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KEK LOK TONG

IPOH, PERAK

SITE ANALYSIS DOCUMENTATION


SITE PLAN
1. SITE BOUNDARY
INTRODUCTION

Kek Lok Tong (sometimes spelt as Kek Lok Tong) is translated


as Cave of Ultimate Bliss (or Great Happiness) and indeed it
does seem to bring a feeling of well-being to the many local
visitors who regard it as their favourite among Ipoh's many
splendid cave temples.

HISTORY

The cave has been used as a place of worship since the 1920's but
during the 1960's the area was engaged in iron ore mining and parts
of the cave were excavated for this activity.

When mining ceased it was dedicated again to religious purposes and


opened to visitors in the 1970s. The floor of the cave has been
levelled and paved and much of the lower walls are lined with marble
tiles. The roof and upper walls however remain in their natural state
with some impressive stalactite formations.
1. SITE CONTEXT

Kek Lok Tong, Ipoh


SITE SECTION A-A’

A’
A
SITE SECTION B-B’

B B’
CLIMATIC STUDIES
1. CLIMATIC STUDIES

History of Site

1920 1960 1982

It was used as a place The cave became part of an The cave temple was
of worship and sites on iron mining site. renamed 'Kek Look Tong'.
a 12 acre site.
The mining operation used
excavators to enlarge and
further develop the inner
segment of the cave entrance.

Reclaimed the swampy area


near the back entrance of the
cave.
1. CLIMATIC STUDIES

Sun Path & Shadow


12PM 5PM
9AM

Evenly Shaded by East cliff. Areas protected by More shading on the


protruding cliff and West side due to
shady trees. shorter cliff.
1. CLIMATIC STUDIES

Wind Ventilation

Velocity of wind Topography of cliffs


inside the cave is guides wind towards
faster as due to cave.
the small opening
on the large
surface area.

Prevailing winds from Lake provides


the South-East. evaporative cooling.
1. CLIMATIC STUDIES

Rain & Humidity

Average of 200 mm of rain each month / 2,427 mm rain per year


Wettest month - October, average 297.2 mm rain (most humid)
Driest month - January, average 132.3 mm rain

According to workers, it rains very heavily but none of the structures will get damaged.
1. CLIMATIC STUDIES

How the cliff affects rain

Air moves up the


windward side of
the cliff, cools
and the volume
Air if forced to decreases.
rise over the cliff
barrier.

Humidity
increases and
precipitation can
develop.
Hot air collected
from bigger lakes
1. CLIMATIC STUDIES

How lake affects rain (Lake-effect precipitation)

Cold air, passing over the relatively warm waters of a large lake.
Moisture and heat is picked up then precipitated out over the lake.
STRUCTURES & HARDSCAPES
2. STRUCTURES & HARDSCAPES

To collect data and analyse on how the existing Structures and Hardscapes complements the existing
site.

Aim to focus on Natural Structures Also, stress on existing Hardscapes


within given site boundary such as elements such as sculptures,
the surrounding mountains and reflexology path, stonehenge and
cliffs. more.
2. STRUCTURES & HARDSCAPES

(I) LOCATION OF STRUCTURES &


HARDSCAPES

Significant Architecture
Style / Features : Legend :
Traditional Chinese
Architecture Structure
Figure 2.2

Hardscapes
Stonehenge
Reflexology path
Wooden chair
Influenced by religious Benches
elements:
Buddhist Adjacent building
Gazebo
Toilet
Temple

SITE PLAN
Figure 2.1
2. STRUCTURES & HARDSCAPES

(II) CLIFF ANALYSIS

PHASE 4 PHASE 3

PHASE 5 PHASE 2

PHASE 6 PHASE 1

SITE PLAN
Figure 2.2
2. STRUCTURES & HARDSCAPES

PHASE 3 PHASE 2 PHASE 1


BREEZY AREA STONEHENGE AREA BARE CLIFF AREA
2. STRUCTURES & HARDSCAPES

PHASE 6 PHASE 5 PHASE4


SHADED AREA BAMBOO AREA CAVE AREA
2. STRUCTURES & HARDSCAPES

PHASE 1 - BARE CLIFF AREA

Obvious irregular Eye-catching


convex cliff & provide structure,
shades convex cliffs
cast shadow
Least vegetation on effect &
cliff & more on ground provides
(shrubs & trees) shading

