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SOCRATES & PLATO  Adopting some ideas from Aristotle

SOCRATES
MAN IS COMPOSED OF TWO PARTS
 first philosopher who engaged in a 1. MATTER or HYLE
systematic questioning about the self  Refers to the common stuff that make up
 His mission is “the true task of the everything in the universe
philosopher is to know oneself”
2. FORM or MORPHE
 Body and soul are two important aspect of
his personhood  Refers to the essence of a substance or
 Every man is composed of body and soul – thing
Every individual is dualistic
SOUL – is what animates the body
BODY - all individuals have an imperfect,
impermanent aspect BODY – What makes us human
SOUL - all individuals have a perfect and
RENE DESCARTES
permanent
 The father of Modern Philosophy
PLATO  conceived that the human person as having
 Socrates student a body and mind
 Supported the idea of Socrates “man is a  His famous treatise is “The Meditations of
dual nature of body and soul First Philosophy”
 Do not believe in soul
THREE COMPONENTS OF THE SOUL  Body is nothing else but a machine that
1. RATIONAL SOUL attached to the mind
 Forged by the reason and intellect has to
THE SELF TWO DISTINCT ENTITIES
govern the affairs of the human person
1. COGITO or THE THING THAT THINKS
2. SPIRITED SOUL
 Which is The Mind
 Which is in charge of emotions, should be
kept at bay 2. EXTENZA or EXTENSION OF THE MIND
3. APPETITIVE SOUL  Which is The Body
 In charge of base desire, like eating,
drinking, sleeping, and having sexual DAVID HUME
intercourse, is controlled as well
 A Scottish philosopher has a very unique
AUGUSTINE & THOMAS AQUINAS way of looking at man.
 Empiricist who believes that one can know
ST. AUGUSTINE
only what comes from the senses and
 Human person reflects the entire spirit of experience
the medieval world when it comes to man  According to him men can only attain
 Adopted some ideas from Plato but with knowledge by experience
religious side  “The self is nothing else but a bundle of
 “Man is bifurcated nature” – there is an expression”
aspect of man, which dwells in the world,
THE SELF CATEGORIZED IN TWO
that is imperfect and continuously yearns to
be with the divine while the other is 1. IMPRESSION
capable of reaching immortality
 Are the basic object of our experience or
BODY – is bound to die on earth
sensation
SOUL – to anticipate living eternally in a realm of
spiritual bliss in communion with God 2. IDEAS
 Copies of Impression
ST. THOMAS AQUINAS
 The most eminent 13th century scholar and
stalwart of the medieval philosophy
appended something to this Christian view.
WHAT IS SELF? GENDER NEUTRAL
 Commonly defined by the following  There is a clear distinction between third
characteristics: person male and third person female
Separate, Self – Contained, Independent, pronoun
Consistent, Unitary, and Private.
THE SELF & DEVELOPMENT OF THE SOCIAL
 Separate – It is meant that the self is
WORLD
distinct from other selves
 Unitary – It is the center of all experiences MEAD & VYGOTSKY
and thoughts that run through a certain
 Human person develop with the use of
person
language acquisition and interaction with
 Self-contained – Distinctness is allowed
others.
with its own thoughts, characteristics, and
volition MEAD
 Independent – Does not require any other  Believes that through this that a child
self for to exist delineates the “I” from the rest
 Consistent – It has a personality that is
enduring and therefore can be expected to VYGOTSKY
persist for quite some time  Believes that a child internalizes real – life
 Private – self is isolated from the external dialogues that he has had with others, with
world. It lives within its own world his family, his primary caregiver, or his
THE SELF & CULTURE playmates

MARCEL MAUSS COGNITIVE & EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

 The French and Anthropologist  Is always a mimicry of how it is done in the


social world, in the external reality where
TWO FACES OF SELF he is in
1. MOI SELF & THE FAMILY
 Refers to a person’s sense of who he is, is  The kind of family that we are born in and
body, and his basic identity; his biological the resources available to us (HUMAN),
givenness Spiritual, economic will certainly affect sus
 Person basic identity and the kind of development that we will
2. PERSONNE have as we go through life

 Is compose of social concept of what it GENDER & THE SELF


means to be who he is  Gender partly determines how we see
 Adjustment you will gonna do with your ourselves
environment
GENDER
MAHAL
 Is one of those loci of the self that is subject
 Means “love” and “value” to alteration, change, and development
 Bound with value with being expensive and
being precious
 From Sanskrit origin “Lubh” means desire
 Technically love is desire
LANGUAGE
 Another interesting aspect of this social
constructivism
FILIPINO LANGUAGE
 Is incredibly very interesting to talk about