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M.P.Donsión1, J.A. Güemes2

1

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Vigo, Campus of Lagoas Marcosende, 36310 Vigo (Spain),

donsion@vigo.es

2

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Basque Country (Spain)

Abstract. And AC arc furnace is an unbalanced, nonlinear and time varying load, which can cause many problems to

the power system quality. Different studies on arc furnaces harmonics analysis can be found in the bibliography of the

topic nevertheless it is very difficult obtain an exact model that take into account all the parameters that have influence

in the process then for this reason it is necessary to take measurements in different conditions. In this paper we’ll

present the harmonics distortions results and conclusions about three different measurement campaigns on a iron and

steel industry (SNL) with an AC arc furnace of 83 MW (170 TM) with a transformer of 120 MVA connected by a dirty

line of 220 kV (55 km) with the Carregado Substation where there are another nets connected with industrial and

domestic consumers.

Harmonics, inter-harmonics, voltage flicker and connection of the three arcs, then if a three-phase arc

unbalance are the power quality problems which are furnace operation were balanced, the zero sequence

introduced to the power system as a result of nonlinear components of the current wave would be null. Really,

and stochastic behaviour of the arc furnace operation. unbalance operation is the normal situation in the

The nonlinear voltage-current characteristic of the arc meltdown process and this produces zero sequence

can cause harmonic currents which when circulating by harmonics in the arc current. However, due to the

the net can produce harmonic voltages which can affect influence between phases, these harmonics components

to other users. do not reach the values that we would find in the current

wave of a single-phase operation arc.

Nevertheless, take into account that the arc melting

Different studies on arc furnaces harmonics analysis process is a stationary stochastic process it is difficult to

can be found in the bibliography of the topic, for obtain an accurate model for an arc furnace load. The

example, in [1] it is presented an arc model to carry out factors that affect the arc furnace operation are the

harmonic analysis of an AC three-phase arc furnace with melting materials, the electrode position, the electrode

a single-phase circuit. This model is based on V-I arm control scheme, and the system voltage and

characteristic of the arc and takes into account the effect impedance. For all of these reasons it is very important

of the arcs unbalance over the zero sequence harmonics. to take measurement.

Phase 1: 1,391644 % /2,728355 %

Phase 1 without SVC and the arc furnace working at

Figure 1. Electrical circuit chart of the arc furnace about 30 MW

supply from Carregado Substation

Maximum value/Minimum value of the current harmonic distortion Maximum value/Minimum value of the voltage unbalance: 0,103763 %

Phase 1: 4,641865 %/ 98,586993% /1,275674 %

Figure 3. Total Current Harmonic Distortion Chart of Figure 4. Chart of the unbalance with the arc furnace

Phase 1 without SVC and the arc furnace working at working at about 30 MW and without SVC.

about 30 MW.

and current harmonics values for the different phases Ib Vb

without SVC Ic

MINIMUM/MAXIMUM VOLTAGE THD BY

Vc

PHASE

AT THE CARREGADO SUBSTATION

Minimum Maximum

PHASE 1 1,39 % 2,73 %

PHASE 2 1,19 % 2,77 % ITCRc ITCRb ITCRa

PHASE 3 1,29 % 2,78 % ITCR1 ITCR2 ITCR3

ICc ICb ICa

MINIMUM/MAXIMUM CURRENT THD BY

PHASE

AT THE PCC OF THE FACTORY C1 C2 C3

Minimum Maximum

PHASE 1 4,64 % 98,59 %

Bank of

PHASE 2 4,47 % 65,41 % capacitors Branch 1 Branch 2 Branch 3

PHASE 3 4,63 % 91,75 % Thyristor-Controlled Reactor

(TCR)

Static VAR Compensator (SVC)

In its simplest form, the SVC consists of a Thyristor- Figure 5. Representation of a three-phase static VAR

Controlled Reactor (TCR) in parallel with a bank of compensator (SVC)

capacitors. From an operational point of view, the SVC

behaves like a shunt-connected variable reactance,,

which either generates or absorbs reactive power in order Measurements with SVC

to regulate the voltage magnitude at the point of

connection to the inner network of the factory. It is used

extensively to provide fast reactive power and voltage

regulation support. The firing angle control of the

thyristor enables the SVC to have almost instantaneous

of response [5].