Exposed dry surfaces


& attracts spiders
PHASE 2 - STONEHENGE AREA
Textured &
Concave bottom irregular
stonehenge
More vegetation on with beautiful
cliff & on ground with shrubs
large surfaced provides
stonehenges interactive
seating &
Moist & cool surfaces visual comfort
2. STRUCTURES & HARDSCAPES

PHASE 3 - BREEZY AREA

Convex surface Tall trees &


moist textured
Less vegetation on cliff cliff provides
& some ground (Tall cooling effects
trees provide shades + together with
small slope) the support of
natural wind
Mixture of Moist & ventilation
rough surfaces (Yam
tree observed)
PHASE 4 - CAVE AREA

Concave cliff with small View of dark


cave (shortest) interior cave &
opened rocky
Less vegetation on cliff floor with the
& least on ground noise of insects
(rocky ground) can be heard

Exposed dry surfaces &


attracts mosquito (river
underneath)
2. STRUCTURES & HARDSCAPES

(III) STRUCTURE BUILDING TO REMAIN / DEMOLISH

1 Cons - Area is exposed to sunlight


- No shading
- Concrete bench heats up

Pros - Comfortable sitting area in the


early morning and late afternoon
- Windy with perfect view of the 1
landscape
2. STRUCTURES & HARDSCAPES

PHASE 5 - BAMBOO AREA


Narrow desired
Concave cliff & with path way with
large cave (tallest) bamboos &
organized
More vegetation on hardscapes
cliff & rocky ground + provides a more
tall trees (bamboo & relaxing &
conifer) private space to
explore more
Dry surfaces

PHASE 6 - SHADED AREA

Concave cliff & with Structure


medium cave being
separated by
Much vegetation on the softscapes
cliff & on ground

Moist & cool surfaces


LANDSCAPE
3. LANDSCAPE

SLOPES
-Slopes were available throughout the site
area.

-The slopes play a huge part in the


drainage system.

-For example, the slopes located at the


sides of the lake functions as a barrier to
prevent the water in the lake from
overflowing. It also helps the rain water to
naturally flow into the lake as well as the
other existing drainage features.

TO BIG LAKE
3. LANDSCAPE

SURFACE DRAINAGE PATTERN


The water drainage on the surface of the
site flows primarily from the north to the
south of the site, which leads to the biggest
lake.

Factors that affects the movement of the


surface drainage pattern is the contours of
the site and the height of the land.

The site also has existing drains which also


help and affect the drainage pattern

TO BIG LAKE
3. LANDSCAPE

POND
- Half natural and half man-made.
- Shaped to look like a gourd.
- In other Chinese dialects, the Chinese word for gourd, hulu
(葫芦), “hu” is pronounced fù (福), the well-known character
X
for happiness and good luck. Therefore, the combination fulu
(福禄 – fú lù) means “happiness and high social status”.
- Base of the lake is a combination of mud and sand.
- Water is pumped from the big lake, and excess is drained
into the lotus pond
Organisms:

TO LOTUS POND

FROM BIG LAKE


X - Pump

Geese Tortoise Koi


3.LANDSCAPE
VEGETATION

TYPES OF PLANT:
(I)SHORT SHRUBS

1.Bougainvillea glabra 2.Lonicera nitida 3.Peruvian Lilies 4.White Ixora coccinea


(Wilson's honeysuckle) (Genus Alstroemeria)
3.LANDSCAPE

(II) TALL SHRUBS

5.Codiaeum 6.Hibiscus rosa 7.Rhapis excelsa 8.Cordyline 9.Heliconia stricta


variegatum sinensis (Lady Palms) fruticosa
(croton plant) (hawaiian ti plant)
3.LANDSCAPE

(III)NON-FLOWERING PLANTS

10.Agave Americana 11.Xanthosoma 12.Dumb canes 13.Tradescantia


(century plant) (elephant’s ear) spathacea (boat lily)
3.LANDSCAPE

(IV)TREES

19.Firminia 20.Xylosma 21.Pinus 22.Platycladus 23.Hura 24.Platanus


Simplex (Xylosma armandii Crepitan kerrii
orientalis
congestum) (Chinese white (Sandbox tree)
(Chinese (Oriental
pine)
parasol tree) arborvitae)
3.LANDSCAPE

PHASE 4
PHASE 3

PHASE 5 PHASE 2

PHASE 6 PHASE 1
3.LANDSCAPE
PHASE 1 - REFLEXOLOGY PATH

- The softscape along the reflexology path are mostly shrubs and short thin
plants.

