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GPS/GNSS System Integration

Reference Guide

Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.

80-N4094-1 Rev. H

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Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
NO PUBLIC DISCLOSURE PERMITTED: Please report postings of this document on public servers or websites to: DocCtrlAgent@qualcomm.com.
Restricted Distribution: Not to be distributed to anyone who is not an employee of either Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. or its affiliated companies without the express approval
of Qualcomm Configuration Management.
Not to be used, copied, reproduced, or modified in whole or in part, nor its contents revealed in any manner to others without the express written permission of Qualcomm
Technologies, Inc.
Brew, Qualcomm IZat, and MSM are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. Other Qualcomm products referenced herein are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. or its
other subsidiaries.
Brew, MSM, and Qualcomm are trademarks of Qualcomm Incorporated, registered in the United States and other countries. IZat is a trademark of Qualcomm Incorporated. Other
product and brand names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
This technical data may be subject to U.S. and international export, re-export, or transfer (“export”) laws. Diversion contrary to U.S. and international law is strictly prohibited.
Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
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© 2010, 2011, 2012, 2015, 2016 Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved.

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Revision History

Revision Date Description

A Dec 2010 Initial release

B Mar 2011 Numerous changes were made throughout this document revision. It should be read in its
entirety.
C Jul 2011 Updated slides 9, 10, 16, 17, 22-25, 62-70, 72, 77, 81, 85, 152, 170, 173, and 203.

D Jan 2012 Updated slides, 16, 18, 21, 74-78, 86, 94, 168, 210; numerous changes to Section 2.11;
added slides 95 and 96
E Oct 2012 Updated slides 13, 18-20, and 27; added slides 38-43, 58, 86-88, 108, 112, 116,
119-122, and 209-233.
F Mar 2015 Major updates and additions made for Gen8C: new Beidou references; new low cost
BOM; new layout review checklist and updates; new antenna sharing; new automotive;
new blanking details; QDART and QSPR updates; new radiated ADCIQ; XO content
update; and QXDM views. Removed associated GNSS content from Chapter 3; removed
Gen7 references; updated for Qualcomm® IZat™.
G Jun 2015 Section 2.1: Updated GNSS layout review checklist
Section 2.1.1: Modified XO layout guidelines, added power distribution decoupling,
steering ground return currents in PWB guidelines, and separation of ground planes to
isolate noise
Section 2.4: Updated example calculation for gain/losses and attenuation for automotive
GNSS front-end design requirements
Section 2.9.3: Updated ADC IQ test to determine strength and location of out-of-band
jammers
Section 2.10.1: Deleted outdated content for XO calibration
Section 2.11: Updated troubleshooting guide
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Revision History (continued)

Revision Date Description


H December 2016 Deleted slides 14, 15, 55, 61, 63, 160-168, 187-190

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Contents

1 Introduction 6 2.9.4 Self-Interference Tests for Advance Debug Purposes154


1.1 Recommended Timeline 8 2.9.5 Verification of Thermal Isolation 156
1.2 GNSS Basics 10 2.10 XO/TCXO Placement – Best Mechanical Practices 160
1.3 Essential Documents 12 2.11 Hardware Considerations During Integration and Debugging –
2 GNSS Hardware Development and Debugging 14 Including Spurs/Jammers 167
2.1 Schematic, Layout, and Antenna Design Guidelines 16 2.12 Sampling Devices for Carrier Acceptance Tests 189
2.1.1 Review Checklist Including Must Do’s and Don’ts 18 3 GNSS Software Stack Bringup 203
2.1.2 Recommendations for Antenna and Noise Figure 3.1 Must Do’s 205
Optimization 31 3.2 Don’ts 210
2.2 BOM Reduction/Low-Cost BOM Considerations 35 3.3 Essential Documents 212
2.3 GNSS LNA Considerations 44 3.4 QXDM 216
2.4 GPS/GNSS Automotive Considerations 49 3.5 Snapper HS 234
2.5 GNSS Blanking Implementation 52 3.6 Standalone and Assisted GNSS 243
2.5.1 GNSS Blanking Verification Using RF Development Tests 4 GNSS Commercialization 251
55 4.1 Must Do’s 253
2.5.2 Blanking Implementation for GSM Designs 58 4.2 Don’ts 259
2.5.3 Blanking Implementation for SGLTE Designs 59 4.3 Essential Documents 261
2.6 GPS Hardware Considerations for LTE Band 13 62 4.4 Debugging Commercialization Issues 264
2.7 GPS/GLONASS Hardware Considerations for Dual Transmission
in AWS and PCS Bands 72
2.8 GNSS Hardware Validation Using QDART 78
2.8.1 QRCT-Based Conducted RF Development Tests 81
2.8.2 QSPR-Based Conducted RF Development Tests 89
2.9 Radiated RF Development Tests 133
2.9.1 Quick Radiated RF Development Tests 134
2.9.2 Precise Radiated RF Development Tests 137
2.9.3 Radiated ADCIQ Test 147
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Section 1

1.1 Recommended Timeline 8


1.2 GNSS Basics 10
Introduction 1.3 Essential Documents 12

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Introduction Introduction

 This document is intended for engineers who are developing IZat capable devices that are based on AMSS
with IZat Gen 8 Engine support. Qualcomm® recommends that customers validate these in the following
order:
1. GNSS RF development test cases (radiated and conducted)
2. Antenna verification
3. Mechanical stress tests
4. Concurrency tests
5. Functional verification
6. Protocol tests
7. Field performance tests
 This document explains the high-level guidelines for system integration and debugging GNSS issues.
 It is essential to obtain the latest versions of Qualcomm software and tools such as QXDM Professional,
QCAT, SnapperHS, and QDART before any GNSS tests.

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Section 1.1

Recommended Timeline

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Recommended Timeline Introduction

Integrate feature complete SW.

Run radiated and conducted


tests. Finalize HW/SW.

Run GCF/PTCRB, PLTS/ULTS and GNSS


Field Tests. Optimize GNSS software.

Carrier acceptance tests for


commercialization
Timeline

Run conducted and radiated tests


and find any jammers

Finalize HW components & design

Schematics & antenna review with


Qualcomm

Form Factor, components (XO/TCXO),


schematics, antenna

GPS requirements definition

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Section 1.2

GNSS Basics

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GNSS Basics Introduction

GPS
 2.046 MHz BW NB GPS (centered on 1575.42 MHz)
 Satellites transmit different codes at the same frequency (CDMA)
Glonass (GLO)
 ~8.3 MHz BW (1597–1606 MHz), 14 channels (-7 to +6)
 Satellites transmit the same code on different frequencies (FDMA)
BeiDou Systems (BDS)
 4.092 MHz BW (1559.05 – 1563.14 MHz)
 Satellites transmit different codes at the same frequency (CDMA)
Galileo (GAL)
 4.092 MHz BW (centered on 1575.42 MHz)
 Satellites transmit at the same frequency using Binary Offset Carrier (BOC) modulation (CDMA/BOC)

BDS 8.3 MHz


GPS Galileo
Glonass

1565-1585 MHz
1559-1563 MHz 1597-1606 MHz
Each SV transmits on the same frequency Each GLO SV transmits
on a different frequency

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Section 1.3

Essential Documents

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Essential Documents Introduction

DCN Title
Common
80-Y0012-16 GNSS Static Notches Application Note
80-VM522-11 Impact of Reference Frequency Drift on GNSS Sensitivity
80-VF782-5 GNSS L1 Band Unbalanced SAW Filter Mini-Specification
80-VF782-1 GNSS L1 Band Balanced SAW Filter Mini-Specification
80-VM505-1 GNSS L1 Band LNA Mini-Specification
80-VH064-14 Filter, Upper 700 MHz B13 Tx Saw Mini-Specification
80-VU919-1 DM Command to Obtain C/N0 for gpsOne Production Line Testing
80-NH348-1 GNSS L1 Front-End Module (Pre-filter + LNA) Mini-Specification
XO
80-Y5167-21 XO Calibration State Requirements for GNSS RF Development Tests
80-V9690-19 19.2 MHz Modem Crystal Qualification Requirements and Approved
Suppliers
Gen 8 RF Dev Tests
80-VM522-2 IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures
80-VN895-2 IZat Gen 8 Engine Radiated RF Development Test Procedures
Antenna
80-V5228-8 GNSS Antenna Considerations for Handsets and Other Portables

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2.1 Schematic, Layout, and Antenna Design
Guidelines 16
2.1.1 Review Checklist Including Must Do’s and
Don’ts 18
2.1.2 Recommendations for Antenna and Noise
Figure Optimization 31
2.2 BOM Reduction/Low-Cost BOM Considerations 35
2.3 GNSS LNA Considerations 44
2.4 GPS/GNSS Automotive Considerations 49
2.5 GNSS Blanking Implementation 52
2.5.1 GNSS Blanking Verification Using RF
Development Tests 55
Section 2 2.5.2 Blanking Implementation for GSM
Designs 58
2.5.3 Blanking Implementation for SGLTE
Designs 59
2.6 GPS Hardware Considerations for LTE Band
13 62
2.7 GPS/GLONASS Hardware Considerations for
GNSS Hardware Development and Dual Transmission in AWS and PCS Bands
2.8 GNSS Hardware Validation Using QDART
72
78
Debugging 2.8.1 QRCT-Based Conducted RF
Development Tests 81
2.8.2 QSPR-Based Conducted RF
Development Tests 89
2.9 Radiated RF Development Tests 133
2.9.1 Quick Radiated RF Development
Tests 134
2.9.2 Precise Radiated RF Development
Tests 137
2.9.3 Radiated ADCIQ Test 147
2.9.4 Self-Interference Tests for Advance
Debug Purposes 154
2.9.5 Verification of Thermal Isolation 156
2.10 XO/TCXO Placement – Best Mechanical
Practices 160
2.11 Hardware Considerations During Integration and
Debugging – Including Spurs/Jammers 167
2.12 Sampling Devices for Carrier Acceptance
Tests 189

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GPS/GNSS Options GNSS Hardware

Chipsets and software releases


 For the following chipsets and associated software, CS releases containing the IZat Gen 8/8A engine include:

 QSC61x5, QSC6295, MSM8x55, MSM8x60, MSM8x27, MSM8x30, MSM8930, MSM8x60A, MSM8960/Pro, MDM8220, MDM9x00,
MDM9x15/M, APQ8060, APQ8055, APQ8060A/Pro, APQ8030, APQ8064
 For the following chipsets and associated software, CS releases containing the IZat Gen 8B engine include:
 MSM8x10, MSM8x12, MSM8x26, MSM8x28, MSM8928, MSM8926, MSM8974 AB/AC, MDM8225, MDM9x25/M, MDM9320,
MDM8110M, APQ8074 AB/AC, APQ8026, APQ8028
 For the following chipsets and associated software, CS releases containing the IZat Gen 8C engine include:
 MSM8994, MSM8992, MSM8952, MSM8956, MSM8939, MSM8936, MSM8916, MSM8909, MSM8208, MDM9x30, MDM9x35/M,
MDM9330, MDM9x40, MDM9x45, MDM9340, APQ8094, APQ8092, APQ8039, APQ8036, APQ8016

Qualcomm recommendation for hardware configurations to be used on the PCB


 Platforms supporting GPS + Glonass + BeiDou – Requires GNSS-capable components, in particular, a SAW filter

 Platforms supporting GPS only – GNSS-capable components are still strongly recommended

 Allows easy upgrade for future support of GLONASS on existing designs when carrier mandates GLONASS
 Ensures market leadership in performance against competitors’ GPS-only solutions

Performance
Note: With GPS-only software, there will be no degradation to GPS performance if GNSS-capable components are
used.

Future support of GPS-only mode


 Qualcomm expects the transition to GNSS to occur in the marketplace, and that the GPS-only option may not be

supported in future releases of the chipsets listed above or in new chipsets.


 Qualcomm believes GNSS-capable handsets will deliver enhanced performance that can assist OEMs in maintaining

location leadership.
 Support of GNSS-capable handsets will allow for more complete and streamlined testing and evolution.

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Section 2.1

2.1.1 Review Checklist Including Must Do’s and


Schematic, Layout, and Antenna Don’ts
2.1.2 Recommendations for Antenna and Noise
18

Design Guidelines Figure Optimization 31

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GNSS Layout Review Checklist Layout and Antenna Guidelines

 The table below illustrates a methodic GNSS layout design review


 Item layout guide lines are detailed in this document.
 Requirements are a summary of the item guidelines.
Item Requirement Observation
GNSS layout
GNSS front-end layout and components 50 Ω, should meet Qualcomm recommendations and configurations; isolate from all
other noisy traces
GNSS ground planes and stitching Should have uniform GND under GNSS FE; isolate WTR-to-BB I/Q traces with solid
GND stitching on both sides
Distance from antenna to LNA Should be reasonably short (trace loss should be <1 dB in NO-eLNA configuration),
follows standard RF guidelines for impedance, and avoids noise coupling

LNA bypass capacitors and RC placeholder Components should be located close to VDD and enable

WTR input path Post-eLNA BPF and matching components should be placed near WTR input pins
and should have uniform ground plane underneath
WTR I/Q traces to BB Should have uniform ground underneath, no noisy vias or traces adjacent to it, isolate
with solid GND stitching on all sides
XO layout
XO layout – Thermal XO_IN/OUT trace length should be between 6 mm to 10 mm and width <3 mils,
traces shouldn’t be routed differentially, XO ground should be thermally isolated
XO layout – Electrical No noisy circuits should be near XO input and output traces
Shielding and EBI layout
EBI traces EBI traces should be buried in inner layers between GND and/or power planes
eLNA shielding Shield should be present around eLNA, located within a dedicated shield cavity
MSM™, PMIC, Memory shielding MSM, memory, PMIC, and related components should have adequate shielding
PMIC bypass capacitors All decoupling capacitors on the switching power supplies (SMPS) should be shielded
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Section 2.1.1

Review Checklist Including Must


Do’s and Don’ts

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Hardware Must Do’s (1 of 6) Layout and Antenna Guidelines

The following guidelines must be followed by OEMs:


Antenna
 Maximize overall efficiency in antenna design and maximize isolation between GNSS and other transmit
antennas to limit transmitter leakage into the GNSS Rx path.
 See GNSS Antenna Considerations for Handsets and Other Portables (80-V5228-8) for antenna isolation design goals.
 Involve antenna engineers in industrial design stage of development.
 Perform passive antenna tests with hand and head blocking effects represented.
 Consider antenna placement in industrial design phase of development to better anticipate likely user scenarios.
 Isolate GNSS antenna from jammer sources, digital traces, and power traces, especially SMPS outputs.
 Sharing GNSS antenna with WLAN and WWAN Rx diversity antenna is acceptable.
 Do not share the GPS antenna with the WWAN Rx diversity antenna when the design includes an active antenna tuner on a
diversity path.
 Sharing with WWAN Tx is not acceptable.
 Place the GNSS antenna as far away from the MSM EBI pads or traces. Ideally, 3 cm is the preferred
separation.
 Ensure that the antenna contact to the board is robust to mechanical stresses.

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Hardware Must Do’s (2 of 6) Layout and Antenna Guidelines

The following guidelines must be followed by OEMs: (cont.)


Layout and schematics
 Review hardware layout and schematics with Qualcomm.

 Minimize GNSS trace length from antenna to RFIC.

 Ensure that the GNSS Rx traces are completely isolated from SMPS components, 19.2 MHz clock output

signals (BBCLKx, RFCLKx), VSW_Sx nodes, and any other potentially interfering (noisy) signals in order to
avoid unwanted coupling. This is especially important for single-ended baseband configurations that could be
subject to de-sense from 19.2 MHz spurs.
 Protect the GNSS RF and I/Q traces with large physical separation and ground fills/vias on all sides to provide coplanar
isolation.
 Rx input matching should be done while the phone is in GNSS mode to get correct input impedance.
 Rematch after all mechanical changes are complete.
 Avoid overloading power supply by following the reference schematic.
 If feasible, place probe points at GNSS analog IQ signals between RFIC and MSM and make them

accessible from the top layer in the layout. This enables measurement of analog NF and radiated problems.
 In phones with a two-board implementation, ensure that the ground between the two boards is unified.

 Keep the PMIC, MSM, and memory ICs away from the GNSS RF circuits as much as possible.

 Use a stripline for long GNSS RX traces, especially in unshielded areas.

 The EBI-related traces need to be buried in inner layers between GND and/or power planes.

 Addition of a RC filter low pass filter (R=10 ohms and C=100 pF) on the reference clock supply to RFIC can

suppress XO harmonics.
 Maximum amplitude of the XO harmonics should not exceed -105 dBm. See Section 2.9.3 for information on performing the
radiated ADCIQ test.

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Hardware Must Do’s (3 of 6) Layout and Antenna Guidelines

The following guidelines must be followed by OEMs: (cont.)


Layout and schematics (cont.)
 The lengths of traces carrying high-speed digital signals or clocks should be minimized.

 High-speed digital signals and clocks are often the strongest noise sources. The longer these traces are, the more
opportunities there will be to couple energy away from these traces. Remember also that loop area is generally more
important than trace length. Make sure that there is a good, high-frequency current return path near each trace.
 Critical signal or clock traces should be buried between power and ground planes.
 Routing a trace on a layer between two solid planes does an excellent job of containing the fields from these traces and
prevents unwanted coupling.
 High-speed (or susceptible) traces should be routed at least 2x from the board edge, where x is the distance
between the trace and its return current path.
 The electric and magnetic field lines associated with traces near the edge of a board are less well contained. Crosstalk and
coupling to and from antennas tends to be greater from these traces.
 Differential signal trace pairs should be routed together and maintain the same distance from any solid
planes.
 Differential signals are less susceptible to noise and less likely to generate radiated emissions if they are balanced; that is,
they have the same length and maintain the same impedance relative to other conductors.
 On a board with power and ground planes, no traces should be used to connect to power or ground.
Connections should be made using a via within or adjacent to the power or ground pad of the component.
 Traces on a connection to a plane located on a different layer take up space and add inductance to the connection.
 If the design has more than one ground plane layer, then any connection to ground at a given position should
be made to all of the ground layers at that position.
 The overall guiding principle here is that high-frequency currents will take the most beneficial (lowest inductance) path if
allowed. Do not try to direct the flow of these currents by only connecting to specific planes.

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Hardware Must Do’s (4 of 6) Layout and Antenna Guidelines

The following guidelines must be followed by OEMs: (cont.)


Layout and schematics (cont.)
 There should be no gaps or slots in the ground plane.
 On surface ground planes, it could create a slot antenna.
 If the ground is a reference for a transmission or data line, the discontinuity degrades the wanted signal and creates unwanted
fields that could couple to other circuitry.
 All ground conductors on the board should be well grounded to all other grounds; for example, LCD frame,
with Gore Super Soft EMI gasket or similar material.
 Unanticipated voltages between different conductors both nominally called “ground” are a primary source of radiated emission
and susceptibility problems.
 Shield tracks should have as many closely space vias as possible.
 The board perimeter should be stitched with at least one row of closely spaced ground vias.
 The top and bottom side of the board should be completely ground flooded everywhere possible.
 Ground flood is not as important within shield rooms.

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Hardware Must Do’s (5 of 6) Layout and Antenna Guidelines

The following guidelines must be followed by OEMs: (cont.)


Shielding
 All surface components and conductors (except ground planes) should be properly shielded with the following
exceptions:
 If the conductor is an antenna it should not be shielded; for example, a printed inverted F antenna (PIFA).
 Antenna matching networks do not need to be shielded.
 If compliance and radiated acceptance testing proves that certain components or conductors do not require shielding.
 During bringup and early development, shields can hinder development activities and are not required.
 One-piece shields are recommended for best shielding effectiveness.
 All interior walls that subdivide a one-piece shield into smaller rooms should be welded to the shield’s lid.
 Flex cables should be shielded on both sides; Tatsuta shielding material is recommended.
 Shielding on one side only is acceptable if compliance and radiated acceptance testing proves that it is not required.
 All components on flex cables should be shielded unless compliance and radiated acceptance testing proves that it is not required.
 An SMPS on a flex cable is not recommended even if it is shielded.
 Flex cable connectors also require shields unless compliance and radiated acceptance testing proves otherwise.
 All shields should have shielding effectiveness between 40 and 60 dB.
 Shields should be made from nickel-plated copper alloys, nickel-plated ferrous alloys, or similar material
 The longest dimension of any aperture in a shield should be less than λ/20 for 40 dB shielding effectiveness and less than λ/50 for 60 dB
shielding effectiveness.
 The longest dimension of any shield should be less than c/2*f to prevent the shielding cavity itself from resonating.
 All decoupling capacitors on the switching power supplies should be shielded.
 MSM, PMIC, and memory ICs should be shielded.
 GNSS eLNA should be shielded within a dedicated shield cavity.

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Hardware Must Do’s (6 of 6) Layout and Antenna Guidelines

The following guidelines must be followed by OEMs: (cont.)


XO/TCXO
 See Enhanced Guidelines to Implement 19.2 MHz Crystal for Small PCB/High Thermal Layouts
(80-VP447-10) for detailed information on 19.2 MHz XTAL layout guidelines.
Front-end components
 Choose GNSS components, such as band pass filters and external LNAs that meet Qualcomm specifications.
 Transmitter components; for example, the duplexer, also influence GNSS performance. Choose transmitter
components that meet GNSS specifications.
Testing
 Perform RF development tests (conducted and radiated) and passive antenna tests as early as possible.
 Run both radiated and conducted tests whenever hardware changes.
 Perform passive antenna tests in all use cases including head and hand blockage scenarios.
 Shield Device Under Test (DUT) from potential sources using an anechoic chamber or shield room.
 Special attention should be paid to USB placement during radiated testing to avoid antenna detuning.
 Perform concurrency tests as early as possible.

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Power Distribution Decoupling (1 of 3) Layout and Antenna Guidelines

 Multi-layer boards employ at least two types of decoupling capacitors. Large-valued bulk capacitors help to
minimize the impedance of the power planes at low frequencies; for example, below a few hundred kHz.
Smaller, high-frequency capacitors reduce the power plane impedance at higher frequencies; for example, up
to ~100 MHz on boards with closely spaced planes. At even higher frequencies, the power plane impedance
is determined by the planes themselves.
 Usually, there are several large value bulk decoupling capacitors for each power plane. They do not need to
be close to a component pin as is the case with higher frequency decoupling capacitors.
 With the closely-spaced power and ground planes in phone PWBs, all capacitors mounted on the surface of
the board are global. That is, they tend to respond to changes in the voltage on the power planes due to all
active device switching and not favor one device over another. The inductance of their connection to the
power distribution planes is far more critical than their nominal capacitance. Smaller package sizes can be
connected to the planes with a lower inductance than larger packages. Therefore, high-frequency decoupling
capacitors should be as small physically as possible. The vias connecting these capacitors to the planes
should be located as close to one another as possible.
 Choose the largest nominal capacitance available in a given package size. However, do not use capacitors
that have a nominal capacitance less than the parallel plate capacitance that naturally occurs between the
power and power-return planes [C=εA/d]. A board made with FR-4 material containing one pair of power
distribution planes spaced 0.15 mm apart has an interplane capacitance of approximately 27 pF/cm2.
 The location of the intermediate value decoupling capacitors; for example, 1000 pF, is not as critical because
their performance is dominated by the inductance of their connection to the planes. At the frequencies where
they are effective, they can be located anywhere within the general vicinity of the active devices.

