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CLASS NOTES / OVERHEAD PROJECTOR

Fundamental of Metal Casting

Advantages
I- Casting can be used to create complex pan geometries, including both external and internal shapes
2- Some casting operations arc capable of producing parts to net shape. No ruler manufacturing part required
3- Casting can be used m produce very large pans
4- Casting process can be performed on any metal that can be heated to the liquid
5- Some casting methods are big highly suited for mass production

Disadvantages
1- limitation on mechanical properties
2- Porosity
3- Poor dimensional accuracy and surface finished.
4- Safety hazards m humans and environmental problems.

Basic Requirement for metal casting


I. A mold cavity
2.Melting process
3. pouring technique
4. solidification process
5. removing the casting6. finishing draft allowance

SHAPE CASTING PROCESS

Figure 3-33
Classification of shape-casting process.
Figure 3-34
Some characteristic elements of a cope-and-drag sand mold. To avoid the “dead” feeder head (riser), the mold
could be fed from the right, making material in the “live” riser the hottest

Figure 12.1
Two forms of mold
(a) open mold, simply a container in the shape of the part;
(b) Closed mold, in which the mold geometry is more complex and requires a gating system (passageway) leading in to cavity.
Figure 13.10
Schematic of a sand an open-type top riser (left) and a blind-type
side riser(right). The side riser is a live riser, receiving the last hot
metal to enter the mold. The top riser is a dead riser, receiving
metal that has flowed the mold cavity.
Figure 13.9
Typical gating system for a horizontal parting plane mold, showing key components involved in controlling
the flow of the metal into the mold cavity.

Figure 13.9
Spiral mold test for fluidity, in which fluidity is measured as the length of the spiral channel that is filled by the
molten metal prior to solidification.
Figure 12.8
a) External chill to encourage rapid freezing of the molten metal in a thin section of the casting
b) the likely result if the external chill were not used

Figure 3.30
a) Casting may show shrinkage cavities and microporosity.
b) Feeder heads or risers removed after solidification, provide hot metal. Microporosity may be eliminated with
directional solidification by
c) incorporating a metal chill into the mold or
d) tapering the thinnest section.

Figure13.19 Figure13.20
Hot spots resulting from intersecting of various thickness. Method of Elimination unsound metal at the center of head
sections in castings by using coring.

Figure13.21
Use of a riser to keep the shrinkage cavity
out of a casting.
Mold Cavity

Figure13.11
Two part mold showing the parting line and the incorporation of a draft
allowance on vertical surfaces.