- The lack of big trees allows easier maintenance as there are minimum
problems of having fallen leaves along the path.
3.LANDSCAPE

PHASE 2 - RESTING AREA

- the resting area where the concrete


benches located is shaded by 2 big
trees.

Cordyline fruticosa Platanus kerrii


(hawaiian ti plant) -provide shade and
-arranged along the benches. cool down the resting
area.
-it is tall and thin and also does
not obstruct the view of the
lake
3.LANDSCAPE

(IV)TREES

14. Euterpe 15.Cyrtostachys 16.Wodyetia 17.Pinus 18.Bambusoideae


oleracea (Acai renda (lipstick bifurcata (Foxtail sylvestris (chinese goddess
palm plant) palm) Palm) (Scots Pine)
bamboo plant)
3.LANDSCAPE

PHASE 3 - BREEZY AREA

- Less big trees along the garden pathway.

- The area is naturally shaded by the cliff.


3.LANDSCAPE

PHASE 4 - CAVE AREA

- For a casual look, arrange a row of shrubs to two side of the entryway which
are not too big or small for the space.
- soft-looking foliage with different height to create a warm welcome to
visitors.

Codiaeum variegatum
Palm tree
(croton plant)
-at the end of entry pathway
-tall
where the road forks begin.
-create a natural barrier which
then lead visitors to walk along
the entry pathway.
3.LANDSCAPE

PHASE 5 - LAKESIDE

- small shrubs arranged along the lake


- act as a natural barrier that protects or hinders travel through or over
the lake.
- does not block the view of lake at the same time.
3.LANDSCAPE

PHASE 6 - SHADED AREA


- exposed to sunlight
- big shaded tree along the pathway,cooling down the area.
- The circulation moves from the east to the west.
- Since there are minimal big trees on the east side of the garden, the shaded
area on the west side creates a sense of ease from the hot sun especially in the
afternoon.
- Wooden benches are placed there as it is an ideal lounging place due to the big
shaded trees.

Chinese Goddess Bamboo Sandbox tree


-located at the wooden chair -placed on both side of the
area. pathway.
-provide shade for visitors -provide shade
-gives a zen feeling
3. LANDSCAPE

SOIL INVESTIGATION

LOAMY SOIL SANDY SOIL


-Covers most areas of the site -Covers certain parts of the site
-Mixture of sand, silt & clay combined to -Has a high proportion of sand and gravel
avoid negative effects with little clay
-Fertile with good drainage
-Light, warm, dry & low in nutrient
properties,easy to work with.
-Perfect balance of soil particles makes it -Tends to dry out in the weather & suffer
suitable for gardening. from low nutrients washed away by rain

-Site utilizes sandy loam to grow various -Conditions cause the plants to not grow
types of plants for different purposes on areas with sandy soil
3. LANDSCAPE

SOIL INVESTIGATION

SHINY PARTICLES IN SOIL ROCKY SOIL


-Shiny particles are found in the soil on -Covers the edges and a small area of the
the side close to the exterior cave walls site.
near the cave opening
-Tends to hold water poorly and fewer
-Suspected to be calcite(mineral) particles nutrients,making areas of the site with
caused by the weathering of limestone rocky soil to become barren lands.
cave walls which contain crystal forms of
calcium carbonate. - Though problematic, the soil is suitable
for hardy, low-growing evergreen ground
-Does not affect the growth of plants covers, which can be found on the sides of
cave walls
3. LANDSCAPE

SOIL INVESTIGATION

MUDDY SOIL & SAND


MOIST SOIL UNDER SHADED -The soil and sand under pond is always
TREES moist and muddy due the constant
-Soil under the shaded trees have more exposure to water.
moisture compared the other areas as
they are shielded from exposure to
sunlight, which encourages the soil at
the area to be the suitable breeding
spot for moss.
3. LANDSCAPE

GROUND COVERS

- The existing ground cover is to prevent


user from walking into the problem spot
such as dip.
- It also prevent soil collision and
overgrowth of weed with a low
maintenance.
3. LANDSCAPE

1. Ficus Pumila
- The moist loamy soil is suitable for the growth of
the Ficus pumila .
- The stems and leaves of this plant is used in
Traditional Chinese Medicine as tonic and to treat
fever.