SNL factory is shown in Figure 5, where a three-phase,

Maximum value/Minimum value of the voltage harmonic distortion

three-winding transformer is used to interface the SVC Phase 1: 1,391644 % /3,0945771 %

to high-voltage bus. The transformer has to identical

secondary windings: one is used for delta-connected, six- Figure 6..Total Voltage Harmonic Distortion Chart of

pulse TCR and the other for star-connected, three-phase Phase 1 with SVC and the arc furnace working at about

bank of capacitors, with its star point floating. The three 30 MW

transformer windings are also taken to be star-connected,

with their star points floating

The unbalance is a consequence of the different

distribution of voltage harmonic per phase.

and current harmonics values for the different phases

with SVC

MINIMUM/MAXIMUM VOLTAGE THD

AT THE CARREGADO SUBSTATION

Minimum Maximum

Maximum value/Minimum value of the current harmonic distortion

Phase 1: 9,430219 %/ 96,728416% PHASE 1 1,39 % 3,09 %

PHASE 2 1,22 % 3,17 %

Figure 7. Total Current Harmonic Distortion Chart of

PHASE 3 1,27 % 3,18 %

Phase 1 with SVC and the arc furnace working at about

30 MW. MINIMUM/MAXIMUM CURRENT THD

AT THE PCC OF THE FACTORY

Minimum Maximum

PHASE 1 9,43 % 96,73 %

PHASE 2 7,06 % 73,83 %

PHASE 3 9,66 % 86,86%

Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is practically

the same (do not change) but the Current Total

Maximum value/Minimum value of the voltage unbalance: 0,094607 %

/ 0,5279703 % Harmonic Distortion increase about the double. This is a

consequence of the electronic devices that constitutes the

Figure 8. Chart of the unbalance with the arc furnace structure of the SVC.

working at about 30 MW and with SVC.

Measurements of flicker FLICKER Pst95 AT THE MEASUREMENT

We consider of the great importance evaluate the levels POINT

of flicker (short term and long term) at the factory

without and with the SVC installed. DATE D 16 D 17 D 18 D 19 D 20

PHASE 1 0,156 2,906 3,281 3,313 3,280

Table 3. Summary of the flicker Pst95% at the

Measurement Point of the SNL factory and transmitted PHASE 2 0,156 2,844 3,281 3,313 3,219

to the Carregado Substation without and with a SVC PHASE 3 0,188 2,750 3,031 3,156 3,094

system and the arc furnace working at about 30 MW [4

Pst95 FLICKER TRANSMITED TO

CARREGADO SUBESTATION

SNL FLICKER MEASUREMENTS WITHOUT

SVC DATE D16 D17 D18 D19 D20

FLICKER Pst95 AT THE MEASUREMENT PHASE 1 0,049 0,905 1,022 1,031 1,021

POINT

PHASE 2 0,049 0,885 1,022 1,031 1,002

DATE D9 D 10 D 11 D 12 D 13

PHASE 3 0,058 0,856 0,944 0,983 0,963

PHASE 1 0,125 6,031 6,313 6,031 5,938

PHASE 2 0,156 5,750 6,313 6,375 5,781 Like we can see at Table 3, the inclusion of the SVC

system reduce significantly the levels of flicker [4].

PHASE 3 0,125 5,688 5,625 5,688 5,188

Pst95 FLICKER TRANSMITTED TO The Pst index evaluate the short term flicker and the

CARREGADO SUBESTATION Plt index evaluate the long term flicker.

