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CDB 3033

TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

1. Introduction to Transport Phenomena


2. Introduction to Momentum Transport
Course Learning Outcome
CLO1

Explain the theoretical aspect of momentum, mass


and energy transport in solving complex transport
behavior

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Lesson outcomes
1. Describe the scope, aims and methods of
Transport Phenomena course
2. Explain the importance and the general concept
of Transport Phenomena
3. Derive general transport equations for
momentum, energy and mass

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Lesson outcome 1
1. Describe the scope, aims and methods of
Transport Phenomena course
2. Explain the importance and the general concept
of Transport Phenomena
3. Derive general transport equations for
momentum, energy and mass

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Transport phenomena - Overview

• Momentum (fluid dynamics), heat and


mass transfer developed independently as
branches of classical physics
• Long regarded as a mathematical subject,
Transport Phenomena is most significant
for its physical significance
• The essence of this subject is the compact
statement of conservation principles, along
with expressions for fluxes, with the
emphasis on similarities and differences
among the three transport processes
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Transport phenomena - Overview

• Often, specialisation to the boundary


conditions and the physical properties in a
specific problem can provide useful insight
with minimal effort
• The language of Transport Phenomena is
mathematics
• Familiarity with ordinary differential
equations (ODEs) and elementary vector
analysis is required

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Lesson Outcomes
1. Describe the scope, aims and methods of
Transport Phenomena course
2. Explain the importance and the general concept
of Transport Phenomena
3. Derive general transport equations for
momentum, energy and mass

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What are the Transport Phenomena?
The subject of transport phenomena includes
three closely related topics:
• Fluid dynamics
 Transport of momentum
• Fluid flow
• Heat transfer
 Transport of energy
• Heat exchangers
• Mass transfer
 Transport of mass of various chemical species
• Absorption, distillation, evaporation,
adsorption, drying, etc.
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What are the Transport Phenomena?

These three transport phenomena should be studied


together for the following reasons:
• They frequently occur simultaneously in industrial,
biological, agricultural, and meteorological
problems
• The basic equations that describe the transport
phenomena are closely related
• The similarity of the equations under simple
conditions is the basis for solving problems “by
analogy”
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Chemical Plant

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Ammonia Reactor

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Chemical Reactors: CSTR
In exothermic CSTR there will be
• Momentum transfer
• Due to the flow material into and out of the
reactor
• Mixing of the reacting medium
• Due to the movement of cooling medium
into and out of the reactor
• Heat transfer
• Because the heat generated due to reaction
is transferred from the reaction medium to
the cooling medium through the solid wall
• Mass Transfer
• The reaction components should come into
contact for the reaction to occur

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Heat Exchangers
In heat exchangers there will be
• Momentum transfer
• Due to the movement of the heating
and cooling medium into and out of
the heat exchanger
• Heat transfer
• Because heat transfers from the
heating medium to the cooling
medium

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Distillation Column
In Distillation column there will be
• Momentum transfer
Due to the movement of
• Feedstock into the distillation
• Liquid down the column
• Vapor up the column
• Heat transfer
• Between the liquid and vapor
• In the condenser
• Re-boiler
• Mass Transfer
• Movement the light component and
heavy component in the vapor and
liquid phase

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Levels of Study of Transport Phenomena
A flow system containing N2 and O2

How mass,
momentum &
energy change?-
‘Macroscopic
balance
equations’
What is happening in
the small region?-
Microscopic What is happening at
‘Equation of Change’ molecular level?

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The concept of Transport phenomena:
Conservation Laws

• Conservation of momentum (Momentum Balance


Equation)
• Conservation of mass (Mass Balance Equation)
• Conservation of energy (Energy Balance Equation)

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Example: Laws of Conservation at Molecular Level

Consider colliding N2 (A) and O2 (B) molecules

O
N
N O

N
O
O
N

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Example: Colliding of two Diatomic Particles
Consider a case of two chemically inert
colliding diatomic molecules.
O
N N2 = Molecule A
N
N O2 = Molecule B
O A1, A2= atoms of N
B1, B2= atoms of O
mA= mass of molecule A
N O mA1= mass of atom A1
O
N mA2= mass of atom A2
mB= mass of molecule B
mB1= mass of atom B1
mB2= mass of atom B2

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Assumptions
Assumptions
• The molecules are homonuclear (the atomic
nuclei are identical)
m A1  m A2  m A
1
2

• The molecules do not interact chemically


• The molecules are in low density gas (no
need of consideration of interactions)

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Conservation Laws: An Example
 Conservation of mass:- the total mass of the molecules
entering and leaving the collision must be equal.
m A  mB  mA  mB
 Since there are no chemical reactions, the masses of
individual species will also be conserved.
m A  mA
mB  mB
 Note that mass of a molecule is the sum of mass of each
of the atoms in the molecule
m A  m A1  m A2 mB  mB1  mB 2

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Conservation of Momentum
 Position vector and velocities
rA1  position vector of atom A1
rA2  position vector of atom A2
Atom A2
rA  position vector of center of
Atom A1 mass of molecule A
rA1  velocity of atom A1
rA rA2  velocity of atom A2
rA1 rA2
rA  velocity of center of mass of
Center of mass molecule A
of molecule A
rA1  rA  RA1
Arbitrary origin rA 2  rA  RA 2
fixed in space
RA 2   RA1