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Power Distribution Decoupling (2 of 3) Layout and Antenna Guidelines

 The decoupling capacitors for the highest frequencies should be located as close as possible to the pin of its
component.
 Connection inductance is determined by the loop area formed by the capacitor body, mounting pads, traces, and vias.
 To minimize connection inductance:
 Never use traces. Locate the vias inside or adjacent to the mounting pads and near each other.
 If there is no room for the via adjacent to the pad, then move the whole capacitor. Capacitor location is not so important, but
connection inductance is critical.
 Four vias instead of two can cut the connection inductance nearly in half when the via diameter is small relative to the
mounting pad width.
 Mount all of the high-frequency decoupling capacitors on the face of the board nearest to the planes. Connection inductance
is nearly proportional to the distance from the planes.
 High-frequency decoupling capacitors should not share a via with an active device.

Sec. 2.1.1 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 26
Power Distribution Decoupling (3 of 3) Layout and Antenna Guidelines

Vias to power plane


Pads for Decoupling
Capacitors

Vias to ground
5 nH 0.5 nH

Example of reducing loop inductance

Sec. 2.1.1 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 27
Steering Ground Return Currents in a PWB Layout and Antenna Guidelines

Attempting to steer ground return current with strategically located ground via keep-out areas is not
recommended. In some cases, it could help to isolate dirty return paths from clean return paths. But it is difficult
to realize because ground return currents always seek the path of least inductance.
 It is best to connect areas of ground with as many vias and as many connection points as possible and let
return currents choose their own shortest path.
 Having many interconnecting ground vias also improves the circuit card thermal performance.

Sec. 2.1.1 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 28
Separation of Ground Planes to Isolate Noise Layout and Antenna Guidelines

Separation of ground planes to isolate noise is never a good idea. In some situations, separating a ground
plane between clean and dirty areas could effectively prevent low-frequency, <100 kHz return currents from
sharing the same copper with the return currents of a sensitive circuit. Unfortunately, separation of solid ground
planes can cause enormous problems by interfering with the flow of high-frequency currents and generating
voltages that ultimately result in radiated emission problems.
 In most cases, leaving the plane solid and letting both circuits share the same plane is the safest approach.
 In situations where low-frequency isolation is required, it is almost always better to provide separate return paths on different
ground planes that are on different layers.

Sec. 2.1.1 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 29
Don’ts Layout and Antenna Guidelines

 Don’t share WWAN Tx antenna with GNSS antenna.


 Don’t allow heat sources in close proximity to the XO/TCXO.
 Don’t deviate from the power supply grid specified in the reference schematic without review with Qualcomm.
 Don’t use components that violate Qualcomm-recommended specifications.
 Don’t place the GNSS antenna without considering interactions with the user hand in dial/talk positions.
 Don’t implement a long GNSS trace from the antenna to External Low Noise Amplifier (ELNA).
 Don’t implement a long GNSS trace from the antenna to RFIC in cases where there is no ELNA.
 Don’t share the GNSS antenna with the DRx antenna when an active antenna tuner is implemented on the
DRx path.

Sec. 2.1.1 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 30
Section 2.1.2

Recommendations for Antenna and


Noise Figure Optimization

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Recommendations for GNSS Noise Figure Optimization Noise Figure and Antenna Guidelines

 For designs where the RFIC is far away from the GNSS antenna, usage of an ELNA must be considered. The
front-end design should include a BPF-LNA-BPF implementation.
 It is extremely important to place the ELNA as close as possible to the GNSS antenna. Any path loss before
the ELNA will have a dB-per-dB impact on the overall noise figure.
 The trace length between the GNSS antenna, test connector, SAW filters, and ELNA must be as short as
possible.
 Use of vias should be avoided, especially before the ELNA.
 Check if the matching network has been optimized. Optimize the matching network for noise figure rather
than gain.
 Maximize the distance between the GNSS antenna to the WWAN antenna. This is especially important for
LTE B13 concurrency.
 Check front-end components.
 Use the same front-end components as the Qualcomm reference design.
 All front-end components should have low insertion loss.

Sec. 2.1.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 32
Example of Good GNSS Routing Noise Figure and Antenna Guidelines

GNSS antenna

SAW filter 1

External LNA is
close to the
GNSS antenna

GNSS RF
trace

Sec. 2.1.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 33
Antenna Design Optimization Noise Figure and Antenna Guidelines

1. GNSS antenna efficiency must be better than -4 dB and return loss must be better than 10 dB.
2. Optimize upper hemispherical gain (radiation pattern)
 The radiation pattern from top- or bottom-mounted GNSS antennas on handsets tend to be directed to the side opposite the
antenna; for example, a bottom-mounted antenna is likely to have more gain toward the top of the phone.
3. Position/design the GNSS antenna on the board to reduce the effect of hand degradation.
 Placing the GNSS antenna on the front or back side of the phone will not have much impact on the radiation pattern, but
placing it in the front might reduce hand losses in the dialing position due to increased distance to the hand.
 In general, the top-mounted antenna sees less body losses in the dialing position but are prone to higher body losses in
talking position.
 Side-mounted GNSS antennas tend to do poorly in the hand since that usually puts them directly under the fingers.
 One option is to place the antenna at the bottom of the radio on the front side below the keyboard or display.
4. Maintain unbroken ground plane, especially near the antennas, to improve efficiency and reduce the impact
of radiated desense.
5. The GNSS antenna currents must be isolated from noise currents.
6. Noisy digital circuits such as the SIM card, USB interface, Camera module, Display connector (MDDI or
EBI2), speaker and other audio circuits, and SD/MMC card should be away from the GNSS antenna.
7. See GNSS Antenna Considerations for Handsets and Other Portables (80-V5228-8) for in-depth
recommendations to design GNSS antennas.

Sec. 2.1.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 34
Section 2.2

BOM Reduction/Low-Cost BOM


Considerations

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GNSS RF BOM Reduction Options BOM Reduction/Low-Cost BOM Considerations

The low-cost BOM reduction implementations specified here, while having a cost reduction benefit, will have a
tradeoff in performance. This is shown in the table below.
The following approaches can be used to reduce the GNSS RF BOM:
 No-eLNA (single SAW)
 Sharing antenna with Wi-Fi
 Use discrete LC Wi-Fi/GNSS diplexer, when the antenna is shared (5 GHz Wi-Fi band under study)
 Each of these options is discussed in the next few slides.

Antenna GNSS BOM cost


Option NF (dB) Comments
configuration (cents)*
No-LNA + shared antenna + Long trace assumed; shorter
7 5.5
LC diplexer trace will help to improve NF.

No-eLNA + shared antenna + Long trace assumed; shorter


Shared antenna 9.5 4.9
dedicated diplexer trace will help to improve NF.

Low pre-LNA trace loss


eLNA + 2 SAWs + shared antenna 25.5 2.9
assumed when eLNA is used.

No-eLNA + dedicated antenna 6.5 + ~10(ant) 4.0 Moderate trace loss assumed
Dedicated antenna
Low pre-LNA trace loss
eLNA + 2 SAWs + dedicated antenna 22.5 + ~10(ant) 2.5
assumed when eLNA is used.

Note: All the numbers stated in the table are examples only and are subject to change.

Sec. 2.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 36
BOM Reduction Using No-eLNA BOM Reduction/Low-Cost BOM Considerations

NF related losses
 Trace loss should be less than 1 dB (any losses other than diplexer and SAW) from antenna input to RFIC
GNSS input matching network.
 A high rejection filter having a 0.5 dB additional IL is used and the post-ELNA filter is not needed.
 RFIC GNSS input matching network is critical in no-eLNA configuration and needs to be optimized per design
and follow reference design topology.
Coupling requirements
 Avoid clocks crossing RF inputs, that could impact NF and cause spurs
 Better shielding of RF traces is required
Power supply requirement
 Power supplies connecting to WTR RF supply need good decoupling
QSPR RF development test
 If <1 dB trace-loss is not met but RF development can pass, still can be acceptable
 Include placeholder for eLNA stuff-option as backup should issues arise
 Placeholder should not compromise primary path loss or isolation
 Antenna requirements:
 With a no-ELNA implementation, the antenna to antenna isolation needs to be at least 15 dB.

Note: Refer to the table in Section 2.3 for the list of chipsets that support the no-eLNA option.

Sec. 2.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 37
BOM Reduction By Sharing GNSS Antenna BOM Reduction/Low-Cost BOM Considerations

WWAN TX to GNSS antenna isolation requirements


 At least 10 dB with eLNA configuration
 At least 15 dB for no-eLNA configuration
Antenna design
 See GNSS Antenna Considerations for Handsets and Other Portables (80-V5228-8) for antenna efficiency
requirements.
Antenna sharing with GNSS
 Sharing with WLAN has minimal impact to GNSS
 Sharing with WWAN Rx diversity is acceptable
 Not acceptable when the design includes an antenna tuner on a diversity path.
 Sharing with WWAN Tx is not acceptable

Sec. 2.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 38
BOM Reduction Using LC Diplexer BOM Reduction/Low-Cost BOM Considerations

WCN3620/ WTR4905/ WCN3620/ WTR4905/


WCN3610 WTR2955 WCN3610 WTR2955

WiFi + BT WiFi + BT
MN MN MN MN

SAW SAW

eLNA is optional eLNA is optional


eLNA + SAW 16c eLNA + SAW 16c

CoEx 1.5G 2.4GHz


CoEx Filter LC Notch LC notch SAW
Filter
Diplexer SAW

~6.5c 6c ~1c 6c
eBOM reduction: ~5.5 cents
Example of WTR4905/2955 chipsets using eBOM reduction
LC diplexer evaluation:
 Use LC notches to replace dedicated GNSS/Wi-Fi diplexer
 LC = LC notches = Low Cost. 2~3 notches: 1~1.5 cents
 eBOM reduction: 5~5.5 cents, shared with Wi-Fi
 LC diplexer implementation is currently supported only on WTR4905/2955 IC platforms.
Note: LC diplexer and other low cost/reduced BOM solutions have been successfully implemented on multiple
platforms; for example, QRD8916, QRD8909, etc.

Sec. 2.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 39
BOM Reduction Using LC Diplexer BOM Reduction/Low-Cost BOM Considerations

LC diplexer example implemented on QRD8916 + WTR4905 ─ GNSS coex with Wi-Fi

• Test setup: Set WLAN in transmit mode and run GNSS


FTM test tree
• Wi-Fi, 11b/11Mbps, Tx power set to 18 dBm
GPS WBIQ • No GPS degradation observed as seen in adjacent plots

Shared GNSS and


Wi-Fi antenna

GLO WBIQ

Schematic snapshot depicting LC diplexer


implementation on QRD8916 + WTR4905

Sec. 2.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 40
BOM Reduction Using LC Diplexer BOM Reduction/Low-Cost BOM Considerations

Design of LC diplexer with LC-resonance band pass


 The L-C resonator on GNSS path should form a band
pass path at ~1.6 GHz.
 Suggested initial values: 1.2 nH/3 pF

GNSS path

 The L-C resonator on Wi-Fi/BT path should form a 2.4 GHz


band pass path at Wi-Fi/Bluetooth
~2.45 GHz path
 Suggested initial values: 2.7 nH/3.6 pF

Note: Expect to adjust the matching values around the suggested initial values.

Sec. 2.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 41
BOM Reduction Using LC Diplexer BOM Reduction/Low-Cost BOM Considerations

The plot below shows the S11 curve, measured from port 1 of LC diplexer front end, with WTR4905 enabled on
the QRD8916 + WTR4905 platform.

Ensure the return loss at


1.575 GHz exceeds 22 dB

Note: WLAN port is NC.

Sec. 2.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 42
BOM Reduction Using LC Diplexer BOM Reduction/Low-Cost BOM Considerations

The plot below shows the S21 curve data, measured from port 1 and 2 around the LC diplexer + Pre SAW S21,
on the QRD8916+WTR4905.

Note: 40 dB attenuation at 2.4 GHz WLAN band is the worst case. It is better to have at least 45 dB. WLAN
port is NC.

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Section 2.3

GNSS LNA Considerations

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GNSS LNA Configurations

There are two major configurations for the GNSS eLNA:


 eLNA – An external low noise amplifier present in the GNSS RF chain
 No eLNA – An external low noise amplifier absent in the GNSS RF chain

External GNSS LNA considerations

eLNA configuration No eLNA configuration

Sec. 2.3 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 45
No-eLNA and eLNA Tradeoffs External GNSS LNA Considerations

Advantages of adding an eLNA


 Use of an eLNA, allows flexibility in placing the GNSS antenna away from the RFIC or anywhere based on
design constraints.
 Reduces the insertion loss created by the long traces or cable lengths (following the eLNA) that could
degrade the GNSS receiver’s sensitivity dB-for-dB.
 Adding an external LNA near the GNSS antenna provides a gain stage early in the receiver path limiting the
cascaded noise figure to be dominated by the losses before the LNA.
Note: The eLNA should be placed as close as possible to the GNSS antenna.
Disadvantages of adding an eLNA
 Increased BOM count and cost due to the additional SAW filter (BPF1), matching and decoupling components
required
 Increased board area required by the GNSS receiver path; a GNSS front end with no eLNA requires
approximately 6 mm2 of board space while one that supports an eLNA requires approximately 20 mm2.
 Additional design considerations are required in the layout to isolate eLNA enable and supply lines from
potential interference, as well as the software modifications detailed in this document.
 Increased current depending on eLNA and platform selected

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Low-Cost Market Recommendations for No-eLNA External GNSS LNA Considerations

NF related losses
 Trace loss should be less than 1 dB (any losses other than diplexer and SAW) from antenna input to RFIC
GNSS input matching network
 A high rejection filter, F6QA1G582H2JMQYAS having a 0.5 dB additional IL is used and the post-ELNA filter
is not needed.
 RFIC GNSS input matching network is critical in no-eLNA configuration and needs to be optimized per design
and follow reference design topology.
Coupling requirements
 Avoid clocks crossing RF inputs; it could impact NF and cause spurs
 Better shielding of RF traces is required
Power supply requirement
 Power supplies connecting to WTR RF supply need good decoupling.
QSPR RF development test
 If <1 dB trace-loss is not met but RF development can pass, still can be acceptable
 Include placeholder for eLNA stuff-option as backup should issues arise
 Placeholder should not compromise primary path loss or isolation

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GNSS Gen 8, 8A, 8B, and 8C Supported RFIC LNA External GNSS LNA Considerations
Configurations

RFIC ELNA/NO-ELNA GNSS engine

RTR/QTR8600 >90% ELNA GEN 8, 8A

WTR1605 ELNA ONLY GEN 8A, 8B, 8C

WTR1625 ELNA ONLY GEN 8B

WTR2605 ELNA, NO-ELNA GEN 8A/B/C

WTR3925 ELNA ONLY GEN 8C

ELNA, NO-ELNA with High


WTR4905/WTR2955 GEN 8C
Rejection SAW

WTR5975 ELNA ONLY GEN 9

WGR7640/RGR7640 ELNA, NO-ELNA GEN 8 ALL (APQS)

Sec. 2.3 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 48
Section 2.4

GPS/GNSS Automotive
Considerations

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GNSS External Active Antenna Considerations

GPS/GNSS automotive considerations


 External GNSS antennas can be conveniently placed and designed better to improve the reception of GNSS
signals.
 Ensure that an external active antenna is not used in cascade with an eLNA.
 Ensure that the gain of the external active antenna meets Qualcomm specification of 14-17 dB.

An attenuator can be
added as required

Not recommended!
Excess gain added by an external active
antenna when used in cascade with an
external LNA can cause serious GNSS
degradation.

Sec. 2.4 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 50
Example Calculation for Gain/Losses and Attenuation GPS/GNSS Automotive Considerations
for Automotive GNSS Front-End Design Requirements

VDD_1P3

Power supply/
RGR7640AU

bias circuits
VDD_1P3

VDD_1P3

VDD_1P8

To other SSBI

Digital I/Os
& controls
circuits
status &
XO PLL FDBK controls
circuits

LO generation
VCO
GNSS GNDs & distribution
antenna
(configuration 1)
BB_IP

downconverter
Quadrature
BPF1 LNA BPF2
RF_P LPF BB_IM
RF_M BB_QP

LNA LPF BB_QM

GNSS
active antenna
(configuration 2)
Attenuator BPF2

Item Gain/Loss (dB) Notes

Active antenna 27

5M RG-174 cable -5.3

Target gain range 14 to 17 Target external gain to GNSS module

Required attenuation -6 Attenuation needed to meet target gain range

Sec. 2.4 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 51
Section 2.5

2.5.1 GNSS Blanking Verification Using RF


Development Tests 55
2.5.2 Blanking Implementation for GSM
GNSS Blanking Implementation Designs
2.5.3 Blanking Implementation for SGLTE
58

Designs 59

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GNSS Blanking: Why and When is It Used? GNSS Blanking Implementation

GNSS blanking is used when any Tx signal from the device has uncontrolled Tx burst noise that falls into the
GNSS band.
 Tx sources can be GSM (850/EGSM/DCS/PCS), LTE-TDD (B34/B39), TDSCDMA (B34/B39), and IM3 effects
from Wi-Fi + 800 MHz band Tx.
The GNSS receiver is typically overloaded with TDD Tx out-of-band noise power.
 It disrupts the digital gain and DC offset control loops.
 GNSS desense can be several dB higher than blanking loss.
Blanking limits the GNSS sensitivity loss due to the Tx burst noise.
 GSM 1-slot blanking: ~0.6 dB loss vs 1 to 2 dB loss without blanking
 LTE-TDD: ~2.2 dB (Tx typically 2 ms every 5 ms)
 TDS: ~0.7 dB (Tx typically 675 us every 5 ms)
 SGLTE: LTE-TDD + GSM: ~3.5 dB expected loss

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RFIC Blanking Seen at the Analog IQ Outputs During GSM Tx GNSS Blanking Implementation

WTR1605 GNSS analog IQ output

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Section 2.5.1

GNSS Blanking Verification Using


RF Development Tests

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GNSS Blanking Verification (1 of 2) GNSS Blanking Implementation

To help confirm GSM blanking, look for 216-Hz spaced spurs around the test tone, and spurs at band edges
±1023 kHz.

WBIQ test plot in GSM traffic

Zoom in with Matlab-


generated plot

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GNSS Blanking Verification (2 of 2) GNSS Blanking Implementation

WBIQ .bin time domain plots can show comparison of correct blanking vs no-blanking (jamming occurring).

Correct blanking with No blanking, also GSM Tx


1 slot GSM Tx noise jamming

GSM Tx noise bursts in GNSS without blanking

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Section 2.5.2

Blanking Implementation for GSM


Designs

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Section 2.5.3

Blanking Implementation for SGLTE


Designs

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GNSS Blanking in SGLTE Mode on APQ8084/MDM9x25M GNSS Blanking Implementation
Devices (2 of 3)

Proposed hardware solution (1 of 2)


 Requires a new connection on MDM9x25M.
 Qualcomm recommends using the following GPIO/GRFC as second signal to enable GNSS blanking:
 GPIO_58/GRFC_26 and GPIO_50 (NAV_TLMM_BLANK/GNSS_TX_AGGRESSOR).
 Use a 0 Ω jumper between GPIO_58 and GPIO_50.
 Change the existing connection between GPIO_50 and the WLAN card to a 0 Ω jumper (DNI). The WLAN GNSS blanking
feature is not implemented.

MDM9X25

DNI WLAN CONNECTOR


GPIO_50 J24-56
NAV_TLMM_BLANK

GPIO_58
GRFC_26
NEW CONNECTION

Sec. 2.5.3 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 60
GNSS Blanking in SGLTE Mode on APQ8084/MDM9x25M GNSS Blanking Implementation
Devices (3 of 3)

Proposed hardware solution (2 of 2)


GPIO_50 cannot be changed
 Customers using GPIO_58/GRFC_26 for a different function can select another unused GRFC.
 Contact http://support.cdmatech.com for assistance.

Sec. 2.5.3 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 61
Section 2.6

GPS Hardware Considerations for


LTE Band 13

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GPS Hardware Considerations for LTE Band 13 Considerations for LTE B13 Designs

Second harmonic of LTE Tx


 A strong second harmonic (2H) of the LTE transmitter is generated by the phone.
180 kHz

}
The antenna switch is a significant contributor.
}
 PTx Second harmonic
generated by Tx
Must be less than
 Second harmonic at the primary antenna < -75 dBm. (PA, switch, etc.) -75 dBm
360 kHz
The Tx coupled into the GPS path generates an additional second harmonic.

}

~
786.41 MHz 1572.82 MHz
 The ELNA is expected to be a significant contributor.
Primary antenna
 If there is a diversity switch (not recommended) on the GPS path, then it is expected to be a significant contributor.
RFIC

 Recommended test case 1


DA Tx SAW PA Duplexer
ASM
 9 MHz LTE Tx (50 RB) (777.5 ~ 786.5 MHz)
 Second harmonic falls only 1.4 MHz below the GPS band edge at 1555 ~ 1573 MHz Antenna isolation
LPF 2H notch (AANT)
 Recommended test case 2 for the ASM

 180 kHz LTE Tx (1 RB) at RB49 (786.32 ~ 786.5 MHz)


 360 kHz bandwidth 2H falls only 1.4 MHz below the GPS band edge at 1572.64 ~ 1573 MHz
GPS LNA-80 dBm at the GPS antenna. (Notch/HPF)
 The input-referred 2H of the GPS + 2H of the Tx should be less than
LTE Tx noise in the GPS band GPS front end Prefilter
Secondary/GPS antenna
 Must meet the -184 dBm/Hz spec in the GPS band at the GPS antenna 0.1dB desense. Afilter

IM2out
PTx Additional second harmonic

~
generated by the GNSS front end
786.41 MHz 1572.82 MHz

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GPS with LTE Band 13 – Tx Path Considerations Considerations for LTE B13 Designs

Tx SAW
 Required for attenuating the DA Rx band noise in the LTE band 13 and GPS Rx band; see Filter, Upper 700

MHz B13 Tx SAW Mini-Specification (80-VH064-14) for requirements.


Power Amplifier (PA)
 The second harmonic (2H) is specified to be -42 dBc; see Power Amplifier, Band 13/14 (Upper 700 MHz)

Objective Specification
(80-VJ558-9) for test method and requirements.
Duplexer
 With 27.5 dBm input power, it should attain > 45 dB attenuation at the LTE band 13 second harmonic and

GPS band noise of the PA.


 Duplexer should always precede the low pass filter and not the other way around.

Low pass filter


 Required mainly for further attenuation (> 30 dB) of the second harmonic and GPS band noise of the PA .