DATE D9 D10 D11 D12 D13

Usually the Pst is calculated using the following

PHASE 1 0,039 1,878 1,965 1,878 1,849

equation:

PHASE 2 0,049 1,775 1,965 1,985 1,800

PHASE 3 0,039 1,771 1,751 1,771 1,615 Pst = 0.0314P0.1 + 0.0525P1s + 0.0657P3s + 0.28P10S + 0.08P50S (1)

In equation (1) the most important factor is the way Along the measurements campaigns for the working

used to calculate the averaged percentiles. The value of power of the arc furnace at about 30 MW the maximum

the percentil will depend excessively on the type of the value of the total voltage harmonic distortion at the

classification classes in the Cumulative Probabilistic measurement point of the factory was 3,18% (about

Function (CPF). It will not be the same using a linear or 0,99% at the Carregado Substation) and the 95% of the

a logarithmic classification. harmonic factor values of the most significant harmonics

are within the limits of the standard EN50160. The

Psti3

∑i =1 12

12

Plt = 3 (2) maximum voltage harmonic factor value was 2,96%

corresponding to the 5 harmonic. The corresponding

The long term flicker, Plt, like we can see by the value at the Carregado substation will be about 0,92%.

equation (2), is obtained by 12 values of short term The maximum harmonic factor value for even

flicker, Pst. harmonics, corresponding to the 2 harmonic, was

0,369% (about 0,12% at the Carregado Substation)

which is a very low value. In any case we must take into

account that the arc furnace power is before the nominal

power (about 37%).

Z(n) (inner impedance of the factory for each harmonic)

and dependent of the SVC impedance, power of the load

connected, amount and type of the materials, etc. This

current harmonic distortion is very high and different for

Figure 9. Bar diagram of long term flicker without SVC each phase. It is incredible but the maximum current

connected. harmonic factor value at the measurement point was

86,86% that means about 27% at the Carregado

Substation.

term flicker for 95% of the measurements values

(Pst95%) in the Carregado Substation are just in the

limits of the EN 50160 standard . The maximum value of

the Pst95% obtained at the factory measurement point

was 3,313 that means 1,031 at the Carregado Substation.

This value was produced the 19 of February, 2003, in

phase 2 with a consumed power of 30.690 kW [4].

Figure 10. Bar diagram of long term flicker with SVC

connected

Time domain analysis of the arc furnaces with a

We can see by comparing of the figures 9 and 10 that

three-phase circuit are quite costly concerning

by using the SVC system the levels of long term flicker

computation time, and those which are accomplished on

is reduce substantially

a single phase circuit are not quite exact concerning

harmonic content, mainly the magnitude of zero

Conclusions sequence components.

In normal conditions but working at about 30 MW

below the nominal power (83 MW) and with SVC we

can conclude briefly:

perfomance”, IEEE Transactions on Industry

References Applications, Vol. 21, pp. 137-146, 1985.

1. M. A. Prieto, M. P. Donsión. "An Improved Time 4. M.P. Donsión, F. Oliveira. “AC Arc Furnaces

Domain Arc Furnace Model for Harmonic Analysis”, Flicker Measurement without and with a SVC System

IEEE Trans on Power Delivery, V.19, pp.367-373, Connected”, International Conference on Renewable

2004. Energy and Power Quality (ICREPQ’07), Sevilla

2. Mendis, D.A. González, “Harmonic and Transient (Spain), March 2007.

Overvoltage Analysis in Arc Furnace Power Systems”. 5. E. Acha, C.R. Fuerte-Esquivel, H. Ambriz-Pérez,

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. 28, C. Angeles-Camacho. “FACTS. Modelling and

No. 2, March/April 1992 Simulation in Power Networks”. John Wiley & Sons

3. J.D. Lavers, Behnam Danai, P.P. Biringer, “A Ltd, 2004.

method of examinig in detail electric arc furnace

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