2. Trandescanta Zabrina

- Similar to the Ficus Pumila, the Tradescanta


zabrina soil preferences are moist and loamy soils.
- It can turn invasive if not well taken care off but
due to the high maintenance of the garden, the
plant becomes an ideal creeping groundcover.
3. LANDSCAPE
3. Tradescantia Spathecea “Dwarf”

- Commonly grows in shady areas and suited to


more tropical climate

4. Dryopteris Filix-Mas
- Well suited to use in any moist, shady situation but
preferably with sandy and clay soils.

-Is ‘well behaved’, has a non-spreading habit and helps


with cooling due to its tendency to conserve moisture.

5. Aglaomena “Emerald Beauty”

- This groundcover is attractive and easy to care for


thus making it a beautiful landscape addition while
needing very few maintenance.
- The Aglaonema “emerald beauty” requires diffused
natural light. Full sun, especially through glass, will
scorch the exposed leaves while although it can
survive in low light, it will become thin and leggy.
CIRCULATION
VIEWS AND VISTAS
5. VIEWS & VISTA

4 5 6
3
1
2
5. VIEWS & VISTA

VIEWS FROM SITE


1 2
1

2
-Close and distant cliffs with vast vegetation
6 -Slight slope and cliff with varying foliage at the
-The lake acting as an axis in the middle.
back -Close view to the lake at the front.

6 3 3

-Some part of bare ground and lush shady trees


-Surprising view at the back
5
-Diverse layers of softscape and hardscape to
4 consolidate the overall mid-ground and
background

-Large proportion of turf and


surrounding small trees
5 4
-Part of negative view as the
5
background

-Pendulous foliage frames the view towards the


lake with the cliff
-utility space as the background
5. VIEWS & VISTA

VIEWS TO SITE
11
2

1 2

6
1

-From the entrance of the garden


overlooking the right turf. -From walkway near the entrance
3
6
3

4
-From walkway to water cave -Looking to the cliff

5 5
4

-Glimpse to the secluded


corner shaded by bamboo
-From the benches area
5. VIEWS & VISTA

Mild View
Good View - Multiple types of greenery found on the
- Worm’s-eye-view edges of the cliff.
of the high cliffs
- Restricted to
greenery on
ground-level at eye
level.

Mild View
- The pylon and
Excellent View quarried area are
- Views of the skyline visible from far
of cliff at viewer’s - Restricted view of
eye level scenery by safety
- The distinct layers signage
of scenery from
close to horizon layer
to far.
5. VIEWS & VISTA

Excellent
Mild View
View - Greenery near edge of cliff
- The unique - The gradation of greenery is not obvious
cliff textures
formations of
sloped top cliffs

Excellent View
- Good reflection of the magnificent cliffs
and greenery on the lake
- Unobstructed view of perspective
Mild View
scenery of cliff, greenery and lake - Clear view of pylon and quarried area
5. VIEWS & VISTA
VIEWS THROUGH SITE
1 4
1
4

2
-View to the end of the lake from the -View from the left side of
entrance the entrance

2 5 5

6 -View from the walkway


-View to the other side of the lake overlooking the lake
from the water cave 6
3
3

-View from shaded rows of trees -View from the protruding part
5. VIEWS & VISTA
][
Good View
- Dense growth
of greenery
- Plenty of
decorative
stone
sculptures

3
Excellent View
- Blend of softscapes and
hardscapes features
- Vast expanse of cliff scenery

Poor View
- Close view of
quarried area to
south
5. VIEWS & VISTA

Excellent View
- Proximity to greenery and Good View
cliff lined the lake create good - Unobstructed view
reflection down the lake of cave entrance with
- Vast expanse of cliff scenery adjacent cliffs and
reflection

Mild View
- Presence of
people and
benches
blocking the
Mild View focal point of
- Proximity of trees that cliff scenery
screen part of the quarried
area
- Restricted view of scenery by
safety signage
5. VIEWS & VISTA

Good View Excellent View


- Rows of trees are arranged in - Reflection of the
uniform distance surroundings
- Shrubs and flowering plants can be seen in the
decorate the surrounding of lake lake
- Mixture of
mountain’s
greenery and
cliff’s texture are
clearly showed