2H notch
 Tuned at the second harmonic frequency, this is necessary to improve the antenna switch module (ASM)

second harmonic requirement. The stripline inductor is recommended (over discrete inductor) for high Q and
accuracy. Primary antenna
Trace loss
PA Stripline inductor
 Microstrip inductor
DA isTx
not recommended; Duplexer
it is more lossy and longer than
SAW
2H notch ASM an equivalent stripline inductor for
LPF Target @ primary antenna:
the same PCB stackup. 2H < -75 dBm
Antenna switch module (ASM)
RF transceiver
 The dominant contributor to the Tx second harmonic, which should be ~<-78-78
(2H contribution dBm)dBm with 25 dBm input (see

SP10T Antenna Switch Module RF Switch Mini-Specification (80-VK402-1) for requirements)


PTX = ~ 27 dBm PTX = ~ 24.5 dBm PTX = ~ 24 dBm PTX = ~ 23 dBm
The total second harmonic2Hproduced
= ~ -13 dBm by2Hthe TxdBm
= ~ -58 at the2Hprimary antenna should not
= ~ -88 dBm 2H <exceed
-75 dBm -75 dBm.

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GPS with LTE Band 13 – Antenna Isolation Considerations Considerations for LTE B13 Designs

Requirement
 The maximum allowed second harmonic content from the transmitter at the GPS antenna = -85 dBm.
 Hence, the transmitter path considerations discussed in the previous slide requires a 10 dB antenna-to-
antenna isolation (AANT) at LTE band 13 Tx , 2H, and GPS frequencies.
For AANT dB of antenna-to-antenna isolation in both Tx and 2H bands
 The total second harmonic produced by the Tx at the primary antenna should not exceed (-85 + (AANT))
dBm.

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GPS with LTE Band 13 – Recommendations Considerations for LTE B13 Designs

For the second harmonic of LTE Tx


 Requirement – The input-referred second harmonic of the GPS + second harmonic of 180the
kHz
Tx combined should be less than -

}
}
PTx Second harmonic
80 dBm at the GPS antenna. generated by Tx
Must be less than
(PA, switch, etc.) -75 dBm
 Required lowpass filter on the Tx path 360 kHz

}
~
 Required high linearity ASM on the primary path 786.41 MHz 1572.82 MHz

 2H notch is required to attain high linearity of ASM. Primary antenna


RFIC
 Prefilter on the GPS path
DA Tx SAW PA Duplexer
 Can be a notch at LTE Tx frequency or high pass filter ASM
 Reduces the Tx power going into the GPS front end
Antenna isolation
 Helps reduce 2H generated by the GPS front end LPF 2H notch (AANT)
for the ASM
 Diversity switch not recommended on the GPS path; if used, must be high linearity. See Case C on the next slide.

For LTE Tx noise in the GPS band


GPS LNA (Notch/HPF)
 Low pass filter on the Tx path
 Reduces the Rx band noise generated by the Tx path GPS front end Pre-filter
 Required high linearity ASM on the primary path Secondary/GPS antenna
Afilter
 2H notch is required to attain high linearity of ASM.

IM2out
PTx Additional second harmonic

~
generated by the GNSS front end
786.41 MHz 1572.82 MHz

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GPS with LTE Band 13 – Prefilter Attenuation Requirements Considerations for LTE B13 Designs
(1 of 2)

The prefilter (notch filter or high pass) should be designed so that:


 Case A – ELNA is used
 Filter attenuation at 786.5 MHz = Afilter (dB) = 25 + (10 - AANT) + (32 - ABPF1) + (HELNA + 56)/2
 Case B – ELNA is not used
 Filter attenuation at 786.5 MHz = Afilter (dB) = 15 + (10 - AANT) + (35 - ABPF1)
where
– AANT = Antenna-to-antenna isolation in the LTE band 13
– HLNA = Second harmonic (IM2) of the ELNA (if used) when measured as per GPS ELNA mini-spec; see GNSS L1 Band LNA
Mini-Specification (80-VM505-1)
– ABPF1 = Rejection of the first band filter (pre-ELNA )

Case A Case B
GPS front end GPS front end

BPF1 ELNA BPF2 BPF1

Note: BPF1 and BPF2 SAW must meet the linearity requirements listed in GNSS L1 Band Unbalanced
SAW Filter Mini-Specification (80-VF782-5) and GNSS L1 Band Balanced SAW Filter Mini-
Specification (80-VF782-1).
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GPS with LTE Band 13 – Prefilter Attenuation Requirements Considerations for LTE B13 Designs
(2 of 2)

Diversity switch (not recommended)


 Being an active element, the diversity switch is a nonlinear element contributing to the second harmonic
of the Tx.
 If the diversity switch is used, it is highly recommended that the second harmonic contribution of the
diversity switch be less than -85 dBm for +15 dBm input power.
Prefilter requirements
 Filter attenuation at 787 MHz = Afilter (dB) = 25 + (10 - AANT) + (32 - ABPF1) + (HELNA + 56)/2
where
 AANT = Antenna-to-antenna isolation in the LTE band 13
 HLNA = Second harmonic (IM2) of the ELNA (if used) when measured as per GPS ELNA
mini-spec. See GNSS L1 Band LNA Mini-Specification (80-VM505-1).
 ABPF1 = Rejection of the first band filter (pre-ELNA)

Shared GPS/
Case C diversity path
GPS front end
Diversity switch
Prefilter

BPF1 ELNA BPF2

To DRx path

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Example Prefilter (Band 13 Notch) Considerations for LTE B13 Designs

 Example prefilter
 C1 = C2 = 3.6 pF ± 0.1 pF Trc1 Sss11 Trc2 Sdd22 Trc3 Sss31 1 of 1 (Max)
Trc4 Sss31 Trc5 Sss31 Trc6 Sss31
 C3 = 4.7 pF ± 0.1 pF Trc7 Sds23 Trc8 Scs23 Mem9[Trc4] Sss31
0 M1M
M 23
 L1 = 7.4 nH ± 5% Sss31
-5
 Third-order elliptical high pass filter
 Four components -10

 IL = 0.3 dB (Q > 50 @ 787 MHz) -15


M 3 M7
 B13 attenuation > 25 dB -20 M 1 782.00000 MHz-27.241 dB
M 4M
M 26 M 2 786.50000 MHz-25.786 dB
M 3 711.76471 MHz-19.683 dB
-25 M1 M 4 742.64706 MHz-24.917 dB
M5 M 5 766.91176 MHz-30.467 dB
-30 M 6 788.97059 MHz-25.005 dB
M 7 808.82353 MHz-19.965 dB
M 8 1.565000 GHz-0.2731 dB
-35 M 9 1.575420 GHz-0.2756 dB
M 10 1.607000 GHz-0.2798 dB
-40
M 11.565000 GHz-0.2731 dB
M 21.575420 GHz-0.2756 dB
-45 M 31.607000 GHz-0.2798 dB

Ch1 Start 400 MHz Pwr 0 dBm Stop 1.9 GHz


5 /1 8 /2 0 1 0 , 7 : 2 4 P M

Note: Consider part-to-part component value variation and board-to-board parasitic variation in the prefilter
design process.

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Typical Band 13 2H at Main Antenna Connector – Considerations for LTE B13 Designs
RBStart49_Lcrb_1

Tx: RBStart49_Lcrb_1 at 23 dBm at the main antenna connector (0 dB MPR)

Measured 2H at the main antenna connector = -83.6 dBm/360 kHz

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Typical Band 13 2H at Main Antenna Connector – Considerations for LTE B13 Designs
LTE QPSK 50RB

Tx ON

Tx: LTE QPSK 50RB at 22 dBm at the main antenna connector


(0 dB MPR)

2H at the main antenna connector = -83.6 dBm/360 kHz


GPS band noise (Tx ON) = -168.5 dBm/Hz
Spectrum analyzer noise (Tx OFF) = -169.6 dBm/Hz
Hence, Tx contributed GPS band noise = -175 dBm/Hz Tx OFF

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Section 2.7

GPS/GLONASS Hardware
Considerations for Dual
Transmission in AWS and PCS
Bands

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GPS/GLONASS Hardware Considerations for Dual GNSS Hardware Considerations for
AWS & PCS Dual Tx
Transmission in AWS and PCS Bands
 Simultaneous transmission in AWS and PCS bands
causes RF front-end components to generate IM3
products that fall into the GPS/GLONASS bands and
cause desense.
 The AWS+PCS IM3 product can be generated in
both the WWAN Tx path and the GPS Rx path.
 If the IM3 is generated in the WWAN Tx path and
falls into the GLONASS/GPS bands, the GPS
antenna is not able to differentiate the corrupted
signal from GPS signals.
 Similarly, if the GPS Rx front end generates IM3, the
corrupted signal cannot be filtered out once it goes
into the RFIC.

IM3 product is generated during


SVLTE mode with AWS and
PCS Tx active.

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Transmitter and Receiver Path Considerations GNSS Hardware Considerations for
AWS & PCS Dual Tx
 IM3 product on GPS/GLONASS bands is not limited to
dual transmission in B4 LTE and BC1 1X voice
scenarios. Other AWS Tx + PCS Tx combinations
include:
 B2 LTE and BC15 1X voice
 B25 LTE and BC15 1X voice
 Tx SAW
 Required for attenuating the DA Rx band noise in the AWS/PCS
Tx band and GPS Rx band; see Filter, Upper 700 MHz B13 Tx
SAW Mini-Specification (80-VH064-14) for requirements.
– AWS Tx attenuation due to SAWAWS = 35 dB
– PCS Tx attenuation due to SAWPCS = 40 dB
 Duplexer
 Duplexer should always precede the low pass filter and not the
other way around.
 .Antenna switch module (ASM)
 LTE/CDMA SVLTE RF front end IIP3 should be +65 dBm. IP3 of
SP10T is the dominant factor in LTE/CDMA SVLTE RF frontend
IP3.
 Antenna to Antenna Isolation
 Qualcomm recommends minimum 10 dB antenna-to-antenna
isolation.
 GNSS External Low Noise Amplified
 The GNSS ELNA is the dominant contributor to the IM3 product.
Qualcomm specification for GPS ELNA IIP3 is 2 dBm. See
The WWAN Tx IM3 seen at the GPS
MSM/MDM Key RF External Components (80-VP447-12) for
antenna should not exceed -81 dBm.
more details.

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Proposed Solution GNSS Hardware Considerations for
AWS & PCS Dual Tx

 The proposed solution to the IM3 issue is to limit the max Tx power if all of the following conditions are met:
 GPS/GLONASS session is in progress. This includes researching and making measurements.
 UE is simultaneously transmitting in AWS and PCS bands.
 LTE and 1X voice channel combination produces an IM3 product that falls in or close to the GPS/GLONASS band.
 The level to back off the LTE max Tx will be stored in a look-up table, an NV item, as a function of the voice
Tx power level.
 The procedure to measure the LTE B4 x CDMA BC1 intermodulation interference (IM3) on GPS/GLONASS
band is outlined in the following slides.
 This solution is general to any device simultaneously transmitting voice and data in AWS and PCS bands.
LTE and 1X voice combinations include:
 B4 LTE + BC1 1X voice
 B2 LTE + BC15 1X voice
 B25 LTE + BC15 1X voice

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IM3 Measurement Overview GNSS Hardware Considerations for
AWS & PCS Dual Tx

 It is recommended to perform the following ADC IQ


tests; see Section 2.9.3
 LTE B4 Tx Off and CDMA BC1 Tx Off
 LTE B4 Tx On and CDMA BC1 Tx On
 The IM3 measurement procedure should first be
completed in conducted mode in order to validate the
test setup.
 The ADC IQ test and post-processing procedures for
a conducted mode are the same as for a radiated
mode.
 Radiated performance is assumed to represent the
worst case antenna isolation, and therefore the worst
case scenario for the IM3 product.
 The table below details the recommended settings
for LTE B4 x CDMA BC1 IM3 test.

See GPS/GLONASS
Hardware Considerations
for Dual Transmissions in
AWS and PCS Bands
(80-N5420-24) for more
information.

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Interpreting Results GNSS Hardware Considerations for
AWS & PCS Dual Tx

Example of Tx noise density in GLO band

GLO noise density (dBm/Hz) with Tx OFF


= -120 + 20*log10(4.936/0.556) – 10*log10(8.3345e6)
= -170.02 dBm/Hz

GLO noise increment for Tx ON with regards to Tx OFF


= 20*log10(15.341/1.754)
= 18.84 dB

Example ADC IQ test MATLAB output plot with both Tx chains off GLO noise density (dBm/Hz) with Tx ON
= -170.02 + 18.84
= -151.18 dBm/Hz

Tx noise density in GLO band (dBm/Hz)


= GPS noise density (Tx on) – GPS noise density (Tx off)
= 10*log10(10^(-151.18/10) – 10^(-170.02/10))
= -151.24 dBm/Hz

See GPS/GLONASS Hardware


Considerations for Dual
Transmissions in AWS and PCS
Bands (80-N5420-24) for more
information.
Example ADC IQ test MATLAB output plot with both Tx chains on

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Section 2.8

2.8.1 QRCT-Based Conducted RF Development


GNSS Hardware Validation Using Tests 81
2.8.2 QSPR-Based Conducted RF Development
QDART Tests 89

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QDART GPS/GNSS HW
Validation Using QDART

QDART consists of Qualcomm Radio Control Toolkit (QRCT) and Qualcomm Sequence Profiling Resource
(QSPR).

QDART

QRCT QSPR
 QRCT can be used to perform only offline GNSS  QSPR can be used to perform offline as well as
hardware verification tests in early development online GNSS hardware verification tests.
stages.  Automated testing
 Manual testing

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Gen 8 Hardware Tests Performed Using QDART GPS/GNSS HW
Validation Using QDART

Approximate
Test category Test WWAN state
test time*
GPS and BDS wideband spectrum analysis
45 sec
test
Offline, OoS, Idle, Single-call with
Spectrum Analysis GLO wideband spectrum analysis test per
45 sec max Tx power
channel
GPS narrowband spectrum analysis 2 min
Offline, OoS, Idle, Single-call with
C/No calibration C/No Test 2.5 min
nominal and max Tx power
test
Multi-call C/No Test 12 min Multi-call with max Tx power
Idle, Single-call with max Tx
Acquisition Acquisition sensitivity test 45 min
power
sensitivity test
Multi-call acquisition sensitivity test 4 hr Multi-call with max Tx power
Tracking sensitivity Offline, OoS, Idle, Single-call with
Tracking sensitivity test 55 min
test max Tx power
Offline, OoS, Idle, Single-call with
BER test BER test 6 min
max Tx power
BER stress test BER stress test 6 min Multi-call with max Tx power

CDMA GPS Time CDMA GPS Time Calibration Test (for 1X


3 min CDMA Single-call, Idle
Calibration Test product only)
Displays the 80-MHz wide GNSS spectrum at Offline, OoS, Idle, single-call with
ADC IQ 2 min
the output of the ADC max Tx power

* 1. Test time is one run of the test for a single WWAN technology/band/channel/state.
2. Test time includes the QSPR data post-processing time, logs/data/figures generation time.
3. All the sensitivity tests assume only two power levels are tested.

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Section 2.8.1

QRCT-Based Conducted RF
Development Tests

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QCRT
QRCT Initialization – Test Setup (1 of 3)

Checking for available phones


 Click COM Port once
Detected active COM Ports

Active COM Ports as detected by QPST.


COM Port must by detected in QPST to be
detected in QRCT

 One click and hold COM Port menu and select the DUT COM Port

COM Port has not been established until


QLIB_ConnectServerWithWait and subsequent
commands have been sent and received
without error

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QRCT Initialization – Test Setup (2 of 3) QCRT

In the QRCT menu, navigate to FTM Command → RF → GPS → gpsOne Gen 8

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QRCT Initialization – Test Setup (3 of 3) QCRT

Procedure to turn on the GNSS Receiver in QRCT

1. Choose COM
port
2. Click Enter GPS
Mode

Note: Other buttons


and settings can be
safely ignored

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QRCT Training and Troubleshooting – Mobile C/No QCRT

Background
 Calculates C/No using (TE – NE)/NE where TE is the
peak energy in band; that is, CW Tone, and NE is
noise energy measured near L1.
Recommended settings
 Collect Mode (IQ Source) – GPS PRx
 Capture Size (kilosamples) – 32
 Number of FFT Integrations – 10
Procedure
 Inject a -120 dBm tone (referred to GPS ant input) at
1575.52 MHz (L1 + 100 kHz) accounting for setup
losses; for example, input loss (IL) of RF cables
 Initialize test setup
 Select Get Mobile C/N0 in Mobile C/N0o Tab
Interpreting results
 Mobile C/No should report approximately 50 dB-Hz,
but will vary based on NF
 Mobile C/No = 174 – Ptone - NF
Frequency Offset (Hz) is relative to L1 and should be
approximately 100 kHz. If offset exceeds +100 kHz ±2
ppm (±3150 Hz) at room, XO needs recalibration.

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QRCT Training and Troubleshooting – WB I/Q Spectrum Analysis (1 of 2) QCRT

Background
 Calculates the C/No similar to Mobile C/No and creates a

.BIN file that can be post-processed to display the


spectrum of L1 ± 1.023 MHz
Recommended settings
 Collect Mode: GPS L1 wideband spectrum analysis

(WBSA) auto (PRX)


 Note that narrow band measurement GPS L1 NBSA manual
(PRX) requires a center frequency NB field to be set.
 See the figure for the remaining settings.
Procedure
 Inject a -120 dBm tone at 1575.52 MHz (L1 + 100 kHz),

accounting for setup losses; for example, IL of RF


cables.
 Select IQ File sets the directory for the .BIN file.

 Select Start Capture in the I/Q Spectrum Analysis tab.

Processing the .BIN file


 Navigate to <AMSS_Installation_Dir>\modem\gps\

gnss_tools\standalone_rfv\iq_test.
 In Matlab, call gnss_IqTest_IqFileProc.

 gnss_IqTest_IqFileProc(141, 100, -120,

'gpsGen8_iq_wb_collect.bin');
 See IZat Gen 8 Engine RF Development and Mobile

Station Time Calibration Test Procedures (80-VM522-2)


for command details.

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QRCT Training and Troubleshooting – WB I/Q Spectrum Analysis (2 of 2) QCRT

Interpreting results
 C/No is calculated similar to Mobile C/No. For a -120 dBm CW tone power, the expected C/No is ~50 dB-Hz
dependent upon NF.
 The noise floor is approximately -160 dBm.
 The estimated signal frequency offset is 100 kHz (assuming CW is set to L1+ 100 kHz).
 The jammer mask is dependent on the jammer bandwidth (BW) and violating spurs can be viewed in
summary file that is generated by Matlab script

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QRCT Training and Troubleshooting – SV Tracking QCRT

Background
 Track a single satellite simulated by the GPS satellite
simulator
Recommended settings
 Test mode – SC Trk PRI
 GPS/SBAS SV ID – 1 (0 if tracking all SVs is desired)
 Command – Clear States & Start
Procedure
 Inject a -130 dBm GPS signal accounting setup losses;
for example, IL of RF cables, using a GPS satellite
simulator.
 For the GPS satellite simulator set PRN to 1, SV speed
to
900 mps and Doppler to 0.
 Follow test steps.
 Select Send Cmd in Mobile C/No Tab.
Interpreting results
 Open QXDM and navigate to VIEW → NEW → GPS →
GNSS Measurements.
 The C/No observed should be approximately 40 dB-Hz,
but will vary based on noise figure and signal strength.

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Section 2.8.2

QSPR-Based Conducted RF
Development Tests

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Test Equipment/Setup QSPR

Calibrated cables, Base station: The base station; for


switches and path loss: example, Agilent 8960, Anritsu 8820,
The cable, splitter, or CMW500 are capable of accurately
switch, and path loss Note that resistive splitter (20)
shared port S is connect to (6)
generating an RF signal in the
between the GPS signal through (21). Its drawing below operating band of the DUT. It should
generator and the UE is misleading. have a spectrum that is clean outside
must be accurately of the operating frequency band,
measured. The splitter particularly in or near the GPS band.
combiner should be
qualified and calibrated
at 4 GHz to cover the 1 pps connection required for
1.575 GHz L1 GPS 1X tests only.
signal and possible
coupling/leakage of a
3.1 GHz VCO.
GPS signal generator:
The GPS signal simulator should
be high-quality, commercially
available equipment; for example,
Spirent GSS6300. The simulator
must be synchronized (10 MHz
reference) to the base station.
CW signal generator:
A high-quality commercial CW signal
generator; for example, Marconi 2024 or
Agilent E4421, is required. A synthesizer
GPIB cable: Used by of equivalent performance is also
QSPR to control test required.
equipment.

*See IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures (80-VM522-2) for additional setup details.
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Configuring and Calibrating QSPR (1 of 2) QSPR

Equipment configuration
 Equipconfig.xml file must be modified to tell QSPR what equipment is connected and on what GPIB port
 Location of equipconfig.xml file can be found by running any QSPR test tree and viewing the location in the Debug window

 Default location is C:Program Files\Qualcomm\QDART\Databases


 Use the National Instrument Measurement and Automation Tool to detect GPIB controlled equipment and
read equipment PAD.

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Configuring and Calibrating QSPR (2 of 2) QSPR

Active
Ensure
equipment
settings
match your
equipment

Copy from supported


to active and modify
PAD

Supported
equipment

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 92
Configuring and Calibrating for SV-DO/LTE QSPR

 SVDO/LTE solutions require two call boxes for EV-DO/LTE and CDMA.
 The call box with LTE and DO must be configured as Call Processor2 in equipconfig.xml.

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 93
Configuring and Calibrating QSPR QSPR

Calibrating setup
 calDB.xml file must be modified to account for unique setup losses that will be used by QSPR when setting
power levels.
 Location of the calDB.xml file can be found by running any QSPR test tree and viewing the location in the Debug window; it is
typically located in the same directory as equipconfig.xml.

RF loss from base station to UUT is stored in


signal generator 1.

RF loss from base station to UUT GPS port is


not calibrated, but should be greater than
10 dB to simulate UUT antenna to antenna
isolation.
RF loss from GNSS Signal Generator; for
example, GSS6300, is stored under
Generic_GPS under GPS.

RF loss from CW Signal Generator is stored


under Generic_GPS under SG1 and is used
for NBIQ and WBIQ tests.

