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DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 5-8-1

! PROBLEM 5-8

Statement: Design a linkage to carry the body in Figure P5-1 through the two positions P1 and P2 at the angles
shown in the figure. Use analytical synthesis without regard for the fixed pivots shown. Use the
free choices given below.

Given: Coordinates of the points P1 and P2 with respect to P1:


P 1x 0.0 P 1y 0.0 P 2x 1.236 P 2y 2.138

Angles made by the body in positions 1 and 2:


θ P1 210 .deg θ P2 147.5 .deg

Free choices for the WZ dyad :


z 1.075 β2 27.0 .deg φ 204.4 .deg
Free choices for the US dyad :

s 1.240 γ2 40.0 .deg ψ 74.0 .deg

Two argument inverse tangent


atan2( x , y ) return 0.5 .π if x 0
y
return atan if x > 0
x
y
atan π otherwise
x

Solution: See Figure P5-1 and Mathcad file P0508.

1. Note that this is a two-position motion generation (MG) problem because the output is specified as a complex
motion of the coupler, link 3. Because of the data given in the hint, the second method of Section 5.3 will be
used here.

2. Define the position vectors R1 and R2 and the vector P21 using Figure 5-1 and equation 5.1.

P 1x P 2x P 21x
R1 R2 R2 R1 P 21x = 1.236
P 1y P 2y P 21y

P 21y = 2.138

2 2
p 21 P 21x P 21y p 21 = 2.470

3. From the trigonometric relationships given in Figure 5-1, determine α2 and δ2.

α2 θ P2 θ P1 α 2 = 62.500 deg

δ2 atan2 P 21x , P 21y δ 2 = 120.033 deg

4. Solve for the WZ dyad using equations 5.8.

Z 1x z .cos( φ ) Z 1x = 0.979 Z 1y z .sin( φ ) Z 1y = 0.444

2nd Edition, 1999


DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 5-8-2

A cos β 2 1 A = 0.109 D sin α 2 D = 0.887

B sin β 2 B = 0.454 E p 21 .cos δ 2 E = 1.236

C cos α 2 1 C = 0.538 F p 21 .sin δ 2 F = 2.138

A . C .Z 1x D .Z 1y E B . C .Z 1y D .Z 1x F
W 1x W 1x = 1.462
2 .A

A . C .Z 1y D .Z 1x F B . C .Z 1x D .Z 1y E
W 1y W 1y = 3.367
2 .A

2 2
w W 1x W 1y w = 3.670

θ atan2 W 1x , W 1y θ = 246.528 deg

5. Solve for the US dyad using equations 5.12.

S 1x s .cos( ψ ) S 1x = 0.342 S 1y s .sin( ψ ) S 1y = 1.192

A cos γ 2 1 A = 0.234 D sin α 2 D = 0.887

B sin γ 2 B = 0.643 E p 21 .cos δ 2 E = 1.236

C cos α 2 1 C = 0.538 F p 21 .sin δ 2 F = 2.138

A . C .S 1x D .S 1y E B . C .S 1y D .S 1x F
U 1x U 1x = 3.180
2 .A

A . C .S 1y D .S 1x F B . C .S 1x D .S 1y E
U 1y U 1y = 4.439
2 .A

2 2
u U 1x U 1y u = 5.461

σ atan2 U 1x , U 1y σ = 234.381 deg

6. Solve for links 3 and 1 using the vector definitions of V and G.


Link 3: V 1x z .cos( φ ) s .cos( ψ ) V 1x = 1.321

V 1y z .sin( φ ) s .sin( ψ ) V 1y = 1.636

θ3 atan2 V 1x , V 1y θ 3 = 231.086 deg

2 2
v V 1x V 1y v = 2.103

Link 1: G 1x w .cos( θ ) v .cos θ 3 u .cos( σ ) G 1x = 0.398

2nd Edition, 1999


DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 5-8-3

G 1y w .sin( θ ) v .sin θ 3 u .sin( σ ) G 1y = 0.564

θ1 atan2 G 1x , G 1y θ 1 = 54.796 deg

2 2
g G 1x G 1y g = 0.690

7. Determine the initial and final values of the input crank with respect to the vector G.
θ 2i θ θ1 θ 2i = 301.323 deg

θ 2f θ 2i β2 θ 2f = 274.323 deg

8. Define the coupler point with respect to point A and the vector V.
rp z δp φ θ3

r p = 1.075 δ p = 26.686 deg

9. Locate the fixed pivots in the global frame using the vector definitions in Figure 5-2.
ρ1 atan2 P 1x , P 1y ρ 1 = 90.000 deg

2 2
R1 P 1x P 1y R 1 = 0.000

O 2x R 1 .cos ρ 1 z .cos( φ ) w .cos( θ ) O 2x = 2.441

O 2y R 1 .sin ρ 1 z .sin( φ ) w .sin( θ ) O 2y = 3.811

O 4x R 1 .cos ρ 1 s .cos( ψ ) u .cos( σ ) O 4x = 2.838

O 4y R 1 .sin ρ 1 s .sin( ψ ) u .sin( σ ) O 4y = 3.247

10. Determine the rotation angle of the fourbar frame with respect to the global frame (angle from the global X axis to
the line O2O4.

θ rot atan2 O 4x O 2x , O 4y O 2y θ rot = 54.796 deg

11. Determine the Grashof condition.

Condition( S , L , P , Q ) SL S L
PQ P Q
return "Grashof" if SL PQ
return "non-Grashof" otherwise

Condition( g , w , u , v ) = "Grashof"

12. DESIGN SUMMARY


Link 2: w = 3.670 θ = 246.528 deg
Link 3: v = 2.103 θ 3 = 231.086 deg
Link 4: u = 5.461 σ = 234.381 deg

2nd Edition, 1999


DESIGN OF MACHINERY SOLUTION MANUAL 5-8-4

Link 1: g = 0.690 θ 1 = 54.796 deg


Coupler: r p = 1.075 δ p = 26.686 deg
Crank angles:
θ 2i = 301.323 deg

θ 2f = 274.323 deg

13. Draw the linkage, using the link lengths, fixed pivot positions, and angles above, to verify the design.

O2
1.236
G1

Y O4
U2

P2
W2 W1 U1
B2 S2 Z2
V2
A2
2.138

Z1 A1

P1 X
62.5°
S1 V1

B1

2nd Edition, 1999