Mild View
- Presence of
washroom
obstructed the view
of the mountain
- Bamboo bushes
creates a poolside Poor View
wall of greenery - Partial view of pylon and quarried
area
- Benches obstructed the view
5. VIEWS & VISTA
Excellent View
Good View - Natural rock and pendulous
- Variety of plant embellish the
vegetation entrance
- Spectacular - Overview texture and
mountain pattern of the cliffs can be
view thoroughly seen

Mild View
Excellent View - Walking path distract the
- Water cave, which focal point towards the lake
is a surprising - Trees blocking part of the
view, can be view of pylon and quarried
clearly seen at eye and the view towards the
level lake at the same time
ACTIVITIES
6. ACTIVITIES
Walking/Sightseeing
Jogging
The elderly often walk to
Main activity on the pathway.
pass their time and socialize
Joggers are usually locals
to with their peers. While the
ranged between 45 to 80 of Active Activities tourists come to sightsee and
age, jogging at least 3 times
appreciate the breathtaking
1 a week on average. 6
Passive Activities 5 views

3 Exercise
Animal Feeding
Feeds purchased from the 2 6 Local citizens aged 55 and
administrative center is fed above comes here several
to the colourful Koi in the times a week for 1-2 hours to
lakes and the geese around 2 carry out different types of
the Zen Garden. exercises in the open areas
2 6
1 1
5 5 Sitting
Photography
Occur the most in the Kids and the elderly are
afternoon where there are 7 often seen taking a seat at
higher density of local and the resting spots around the
foreign tourists that visit the jogging path and near the
cave. 7 6 reflexology path to remove
3 3 7 their shoes

Reflexology Walk 7
3 8
Mostly used by kids age 13 Meditation
and below and locals as a Only a few people, often
daily routine. The path acts 5 8 6 4 5 the elderly comes to
an gathering place for kids 4 meditate in the garden.
and an attraction for tourists. 1 1
4 8
7
6. ACTIVITIES

HUMAN DENSITY Very High High Moderate Low Very Low

Morning Afternoon Evening

Age <13 14-17 18 - 29 30 - 54 55>

People 78 8 40 100 123


STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES

STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES
-People prefer coming to this Temple -The mining area is causing a lot of air and
because there is a garden for people to do sound pollution.
their activities like exercising etc. + -The plants are not maintained.
(Activities) -The reflexology pathway is not properly
-Plants are properly placed so that it won’t maintained because of the hot sun, it cause
block the views of the lake + some cracks
-The pedestrian walkway is maintained -During the afternoon the the sun is directly
properly
+ above the Zen Garden
-In the morning the tall cliffs actually -Insects like spiders and mosquitoes are
provides shades throughout the whole Zen - present near the bamboo area.
Garden -Poor view due to the mining area and the
-Bamboo attracts pedestrian to come and - pylons.
explore. +
-Great view of the perspective of the whole
Zen Garden from the top of the entrance.
-+
-

-
CASE STUDY
CASE STUDIES

PERDANA
CANOPY
TASIK PERDANA,
KUALA LUMPUR
CASE STUDIES - INTRODUCTION

➢ Gridshell structure that provides shading and shelter from rain


➢ Structure is mainly supported by 5 reinforced concrete columns
➢ Canopy is composed of 2,490 triangular panels of either perforated
aluminium, solid aluminium, clear laminated glass and fritted clear
laminated glass
➢ Form is derived from the fluidity and organic nature of the lake and
its surrounding vegetation
➢ Camouflage with the environment by replicating its surrounding trees
➢ Contact to the ground is minimized to reduce obstruction of nature
and to accommodate high volume of crowd
CASE STUDIES - VIEWS

1
3

1 3

2 4

2 4
CASE STUDIES - CLIMATE

-WIND DIRECTION
CASE STUDIES - CIRCULATION

-Minor Circulation

-Entrance to the Canopy

-Pedestrian Walkway

-Vehicular Pathway

-Desired Pathway
CASE STUDIES - ACTIVITIES

LOCALS
8:00 AM - 11:00 AM
CASE STUDIES - ACTIVITIES

LOCALS
11:00 AM - 1:00 PM
CASE STUDIES - ACTIVITIES

FOREIGNERS
8:00 AM - 11:00 AM
CASE STUDIES - ACTIVITIES

FOREIGNERS
11:00 AM - 1:00 PM
CASE STUDIES - CLIMATE (Sun Path) & LANDSCAPE
END