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 94
Calibrating and Configuring QSPR for SV-DO/LTE QSPR

SV-DO/LTE setups require additional call boxes and splitters/combiners to accommodate additional Rx/Tx
paths. EV-DO/LTE base station test set CDMA base station test set

Variations in SV-DO/LTE designs can result in two different setups: (1b) (1a)

 In architecture 1, the CDMA UUT Rx and UUT Tx share the same antenna (Ant1), and the EV-DO UUT Rx RF RF
out only in/out
Even sec 10 MHz
out
.
out
RF RF
out only in/out
Even sec 10 MHz
out
.
out

and UUT Tx share the same antenna (Ant0) (shown). Power (10)
splitter (32)
 In architecture 2, the CDMA Rx and Tx use different antennas,
(29)
and the EV-DO Rx and Tx use different
S
1

antennas. Architecture 2 has two configurations: (37)


Power
splitter
 A two WWAN antenna configuration (34)
1
S (30) (11)
– CDMA UUT Rx and EV-DO UUT Tx are on Ant0. 2
(22)
Freq counter/oscilloscope
– CDMA UUT Tx and EV-DO UUT Rx are on Ant1. Needed for 1X
only (12)
CH 1

 A three WWAN antenna configuration 1 35a

2 35b
(13) (4) 10 MHz In
S (18) CH 2

– CDMA UUT Rx and EV-DO UUT Tx are on Ant0. 3

Power (9)
– CDMA UUT BC1 Tx and EV-DO UUT BC1 Rx are on Ant1. combiner
1 PPS 1 PPS
(19) (21) (23) (7) in out
– CDMA UUT BC0 Tx and EV-DO UUT BC0 Rx are on Ant2. Power (9a) (9b)
GNSS signal generator
WWAN WWAN GNSS combiner 25-way D-type
 LTE UUT Rx and UUT Tx are on Ant0 for both architectures.
UUT
Ant0 Ant1 Ant
2 GNSS RF RF 10 MHz
S (16) (15) out (2) in/out
(6) 1

See IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures (80-VM522-2) for more information. Serial interface
connector
IEEE488

Windows PC (26)
with support software CW RF
(17)
CW signal generator

(3) RF (8) 10 MHz


out in/out
Serial
port

GPIB

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 95
Configuring and Calibrating QSPR (1 of 2) QSPR

RF loss from base station to


UUT
RF loss from LTE/DO base
station to UUT

RF loss from GNSS Signal


Generator; for example,
GSS6300

RF loss from CW Signal


Generator

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 96
Configuring and Calibrating QSPR (2 of 2) QSPR

CDMA setup losses

DO/LTE setup losses

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 97
QSPR Test Tree Descriptions QSPR

IZat Gen 8 test tree name (.xtt) Description


GNSS_Gen8_APQ.xtt Performs GNSS spectrum, C/No, tracking, and BER tests for APQ platforms
GNSS_Gen8_APQ_XO_Cal.xtt Performs XO factory calibration for APQ platforms, required prior to performing RF
development tests
GNSS_Gen8_CDMA.xtt Performs GNSS spectrum, CNo, tracking, and BER for CDMA and EVDO concurrency
scenarios
GNSS_Gen8_CDMA_FastTimeCal.xtt Performs fast time calibration necessary for PLTS and Hybrid-AFLT tests BC0, BC1, BC10,
BC14, BC15, fast time calibration
GNSS_Gen8_CDMA_TimeCal.xtt Performs time calibration necessary for PLTS and Hybrid-AFLT tests for BC0, BC1, BC6,
BC10, BC14,BC15
GNSS_Gen8_DSDA.xtt Dual-SIM dual-active, initializes 2 BSEs, tests both WWAN connections in Idle, Traffic, and
OoS, multi-call tests start and stop calls for both WWANs
GNSS_Gen8_DSDS.xtt Dual-SIM dual-standby, initializes 2 BSEs, tests are both WWAN connections in Idle and OoS
modes
GNSS_Gen8_DualWWAN.xtt Performs spectrum, CNo, tracking, and BER for SV-DO/LTE architecture 1 concurrency
scenarios only for GPS
GNSS_Gen8_FTM.xtt Performs spectrum, Cno, tracking, and BER tests in FTM mode
GNSS_Gen8_LTE.xtt Performs GNSS spectrum, CNo, tracking, and BER for LTE concurrency scenarios
GNSS_Gen8_LTE_CA.xtt Performs GNSS spectrum, CNo, tracking, and BER for LTE carrier aggregation concurrency
scenarios
GNSS_Gen8_MobileCNo.xtt Performs basic C/No and offset measurement similar to factory test for GPS, GLO, and BDS
GNSS_Gen8_TDSCDMA.xtt Performs spectrum, C/No, Sensitivity, and BER concurrency scenarios for TD-SCMA B34, B39,
B40
GNSS_Gen8_TSTS.xtt Triple-SIM triple-standby, initializes 3 BSEs, tests with all WWAN connections in Idle and OoS
modes
GNSS_Gen8_UMTS.xtt Performs GNSS spectrum, CNo, tracking, and BER for GSM and WCDMA concurrency
scenarios
Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 98
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis WBIQ QSPR

Purpose
 Spectrum analysis test measures the frequency spectrum of the GPS receiver output
 Checks signal purity at input to correlation processor
 Detects strong jammers
 Measures noise figure of the DUT GNSS receiver
 GPS WBIQ observes L1 ±1.023 MHz (GPS) bandwidth of spectrum
How failure degrades performance
 Noise figure degrades receiver sensitivity dB-for-dB
 CW jammers can mask weaker signals and create false alarms by being mistaken as legitimate signal
 CW and WB jammers degrade signal C/N0 by saturating AGC
Preliminary troubleshooting
 Calibrate test setup for unaccounted setup losses that add to NF
 Eliminate test setup interference by properly isolating DUT and follow setup instructions to properly simulate
antenna-antenna isolation
 Investigate front-end losses, including layout (trace loss) and matching optimization

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 99
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GPS WBIQ (1 of 4) QSPR

GPS WBIQ test method


1
1. Start QSPR and open an appropriate tree. Test trees vary; example at right is for illustration.
2. Right-click the Initialize folder, then click.
2
3. Right-click the spectrum analysis test to be run in the Test folder, then click.
4. Right-click the Finalize folder, then click. The QSPR log file will generate and display.
When step 4 is performed, QSPR automatically displays the test results in an HTML file, which includes the
pass/fail criteria.
I/Q plot and the summary report, as shown on the next slide, can also be generated using Matlab.

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 100
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GPS WBIQ (2 of 4) QSPR

Interpreting results – HTML file output from QSPR

1 2 3 4 5
6

1. Frequency Accuracy (PPM) – Measures the difference between the expected tone frequency and the
measured tone frequency giving an estimate of LO bias.
2. NF Measured (dB) – GNSS RF path noise figure calculated by summing normalized FFT bins, subtracting
out test CW tone, scaling by noise bandwidth, and referencing to -120 dBm test CW tone.
3. Std (I/Q) – Standard deviation of AGC can indicate the presence of a very strong jammer (see WBIQ) or
improper AGC performance and may correspond to a failure in AGC (I/Q mean).
4. Noise Floor (dBm) – Computed mean power from FFT bin samples in +/- 100 kHz range, referenced to
-120 dBm test CW tone.
5. Programmable Gain Amplifier (dB) – Value in dB of analog gain stage, can indicate strong jammer if too low,
or insufficient GNSS front-end gain if too high.
6. AGC (I/Q mean) – Measures input of AGC
Failures indicate improper gain settings; for example, malfunctioning ELNA.

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 101
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GPS WBIQ (3 of 4) QSPR

Interpreting results

 List of 10 strongest spurs with their respective relative frequency, bandwidth (BW), and bandwidth-dependent
jammer limit
 Violating spurs are highlighted in red in both the table and the plot.

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 102
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GPS WBIQ (4 of 4) QSPR

Interpreting results
On the resulting spectral plot, verify the following:
1. The reference tone is close to +100 kHz frequency
offset.
2. The cumulative filter shape must look like the figure
shown below.
3. All spurs, if any, are below the spur thresholds (the
plot may be zoomed to reveal closely spaced spur
components).
4. Spurs above the spur threshold are shown in red on
the plot.
5. The HTML report shown in the previous slide
identifies spurs above the threshold.
6. See IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development
Test Procedures (80-VM522-2) for more information.
The HTML file identifies peaks
Reference tone
that may qualify as spurs.
@ 100 kHz

GPS Gen 8 RF
Spectrum plot at
-120 dBm

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 103
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GLO WBIQ (1 of 9) QSPR

Purpose
 Spectrum analysis test measures the frequency spectrum of the GPS receiver output.
 Checks signal purity at input to correlation processor
 Detects strong jammers
 Measures noise figure of the DUT GNSS receiver
 AGC check allows checking of the proper gain lineup in the GNSS receiver paths
 GLO WBIQ observes 1 MHz (GLO) bandwidth of spectrum for all 14 frequency channels
How failure degrades performance
 CW and WB jammers degrades signal C/No by saturating AGC
 CW jammers can mask weaker signals and create false alarms by being mistaken as legitimate signal
 Noise figure degrades receiver sensitivity dB-for-dB
Preliminary troubleshooting
 Eliminate test setup interference by properly isolating DUT and follow setup instructions to properly simulate
ant-ant isolation
 Investigate front-end losses including layout (trace loss) and matching optimization
 Calibrate test setup for unaccounted setup losses that add to NF

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 104
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GLO WBIQ (2 of 9) QSPR

GLO WBIQ test method


1. Start QSPR and open an appropriate tree. Test 1

trees vary; example at right is for illustration.


2
2. Right-click the Initialize folder, then click.
3. Right-click the spectrum analysis test to be run in
the Test folder, then click.
4. Right-click the Finalize folder and then click. The
QSPR log file will generate and display.
When step 4 is performed, QSPR automatically
displays the test results in an HTML file, which
includes the pass/fail criteria.
I/Q plot and the summary report, as shown on the next
3
slide, can be generated using Matlab.

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 105
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GLO WBIQ (3 of 9) QSPR

Interpreting results – HTML file output from QSPR

1 2 3 4 5
6

1. Frequency Accuracy (PPM) – Measures the difference between the expected tone frequency and the
measured tone frequency giving an estimate of LO bias.
2. NF Measured (dB) – GNSS RF path noise figure calculated by summing normalized FFT bins, subtracting
out test CW tone, scaling by noise bandwidth, and referencing to -120 dBm test CW tone.
3. Std (I/Q) – Standard deviation of AGC can indicate the presence of a very strong jammer (see WBIQ) or
improper AGC performance and may correspond to a failure in AGC (I/Q mean).
4. Noise Floor (dBm) – Computed mean power from FFT bin samples in +/- 100 kHz range, referenced
to -120 dBm test CW tone.
5. Programmable Gain Amplifier (dB) – Value in dB of analog gain stage, can indicate strong jammer if too low,
or insufficient GNSS front-end gain if too high.
6. AGC (I/Q mean) – Measures input of AGC
Failures indicate improper gain settings; for example, malfunctioning ELNA.

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 106
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GLO WBIQ (4 of 9) QSPR

Interpreting results

GLO wideband spectral plot for GLO SV -7

 Lists the 10 strongest spurs with their respective relative frequency, bandwidth, and bandwidth dependent
jammer limit
 If there are any violating spurs, they will be highlighted in red in both the table and the plot.
 See IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures (80-VM522-2) for more information.

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 107
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GLO WBIQ (5 of 9) QSPR

Explanation of GLONASS spurs and notches


 All notches assigned to strongest GLO spurs in each WWAN mode
 Expected radiated PMIC switching spurs taken into account
 Notch frequencies are locked to internal19.2-MHz XO
 Any XO frequency error is tracked out digitally.
 GLO spurs near 1600.00 MHz are particularly troublesome, with multiple internal and external sources:
 Internal PMIC SMPS 500th and 1000th harmonics
– A wide notch is set to the PMIC switching frequency harmonics at 1600.00 MHz.
 External equipment jammers are common near 1600 MHz
– Base Station Simulators, CAT5 networks, JTAGs, PCs, etc.
– External jammers can fall off-center frequency from notch.
 No means to align notches to external jammer frequencies
 EBI (External Memory) 400-MHz clock harmonics (27-MHz PXO reference).
– 30 ppm PXO XTAL drift can cause EBI harmonics to fall outside of 1600-MHz notch.
 No current means for notches to track EBI clock harmonic drift

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 108
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GLO WBIQ (6 of 9) QSPR

Performance impact of spurs in the GLONASS bands


 These jammers are not expected to influence typical performance.
 Many SVs are not affected at all. No GPS signals are affected and many GLO channels have no jammers in them. The
jammers affect only the GLO channels identified in the table.
 When searching for a signal in an affected GLO channel:
 The presence of the jammer can cause a valid but weak signal in that channel to be temporarily missed and hence, not used
in the position fix. But note that a high-accuracy fix is still possible with only four strong SVs acquired from the total set of
visible GPS and GLO SVs.
 The sensitivity degradation in the jammed channel is observed only when the signal Doppler frequency aligns with the jammer
frequency modulo 1 kHz; that is, (fSV − fJammer) ~ N kHz for some integer N. Signal frequency drifts over time, and this
alignment occurs up to 5 percent of the time in each affected channel. Simultaneous loss of weak signals in all affected GLO
channels is quite unlikely.
 When the jammer/signal frequency alignment occurs in channel −2, sensitivity may be degraded by up to 7.5 dB. The other
jammers cause negligible loss (< 0.1 dB).

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 109
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GLO WBIQ (7 of 9) QSPR

Recommendations to mitigate spurs in the GLONASS bands


 Ensure device under test is in a shielded EMI box or Anechoic chamber.
 Confirm that external jamming sources are removed.
– JTAGs, CAT5 equipment, PCs, Base Station Simulators.
 Reduce GLO spurs to less than -134 dBm
 Key areas to focus on removing excessive GNSS spurs:
 PMIC area shielding
 PMIC/RFIC capacitor bypassing and grounding
 EBI clock and external memory area shielding and RF absorber material.
 Test away from external jamming sources.

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 110
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GLO WBIQ (8 of 9) QSPR

What are static notches?


 Static notches are assigned to known GNSS narrowband spurs that are locked to the XO.
 Usually, the spurs are known PMIC SMPS switcher harmonics, XO harmonics, DDR or other type clock
harmonics, and CAT5/router clock frequency.
 Unassigned notches are utilized by the on-the-fly spectrum analysis (OTFSA); for more information, see On-
the-Fly Spectrum Analysis (OTFSA) (80-VN895-13).
 Static notches are subject to change when needed.

GPS static notch table BeiDou static notch table

Notch frequency offset Notch frequency offset


Notch filter # from GPS center Notch filter # from BeiDou center
(kHz) (kHz)
1 580.000 1 -1098.000
2 -420.000 2 502.000
3 454.200 3 -1080.000
4 4 -1105.000
5 5
6 6
7 7
Static notches #3 and #4 are planned to be removed
after the Beidou OTFSA feature is available.

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 111
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GLO WBIQ (9 of 9) QSPR

Glonass static notch table


Glonass Notch Notch
notch offset frequency frequency
from Notch RF offset from offset from
1602 MHz frequency Glonass channel center Glonass channel
Notch filter # (MHz) (MHz) channel no. (kHz) channel no. center (kHz)
1 -4.200 1597.800 -7 -262.5 N/A N/A
2 -3.600 1598.400 -7 337.5 -6 -225.0
3 -2.000 1600.000 -4 250.0 -3 -312.5
4 -0.400 1601.600 -1 162.5 0 -400.0
5 1.200 1603.200 2 75.0 3 -487.5
6 2.800 1604.800 4 550.0 5 -12.5
7 3.600 1605.600 6 225.0 N/A N/A
8
9
10
11
12
13

 Each Glonass notch falls in two adjacent channels.


 If the notch frequency is near the center of the channel, it may not be visible in the adjacent channel.

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 112
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, NBIQ QSPR

Purpose
 Measures phase noise and LO stability to check frequency stability
How failure degrades performance
 Phase noise on the local generated clock acts as frequency changing with time and degrades by
 Multiplicative effect – Spreads the signal through phase modulation reducing useful signal power
 Reciprocal mixing – Folding of out-of-band interference (jammer) in baseband
 Oscillator stability measures frequency jumps in 50 Hz samples
 Signal loss – Energy is distributed to multiple hypothesis due to frequency jump
 Longer TTFF – A jump more than 12.5 Hz results in a correlation sum sign flip causing a time/ephemeris decoding error
Preliminary troubleshooting
 Verify voltage supply of (VCTC)XO circuitry that can cause low frequency fluctuations
 Thermally isolate (VCTC)XO circuitry to reduce temperature gradients that cause LO drift

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 113
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GPS NBIQ (1 of 3) QSPR

GPS NBIQ test method


1. Start QSPR and open an appropriate tree. Test 1

trees vary; example at right is for illustration.


2
2. Right-click the Initialize folder, then click.
3. Expand the Spectral Analysis Tests folder.
4. Right-click the NBIQ GPS Setup, then click.
5. Right-click the Finalize test folder, then click. The
QSPR log file will generate and display.
When step 4 is performed, QSPR automatically
displays the test results in an HTML file, which
includes the pass/fail criteria.
I/Q plot and the summary report, as shown on the next
3
slide, can be generated using Matlab.

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 114
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GPS NBIQ (2 of 3) QSPR

Interpreting results

1 2 3

1. Delta Frequency (Hz) – Indicates the phase jump of the LO over a GPS bit duration.
 Delta frequency = Phase Jump Magnitude (cycles)/GPS bit duration(s)
 Failure results in demodulation error
2. Phase Noise Modulation (deg) – Standard deviation of phase noise
 Degrades demodulation performance
3. Mean Amplitude – Measures mean amplitude of the output
 Failure indicates the CW tone is either too weak or too strong caused by gross setup calibration errors
4. AGC (I/Q mean) – See the WBIQ information
 Limits are larger as a result of the 10 dB increase in reference tone power

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 115
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Spectrum Analysis, GPS NBIQ (3 of 3) QSPR

Interpreting results
On the resulting spectral plot, verify the following:
 Phase noise modulation < 15/6° for GSM traffic/other
modes
 The frequency difference from 50 Hz samples metric
can be used to evaluate the performance of the XO.
See slide XO Mechanical Stress NBIQ Plots, in the
XO debugging section for more information.
See IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test
Procedures (80-VM522-2) for more information.

Narrowband CW pass/fail criteria

Pass/fail criteria Pass requirement


Check the phase
 < 15° for GSM blanking or TD- noise modulation
SCDMA blanking or TDD-LTE
Phase noise modulation blanking
 < 6° for all other cases

Frequency difference from 50 Hz  < ±3 Hz for FTM/LPM


samples  < ±10 Hz for all other cases
NBIQ specifications
Frequency difference jump counts  Number of frequency jumps larger
from 1KHz samples than 200 Hz < 10
100 ms frequency drift < ± 150 Hz

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 116
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – CNo Test (1 of 4) QSPR

Purpose
 Estimates the cumulative processing losses that are inherent in the DUT implementation
 Measures the effective oscillator performance
How does failure degrade performance
 Receivers sensitivity is degraded dB-for-dB by system processing losses
 Large LO bias results in missed SVs and higher cold start TTFF
 Engine searches only ± (spec_max_LO_bias + max_SV_Dopp+ max_user_motion_Dopp)
 If real max_LO_bias> spec_max_LO_bias an SV may reside outside of the frequency range
 Large LO stability may cause receiver to lose SV tracking
 Large LO drift results in sensitivity loss due to smearing; large LO drift can also cause the receiver to lose
track of an SV
Preliminary troubleshooting
 Recalibrate XO to reduce LO bias
 Thermally Isolate XO/TCXO to reduce LO stability and LO drift
 Externally supply XO/TCXO circuitry to reduce LO stability and LO drift

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 117
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – CNo Test (2 of 4) QSPR

GPS CNo test method


1. Start QSPR and open an appropriate tree. Test trees vary; example at right is for illustration.
1

2. Right-click the Initialize folder, then click. 2


3. Expand the Offline folder. Right-click the Initialize folder, then click.
4. Expand the Calibration Tests folder.
Right-click the GPS node, then click.
5. Right-click the Finalize test folder, then click. The QSPR log file will generate and display.
When step 4 is performed, QSPR automatically displays the test results in an HTML file, which includes the
pass/fail criteria.
Speed vs time plot and the summary report, as shown on the next slide, can be generated using Matlab.

3
4

Sec. 2.8.2 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 118
QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – CNo Test (3 of 4) QSPR

Interpreting results

1 2 3 4

1. Max Accel (m/sec/sec) – Measures the rate of change of the XO frequency by setting the SV speed to
900m/s and recording the variation in reported SV Doppler:
 Calculated by [SpeedSV (t+N) – SpeedSV(t)]/N, where N = 1, 5, and 12.
 5 sec and 12 sec are chosen because they are the deepest and longest searches, respectively.
2. LO Stability (m/sec) – Maximum frequency variation of the LO over the entire test or maximum speed –
minimum speed
3. LO Bias (m/sec) – Average error in speed, with respect to 900 m/sec
4. Processing Loss – Front-end losses and processing losses due to digital filtering.
 Typically NF + 0.5 dB but can be larger if there is excessive LO drift; see Impact of Reference Frequency Drift on GNSS
Sensitivity (80-VM522-11) for more information.

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QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – CNo Test (4 of 4) QSPR

Interpreting results
 Check that the observed speed is reasonably close to the selected Doppler (900 m/s).
 Drift rate more problematic than steady drift
 The drift in speed can be converted into an equivalent drift in frequency using the conversion
1 m/s/s = 5.25 Hz/s
 See IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures (80-VM522-2) for more information.

Sample speed vs time profile output for GPS C/N0 calibration test

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QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Acquisition and Tracking Sensitivity QSPR

Purpose
 The acquisition sensitivity of a IZat DUT is defined as the lowest signal power level at the antenna port at
which the DUT can locate the satellite-in-view 50% of the time.
 Tracking sensitivity is defined as the lowest signal power level at the antenna port for which the UUT can
locate the satellite-in-view 50% of the time when in Sequential Tracking mode.
How does failure degrade performance?
 The sensitivity tests help to determine if the desired sensitivity has been achieved on the DUT and predicts
DUTs ability to pass minimum performance tests; for example, PLTS.
Preliminary troubleshooting
 Failures in any other RF development test can cause poor sensitivity and must be resolved first
 Unaccounted for setup losses and equipment dynamic range can give misleading results
 Spirent GSS6300 requires 15 dB total loss to reduce signal power to -164 dBm
 Sufficient loss must be added to the generator output to avoid QSPR exception error.

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QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Acquisition Sensitivity QSPR

GPS Acquisition Sensitivity test


1. Start QSPR and open an appropriate tree. Test trees vary; example at right is for illustration.
1
2. Initialize QSPR. When this node is run, you will be prompted to enter a UUT ID.
3. Select the band class in which the test is to be performed and expand the air interface
2 condition in which the
test is to be performed.
4. Run the Setup folder. 3
5. To perform an acquisition sensitivity test, expand the Acquisition Sensitivity Tests folder. Right-click the
suitable node and then click. 4

6. Run the Finalize Traffic node and review detailed test results, which will be displayed in the QSPR Status
window.
When step 6 is performed, QSPR automatically displays the test results in an HTML file, which includes the
5
pass/fail criteria.

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QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Tracking Sensitivity QSPR

GPS Tracking Sensitivity test


1. Start QSPR and open an appropriate tree. Test trees vary; example at right is for illustration.
1
2. Initialize QSPR. When this node is run, you will be prompted to enter a UUT ID.
3. Select the band class in which the test is to be performed and expand the air-interface
2 condition in which the
test is to be performed.
3
4. Run the Setup folder.
5. Right-click the Tracking Sensitivity node in the Tracking Sensitivity folder and then click.
4

6. Right-click the Finalize folder then click. The QSPR log file will generate and display.
When step 6 is performed, QSPR automatically displays the test results in an HTML file, which includes the
pass/fail criteria.
5

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QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Acquisition Sensitivity QSPR

Interpreting results

1 2 3 4

1. GPS Sensitivity (dBm) – Power level of SV where receiver is able to find SV 50% of the time.
2. GPS Dwells Attempted – A maximum of 100 dwells will be performed. If the 50% threshold is met before, the
test will be stopped early.
3. Number of Successful GPS Dwells – Must exceed 60 for test to pass in order to meet 95% confidence the
probability of a miss is 50%.
4. Average GPS CNo – Baseband sensitivity of successfully found SVs

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QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – Tracking Sensitivity QSPR

Interpreting results

1 2 3 4

1. Tracking Sensitivity (dBm) – Power level of SV where receiver is able to find SV 50% of the time on
successive dwells.
2. Number of Measurements – A minimum of 149 dwells must be successfully performed. If the 50% threshold
is not met, the test will be stopped early.
3. Lost Searches – Measurements where GPS receiver was unable to track SV.
4. Average GPS CNo – Baseband sensitivity of successfully found SVs

Note: For more information about running the acquisition/tracking sensitivity test and respective pass/fail
criteria, see IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures (80-VM522-2).

