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TRANSPORT PHENOMENA

2. Introduction to Momentum Transport

Course Learning Outcome

CLO1

and energy transport in solving complex transport

behavior

2

Lesson outcomes

1. Describe the scope, aims and methods of

Transport Phenomena course

2. Explain the importance and the general concept

of Transport Phenomena

3. Derive general transport equations for

momentum, energy and mass

3

Lesson outcome 1

1. Describe the scope, aims and methods of

Transport Phenomena course

2. Explain the importance and the general concept

of Transport Phenomena

3. Derive general transport equations for

momentum, energy and mass

4

Transport phenomena - Overview

mass transfer developed independently as

branches of classical physics

• Long regarded as a mathematical subject,

Transport Phenomena is most significant

for its physical significance

• The essence of this subject is the compact

statement of conservation principles, along

with expressions for fluxes, with the

emphasis on similarities and differences

among the three transport processes

5

Transport phenomena - Overview

conditions and the physical properties in a

specific problem can provide useful insight

with minimal effort

• The language of Transport Phenomena is

mathematics

• Familiarity with ordinary differential

equations (ODEs) and elementary vector

analysis is required

6

Lesson Outcomes

1. Describe the scope, aims and methods of

Transport Phenomena course

2. Explain the importance and the general concept

of Transport Phenomena

3. Derive general transport equations for

momentum, energy and mass

7

What are the Transport Phenomena?

The subject of transport phenomena includes

three closely related topics:

• Fluid dynamics

Transport of momentum

• Fluid flow

• Heat transfer

Transport of energy

• Heat exchangers

• Mass transfer

Transport of mass of various chemical species

• Absorption, distillation, evaporation,

adsorption, drying, etc.

8

What are the Transport Phenomena?

together for the following reasons:

• They frequently occur simultaneously in industrial,

biological, agricultural, and meteorological

problems

• The basic equations that describe the transport

phenomena are closely related

• The similarity of the equations under simple

conditions is the basis for solving problems “by

analogy”

9

Chemical Plant

10

Ammonia Reactor

11

Chemical Reactors: CSTR

In exothermic CSTR there will be

• Momentum transfer

• Due to the flow material into and out of the

reactor

• Mixing of the reacting medium

• Due to the movement of cooling medium

into and out of the reactor

• Heat transfer

• Because the heat generated due to reaction

is transferred from the reaction medium to

the cooling medium through the solid wall

• Mass Transfer

• The reaction components should come into

contact for the reaction to occur

12

Heat Exchangers

In heat exchangers there will be

• Momentum transfer

• Due to the movement of the heating

and cooling medium into and out of

the heat exchanger

• Heat transfer

• Because heat transfers from the

heating medium to the cooling

medium

13

Distillation Column

In Distillation column there will be

• Momentum transfer

Due to the movement of

• Feedstock into the distillation

• Liquid down the column

• Vapor up the column

• Heat transfer

• Between the liquid and vapor

• In the condenser

• Re-boiler

• Mass Transfer

• Movement the light component and

heavy component in the vapor and

liquid phase

14

Levels of Study of Transport Phenomena

A flow system containing N2 and O2

How mass,

momentum &

energy change?-

‘Macroscopic

balance

equations’

What is happening in

the small region?-

Microscopic What is happening at

‘Equation of Change’ molecular level?

15

The concept of Transport phenomena:

Conservation Laws

Equation)

• Conservation of mass (Mass Balance Equation)

• Conservation of energy (Energy Balance Equation)

16

Example: Laws of Conservation at Molecular Level

O

N

N O

N

O

O

N

17

Example: Colliding of two Diatomic Particles

Consider a case of two chemically inert

colliding diatomic molecules.

O

N N2 = Molecule A

N

N O2 = Molecule B

O A1, A2= atoms of N

B1, B2= atoms of O

mA= mass of molecule A

N O mA1= mass of atom A1

O

N mA2= mass of atom A2

mB= mass of molecule B

mB1= mass of atom B1

mB2= mass of atom B2

18

Assumptions

Assumptions

• The molecules are homonuclear (the atomic

nuclei are identical)

m A1 m A2 m A

1

2

• The molecules are in low density gas (no

need of consideration of interactions)

19

Conservation Laws: An Example

Conservation of mass:- the total mass of the molecules

entering and leaving the collision must be equal.

m A mB mA mB

Since there are no chemical reactions, the masses of

individual species will also be conserved.