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Conservation of Momentum
 Conservation of Momentum:- the sum of the momenta of all atoms
before the collision must be equal to that after the collision
m A1rA1  m A 2 rA 2  mB1rB1  mB 2 rB 2  mA1rA1  mA 2 rA 2  mB1rB1  mB 2 rB 2
(1)
From the vector relations

rA1  rA  R A1 , rA 2  rA  R A 2 , etc. (2)


Using (2) in (1)
m A1 (rA  R A1 )  m A 2 (rA  R A 2 )  mB1 (rB  R B1 )  mB 2 (rB  R B 2 ) 
mA1 (rA  R A1 )  m A 2 (rA  R A 2 )  mB1 (rB  R B 1 )  mB 2 (rB  R B 2 ) (3)

Rearranging (3) we get


(m A1  m A 2 )rA  (m A1 R A1  m A 2 R A 2 )  (mB1  mB 2 )rB  (mB1 R B1  mB 2 R B 2 ) 
(mA1  mA 2 )rA  (mA1 R A1  mA 2 R A 2 )  (mB1  mB 2 )rB  (mB1 R B 1  mB 2 R B 2 ) (4)

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Conservation of Momentum
Noting the following simplifications from (4)

m A1 R A1  m A 2 R A 2  0 since R A 2   R A1 and m A1  m A 2
mB1 R B1  mB 2 R B 2  0 since R B 2   R B1 and mB1  mB 2
m A  m A1  m A 2
mB  mB1  mB 2

The momentum equation simplifies to

m A rA  mB rB  m A rA  mB rB

Conclusion: The momentum of molecule A plus the momentum of molecule


B before and after collision are equal.

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Conservation of Energy
 The energy of colliding pair of molecules must be the
same before and after the collision.

E A  EB  E A  EB

where
E A  The total energy of molecule A before collision
EB  The total energy of molecule B before collision

E A  The total energy of molecule A after collision

E B  The total energy of molecule B after collision

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Conservation of Energy
 The conservation equation can be further investigated

E A  12 m A1 r2A1  12 m A 2 r2A 2   A (1)


 12 m A1 rA  R A1   12 m A 2 rA  R A 2    A
2 2

 12 m A1rA2  m A1rA R A1  12 m A1 R A21  12 m A 2 rA2  m A 2 rA R A 2  12 m A 2 R A2 2   A

 12 mA1  mA 2 rA2  m A1rA R A1  m A 2 rA R A 2   12 m A1 R A21  12 m A 2 R A2 2   A

m r R A1  m A 2 rA R A 2   0 since R A1   R A 2 and m A1  m A 2


A1 A (2)

Therefore,

E A  12 m A rA2  12 m A1 R A21  12 m A 2 R A2 2   A (3)

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Conservation of Energy

Defining the internal energy uA as, u A  12 m A1 R A21  12 m A2 R A2 2   A (4)

E A  12 m A rA2  u A (5)

The internal energy, uA is the kinetic energy of the atoms with respect to the
center of mass of molecule A ( vibrational and rotational energies) and the
interatomic potential energy.

Similar analysis for EB leads to


E B  12 mB rB2  u B

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Conservation of Energy
The final form of the energy conservation equation becomes
 1
2
 
m A rA2  u A  1
2
 
mB rB2  u B  1
2
 
mA rA2  u A  1
2
mB rB2  u B  (7)

Conclusion: The sum of the kinetic energy and the internal energy of the
molecules before and after collision is the same.

NB: The kinetic energies of the colliding molecules can be converted to


internal energies and vice versa.

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Conservation of Energy
Summary
Each molecule in motion has
1. kinetic energy with respect to any stationary
reference frame
2. kinetic energy due to the motion ( vibration Internal
and rotation) of its atoms with respect to its
center of mass
Energy
3. Intermolecular potential energy due to the
bond between the atoms

The sum of the kinetic energy and the internal energy of


the molecules before and after collision is conserved

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Lesson Outcomes
1. Describe the scope, aims and methods of
Transport Phenomena course
2. Explain the importance and the general concept
of Transport Phenomena
3. Derive general transport equations for
momentum, energy and mass

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General transport equations

driving force
Rate of transfer process 
resis tan ce

Momentum transport- Newton’s Law

Heat transport – Fourier’s Law

Mass Transport – Fick’s Law

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Momentum Transport Equation - Newton’s
Law
F V
 (1.1-1)
A Y
dv x
 yx   (1.1-2)
dy

kinematic viscosity,  (1.1-3)

1
 dv x 
   yx   (1.1-4)
 dy 

Newton’s Law of Viscosity

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Momentum Transport Equation - Newton’s
Law
dv x
 yx  
dy

Force in the x-direction on a


unit area perpendicular to
y-direction

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Energy Transport Equation– Fourier’s Law
Heat transfer rate, Q

Q T1  T0
k (9.1-1)
A Y
dT
q y  k (9.1-2)
dy

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Mass Transport Equation – Fick’s Law
Mass transfer rate,ω

wAy  A0  0 (17.1-1)
 D AB
A Y
d A
j Ay   D AB
dy (17.1-4)

wAy
 mass flow rate of helium per unit area
A
  density of the silica helium system
DAB  Diffusivity
 A0  solubility in mass fraction of helium in silica
j Ay  molecular mass flux

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Concluding Remarks

• The concept of Transport phenomena:


Conservation Laws
• Momentum, mass and energy transport
equations

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