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QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – BER Test (1 of 3) QSPR

Purpose
 The BER test tests for any additional problems with the LO that might not have been uncovered with previous
tests.
How does failure degrade performance?
 Longer TTFF or inability to find position due to failure of time/ephemeris decoding
 A bit error is defined as an event in which the mobile incorrectly demodulates a satellite NAV data bit.
Preliminary troubleshooting
 BER failures are primarily caused by LO instability. See C/No calibration and NBIQ for preliminary
troubleshooting guidance.

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QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – BER Test (2 of 3) QSPR

GPS BER test


1. Start QSPR and open an appropriate tree. Test trees vary; the example at right is for illustration.
1
2. Right-click the Initialize folder, then click. When this node is run, you will be prompted to enter a UUT ID.
3. Expand the band class in which the test is to be performed and then expand the air 2 interface condition under

which the test is to be performed.


4. Run the Setup folder. 3

5. Right-click the node in the BER folder and then click.


4
6. Right-click the Finalize folder, then click. The QSPR log file will generate and display.
When step 6 is performed, QSPR automatically displays the test results in an HTML file, which includes the
pass/fail criteria.

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QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – BER Test (3 of 3) QSPR

Interpreting results

1 2 3 4

1. Measured C/No (dB) – QSPR will vary GPS simulator power until the C/No is within the limits.
2. Final GPS Power (dBm) – Output power of the GPS simulator needed to achieve a C/No of 27 dB.
 C/No = 174 dBm + GPS power (dBm) – NF
3. # of Bits – 15000 is the statistically the number of significant bits necessary to determine BER. The value
can be varied in QSPR properties.
4. GPS BER (%) – Missed bits/number of bits

Note: See IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures (80-VM522-2) for more information.

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QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – XO and PMIC Temperature Monitor QSPR
for XO-based Devices (1 of 2)

Purpose
 High-sensitivity GNSS solution requires stable reference frequency.
 Sudden thermal transients from heat generating sources; for example, power amplifiers, can lead to reference
frequency instability.
 The XO and PMIC thermistor readings are monitored in all the RF development tests for the XO-based UUTs
to validate that the XO temperature jump is within limit and PMIC temperature is within limits.
How does failure degrade performance?
 Sudden thermal transients can cause the reference frequency to deviate.
 The deviation in reference frequency can lead to degradation of sensitivity and in severe cases can also
cause loss of SV lock.
Preliminary troubleshooting
 Ensure that the layout for the 19.2 MHz XTAL as well as related XO ADC circuitry meets QTI
recommendations. See Section 2.10, XO Integration and Debugging.
 For small PCB/high thermal layouts, see Enhanced Guidelines to Implement 19.2 MHz Crystal for Small
PCB/High Thermal Layouts (80-VP447-10).

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QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – XO and PMIC Temperature Monitor QSPR
for XO-based Devices (2 of 2)

Note that XO and PMIC temperature monitoring does not require any new tests to be performed and therefore
will not increase the test time.
The plot of XO and PMIC temperature over time is generated by QSPR in all RF development tests.

XO temperature
jump < 2oC/sec

PMIC temperature
within -40oC and
125oC

XO and PMIC temperature monitoring pass requirement (for XO-based UUTs only)

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QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – GPS/GLO Group Delay Difference Measurement (1 of 2) QSPR

Purpose
 The IZat Gen 8 family is capable of performing navigation fixes using measurements from GPS, GLONASS,
and Beidou.
 At the receiver, the GPS and GLO signals propagate in two different data paths, thus the group delays of
these signals are different.
 To reduce the number of required measurements and thereby increase the yield and reduce the TTFF in
several scenarios, it is desirable to have the group delay difference known at the receiver.
How does failure degrade performance?
 If the group delay difference between GPS and GLO is unknown, an extra measurement is needed to resolve
this difference; for example, assuming the pseudo-range measurements available at the receiver are from
both GPS and GLO
 If the group delay difference is known, only 4 pseudo-range measurements are needed to perform a 3D fix.
 If the group delay difference is unknown, 5 pseudo-range measurements are needed to perform a 3D fix
Preliminary troubleshooting
 Group delay difference can be measured using RF development test
 The test is not factory calibration. It is required to perform the test on one or a few devices per product line.
The same NV item is then populated to all devices within that product family

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QSPR Training and Troubleshooting – GPS/GLO Group Delay Difference QSPR
Measurement (2 of 2)

Procedure
 Test equipment requirements: It is required that the GNSS simulator used in the test generate GPS and GLO
signals with a timing difference within 5 ns. For example, the GSS6300 recommended in IZat Gen 8 Engine
Family RF Development Test Procedures (80-VM522-2) meets this requirement.
 Step 1: Run any GPS to GLO group delay calibration node in the RF development test tree; for example, the
node W_CDMAW_CDMA-OOSCalibration TestsCno-Group Delay Cal in the test tree
GNSS_Gen8_UMTS.xtt
 Step 2: The test measures group delay differences between GPS and three GLO channels (CH-7, CH0, and
CH6). The average of the group delay differences is also reported as part of the test results.
 Example: The figure below shows how the average delay difference is displayed in RF-Dev test report.

 Step 3: Populate the group delay difference in /nv/item_files/gps/cgps/me/gnss_me_rfgd_glo_ns.


 Note: This is an int32 NV item. The unit for the NV item is nanosecond.
 Example: In Step 2, we have obtained the group delay to be 1245.97 ns. Since the NV item can only store integer values, the
group delay should be rounded to 1246 ns and put into the NV item with the path
/nv/item_files/gps/cgps/me/gnss_me_rfgd_glo_ns.

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Section 2.9

2.9.1 Quick Radiated RF Development Tests 134


2.9.2 Precise Radiated RF Development
Tests 137
2.9.3 Radiated ADCIQ Test 147
Radiated RF Development Tests 2.9.4 Self-Interference Tests for Advance Debug
Purposes 154
2.9.5 Verification of Thermal Isolation 156

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Section 2.9.1

Quick Radiated RF Development


Tests

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Radiated RF Development Tests – Spectrum Analysis Test (1 of 2)

Radiated RF Development Tests


This test can be used to check for radiated spurs arising either due to WWAN or from peripherals.

CW generator settings:
Frequency: 1575.52 MHz
Amplitude: Adjust the power such that the noise figure
obtained in the radiated WBIQ test matches the noise
figure from the conducted WBIQ test

Place the
DUT in the
anechoic
chamber

A PC running QDART
communicates with the
DUT through a USB
connection. Example of an Anechoic Chamber
Precise
For more information on radiated
orientation of
RF development tests, see IZat
the device
Gen 8 Engine Radiated RF
under test is
Run radiated Development Test Procedures
not critical
WBIQ test (80-VN895-2).
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Radiated RF Development Tests – Spectrum Analysis Test (2 of 2) Radiated RF Development Tests

Setup
 The test should be carried out in an anechoic
chamber.
 Precise orientation of the DUT is not critical.
 This offline test does not require a cellular call
processor.
 Use of a spectrum analyzer is optional; the purpose
of this analyzer is to monitor the cellular transmission
from the DUT.
 A PC running QDART communicates with the DUT
through a USB connection.
 For more information on radiated RF development
tests for Gen 8-related devices, see IZat Gen 8
Engine Radiated RF Development Test Procedures
(80-VN895-2)

Note: To minimize perturbation of the antenna


response, route the USB cable away from the DUT
GPS and cellular antennas.

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Section 2.9.2

Precise Radiated RF Development


Tests

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Radiated RF
Radiated RF Development Tests – Chamber Calibration and Setup Development Tests

The chamber propagation loss must be calibrated


using the setup shown here

Use a high-quality anechoic chamber

DUT antenna should be oriented so that its direction


of maximum gain is aligned with Tx horn antenna

After calibration, the Rx horn ant. is replaced by the


DUT, which is connected to a PC via a USB cable

Additional LNA may be needed if the max output


power of the GPS signal generator is not sufficient
to overcome chamber propagation losses

After calibration, the CW signal generator is


replaced with a GPS signal generator

Note: For more information on radiated RF development tests, or Gen 7-related devices, see gpsOne Gen 7
Engine Radiated RF Development Test Procedures (80-VN895-1); for Gen 8-related devices, see IZat Gen
8 Engine Radiated RF Development Test Procedures (80-VN895-2).
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Radiated RF
Radiated RF Development Tests – Chamber Calibration and Setup Development Tests

This test can be used to check for desense due to WWAN; for example, LTE, CDMA, etc., or peripherals; for
example, display, camera, etc.
Place the
device under
test in the
The chamber anechoic
propagation loss chamber
must be calibrated
prior to running
this test Receive antenna should be
oriented so that its direction of
maximum gain is aligned with
transmit antenna

A PC running
QDART
communicates
Call Box
with the DUT
through a USB
connection
To test WWAN
desense, make
a max Tx call in
the desired
band of For more information on radiated RF
operation; for development tests, see IZat Gen 8
example, LTE Engine Radiated RF Development Test Run radiated RF
B13 1RB49 Procedures (80-VN895-2). development tests

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Radiated RF
Radiated RF Development Tests – Spectrum Analysis Test (1 of 2) Development Tests

Procedure
1. Power up the DUT and attach the USB cable.
2. Launch QRCT and select the COM port connection to the DUT.
3. Start QSPR and open an appropriate tree. Test trees vary; example at right is for illustration.
4. Left-click the GPS WBIQ test node in the folder OOS Tests\Spectral Analysis Tests.
5. Set test equipment automation type to 1 (Prompted).
6. Run the WBIQ test, right-click the GPS WBIQ test node, then choose Run from the pop-up window.
4
7. A pop-up window instructs the user to manually configure the signal generator to generate a single tone with
power -120 dBm at frequency 1575.52 MHz. Instead, set the output power to -90 dBm, then select OK to
continue the test. 5

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Radiated RF
Radiated RF Development Tests – Spectrum Analysis Test (2 of 2) Development Tests

8. After the WBIQ test node finishes execution, note the measured C/N0 from the spectrum graph.
9. If the C/N0 from Step 8 is Δ dB greater than the C/N0 reported in the conducted WBIQ test, then
decrease the signal generator power by Δ dB
10. Repeat steps 6 to 9 until radiated C/N0 equals the conducted C/N0. At the conclusion of this iterative
procedure, the power radiated by the transmit horn in the anechoic chamber has been calibrated to
give -120 dBm at the output of the GPS antenna in the DUT.
Note: This calibration is correct under the assumption that there are no broadband noise sources that
couple to the GPS antenna and raise the receiver noise floor.
11. Verify that there are no radiated jammers. Any jammer violations are red in the spectrum graph. The
Log window reports jammer data in tabular format.
12. Repeat the test to exercise every transmitter path in the DUT. Every air interface and transmit band
should be tested.

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Radiated RF
Radiated RF Development Tests – CNo Test (1 of 2) Development Tests

Procedure
1. Power up the DUT and attach the USB cable. It is recommended to orient the DUT so that the Tx horn is
located at the peak of the DUT antenna pattern in the desired field of view. Likewise, choose a Tx
polarization that yields a strong received signal.
2. Launch QRCT and select the COM port connection to the DUT. Set the Call Manager Operation mode to
FTM. All transmitters in the DUT should be disabled.
3. Before starting QSPR, ensure that the calibration file calDB_NET.xml has been updated to reflect the
calibrated chamber loss. Changes to this file will not take effect until QSPR is restarted.
4. Start QSPR and open an appropriate tree. Test trees vary; example at right is for illustration.
5. In the Phone Setup folder, right-click the Set Calibration Configuration node, then choose Run from the pop-
up window.

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Radiated RF
Radiated RF Development Tests – CNo Test (2 of 2) Development Tests

6. Run the C/N0 test: Right-click the GPS C/N0 11. Repeat steps 6 to 9 to measure SPL with the
test node, then choose Run from the pop-up transmitter enabled.
window.
12. Repeat the test as needed to exercise every
7. After the C/N0 test node finishes execution,
transmitter path in the DUT. Every air interface
note the measured C/N0 statistics and SPL
and transmit band should be tested.
from the Log window.
13. For more information, see IZat Gen 8 Engine
8. NV item 449 has no influence on the
baseband C/N0 reported in this test. That NV Radiated RF Development Test Procedures
item is used only in the construction of (80-VN895-2) for Gen 8-related devices.
A-GPS messages that report estimates of
received SV power at the GPS antenna
output.
9. Using the measured antenna pattern,
calculate the average SPL over the desired
field of view.
10. Using QRCT, enable the cellular transmitter in
the DUT. Manually set the output power to the
maximum operating point of the transmitter.

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Radiated RF
Radiated RF Development Tests – Sensitivity Test (1 of 3) Development Tests

This test can be used to check the GNSS sensitivity of the DUT.

Place the
device under
test in the
The chamber anechoic
propagation loss chamber
must be
calibrated prior to
running this test Receive antenna should be
oriented so that its direction of
maximum gain is aligned with
transmit antenna

A PC running
QDART
communicates
Call Box
with the DUT
through a USB
Make a max Tx connection
call in the desired
band of
operation.
For more information on radiated RF
development tests, see IZat Gen 8
Engine Radiated RF Development Test Run Radiated
Procedures (80-VN895-2). Sensitivity test

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Radiated RF
Radiated RF Development Tests – Sensitivity Test (2 of 3) Development Tests

Setup
 The setup for this test is the same as the setup for
the CNo test.
Procedure
1. Power up the DUT and attach the USB cable. It is
recommended to orient the DUT so that the Tx horn
is located at the peak of the DUT antenna pattern in
the desired field of view. Likewise, choose a Tx
polarization that yields a strong received signal.
2. Launch QRCT and select the COM port connection
to the DUT. Set the Call Manager Operation mode
to FTM. All transmitters in the DUT should be
disabled.
3. Before starting QSPR, ensure that the calibration
file calDB_NET.xml has been updated to reflect the
calibrated chamber loss. Changes to this file will not
take effect until QSPR is restarted.
4. Start QSPR and open an appropriate tree. Test
trees vary; example at right is for illustration.
5. In the Phone Setup test node, right-click the Set
Calibration Configuration node, then choose Run
from the pop-up window.
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Radiated RF
Radiated RF Development Tests – Sensitivity Test (3 of 4) Development Tests

6. Run the tracking sensitivity test: Right-click the GPS Tracking Sensitivity test node in the folder
WCDMA\WCDMA OOS\Tracking Sensitivity, then choose Run from the pop-up window.
Note: This is a long test.
7. After the sensitivity test node finishes, read the measured sensitivity from the Log window.
8. Using the measured antenna pattern, calculate the average EIS over the desired field of view
9. Using QRCT, enable the cellular transmitter in the DUT. Manually set the output power to the maximum
operating point of the transmitter.
10. Repeat steps 6 to 9 to measure sensitivity with the transmitter enabled.
11. Repeat this test as needed to exercise every transmitter path in the DUT. Every air interface and
transmit band should be tested.
12. For more information, see IZat Gen 8 Engine Radiated RF Development Test Procedures
(80-VN895-2) for Gen 8-related devices.

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Section 2.9.3

Radiated ADCIQ Test

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Radiated RF
ADC IQ Test to Determine Strength and Location of Out-of-Band Jammers Development Tests

CW generator settings:
Frequency: 1575.52 MHz
Amplitude: Adjust the power such that the noise
figure obtained in the radiated WBIQ test
matches the conducted noise figure

Precise
orientation of
the device
under test is
not critical

Place the device


under test in the
anechoic chamber Output plot from ADC IQ test

The plot displays a 80 MHz wide GNSS


Run ADCIQ test as explained in spectrum centered at ~1589 MHz
the next slides

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Radiated RF
Running ADCIQ Using QSPR Tree Development Tests

GNSS ADCIQ test


1. Start QSPR and open an appropriate tree. Test
1
trees vary; example at right is for illustration.
2. Initialize QSPR. When this node is run, you will be 2

prompted to enter a UUT ID. 3

3. Select the band class in which the test is to be


performed and expand the air interface condition in
which the test is to be performed.
4. Run the Setup folder.
5. To perform an ADCIQ test, expand the Spectral
Analysis Tests folder. Right-click the suitable node
and then click run.
6. Run the Finalize Traffic node and review detailed 4

test results, which will be displayed in QSPR’s


Status window.
7. When step 6 is performed, QSPR automatically
displays the test results in an HTML file, which
includes the test results showing LTE Jammer 5

power.

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Radiated RF
Changing RB Configuration for ADCIQ Test – QSPR Tree Development Tests

RB configuration can be changed by editing QSPR


parameter. QSPR tree
1. Select the band as shown. 1

2
2. Select the node depending on the BW.
3. For the All RB condition, set the QSPR parameter
as shown.
4. For LTE B13 1RB46, set the parameter as shown.
All RB 3
5. Select traffic test node and expand Spectrum
9999 indicates
Analysis tests. that it is set for max
# of RBs. Depending
6. Click and run ADCIQ test node. BW, max RB will be
selected
When step 6 is performed, QSPR automatically
displays the test results in an HTML file, which
1RB46 4

includes the test results showing LTE Jammer power in


mV.

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Radiated RF
ADC IQ Test to Determine Strength and Location of Out-of-Band Jammers Development Tests

ADCIQ spectrum plot examples during B13 traffic

Left shaded band is GPS.


Right shaded band is GLONASS.

Max traffic, num RB = 50 Max traffic, num RB = 1, RB start = 46

B13
2nd harm
Ref
B13 Tone
2nd harm

A -120 dBm reference tone is applied at 1575.52 MHz.

Sec. 2.9.3 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 151
Radiated RF
ADC IQ Test to Determine Strength and Location of Out-of-Band Development Tests
Jammers – Using QSPR HTML

Enter voltages into Excel sheet for


the jammer (2nd harmonic), GPS,
and GLONASS noise, and -120 dBm
reference tone.

Identify the -120 dBm


reference tone in the list of
spurs; usually near -14.48 or -
14.38 MHz for WTR RFIC
devices

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Radiated RF
ADC IQ Test to Determine Strength and Location of Out-of-Band Development Tests
Jammers

Spurious components observed in ADCIQ spectrum plot


 The ADCIQ test may reveal many spurious components that are not actual impairments.
 The digital filter after the ADC suppresses jammers outside the signal bands.
 Digital notch filters may be assigned to narrowband jammers inside the signal bands.
 The 82nd harmonic of XO is suppressed by the GPS matched filter.
 The action of the digital filters can be confirmed using GPS and GLO WBIQ tests, which collect samples after the digital filter.
 Addition of a RC filter low pass filter (R=10 ohms and C=100 pF) on the clock supply to WTR can suppress XO harmonics.
 Maximum amplitude of the XO harmonics should not exceed -105 dBm.

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Section 2.9.4

Self-Interference Tests for Advance


Debug Purposes

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Radiated RF
Self-Interference Test for Advance Debug Purposes Development Tests

This test measures the self interference of a device.

Step 1: Place the DUT in Step 2: Place the


the anechoic chamber. reference device in the
shield box.
Step 3: Connect the native antenna
of the device to the GNSS RF port of
the reference device.

GNSS
antenna

SAW1 ELNA GNSS


Rx
Measurement
device
GNSS Rx
DUT
PC
Anechoic chamber Shield box (optional)
Step 4:
• Perform the WBIQ test on the reference device.
• Check BPAMP and PGA gain on DUT on vs off.
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Section 2.9.5

Verification of Thermal Isolation

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XO Integration
Verifying Thermal Isolation – Overview

Run GPS C/No calibration test in a multicall scenario or with max Tx power
 See IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures (80-VM522-2) for detailed setup and
additional details, as only basic setup and analysis is given here.
Background
 C/No calibration test sets SV speed to 900 m/s and logs change in Doppler that represents drift in XO
Procedure
1. Run C/No calibration test using the appropriate QSPR test suite.
2. Using Call Manager, place the device in a call for 20 sec and idle for 10 sec to best simulate PLTS thermals.
3. Confirm the device does not exceed 1.2 m/s/s difference
Overall affect on GPS sensitivity is analyzed in IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures
(80-VM522-2).

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XO Integration
Verifying Thermal Isolation – QSPR Setup

 After initialization, skip all tests and proceed directly to CNo test

 Set Generate Speed vs Time Plot to Yes

 At the beginning of test, start Call Manager in QXDM with all up bits set in call box

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XO Integration
Verifying Thermal Isolation – Interpreting Results

Average SV speed should be


approximately 900 m/s for traffic/idle
scenarios

Traffic to Idle transitions


are most severe due to
cooling and lack of AFC
information
Traffic Idle

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Section 2.10

XO/TCXO Placement – Best


Mechanical Practices

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XO Integration
XO/TCXO Placement – Best Mechanical Practices

Keep the XO/TCXO away from areas of the board that may bend due to external factors; for example, USB,
headphones, or keypresses, or susceptible to mechanical vibrations; for example, close to onboard vibrators.
For example, find regions of the PWB that:
 Have the least amount of curvature or radius of curvature
 Are in stiffer regions of the CCA; place inside the EMI shields and not between the shield gaps

 Where displacement is restricted by other assembly parts (plastic housing ribs, screws, bosses)

Avoid cantilever sections of the board as much as possible for PWB connector mounting (see below), as board
curvature can be exaggerated.

BAD BETTER

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XO Integration
Examples of Mechanical Stress

Common scenarios for imparting CCA displacement and stresses on components


 Example A – Forces on the USB connector are common and largest about the X axis, moment (Mx)
 Example B – Vibration modes

Moment on X, Y, and Z axis Moment about X axis (Mx) Displacement

Vibration modes

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XO Integration
XO/TCXO Placement – Best Mechanical Practices (1 of 2)

Example 1: Constrained at the top and bottom edges Example 2: Constrained at the corners

Corner supports
Top support
Less displacement here
because 6 EMI shield
walls stiffen the board

Less displacement along this


axis because 6 EMI shield
walls stiffen the board

Force is applied Force applied on


here the connector

More displacement along


this axis because there is
no shield wall across the
axis to stiffen the board More displacement here
because of local board
deflection due to
connector bending as
Bottom support shown previously.

Corner supports

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XO Integration
XO/TCXO Placement – Best Mechanical Practices (2 of 2)

Through-hole USB connectors


could impart strain on the board.

Screw bosses near the


connectors can reduce
board strain due to
connector loading.

