARS system answers multiple phone numbers, the use of DNIS ensures that the correct application and
language is executed. A single large ARS system can handle calls for thousands of applications, each with its
own phone numbers and script.
Call centers use ARS systems to identify and segment callers. The ability to identify customers allows services
to be tailored according to the customer profile. The caller can be given the option to wait in the queue, choose
an automated service, or request a callback. The system may obtain caller line identification (CLI) data from
the network to help identify or authenticate the caller. Additional caller authentication data could include
account number, personal information, password and biometrics (such as voice print). ARS also enables
customer prioritization. In a system wherein individual customers may have a different status, the service will
automatically prioritize the individual's call and move customers to the front of a specific queue.
Example of ARS
Glossary

 Archaic – very old or old-fashioned.

 Binary Number – a number expressed in the binary


numbers system or base 2 numeral system which
represents numeric values using two different symbols, 0
and 1.

 Diode – a semiconductor device with two terminals,


typically allowing the flow of current inexpensive one
direction only.

 Fluorescent- (of a substance) having or showing


fluorescence.

 Human readable – able to be read or interpreted by


human.

 Machine readable – in a form that a computer can


understand.

 Microfiche – a flat piece of film containing


microphotographs of the pages of a newspaper,
catalogue or other document.
 Microfilm- Film containing microphotographs of a
newspaper, catalogue or other document.

 Peripheral devices – any auxiliary device such as a


computer mouse or keyboard that connects to and works
with the computer in some way.

 Printer - a machine for printing text or pictures especially


one linked to a computer.

 Pixel – a minute area of illumination on a display screen


one of many from which an image is composed.

 Synthesize – make (something) by synthesis , especially


chemically.

 Tangible – perceptible by touch.


Bibliography

Www.computerhope.com

Www.whatis.techtarget.com

Www.quora.com

Www.differencebetween.info

Www.pressreader.com

Www.kcse-online.info

Www.webopedia.com

Www.microfiche.scanning360.com

Www.Ictsmart.tripod.com

Www.participedia.net

Www.uis.edu