m A mA

mB mB

Note that mass of a molecule is the sum of mass of each

of the atoms in the molecule

m A m A1 m A2 mB mB1 mB 2

20

Conservation of Momentum

Position vector and velocities

rA1 position vector of atom A1

rA2 position vector of atom A2

Atom A2

rA position vector of center of

Atom A1 mass of molecule A

rA1 velocity of atom A1

rA rA2 velocity of atom A2

rA1 rA2

rA velocity of center of mass of

Center of mass molecule A

of molecule A

rA1 rA RA1

Arbitrary origin rA 2 rA RA 2

fixed in space

RA 2 RA1

21

Conservation of Momentum

Conservation of Momentum:- the sum of the momenta of all atoms

before the collision must be equal to that after the collision

m A1rA1 m A 2 rA 2 mB1rB1 mB 2 rB 2 mA1rA1 mA 2 rA 2 mB1rB1 mB 2 rB 2

(1)

From the vector relations

Using (2) in (1)

m A1 (rA R A1 ) m A 2 (rA R A 2 ) mB1 (rB R B1 ) mB 2 (rB R B 2 )

mA1 (rA R A1 ) m A 2 (rA R A 2 ) mB1 (rB R B 1 ) mB 2 (rB R B 2 ) (3)

(m A1 m A 2 )rA (m A1 R A1 m A 2 R A 2 ) (mB1 mB 2 )rB (mB1 R B1 mB 2 R B 2 )

(mA1 mA 2 )rA (mA1 R A1 mA 2 R A 2 ) (mB1 mB 2 )rB (mB1 R B 1 mB 2 R B 2 ) (4)

22

Conservation of Momentum

Noting the following simplifications from (4)

m A1 R A1 m A 2 R A 2 0 since R A 2 R A1 and m A1 m A 2

mB1 R B1 mB 2 R B 2 0 since R B 2 R B1 and mB1 mB 2

m A m A1 m A 2

mB mB1 mB 2

B before and after collision are equal.

23

Conservation of Energy

The energy of colliding pair of molecules must be the

same before and after the collision.

E A EB E A EB

where

E A The total energy of molecule A before collision

EB The total energy of molecule B before collision

24

Conservation of Energy

The conservation equation can be further investigated

12 m A1 rA R A1 12 m A 2 rA R A 2 A

2 2

A1 A (2)

Therefore,

25

Conservation of Energy

E A 12 m A rA2 u A (5)

The internal energy, uA is the kinetic energy of the atoms with respect to the

center of mass of molecule A ( vibrational and rotational energies) and the

interatomic potential energy.

E B 12 mB rB2 u B

26

Conservation of Energy

The final form of the energy conservation equation becomes

1

2

m A rA2 u A 1

2

mB rB2 u B 1

2

mA rA2 u A 1

2

mB rB2 u B (7)

Conclusion: The sum of the kinetic energy and the internal energy of the

molecules before and after collision is the same.

internal energies and vice versa.

27

Conservation of Energy

Summary

Each molecule in motion has

1. kinetic energy with respect to any stationary

reference frame

2. kinetic energy due to the motion ( vibration Internal

and rotation) of its atoms with respect to its

center of mass

Energy

3. Intermolecular potential energy due to the

bond between the atoms

the molecules before and after collision is conserved

28

Lesson Outcomes

1. Describe the scope, aims and methods of

Transport Phenomena course

2. Explain the importance and the general concept

of Transport Phenomena

3. Derive general transport equations for

momentum, energy and mass

29

General transport equations

driving force

Rate of transfer process

resis tan ce

30

Momentum Transport Equation - Newton’s

Law

F V

(1.1-1)

A Y

dv x

yx (1.1-2)

dy

kinematic viscosity, (1.1-3)

1

dv x

yx (1.1-4)

dy

31

Momentum Transport Equation - Newton’s

Law

dv x

yx

dy

unit area perpendicular to

y-direction

32

Energy Transport Equation– Fourier’s Law

Heat transfer rate, Q

Q T1 T0

k (9.1-1)

A Y

dT

q y k (9.1-2)

dy

33

Mass Transport Equation – Fick’s Law

Mass transfer rate,ω

wAy A0 0 (17.1-1)

D AB

A Y

d A

j Ay D AB

dy (17.1-4)

wAy

mass flow rate of helium per unit area

A

density of the silica helium system

DAB Diffusivity

A0 solubility in mass fraction of helium in silica

j Ay molecular mass flux

34

Concluding Remarks

Conservation Laws

• Momentum, mass and energy transport

equations

35

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