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XO Integration
Test Procedures to Validate XO Performance

The following GPS RF development tests can detect the XO clock drift/jumps
 Narrowband IQ test
 Measures phase noise modulation by low-frequency noise
 Reflects frequency jumps measured in 50 Hz samples
 C/No Calibration test
 Maximum acceleration spec and speed-vs-time plot can detect XO drift/jumps
 See IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures (80-VM522-2).
Testing for XO drift due to thermals
 Recommend performing the NBIQ and C/No Calibration tests under the following conditions:
 Maximum phone transmitter output, especially in punctured Tx modes (GSM, CDMA)
 Manually place and end calls during these tests
 Run memory-intensive applications
Testing for XO drift due to mechanical stress
 Recommend performing the NBIQ and C/No Calibration tests under the following conditions:
 Keep the phone stationary for 30 sec, and then for the next 30 sec, shake the phone gently while connected to USB. This
emulates the stress experienced by the PWB during driving, jogging, walking, etc.
 Repeat the same procedure, but this time do keypresses on the phone.

Note: To perform the NBIQ test, see the NBIQ Spectrum Analysis Test found in the QSPR training and
troubleshooting section.

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XO Integration
XO Mechanical Stress NBIQ Plots

Good case Bad case


Frequency Difference from 50 Hz Samples gnss_iq_collect_good.bin Frequency Difference from 50 Hz Samples gnss_iq_collect_bad.bin
2 25

1.5 20

15
1
10
0.5
5
Freq [Hz]

Freq [Hz]
0
0
-0.5
-5
-1
-10

-1.5
-15

-2 -20
Std = 0.228 Phase noise = 0.1 deg Std = 6.752 Phase noise = 1.7 deg
-2.5 -25
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Secs Secs

Test parameter System specification* Good case Bad case

Phase noise modulation < 15° for GSM traffic 0.631 2.013
< 6° for all other cases
Frequency difference from 50 Hz samples < ±12.5 Hz 2.225 24.99
*Measured per IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures (80-VM522-2).

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Section 2.11

Hardware Considerations During


Integration and Debugging –
Including Spurs/Jammers

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Troubleshooting Guide (1 of 2) Issues and Troubleshooting

Symptom Potential causes Recommended next steps


• Abnormal PGA or AGC • RF front-end issues 1. Ensure that the test setup is correct and RF/XO is
AMP I/Q • ELNA mismatch loss calibrated
• Mode dependent Jamming • Excess path loss 2. Determine if it is a radiated or conducted issue. Perform
• Improper choice of components Conducted WBIQ and ADCIQ in LPM and problematic
• Jammers modes.
• Internal jammers 3. If it is a conducted issue, then recheck the schematic and
• SMPS layout against the guidelines.
• WWAN, WLAN, NFC 4. If it is a radiated issue, then perform radiated WBIQ and
• Display, DDR, GPU, AP, or Audio ADCIQ in LPM and problematic modes. Ensure that the
• XO or clocks shields are mounted.
• External jammers (environment) 5. Identify spurs by the source: SMPS, XO, DDR, MiPi,
• QSPR CalDB loss calibration not LCD, USB, etc.
correct 6. Check the layout for shielding of aggressor traces.
• Device has not been properly RF/XO Identify the source of aggressor radiation by experiment
calibrated or EMI sniffing.
7. Determine if hardware mitigation or software mitigation is
required to solve.
• Poor GPS receiver • Antenna performance 1. Ensure that the test setup is correct and RF/XO is
sensitivity • RF front-end issues calibrated.
• Low C/No • ELNA mismatch loss 2. Determine if it is a radiated or conducted issue. Perform
• Lengthy time to first fix • Excess path loss Conducted WBIQ, NBIQ, and ADCIQ in LPM (baseline)
(TTFF) • Improper choice of components and problematic modes.
• Missing satellites • Jammers 3. Determine if it is an RF or thermal/XO issue. If NBIQ
• Poor GPS accuracy in the • Internal jammers indicates XO drift, see section: XO Integration and
field • SMPS Debugging.
• WWAN, WLAN, NFC 4. If it is a conducted RF issue, then recheck the schematic
• Display, DDR, GPU, AP, or Audio and layout against the guidelines.
• XO or clocks 5. If it is a radiated issue, perform Radiated WBIQ and
• External jammers (environment) ADCIQ and ensure that the PCB shields are mounted.
• XO not calibrated or XO fluctuations 6. If it is a jamming issue, see the previous symptom.
• NV67300 FT_QUAL_IND < 6 (no fine 7. Perform Passive Antenna tests and verify against the
cal) guidelines.
• XO layout guidelines not met
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Troubleshooting Guide (2 of 2) Issues and Troubleshooting

Symptom Potential causes Validation tests

GPS performance degrades • Antenna performance Perform Passive Antenna tests and verify against the
when phone is held in hand guidelines.
or against head

False satellites • Jammers can cause false satellites to be Treat as a jammer; see the previous symptom.
detected
• Internal jammers
• SMPS
• WWAN, WLAN, NFC
• Display, DDR, GPU, AP, Audio
• XO, clocks
• External jammers (environment)

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RF Front-End Issues (1 of 3) Issues and Troubleshooting

Cause: RF FE mismatch, excess path loss, and improper component choice


 Antenna and/or ELNA poorly matched
 Improper RF layout – Noise cross coupling, excessive insertion loss, long GPS trace, etc.
 Sub-optimal ELNA placement – Should be as close as possible to the GNSS antenna
 Incorrect choice of components and/or their specifications
 Incorrect software Implementation of ELNA (not enabled or excess gain not adjusted)
Symptoms
 Abnormal front-end gain
 Very low BPAMP indicates excessive attenuation in FE or insufficient LNA gain
 Very high BPAMP indicative of high input signal or strong jammer
 Poor GPS receiver sensitivity
 Increased insertion loss causes dB to dB degradation in sensitivity
 Insufficient out-of-band rejection causing Tx desense
 CNo degradation
 Poor antenna match causes degradation in sensitivity and C/No
 Poor system noise figure may cause worse field performance, especially at lower signal levels

Total SPL* = Noise figure + Baseband processing loss + Hand-held antenna gain
Loss due to XTAL frequency drift
*System Processing Loss (SPL)

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RF Front-End Issues (2 of 3) Issues and Troubleshooting

Recommendations
 Limit GPS trace length from the antenna to RFIC.
 Rx input matching should be done while the phone is in GPS mode.
 Rematch after all mechanical changes are complete.
 Follow Qualcomm specifications for recommended RF components.
RF development tests to validate performance
 Run the WBIQ test and check the following: Conducted BPAMP value should
 BPAMP level be:
For NF > 4 dB = 137 - 582
 Noise figure Check BPAMP level For NF < 4 dB = 110 - 582
See Sections 2.8.2 and 2.9 to run the conducted
WBIQ test and radiated test, respectively.

Noise figure obtained in


the summary file. A very high BPAMP
value can indicate
either excess front-end
gain or a very strong
jammer

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RF Front-End Issues (3 of 3) Issues and Troubleshooting

BP Amplitude I/Q can be observed to verify front-end gain as well as the presence of jammers
 Can be observed on RF status in GPS clock/position window with QXDM
 Indicates noise level input to ADC
 Should be stable during running test
 Large fluctuation of BP AMP IQ means that the strength of input signal is fluctuated
 Right section in plot below shows abnormal BP AMP fluctuation

BP Amp Vs FCount
700 700

600 600

500 500

AmplitudeQ
AmplitudeI

400 400

300 300

200 200

100 100

0 0
0 1000000 2000000 3000000 4000000 5000000 6000000 7000000
FCount

AmplitudeI AmplitudeQ AmplitudeI AmplitudeQ

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Jammers in the GNSS Spectrum (1 of 4) Issues and Troubleshooting

Cause: Jammers in the GNSS spectrum


 Internal (on PCB) jammers
 Peripherals such as display, camera, SIM card, etc. can generate jammers internal to the phone
 Small form factors constrain component placement limiting isolation between digital circuitry and GNSS antenna
 Switching Mode Power Supply (SMPS) harmonic
 Voltage supplies generated by SMPS are rich in the harmonics of its switching frequency
 Power supply lines can couple to the RF traces, IQ lines, or PLL loop filter components
 External peripherals jammer
 Nearby computers and test equipment can generate jammers
 Unshielded cables (JTAG, USB, flex cables, etc.) can allow jammers to couple in
Symptoms
 Abnormal front-end gain – Strong jammers can cause high BPAMP and can saturate the GNSS receiver.
 Sensitivity degradation from higher missed detections in the presence of jammers.
 False satellites caused by the GPS detector erroneously interpreting the jammer as a valid signal
 Accuracy degradation, huge outliers, and long TTFF caused by distortion of valid satellite signals in the
presence of jammers.
 Sensitivity degradation due AGC malfunction in the presence of strong jammers

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Jammers in the GNSS Spectrum (2 of 4) Issues and Troubleshooting

What are static notches?


 Static notches are assigned to known GNSS narrowband spurs that are locked to the XO.
 Usually the spurs are known PMIC SMPS switcher harmonics, XO harmonics, DDR or other type clock
harmonics, and CAT5/router clock frequency.
 Unassigned notches are utilized by the on-the-fly spectrum analysis (OTFSA); for more information, see On-
the-Fly Spectrum Analysis (OTFSA) (80-VN895-13).
 Static notches are subject to change when needed.

GPS static notch table BeiDou static notch table

Notch frequency offset Notch frequency offset


Notch filter # from GPS center Notch filter # from BeiDou center
(kHz) (kHz)
1 580.000 1 -1098.000
2 -420.000 2 502.000
3 454.200 3 -1080.000
4 4 -1105.000
5 5
6 6
7 7
Static notches #3 and #4 are planned to be removed after the Beidou
OTFSA feature is available.

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Jammers in the GNSS Spectrum (3 of 4) Issues and Troubleshooting

Glonass static notch table


Notch Notch
Glonass frequency frequency
notch offset Notch RF offset from offset from
from frequency Glonass channel center Glonass channel
Notch filter # 1602 (MHz) (MHz) channel no. (kHz) channel no. center (kHz)
1 -4.200 1597.800 -7 -262.5 N/A N/A
2 -3.600 1598.400 -7 337.5 -6 -225.0
3 -2.000 1600.000 -4 250.0 -3 -312.5
4 -0.400 1601.600 -1 162.5 0 -400.0
5 1.200 1603.200 2 75.0 3 -487.5
6 2.800 1604.800 4 550.0 5 -12.5
7 3.600 1605.600 6 225.0 N/A N/A
8
9
10
11
12
13

 Each Glonass notch falls in two adjacent channels.


 If the notch frequency is near the center of the channel, it might not be visible in the adjacent channel.

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Jammers in the GNSS Spectrum (4 of 4) Issues and Troubleshooting

Recommendations
 Follow proper layout techniques
 Ensure physical isolation of jammer sources from GPS
antenna,
 Isolate the GNSS RF trace from any digital and
SMPS/power trace.
Reference tone
 Avoid surface layer routing close to GPS antenna to avoid
@ 200 kHz
coupling.
 Follow proper testing techniques
 Shield DUT from potential noise sources using an anechoic
chamber or shield room especially for radiated testing
 Establish a reference device that is known to be free of
spurs to validate test setup
RF development tests to validate performance
 Perform conducted and radiated WBIQ test:
 Concurrency test with peripherals; for example, LCD,
camera, etc.
 Concurrency test with WWAN (LTE, WCDMA, etc.)
See Sections 2.8.2 and 2.9 to run the conducted and
radiated WBIQ tests, respectively.

The HTML file identifies peaks


that may qualify as spurs.

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XO Frequency Drift (1 of 2) Issues and Troubleshooting

Cause: XO frequency drift can occur due to the following three reasons:
 Thermal transients
 Thermal gradients on the PCB can cause the 19.2 MHz XTAL frequency to drift
 Electrical noise
 Coupling of 19.2 MHz buffer outputs, SIM CLK, sleep CLK, SMPS outputs, etc., to sensitive XO traces
 Voltage jitter on supplies powering the 19.2 MHz buffers in the PMIC
 Mechanical stress
 External connectors impart stress transients on the board that can cause frequency transients
Symptoms
 Missed satellites and/or degraded sensitivity due to SV signal smearing
 Position accuracy degradation due to TCXO/XO drift decreasing the number pseudo ranges due to the SNR loss associated
with Doppler smearing
 Longer TTFF especially in standalone GPS due to parity errors in GPS subframes caused by clock drifts.
 Higher phase modulation and 50 Hz frequency jumps in narrow band IQ (NBIQ) tests.

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XO Frequency Drift (2 of 2) Issues and Troubleshooting

Recommendations
 Minimize temperature gradients through layout techniques
 Isolate XO and thermistor from heat generating components – Create a moat around them.
 Avoid sharing VREG_TCXO with other circuits – Follow the reference schematic.
 Keep the XO away from areas of the board that may bend or vibrate due to external factors
 Perform NBIQ and C/No tests; see IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures
(80-VM522-2), under conditions of worse thermal drift (multicall with max WWAN Tx power) and worse
mechanical stress (gentle shaking of the USB connector cables, vibration test).
 RF development tests to validate performance
See Section 2.8.2 to run conducted NBIQ and CNo RF development tests.

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XO Frequency Drift – CNo Test Plots Issues and Troubleshooting

The soft decision plot is a useful tool to


estimate potential BER failures.
 The polarity of the soft decision indicates if

a data bit transition is detected.


 The magnitude of the soft decision

indicates the confidence level in deciding if


a data bit transition has occurred
 Thus, the higher the magnitude is, the

higher the confidence in making thePassing soft decision plot Failing soft decision plot
decision.

The speed vs time plot helps to estimate the


902 m/s
909 m/s
level of XO frequency drift.
 Sudden frequency jumps; for example, due

to thermal transients are seen as jitters in


the speed vs time plot. FAIL: 1 second
acceleration > 6m/s
 The spec for 1-sec max acceleration is 6

m/s/s and 12-sec max acceleration is9001.2m/s PASS: 1 second


902 m/s
acceleration < 6m/s
m/s/s
Passing speed vs time plot Failing speed vs time plot
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XO Frequency Drift – NIBQ Plots (1 of 3) Issues and Troubleshooting

 The plot provides insight into the strength of the input  The plot can be used to determine the instantaneous
signal tone. phase jumps over 1 ms.
 The stronger the strength of the input signal, the  The plot is useful to check for any instantaneous
higher the amplitude will be phase jitter in XO or LO frequencies.
 The 1 kHz amplitude plot is derived as: sqrt (I2 + Q2)
 Samples of I and Q are collected every 1 ms

1 kHz samples amplitude plot Frequency difference from 1 kHz plot

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XO Frequency Drift – NIBQ Plots (2 of 3) Issues and Troubleshooting

 The plot can be used to determine any phase jumps  The plot shows the narrow band IQ power spectrum.
over 20 ms.  A smeared power spectrum indicates a drift in XO
 20 ms corresponds to the length of a GPS bit. frequency
 The plot is useful to evaluate any GPS bit
demodulation errors due to large phase jumps.

Frequency difference from 50 Hz samples plot Narrowband IQ Power Spectrum plot


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XO Frequency Drift – NIBQ Plots (3 of 3) Issues and Troubleshooting

 The plot can be used to determine any XO related  The plot can indicate any instantaneous frequency
frequency jumps. drift over a 100-ms moving window
 Frequency estimate samples are collected every 1  This plot is useful to evaluate any potential
ms over a 20-ms moving window demodulation errors resulting in BER failures or large
 20 ms corresponds to the length of a GPS bit. desense.
 The plot visualizes XO frequency over time.

Tone frequency vs time plot Instantaneous Frequency Drift plot


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Antenna Performance Issues (1 of 2) Issues and Troubleshooting

Cause – Antenna performance issues


 Qualcomm recommends >-4 dBi antenna gain and < -10 dB return loss
 Sharing the GNSS antenna with other technologies and space constraints on the phone can limit the gain and BW of the
GNSS antenna.
 User and body effects on antenna performance
 Hand grip can degrade antenna efficiency and can cause a change in antenna pattern.
 Detunes resonant frequency of the antenna
 USB cable orientation (during testing) can degrade antenna performance.
 Insufficient antenna-to-antenna isolation
 Tx leakage from cellular antenna to GPS Rx path can cause desense.
Symptoms
 Poor antenna gain in field of view (FOV) has a dB-to-dB degradation in sensitivity and C/No.
 In low signal conditions, poor antenna gain results in a lesser number of visible SVs.
 This in turn leads to degraded accuracy, yield, and longer TTFF.
 Poor antenna gain is the most common cause of failure in deep indoor field tests.

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Antenna Performance Issues (2 of 3) Issues and Troubleshooting

Recommendations
 Clearly define likely user scenarios and design the antenna accordingly
 Keep in mind degradation due to hand grip during the placement of the GNSS antenna
 Favor gain in FOV; for example, upper hemisphere, instead of overall efficiency
 Test for body and USB effects early in development cycle
RF development tests to validate performance
 Perform radiated WBIQ and CNo tests
 These tests can uncover any desense due to insufficient
isolation between GNSS Rx and WWAN Tx path.
See Section 2.9 to run the radiated CNo test.

Talk position Dial position

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GPS-Related Calibration Issues (1 of 2) Issues and Troubleshooting

Cause – GPS-related calibration not done correctly


XO coarse and fine calibration
 XO coarse calibration can fail due to insufficient or excessive XO trace capacitance
 XO calibration may generate incorrect XO freq vs temp curve coefficients due to:
 Test setup issue
 Inadequate thermal coupling between XTAL and Thermistor
GPS time calibration (CDMA Only)
 Improper time delay calibration of test setup (especially the call box)
GPS RF loss calibration
 NV449 specifies the RF path loss between the baseband and antenna RF port. Failure to calibrate this NV
can result in PLTS/ULTS test failures.
Symptoms
XO coarse and fine calibration failure can cause:
 Missed SVs and higher cold start TTFF due to large LO bias
 May fail max acceleration spec (C/No test), causing sensitivity degradation
GPS time calibration failure can cause:
 Degraded accuracy in hybrid-AFLT based tests
GPS RF loss calibration failure can cause:
 Low reported C/No in GPS PLTS/ULTS tests, resulting in test case failure

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GPS-Related Calibration Issues (2 of 2) Issues and Troubleshooting

Recommendations
 Perform GPS CDMA time calibration by referring to IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test
Procedures (80-VM522-2).
 Ensure that the internal delay of the call box has been entered in stationconfig.xml.
 Perform GPS RF calibration by referring to IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures
(80-VM522-2).
 Run the CNo test and ensure that NV449 is correctly populated.
 See XO Training Topics (80-VP447-7) for more details on XO calibration and design considerations.
 Follow thermal guidelines for XTAL/thermistor layout and placement
 RF development tests to validate performance
 See Section 2.8.2 to run conducted NBIQ and CNo RF development tests.

Check signal offset. Any excess offset


Ideally offset should could be attributed
be 100KHz. to XO drift

WBIQ test
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Concurrency Tests (1 of 2) Issues and Troubleshooting

Qualcomm strongly recommends that GNSS RF development, functional, and performance tests be repeated
under scenarios where GNSS operation is concurrent with other technologies on the UUT. Qualcomm
recommends that these tests be repeated in conducted and radiated RF development testing. Examples of
typical concurrent technologies include, but are not limited to GNSS operations along with:
 Camera and scanner
 Speakers at maximum volume with nonmonotonic output
 Display on/off
 Bluetooth
 Wi-Fi
 Data transfer to SD card or external devices
 Intensive video applications
 Any other peripheral switched on/off

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Concurrency Tests (2 of 2) Issues and Troubleshooting

The following are some of the symptoms that may be observed during concurrency testing if there are system
issues:
 Drop in CNo
 Parity errors
 Long TTFF
 Position outliers
If any concurrency issues are observed, it is recommended that OEMs repeat the same tests on the
corresponding Qualcomm FFA platform and capture the appropriate debug logs. Further analysis of logs is
needed to assess the root cause.

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Section 2.12

Sampling Devices for Carrier


Acceptance Tests

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Sampling Devices for
Sampling Devices for Carrier Acceptance Tests Carrier Acceptance Tests

Performing carrier acceptance-related GPS tests early is critical to enable early identification of any issues that
may result in carrier rejection.
Full understanding and familiarity of the procedure for carrier acceptance-related GPS tests is imperative.

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Sampling Devices for
Qualcomm-Recommended Conducted Tests Carrier Acceptance Tests

Test DCN Purpose Description Notes


Basic RF Dev 80-VM522-2 Select N best Conducted tests on 1 SV: Quick scan for N best devices
devices WBIQ, NBIQ, C/No
Complete RF Dev 80-VM522-2 Ensures passing Conducted tests on 1 SV: Perform for all WWAN types, all
of all Qualcomm WBIQ, NBIQ, C/No, Sensitivity bands of interest
specs

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Sampling Devices for
Qualcomm-Recommended Antenna and Radiated Tests Carrier Acceptance Tests

Test DCN Purpose Description Pros Cons


Antenna 80-V5228-8 Confirm ant. • Destructive passive test. Evaluates antenna Evaluates antenna
testing meets target • Measurements include antenna gain pattern in typical performance only,
efficiency: -4 dBi gain pattern, peak and average usage scenarios in isolation from the
gains over different FOVs, rest of the device
head/hand blockage losses
Radiated 80-VN895-2 Radiated • Tests on 1 SV at peak antenna Evaluates radiated • Requires large
Basic RF performance gain: WBIQ, C/No, sensitivity tests performance, which calibrated
Dev • TIS sensitivity calculated based on includes interactions anechoic
Direct visibility this sensitivity measurement and between antenna and chamber (except
into radiated antenna gain pattern from antenna the radio electronics, for WBIQ)
interferers (both testing. such as effects of • All tests
CW and • Pass/fail criteria: radiated self currently done in
wideband) Qualcomm TIS ≈ -152 dBm interferers, WWAN Tx low system
corresponds to pass/fail criteria on and mismatch of activity (low
VzW CTIA TIS of ≈ -150 dBm antenna and receiver radiated energy)
chain

Note: Verizon CTIA TIS corresponds to 98% Qualcomm radiated RF Dev acquisition sensitivity;
Qualcomm TIS corresponds to 98% QC radiated RF Dev tracking sensitivity; delta between the two is ≈ 2
dB in current Gen 8 software releases

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Sampling Devices for
Additional Qualcomm-Recommended Radiated Test and Observable Carrier Acceptance Tests

Additional Qualcomm-recommended radiated test

Test DCN Purpose Description Notes


Additional 80-VN895-3 Checks if AGC is within Radiated C/No test on 1 SV at Short relative test;
radiated (Gen8) dynamic range; peak antenna gain at low vs high can be performed at
desense 80-VN895-4 quantifies radiated system activity. any anechoic
testing (Gen8A) desense due to high Estimated test time of 12 min antenna chamber
system activity

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Sampling Devices for
Review of Carrier-Required Conducted Tests Carrier Acceptance Tests

These can be performed in third-party PLTS/ULTS lab prior to carrier acceptance tests

Test Doc # Purpose Description Notes


Minimum • TIA-916 (PLTS) Minimum Conducted tests on Worst-case carrier variant for TIA-916
performance • 3GPP TS performance multiple SVs • VzW sensitivity (4 SVs @ -149 dBm)
testing 34.171 (ULTS) testing Worst-case carrier variants for 34.171
(and relevant • Carrier variants • AT&T ADAPT/TMO deep indoor
carrier variants)
sensitivity (best effort) (1 SV @ -149
dBm, 3 others @ -151 dBm, -154
dBm, -157 dBm)
• DoCoMo critical sensitivity (mandatory)
(1 SV@-147 dBm, 7 others @ -155 dBm)

Approximate relationship to Qualcomm 98% tracking sensitivity from IZat Gen 8 Engine RF Development and
Mobile Station Time Calibration Test Procedures (80-VM522-2) for the current Gen 8 software releases
 ≈ Same as Qualcomm 50% acquisition sensitivity from 80-VM522-2
 ≈ 2 dB better than VzW TIA-916 sensitivity tests
 ≈ 0.9 dB worse than DoCoMo critical sensitivity test
 No direct relationship to AT&T ADAPT/TMO deep indoor sensitivity test (test is time demodulation limited)

Note: AT&T ADAPT/TMO deep indoor sensitivity test cases are mainly limited by ability to set time;
Qualcomm roadmap includes time-setting and demodulation improvements to further address these and
expect to deliver ≈ 3 dB time setting improvement
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Sampling Devices for
Review of Carrier-Required Radiated Tests Carrier Acceptance Tests

These can be performed in third-party CTIA certified lab prior to carrier acceptance tests

Test Doc # Purpose Description Pros Cons

CTIA • TIA-916 Radiated • Tests on multiple SVs: sensitivity at Evaluates • None or easy
testing • 3GPP performance peak antenna gain, C/No at each point radiated pass/fail criteria
(and its TS of sphere. performance, • No direct
relevant 34.171 • TIS sensitivity then calculated based on which includes visibility into
carrier • Carrier this sensitivity measurement and C/No interactions radiated
variants) variants derived antenna gain pattern between antenna interferers
• Pass/fail criteria: and the radio • 3GPP TS
• Verizon radiated sensitivity (free electronics, such 34.171 limited
space) as effects of by demod sens
• VzW CTIA TIS = -146 dBm, and radiated self
• VzW CTIA UHIS = -144 dBm interferers,
Note: These are too easy (necessary but WWAN Tx and
not sufficient); do not guarantee E-911 mismatch of
pass. antenna and
receiver chain

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Sampling Devices for
Relationship of Conducted and Radiated Sensitivities Carrier Acceptance Tests

 At peak antenna gain, for a good radiated design and low system activity, should see ≈ 0 dBi antenna gain
 Radiated Qualcomm sensitivity at peak antenna gain, then ≈ conducted Qualcomm tracking sensitivity
 Radiated CTIA sensitivity at peak antenna gain, then ≈ conducted PLTS sensitivity
 TIS sensitivity is further dictated by antenna efficiency (spatial average gain)
 Radiated Qualcomm TIS ≈ Qualcomm radiated sensitivity at peak antenna gain – Antenna efficiency
 ≈ Qualcomm conducted tracking sensitivity – Antenna efficiency
 Radiated CTIA TIS ≈ CTIA sensitivity at peak antenna gain – Antenna efficiency
 ≈ Conducted PLTS sensitivity – Antenna efficiency
For example, with -4 dBi antenna efficiency
 Qualcomm TIS ≈ Qualcomm radiated sensitivity at peak antenna gain + 4 dB
 ≈ Qualcomm conducted tracking sensitivity + 4 dB
 CTIA TIS ≈ CTIA sensitivity at peak antenna gain + 4 dB
 ≈ Conducted PLTS sensitivity + 4 dB
Radiated sensitivity is further affected by any radiated interference (discussed in the following slides).

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Sampling Devices for
Typical Factors That Impact Sensitivity Carrier Acceptance Tests

Typical factor Impact on sensitivity Evaluation method

Conducted NF Both conducted and Conducted RF Dev (80-VM522-2)


radiated sensitivities, • Spectrum analysis
1 dB for 1 dB • C/No test
Reference frequency drift Both conducted and Conducted RF Dev (80-VM522-2)
radiated sensitivities, • C/No test
see next slide • Multi-call sensitivity test
Conducted jammers Both conducted and Conducted RF Dev (80-VM522-2)
radiated sensitivities • Spectrum analysis
Antenna efficiency and Radiated sensitivity, Antenna pattern test (80-V5228-8), and
radiated self-interference 1 dB for 1 dB Radiated RF Dev (80-VN895-2, 80-VN895-3,
80-VN895-4)
• Spectrum analysis
• C/No test

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Overall Systematic Approach → Total System Processing Loss Sampling Devices for
Carrier Acceptance Tests

System performance limited by total system processing loss


 SPLtotal = SPLcon + Lant + Lrad, where
 SPLcon = conducted system processing loss as measured by Qualcomm conducted RF Dev
 Lant = antenna gain over desired FOV as measured in antenna testing in typical usage scenarios
– Dial position in free-space; dial position with phantom hand; talk position with phantom head & hand
 Lrad = loss due to radiated interference as measured by Qualcomm radiated RF Dev
Both conducted and actual user mode radiated tests are necessary to ensure good overall system
performance.
Qualcomm recommends pass/fail criteria for both conducted and radiated tests.
 Conducted pass/fail criteria ensure passing of conducted min. perf. tests.
 Radiated pass/fail criteria ensure passing of CTIA and carrier acceptance tests, as well as good overall
system performance.
An example of Qualcomm total system performance pass/fail criteria is shown on the next slide.

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Sampling Devices for
Example of Relevant Qualcomm Radiated Tests Pass/Fail Criteria Carrier Acceptance Tests

Qualcomm recommends the following radiated pass/fail criteria and requirements (80-VN895-2)

Pass/fail criteria Pass requirement


Average C/N0 loss over field of view • < 9.5 dB for UMTS and multimode devices (except GSM devices with Tx on)
(with Tx on or off) • < 10.0 dB for GSM devices with Tx on (1 Tx slot per frame)
• < 10.5 dB for CDMA and no WWAN connectivity devices
• < 14.5 dB for LTE devices
These are all for free space – No hand blockage effects.
TIS (in idle or traffic) • < -152.8 dBm for UMTS and multimode devices (except GSM devices with Tx
on)
• < -152.3 dBm for GSM devices with Tx on (1 Tx slot per frame)
• < -151.8 dBm for CDMA and no WWAN connectivity devices
• < -146.8 dBm for LTE devices
These are all for free space – No hand blockage effects.
Hand blockage effects • < 2 dB
Additional Qualcomm-recommended radiated test pass/fail criteria (under construction)
 Additional radiated interference due to high system activity < 1dB
Note that Qualcomm radiated pass/fail criteria allow for tradeoff of conducted vs radiated performance
 However, must account for the worst case conducted performance
 Worst case, SPLcon = 5.5 dB for WCDMA; 6 dB for GSM; 6.5 dB for CDMA
 Reflects target antenna efficiency of -4 dBi and 0 dB target loss due to radiated interference
 Other examples of Qualcomm spec-compliant devices are shown on the next slide.

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Sampling Devices for
Examples of Qualcomm Spec-Compliant Devices Carrier Acceptance Tests

A device with poor conducted but excellent radiated performance


 A CDMA GPS device with:
 Conducted system processing loss, SPLcon = 6.5 dB;
That is, 6.5 + 4 + 0 = 10.5 dB (CDMA spec)
 Antenna efficiency, Lant = -4 dBi
 Radiated interference loss, Lrad = 0 dB
 Additional radiated interference loss in high system activity = 0.1 dB
A device with excellent conducted but poor radiated performance
 A CDMA GPS device with:
 Conducted system processing loss, SPLcon = 3 dB;
 Antenna efficiency, Lant = -6 dBi That is, 3.0 + 6 + 1.5 = 10.5 dB (CDMA spec)
 Radiated interference loss, Lrad = 1.5 dB
 Additional radiated interference loss in high system activity = 0.9 dB
A device with good conducted and radiated performance
 A WCDMA GPS device with:
 Conducted system processing loss, SPLcon = 3.5 dB; That is, 3.5 + 4.5 + 1.0 = 9.0 dB
 Antenna efficiency, Lant = -4.5 dBi (0.5 dB better than WCDMA spec)
 Radiated interference loss, Lrad = 1 dB
 Additional radiated interference loss in high system activity = 0.5 dB

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Sampling Devices for
Quantifying Sensitivity Impact of Reference Frequency Drift Carrier Acceptance Tests

 The table shows loss for 20 ms coherent integration length only


 160 ms coherent integration length (not shown) is more susceptible to reference frequency drift

GNSS sensitivity loss (dB) from linear frequency drift

Total integration Linear frequency drift (m/s/s)


time(s) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
1 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10
5 0.04 0.10 0.18 0.26 0.36 0.48 0.60 0.75 0.90 1.36
12 0.13 0.34 0.63 1.27 1.78 2.24 2.65 2.78 3.11 3.45

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Sampling Devices for
Summary of Procedure for Carrier Acceptance-Related GPS Tests Carrier Acceptance Tests

Qualcomm recommended conducted tests


 Basic and complete RF Development as per IZat Gen 8 Engine Family RF Development Test Procedures (80-
VM522-2)
Qualcomm recommended antenna/radiated tests
 Antenna testing as per GNSS Antenna Considerations for Handsets and Other Portables (80-V5228-8)
 Radiated basic RF Development, including full TIS sensitivity, as per IZat Gen 8 Radiated RF Development
Test Procedures (80-VN895-2)
 New: Additional radiated interference testing
Carrier-mandated tests
 Conducted minimum performance testing (TIA-916, 3GPP TS 34.171, and carrier variants)
 CTIA testing for both peak and full antenna pattern (and its relevant carrier variants)
Note: Qualcomm recommends tests 1 through 4 prior to carrier acceptance testing. For carriers that also
mandate 5 and 6:
 For CDMA, either steps 2 and 3 or step 6 are needed.
 For UMTS, all 6 steps are needed, since 34.171 typically is limited by demod sensitivity.

Qualcomm recommends these tests for all device models.

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Section 3

3.1 Must Do’s 205


3.2 Don’ts 210
3.3 Essential Documents 212
GNSS Software Stack Bringup 3.4 QXDM 216
3.5 Snapper HS 234
3.6 Standalone and Assisted GNSS 243

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GNSS Software Stack Bringup SW Bringup

Qualcomm provides complete GNSS functionality in the software stack provided in the products. OEMs are
requested to make necessary customizations as per market or operator requirements. It is essential to obtain
the latest versions of Qualcomm tools such as QXDM Professional, QCAT, SnapperHS, and QDART before
GNSS software stack customization and tests. OEMs are advised to determine the version of the IZat engine
running in the DUT and choose appropriate test cases, documents, and log masks. Qualcomm recommends
the use of FFA units along with OEM DUTs during all tests. The results from Qualcomm FFA will provide a
baseline for analysis and comparison.
The GNSS functionality can be verified by executing standalone cold/warm start, MS Based, MS Assisted,
XTRA, and Wi-Fi positioning tests.

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Section 3.1

Must Do’s

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Must Do’s (1 of 4) SW Bringup

The following guidelines must be followed by OEMs.


 Common
 Review IZat NV items and load correct NV values during the device bootup.
 Perform RF calibration and load the appropriate QCN file into DUT before any tests.
 In designs with external LNA, ensure that the external LNA is enabled.
 Obtain device requirements from the operator before starting GNSS stack customization.
 Ensure proper integration with RTC if non-Qualcomm PMIC is used in the design.
 Uncertainty value must be accurately specified for time and position injections.
 The NV 452 GPS LOCK value must be set to ZERO to enable all GNSS functionalities to succeed.
 The client ID type must be set to OEM when using GNSS APIs.

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Must Do’s (2 of 4) SW Bringup

Assisted GNSS
 Verify the validity of security certificate for secure AGPS tests. The previous security certificate must be
deleted before a new security certificate is injected to the system. The host URL/IP in the certificate file must
match with the AGPS PDE address selected in the DUT for the test.
 Assistance Data (AD) throttling timers have to be customized by OEMs as per carrier requirements.

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Must Do’s (3 of 4) SW Bringup

Modem-only platforms
 In QMI PDS Time injection, the Force Time flag should not be enabled if the GPS engine is running during
injection.
 There is no AT command support available for GNSS. All GNSS interactions must be through the interfaces
specified in the particular platform.
 Implement XTRA and AGPS Notification/Verification Client for non-HLOS platforms.
 For GNSS Simulator tests, all GNSS data from the DUT must be cleared and simulator time must be set in
the DUT.
 If the OEM is integrating Wi-Fi positioning service, the OEM is expected to obtain the licenses directly from
the third-party Wi-Fi positioning provider.
HLOS platforms
 For all GPS tests, appropriate QoS (accuracy, timeout), TBF, and Number of Fixes parameters must be
chosen by the OEM. The QoS Accuracy of 50 m and Time Out value of 30 sec is usually used for standalone
app tracking sessions in Gen 8 IZat engines.
 The configuration must be correctly set in the gps.conf file for Android systems to enable A-GPS, Wi-Fi
Positioning, and Intermediate Fixes.

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Must Do’s (4 of 4) SW Bringup

Testing
 For GCF/PTCRB test case 51.010 MSB, the OEM needs to modify NV 1929 bit 2 to have a different MO LR
Type (LOCATION_ESTIMATE or ASSISTANCE_DATA).
 During the test, QXDM GNSS Measurement Screen and GNSS Primary RF Status Screens must be
monitored for anomalies such as BP Amplitude I/Q fluctuations, Drop in CNo values of tracked satellites, etc.
 The test site needs to be validated with a reference device before any field performance tests. Also, a
verification test needs to be performed with a common antenna for DUT and reference device before running
tests on the DUT with a native antenna.
 For field performance tests, the orientation of the device must be set for best performance in accordance with
the antenna pattern.
 The field performance tests need to be done in as many scenarios as possible, including but not limited to
Static Open Sky, Open Sky Drive, and Urban Canyon Drive. Qualcomm recommends the use of an FFA unit
along with the DUT in all tests.

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Section 3.2

Don’ts

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Don’ts SW Bringup

 Don’t mismatch or use RF calibration data and the QCN file for another device with DUT.
 Don’t fail to customize the RTC API and software if non-Qualcomm PMIC is used.
 Don’t fail to delete all GNSS data from the DUT before simulator tests.
 Don’t keep the external LNA disabled.
 Don’t use inappropriate QoS Accuracy and Timeout values.

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Section 3.3

Essential Documents

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Essential Documents (1 of 3) SW Bringup

DCN Title

Common
80-N0897-1 Introduction to Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)
80-VN426-1 gpsOne Modem Software Overview
80-V0528-2 gpsOne FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
80-VG182-1 gpsOne Testing and Troubleshooting
80-B5706-1 QTI Tools Global Positioning Subsystem Interface Control Document
80-VB605-11 IZat Implementation Issues Troubleshooting and Reference Guide
80-N3522-1 How In-Band Jammers Affect GPS Performance?
80-N0911-1 Setting up Analysis Plot Autogeneration for GPS RF Verification Testing
80-VR679-1 GPS C/N0 and Frequency Measurement in Production Line Testing
80-VU061-1 Factory Test Recommendation for Production Line
80-N1336-1 On-Demand Positioning (ODP) Feature – Licensee Responsibility
80-VU281-1 Ephemeris Request Randomization
80-V8220-1 Snapper Handset User Guide

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Essential Documents (2 of 3) SW Bringup

DCN Title
Gen 8
80-VU455-1 gpsOne Gen 8 Engine Overview
80-VU905-1 IZat Gen 8 Engine (1X and UMTS) Nonvolatile Items Description
Gen 7
80-VG439-1 gpsOne Engine Nonvolatile Items Descriptions
80-VG193-1 gpsOne Gen 7 Engine Software Architecture Overview
80-VF767-1 gpsOne Gen 7 Engine Interface Specification and Operational Description
80-VP740-1 gpsOne Gen 7 C/N0 Processing and Data Demodulation
80-VH481-1 gpsOne Gen 7 Engine Perl Scripts Description
80-VG622-1 QCT QDART gpsOne Gen 7 Engine Training
80-VB064-2 Programming GPS Almanac Data in gpsOne Gen 7-Based Handsets
CDMA
80-V3059-1 Standalone 1X gpsOne Operation
80-VC090-1 1X gpsOne Testing Using PLTS
80-VC092-1 1X gpsOne E911 and Control Plane Sessions
80-VC093-1 1X gpsOne Test Overview
80-VC094-1 1X gpsOne Licensee Responsibility
80-V9524-1 Location-Based Services V1 and V2 Software Overview
80-VR499-1 GPS Multipath Accuracy Test Failures in TIA-916 Compliance Testing
80-VJ539-1 gpsOne Operation in Full-Time Simultaneous (FTS) HDR

Sec. 3.3 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 214
Essential Documents (3 of 3) SW Bringup

DCN Title
UMTS/GSM
80-VF488-1 gpsOne – GSM Interaction
80-V2996-1 A-GPS and OTDOA Assistance Data Reference Guide
80-VC791-1 SUPL 1.0 Implementation for Operators
80-VG273-1 GSM RRLP Segmentation and Pseudosegmentation Explained
80-VD235-1 Rel 5-Based WCDMA Control Plane LCS Call Flow Overview
80-VD485-1 RTC and EFS Requirement for UMTS GPS
80-VF170-1 Disabling gpsOne User Plane MSA Mode of Operation
80-VG049-1 Technical Memo: Specifying PDE IP Address Port for gpsOne JSR-179 Application
80-VP130-1 Extracting HSLP Address from SIM
Interfaces/HLOS
80-N0910-1 gpsOne Implementation in MDM Platforms
80-VB816-14 QMI PDS EXT 1.13 QMI Position Determination Svc (Custom Msgs) Spec
80-VP465-1 Location Application Programming Interface Functional Requirements Specification
80-VT866-1 Location APIs
80-N0286-1 Windows Mobile 7 Location Services Overview
80-N0177-1 Android gpsOne Implementation Overview
80-N0898-1 gpsOne Implementation in Brew™ MP Platforms
Wi-Fi Positioning
80-N0266-1 Wi-Fi GPS Hybrid Positioning 1.0 Integration Guide

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Section 3.4

QXDM

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Gen 8-Specific QXDM Screens QXDM

 New QXDM view screen introduced for Gen 8C – GNSS RF Status (legacy GNSS Primary RF Status)
 Each GUI view provides real-time display of diagnostic message payloads in table form
 Can be selected from the View pull-down list
 Available in most current QXDM versions (external version 3.14.837)

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Gen 8 – GNSS Clock Report Screen (1 of 3) QXDM

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Gen 8 – GNSS Clock Report Screen (2 of 3) QXDM

 FCount – Internal reference counter used by the GPS engine; tracks the number of ms since the engine was
turned on or became idle; counter is reset when the engine is turned off
 GPS Clock GPS week number – Week offset from Jan 6, 1980
 GPS millisecond (ms) – Millisecond into the GPS week
 GPS clock time bias (ms) – Bias between true GPS time and GPS engine time
 GPS clock time uncertainty (ns) – Uncertainty of GPS engine time is approximately 100 yr at the start of a
cold start, standalone session in OoS. When time is acquired and decoded, this value is decreased to
approximately 15 ms. When a few SVs are tracked, ephemeris is decoded and a GPS fix is performed. The
value should generally be decreased to below 100 ns. This value grows over time, based on the configured
local oscillator drift. The closer the value is to 0, the faster the next fix can be calculated; connection to the
network allows the engine to start with a smaller clock time uncertainty.

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Gen 8 – GNSS Clock Report Screen (3 of 3) QXDM

 GLONASS clock values are invalid for a GPS-only solution.


 GNSS clock frequency bias (m/s) – Frequency bias from the nominal value of the GPS TCXO represents an
error on the TCXO oscillator; if the frequency bias is large, the TCXO performance is in doubt and the
maximum frequency bias tolerated is generally approximately 5 ppm [~1500 m/s]; at the beginning of the
session, the value may be 0 temporarily.
 GNSS clock frequency uncertainty (m/s) – GPS TCXO frequency uncertainty should become small (generally
< 5 m/s) after a fix is generated by the engine.
 System RTC time (ms) – Similar to FCount; system RTC value

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Gen 8 – GNSS RF Status Screen QXDM

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Gen 8 – GNSS RF Status View (Legacy) QXDM

 With the new version of QXDM supporting Gen 8C, all of the latest build targets require the GNSS RF Status
view.
 For previous targets, use legacy view – GNSS Primary RF Status.
 Screenshot below shows navigation to the legacy window for older targets.

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Gen 8C – GNSS RF Status Screen QXDM

 FCount – Local GPS receiver clock


 RF Mode – RF mode and WTR type indicate ADC setpoint
 RFIC PGA gain (dB) – Programmable Gain Adjust value is gain adjustment applied in the GNSS RF front end
to ensure that the signal is within the dynamic range of the GNSS digital processing blocks downstream. PGA
in units of dB should be in the range of -12 to +18 in 2 dB steps for WTR RFICs. The PGA is adjusted to meet
the ADC Amp setpoint target, which varies by RF device; for example, WTR1625, WTR3925, etc., and GNSS
RF mode. The ADC Amp setpoint is chosen to provide the optimal input to the GNSS ADC: Large enough to
minimize quantization noise, yet small enough to avoid saturation.
 ADC Processor Mean I/Q (mV) – DC offset should be less than +/-4 mV.
 ADC Processor Amp I/Q (mV) – RMS sampled average output of the GNSS ADC
 ADCIQ test nodes in QSPR are used for debug jammers that can affect PGA.
 GPS, GLO, and BDS BP Amp I/Q – Band dependent amplitude checked in QSPR, an indicator of insufficient
front-end gain when low or jammer if high. QSPR plots include BP Amp in time useful to identify transients.

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QXDM Constellation Database Screen QXDM

QXDM constellation database depicts XTRA status

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Gen 8 – GNSS Measurements Screen QXDM

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Gen 8 – GNSS Measurements Screen (1 of 4) QXDM

GPS measurements
 SV – Satellite ID
 C – Channel state
 Elv (degrees above the horizon) – Satellite elevation
 Azi (degrees) – Satellite azimuth
 Stat – Measurement status, gives an indication of the quality of SV measurements; for an SV to be used for a
position fix, the lower 5 bits should be set and bits 9 to 15 should not be set
 Gd – Counts the number of successful observation attempts made on a specific SV; it is a monotonically
increasing 8-bit value and will therefore roll over at 255

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Gen 8 – GNSS Measurements Screen (2 of 4) QXDM

GPS measurements (cont.)


 ObsCnt – Number of observation attempts made on a specific SV
 C/N0(dB-Hz) – Carrier-to-Noise density ratio. The standard measure of signal-to-noise ratio referenced to a 1
Hz bandwidth at the GPS receiver matched to the filter output.
 The measure of signal strength is implementation-independent; that is, is suitable for comparison with other
GPS receiver designs.
 This value is directly dependent on the input signal power.
 The value of this parameter is one of the factors that determines if an SV can be successfully used for a GPS
fix; for example, if an SV has a C/N0 value of less than 28 dB-Hz, it is more likely that its bit error rate is high
enough that it would not be successfully demodulated during a cold start, standalone session. A value of less
than 12 dB-Hz makes the SV less likely to be successfully acquired during GPS tracking. As mentioned, a
C/N0 value that is higher than the above thresholds is necessary, but is not sufficient for the SV to be
successfully used in a GPS fix in the aforementioned scenarios. Other factors can be involved; however, it is
a key factor.

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Gen 8 – GNSS Measurements Screen (3 of 4) QXDM

GPS measurements (cont.)


 Latency (ms) – Latency of measurement
 Pre (ms) – Predetection interval
 Post (ms) – Number of post-detections used
 Ms (ms) – SV signal time at the antenna when the measurement is taken; pseudorange is the difference
between user time and signal time; difference is typically in the range of 60 to 80 ms
 SubMs (ms) – Fractional part of the pseudo-range measurement
 TUnc (ms) – Time uncertainty of measurement; dependent on C/N0 values at baseband for the found SV;
value becomes very small when the signal is acquired
 Speed (m/s) – Observed satellite Doppler measurement; contains effect of the local oscillator offset
 SpdUnc (m/s) – Uncertainty of Doppler measurement; this value is also dependent on C/N0 at baseband for
the found SV

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Gen 8 – GNSS Measurements Screen (4 of 4) QXDM

GPS measurements (cont.)


 Parity Error – Parity errors in a subframe; parity errors indicate longer TTF
 Carrier phase – Measurement in L1 cycles
 Cslip – Carrier phase-cycle slip counts
GLONASS measurements
 Values are invalid for a GPS-only solution

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Gen 8 – GNSS Position Report Screen (1 of 4) QXDM

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Gen 8 – GNSS Position Report Screen (2 of 4) QXDM

Navigation fix
 FCount – Clock count when position is valid
 Fix Is 2D – Only latitude and longitude are computed; height is assumed known
 Latitude (degrees) – Latitude
 Longitude (degrees) – Longitude
 Height (m) – Altitude relative to WSG84 ellipsoid
 Height UNC (Meters) – Height uncertainty
 Heading (Degrees) – Direction of travel
 Speed (m/s) – Magnitude of horizontal velocity
 Speed UNC (m/s) – Horizontal velocity uncertainty
 Vertical velocity (m/s) – Vertical velocity
 Vertical velocity UNC (m/s) – Vertical velocity uncertainty

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Gen 8 – GNSS Position Report Screen (3 of 4) QXDM

Navigation fix (cont.)


 PDOP – Position Dilution of Precision (unitless)
 HDOP – Horizontal Dilution of Precision (unitless)
 VDOP – Vertical Dilution of Precision (unitless)
 Ellipse confidence – Statistical measure of confidence in elliptical uncertainties reported as a percentage (0 to
100%); value of 0 indicates that elliptical uncertainties are invalid and should be ignored
 Ellipse angle – Along axis; that is, major axis angle with respect to true north in units of degrees
 Ellipse semiMajor Axis (m) – Uncertainty of position in the along axis direction (in meters)
 Ellipse semiMinor Axis (m) – Uncertainty of position perpendicular to the along axis direction (in meters)

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Gen 8 – GNSS Position Report Screen (4 of 4) QXDM

Navigation fix (cont.)


 Clock bias solution (meters) – Receiver clock bias
 Clock bias solution UNC (meters) – Uncertainty of receiver clock bias
 Time solution (sec) – Coarse time offset
 Time solution UNC (sec) – Coarse time offset uncertainty
 Clock freq bias solution (m/s) – Error (bias) in clock frequency
 Clock freq bias solution UNC (m/s) – Uncertainty of clock frequency bias GLONASS fix SVs
 Not valid for a GPS-only solution

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Section 3.5

Snapper HS

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SnapperHS SnapperHS

 General-purpose utility for monitoring positioning sensors


 Provides real-time displays of performance, detailed technical metrics, and diagnostic information
 Provides call flows and session statistics
 See Snapper Handset User Guide (80-V8220-1) for information on SnapperHS operation.
 QXDM and SnapperHS can be used concurrently or separately.

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SnapperHS Input and Output Settings Screen (1 of 3) SnapperHS

 On the first input screen, select a connection type (most commonly used are FFA Phone and File Playback).
 Optionally, enter the Truth Position for analysis purposes, etc.

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SnapperHS Input and Output Settings Screen (2 of 3) SnapperHS

 To set the FFA phone as input, select a Com Port.


 Optionally, enable file logging (for replay purposes).
 Optionally, enable a call flow trace file (for preservation of call flow window contents).
 Select a fix source.
 From Network Positions – For MSA collects
 From Diagnostic Positions – For intrasession positions from MSB collects
 From PD API Positions – For final positions from MSB collects
 From Wi-Fi Diag Positions

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SnapperHS Input and Output Settings Screen (3 of 3) SnapperHS

 To set File Playback as input, navigate to the file you want to play back.
 Optionally, specify the delay between each fix (for stepping during replay), start and end time, time formats,
positions to monitor, etc.

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SnapperHS Survey Window SnapperHS

 This window identifies performance problems during


extensive testing situations.
 Vertical gray color bars in the lower-left panel
indicate failed attempts
 Yield – Number of valid positions/total position
attempts
 CEP 68%/95% (m) – 68% or 95% of errors in valid
positions are less than this value
 Maximum Horizontal Error (HE)
 Maximum HE in valid positions

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SnapperHS Signal Quality Window SnapperHS

 This window uses the fix record to extract signal quality (C/N0), which is specified as a number from 0 to 99
dB-Hz. Depending on the number of satellites in view, the number of C/N0 bars will vary.
 At the top of each C/N0 bar, the raw C/N0 value is displayed. Full scale is considered to be any C/N0 value of
50 dB or above. At the bottom of each bar, the satellite ID or pseudorandom number is shown.
 If the satellite is not used in the position fix solution, the signal quality bar will be gray. If the satellite is used in
the solution, the signal quality bar will be blue.

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SnapperHS Azimuth and Elevation Window SnapperHS

Each satellite is identified by its Pseudorandom Number (PRN), with azimuth designated by the letter A and
elevation by the letter E.
The color of the text for each satellite indicates whether the satellite is used in the position solution.
 Red text – Satellite is used in the solution
 Gray text – Satellite is not used in the solution

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SnapperHS Tracking Information Window SnapperHS

 Time To First Fix (TTFF) – Time from the start of a session to the first fix;
not computed for invalid fixes
 RSP – Response time for A-GPS sessions, from the instant when all assistance data is delivered to the
session done event
 SVs – Number of SVs used to compute a position
 C/N0 – Signal to Noise ratio measured at the UE (for successful sessions)

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Section 3.6

Standalone and Assisted GNSS

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GNSS Functional Verification and Debugging SW Debugging

Qualcomm provides complete GNSS functionality in the software stack provided in the products. OEMs are
requested to make necessary customizations as per market or operator requirements. The GNSS functionality
can be verified by executing standalone cold/warm start, MS Based, MS Assisted, XTRA, and Wi-Fi positioning
tests.

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Debugging Standalone Cold/Warm Start Failures (1 of 6) SW Debugging

The cold start and warm start test verifies the standalone GPS operation. The test can be conducted in a
simulator or in open sky. Before the test, the NV items, QoS values, and DUT calibration, must be confirmed.
The following messages confirm the success of a cold start standalone session.

// pdsm_get_position request from the PDSM client:


MSG GPS SM/High 10:20:04.261 pdapi.c 00292 =PDSM= pdsm_get_position()
// No Ephemeris or Almanac in the Position Engine Database at the beginning of a cold start fix
MSG GPS SM/Medium 10:20:04.272 tm_standalone.c 00405 Eph invalid
MSG GPS SM/Medium 10:20:04.272 tm_standalone.c 00417 Alm invalid
MSG GPS SM/Medium 10:20:04.272 tm_standalone.c 00429 Ref Loc invalid
// Turning on the GPS Searcher shortly after the fix request:
MSG GPS SM/Medium 10:20:04.273 lm_mgp.c 00485 =LM TASK= Turning MGP to ON
// First fix report from the GPS searcher to the GPS session manager with TTF of ~40sec. MGP is turned OFF
after the fix.
MSG GPS SM/High 10:20:44.401 sm_api.c 00326 SM_API: Fix report for SM
MSG GPS SM/Medium 10:20:44.401 lm_mgp.c 01212 =LM TASK= Received FIX REPORT from MGP
MSG GPS SM/Medium 10:20:44.401 lm_mgp.c 00305 =LM TASK= Time of first valid fix after SessStart 40128 ms
MSG GPS SM/Medium 10:20:45.441 lm_mgp.c 00508 =LM TASK= Turning MGP to OFF
MSG GPS SM/High 10:20:45.443 tm_core.c 01433 TM-Core -Abort and Recover

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Debugging Standalone Cold/Warm Start Failures (2 of 6) SW Debugging

During the test, the QXDM GNSS RF Status view must be monitored. The tester needs to note if there are
fluctuations in BP Amplitude I/Q values.

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Debugging Standalone Cold/Warm Start Failures (3 of 6) SW Debugging

Cold start failures can occur due to many reasons. The potential causes include lack of sufficient SV signals,
jammers, and test errors. The test engineer needs to confirm that adequate number of satellites is in TRACK
status with high CNo values during the test.

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Debugging Standalone Cold/Warm Start Failures (4 of 6) SW Debugging

The following is an example where cold start failure occurs due to parity errors.

// Fix error notification will be sent to client and the session ends with error.
MSG GPS SM/Medium 10:22:22.747 lm_tm.c 00172 =LM TASK= Sending session ERROR NOTIFICATION to TM. Error
Cause [3]
MSG GPS SM/Medium 10:22:22.747 lm_mgp.c 00419 =LM TASK= Turning MGP to OFF
MSG GPS SM/High 10:22:22.747 tm_core.c 01006 TM-Core -Abort and Recover
MSG GPS SM/High 10:22:22.748 tm_1x_up_is801_driver.c 00756 Ending Session. Reason 8
MSG GPS SM/High 10:22:22.748 tm_core.c 01006 TM-Core -Abort and Recover

The failure observed is due to parity errors during the demodulation of ephemeris for SVs in view. This is the
reason that ephemeris is only obtained for two SVs, which is insufficient for making a fix.

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Debugging Standalone Cold/Warm Start Failures (5 of 6) SW Debugging

The following is an example where cold start failure is occurring due to parity errors.

// Fix error notification will be sent to client and the session ends with error.
MSG GPS SM/Medium 10:22:22.747 lm_tm.c 00172 =LM TASK= Sending session ERROR NOTIFICATION to TM. Error
Cause [3]
MSG GPS SM/Medium 10:22:22.747 lm_mgp.c 00419 =LM TASK= Turning MGP to OFF
MSG GPS SM/High 10:22:22.747 tm_core.c 01006 TM-Core -Abort and Recover
MSG GPS SM/High 10:22:22.748 tm_1x_up_is801_driver.c 00756 Ending Session. Reason 8
MSG GPS SM/High 10:22:22.748 tm_core.c 01006 TM-Core -Abort and Recover

The failure observed here is due to parity errors during the demodulation of ephemeris for SVs in view. This is
the reason that ephemeris is only obtained for two SVs, which is insufficient for making a fix.

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Debugging Standalone Cold/Warm Start Failures (6 of 6) SW Debugging

If the UE is in the Cold Start state and is camped on a network, the MCC-based seed position is injected in the
beginning of a position request. This helps a UE to narrow down the SV search list; for example, if the device is
in the US and is camped on a WCDMA network, the MCC will be 310.

// Start of a position request


MSG GPS SM/High 15:16:46.405 pdapi.c 00291 =PDSM= ---------GPS Command --------------------
MSG GPS SM/High 15:16:46.405 pdapi.c 00292 =PDSM= pdsm_get_position()
// Seed position will be injected based on US country code value
MSG MGP ME/MC Misc 15:16:46.430 mc_celldbcotbl.c 00889 CELLDB: MCC CCAT lookup succeeded. index = 2, MAR = 4900000
MSG MGP ME/MC Misc 15:16:46.430 mc_celldbcotbl.c 00913 CELLDB: Setting values from CCAT: lat*1000 = 38000, lon*1000 = -117000,
MAR = 4900000
MSG MGP ME/MC Misc 15:16:46.430 mc_celldbcotbl.c 00913 CELLDB: Setting values from CCAT: lat*1000 = 38000, lon*1000 = -117000,
MAR = 4900000

Note: The MCC-based seed position and corresponding uncertainty value vary from country to country.
In general, the larger the region, the larger the uncertainty value. If the UE is in the Hot Start (Delete
None) state, the previous stored position with an uncertainty value will be injected at the beginning of a
position request.

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Section 4

4.1 Must Do’s 253


4.2 Don’ts 259
GNSS Commercialization 4.3 Essential Documents 261
4.4 Debugging Commercialization Issues 264

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GNSS Commercialization Commercialization

Qualcomm recommends obtaining operator requirements far in advance to allow sufficient time for
customization. Carriers can have different requirements for different operating systems. OEMs must ensure to
provide adequate details while obtaining the carrier specifications. The successful completion of GNSS RF
development procedures and GNSS software stack bringup are essential for commercialization. It is essential
to obtain the latest versions of Qualcomm tools such as QXDM Professional, QCAT, SnapperHS, and QDART
before GNSS software stack customization and tests. Qualcomm recommends the use of FFA units along with
OEM DUTs during all tests. The results from Qualcomm FFA will provide a baseline for analysis and
comparison.

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Section 4.1

Must Do’s

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Must Do’s (1 of 5) Commercialization

The following guidelines must be followed by OEMs:


 Review IZat NV items and load the correct NV values during the device bootup.
 Perform RF calibration and load the appropriate QCN file to the DUT before any tests.
 Obtain device requirements from the operator before starting GNSS stack customization.
 Notify Qualcomm as soon as an operator is decided and crosscheck the requirements.
 Verify with Qualcomm before initiating GCF/PTCRB and operator acceptance tests.
 Qualcomm recommends the use an FFA unit along with the DUT in all tests.
 Verify Qualcomm GCF and Performance reports before initiating tests.
 OEMs must replicate all carrier tests internally on the candidate release before initiating official tests.
 OEMs must validate network-UE interaction, which often results in identifying network issues.
 OEMs must find out the exact test equipment and release versions used by the intended carrier ahead of IOT
trials. The exact same configuration has to be used by OEMs for internal verification before IOT trials.

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Must Do’s (2 of 5) Commercialization

For commercialization in all UMTS carriers, the following standards and specifications must be met:
 3GPP 51.010 and 34.123 GSM/WCDMA signaling conformance tests
 SUPL 1.0 ETS
 Minimum performance requirement, per 34.171/25.171 and 51.010
 CTIA test plan defines radiated Total Isotropic Sensitivity (TIS) test
For commercialization in all CDMA carriers, the following standards and specifications must be met:
 Third-Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2)
 TIA-916 – Recommended Min Perf Spec for IS-801-1 Spread Spectrum MS
 C.S0059 – Signaling Conformance Test Spec for cdma2000 Positioning Determination Services
 CTIA wireless association radiated test procedure for GPS receiver performance. CTIA OTA test specification
defines radiated TIS and Upper Hemisphere Isotropic Sensitivity (UHIS) tests for GPS.

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Must Do’s (3 of 5) Commercialization

For commercialization in Verizon, the following specifications must be met. Make sure to obtain the latest
version of the documents from the carrier.
 Reqs-LBS – Device Requirements Location Based Services
 Reqs-Location Determination – Technical Requirements for Location Determination Capable Terminals
 Reqs-LBS Applications – Device Requirements LBS Applications
 Verizon Wireless Device Compliance Testing Procedures
 LBSTestPlan WM
 Verizon specific security architecture for GNSS
 Verizon additionally defines user plane MS-Based (MSB) and cold-start standalone acquisition test for GPS
For commercialization in Sprint, the following specifications must be met. Make sure to obtain the latest version
of the documents from the carrier.
 LBS Services Device Requirements
 OTA Antenna Performance Test Requirements

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Must Do’s (4 of 5) Commercialization

For Telus, the following specifications must be met:


 TELUS LBS Specification
 TCG LBS Test Cases
 Telus additionally defines open sky performance requirements over UP
For China Telecom, the following specifications must be met:
 CDMA Terminal LBS
 IZat Handset Test Spec
For KDDI, the following requirements must be satisfied:
 IZat Functional Specification
 IZat Location Information System I/F Specification
 KDDI IZat Evaluation Sheet Steps
 KDDI alternatively defines hybrid AFLT/AGPS tests

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Must Do’s (5 of 5) Commercialization

For AT&T, the following requirements must be met:


 13340_40 – Device Requirement (Chapter 37, A-GPS)
 16075_13 – Field Test Plan for A-GPS Capable Devices
 10776_921– Lab and Field Test Requirements for Terminal Unit Acceptance
For TMO-USA, the following requirements must be met:
 MTR Q22008 (30-0119, 30-0163, 30-0170) – UMTS A-GPS handset PRD, LBS PRD, and GSM AGPS PRD
 A-GPS UE Lab Control Plane Test Plan V4.1
 UMTS A-GPS Lab UE Signal Strength and Performance Requirements V2.6
Assistance Data (AD) throttling timer has to be customized by OEM as per carrier requirements
For GCF/PTCRB test case 51.010 MSB, OEM needs to modify NV 1929 bit 2 to have different MO LR Type
(LOCATION_ESTIMATE or ASSISTANCE_DATA)
For field performance tests, the orientation of the device must be set for best performance in accordance with
the antenna pattern.

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Section 4.2

Don’ts

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Don’ts Commercialization

The following activities will severely degrade GNSS performance and must be avoided:
 Mismatch or using RF calibration data and the QCN file for another device with the DUT.
 Failure to customize RTC API and software if non-Qualcomm PMIC is used
 Failure to inject XTRA time before every xtra.bin download
 Failure to delete all GNSS data from the DUT before simulator tests
 Keeping the external LNA disabled
 Using inappropriate QoS accuracy and timeout values

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Section 4.3

Essential Documents

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Essential Documents (1 of 2) Commercialization

DCN Title
Gen 8
80-N3005-1 Performance Test Results for gpsOne Gen 8 Engine Release 1.0
80-VU905-1 IZat Gen 8 Engine (1X and UMTS) Nonvolatile Items Description
Gen 7
80-VG439-1 gpsOne Engine Nonvolatile (NV) Item Descriptions
80-N0074-1 Test Results for gpsOne Gen 7 Engine Ver 4.2 Software
CDMA
80-V3059-1 Standalone 1X gpsOne Operation
80-VC090-1 1X gpsOne Testing Using PLTS
80-VC092-1 1X gpsOne E911 and Control Plane Sessions
80-VC093-1 1X gpsOne Test Overview
80-VC094-1 1X gpsOne Licensee Responsibility
80-V9524-1 Location-Based Services V1 and V2 Software Overview
80-VR499-1 GPS Multipath Accuracy Test Failures in TIA-916 Compliance Testing
80-VJ539-1 gpsOne Operation in Full-Time Simultaneous (FTS) HDR
80-VD177-1 Technical Memo: gpsOne Security on Dual-Processor Devices

Sec. 4.3 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 262
Essential Documents (2 of 2) Commercialization

DCN Title

UMTS/GSM
80-VF488-1 gpsOne – GSM Interaction
80-V2996-1 A-GPS and OTDOA Assistance Data Reference Guide
80-VC791-1 SUPL 1.0 Implementation for Operators
80-VD235-1 Rel 5-Based WCDMA Control Plane LCS Call Flow Overview
80-VD485-1 RTC and EFS Requirement for UMTS GPS
80-VF170-1 Disabling gpsOne User Plane MSA Mode of Operation
80-VG049-1 Technical Memo: Specifying PDE IP Address Port for gpsOne JSR-179 Application
80-VP130-1 Extracting HSLP Address from SIM

Sec. 4.3 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 263
Section 4.4

Debugging Commercialization Issues

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GNSS Commercialization
Debugging Protocol Failures Issues Debugging

Common protocol failures can be attributed to:


 Wrong configuration or NV settings
 Poor calibration of test equipments or DUTs
 Test or configuration errors
 Incorrect test equipment or release versions

Sec. 4.4 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 265
GNSS Commercialization
Debugging E911 Field Performance Failures Issues Debugging

Common E911 field performance failures can be attributed to:


 Poor antenna performance
 Internal or external jammers
 Test or configuration errors
 Device hardware anomalies due to manufacturing errors
 Network assistance data anomalies
 Network AGPS server errors
 Cell transitions during E911 tests

Sec. 4.4 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 266
GNSS Commercialization
Debugging PLTS/ULTS Failures Issues Debugging

The PLTS/ULTS failures occur commonly due to poor calibration of the test equipment, cables or the DUT. It is
also essential to ensure no external jammers or transmitting equipment are kept near the test area. The data
call and security certificate settings also need to be verified in case of data/SSL anomalies. If the standalone
session returns a failure or a fix, but takes longer than expected (high TTFF), look for the following messages to
verify if there were parity errors at the same time that you are trying to demodulate the SV subframes.

// pdsm_get_position request from the PDSM client:


MSG GPS SM/High 22:39:04.490 pdapi.c 00292 =PDSM= pdsm_get_position()
// As you can see parity errors are observed while decoding sub-frames of multiple SVs
MSG MGP PE/Medium 22:39:36.373 mgp_pe_common.c 00969 CD: Subframe decode SV 22, Subframe1, Page 9, Parity 0x0
MSG MGP PE/Medium 22:39:36.373 mgp_pe_common.c 00969 CD: Subframe decode SV 14, Subframe1, Page 9, Parity 0x0
MSG MGP PE/Medium 22:39:36.373 mgp_pe_common.c 00969 CD: Subframe decode SV 31, Subframe1, Page 9, Parity 0x200
MSG MGP PE/Medium 22:39:36.373 mgp_pe_common.c 00969 CD: Subframe decode SV 31, Subframe1, Page 9, Parity 0x200
MSG MGP PE/Medium 22:39:36.373 mgp_pe_common.c 00969 CD -WARNING: Parity error(s) on last subframe! SV 31,
TowCount 56796 (200)
// Fix is finally obtained, however the TTFF is about 50 seconds which is higher than the scenario with no parity
errors
MSG GPS SM/High 22:39:54.630 tm_standalone.c 00499 Got LR

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GNSS Commercialization
Debugging Outliers/Position Failure in Field Trials (1 of 3) Issues Debugging

The SnapperHS Position Survey screen can be used to easily estimate position outliers or failures in field tests.
The NMEA logs from the test can be used to plot the data in Google Earth to further visualize outliers.
Qualcomm recommends the usage of a FFA unit along with all field trials. For outlier sessions, check the
following from QXDM logs:
 PDOP value
 Number of satellites and associated CNo values

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GNSS Commercialization
Debugging Outliers/Position Failure in Field Trials (2 of 3) Issues Debugging

For visualization, a scatter plot of the position fixes and


a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) of the
horizontal errors can be generated.
SnapperHS is the primary tool to evaluate KPIs. The
Position Survey window illustrates:
 Yield
 Accuracy (CEP 68% and CEP 95%)
 Bias E/N, etc.

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GNSS Commercialization
Debugging Outliers/Position Failure in Field Trials (3 of 3) Issues Debugging

SnapperHS (Tracking Info window) illustrates latency


metrics:
 Application fix time
 Receiver processing times, etc.

Sec. 4.4 Confidential and Proprietary – Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. | MAY CONTAIN U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL EXPORT CONTROLLED INFORMATION | 80-N4094-1 Rev. H 270
Questions?
You may also submit questions to: https://support.cdmatech.com

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Thank You

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