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CHAPTER 3

PROJECT DESIGN

System Architecture
The Nurse on duty residing on the nurse station would first input the dosage of the IV fluid in the web interface.
The web interface would read the dosage gathered from the nurse then transmits the data from the web to
the microcontroller via wired or wireless communication. Then the microcontroller processes the dosage and
transmits the required control to the motor which the motor drives the drop rate of the IV line. Then from the
IV lines Drip chamber a sensor installed would garner the drop rate and would sends the resistance to the
microcontroller. The microcontroller would process the data gathered, process the data for drop rate
calculation, and sends the drop rate data to the web interface. The web interface processes the received
data for the nurse to read the drop rate of the IV line.

Figure 3.1 System Architecture for the Project

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Figure 3.2 Control and Monitoring System Block Diagram

There are three main operational areas that are needed to be complied with regards to the overall functionality
of the project design. And or as this would serve as the means to comply to achieve the proponents stated
objectives.

Wireless
Control
Web System transmission
System
System

Figure 3.3 Design Options Block Diagram

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Organizational Chart of the Project Design
The figure below shows the hierarchal system of the Design. In which mainly there are two variations of the
design one mainly on using Infrared and the other one is for the Image processing. Each Design options has
three subdivisions for the communication system, power converter system, Control System, and the remote
system.

Figure 3.4. Design option Hierarchy

The Central Monitoring for Dextrose main purpose is determine the drop rate that passes through the primary
IV tubing. Having those its design could be met using two variations of design. One is by Infrared Detection
and the other one is by Image detection.

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Hardware Design
In this design the main objective is to attain the following objectives of the design:

 The Whole design should be able to interconnect communication module, Pinching module,
Sensing Module, Power input, and with its corresponding microcontroller.
Design Option 1
In this design the system is capable of determining drops on the primary IV tubing by processing image data
gathered by the microcontroller. The processed data from the image will be processed to determine a drop
passing through the camera. Then the MCU passes the processed data to the web interface. The web
interface loads the data and also capable of controlling the system. The Figure below shows the connection
of the design per module.

Figure 3.5. Image Drop Detection Hard Diagram

GSM Module
GSM (Global System for Mobile communication) is a digital mobile telephony system that is widely used in
Europe and other parts of the world. GSM uses a variation of time division multiple access (TDMA) and is
the most widely used of the three digital wireless telephony technologies (TDMA, GSM, and CDMA). It is also
used to establish communication between a computer and a GSM-GPRS system. Global System for Mobile
communication (GSM) is an architecture used for mobile communication in most of the countries. Global
Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is an extension of GSM that enables higher data transmission rate.

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The SIM card mounted GSM modem upon receiving digit command by SMS from any cell phone send that
data to the MC through serial communication. While the program is executed, the GSM modem receives
command ‘STOP’ to develop an output at the MC, the contact point of which are used to disable the ignition
switch.

PROs CONs

● Can swap out a phone just by ● Battery life seems a bit less on GSM.
removing/inserting SIM card and your ● Seems to cause more interference since it’s
address book goes with the SIM. not frequency hopping like CDMA.
● Phone must be at GSM Network Range.
● Worldwide (almost) roaming with some
● Signal Dependent
phones.
● Text messaging seems to be universal with
GSM, with CDMA it’s not.
● Lots of phone choices.
Table 3.1 PRO’s and CON’s for GSM Module

GSM Network Architecture

The type of interface used in GSM is digital air interface. The analogue voice signals are converted to digital
signals before transmission. Up to 8 MS, subscribers can be handled by the GSM RF carrier at a time. The
rate of transmission is 270 Kbps. The Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) is used for transmitting the
digital signals. In GMSK , a phase change represents the change from a digital “1 ” or a “0 “,occurs over a
period of time. The addition of high frequency components to the spectrum is reduced. In GSMK, the phase
change is not constant and it is spread- out.

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Figure 3.6 GSM Network Architecture

1. Mobile Station  Mobile Handset - is one of the most complicated GSM device. It provides user
the access to the Network. Each handset has unique identity no. called IMEI

 Subscriber Identity Module - SIM is a removable module goes into the mobile
handset. Each SIM has unique number called International Mobile Subscriber
Identity (IMSI). It has built in Microcomputer & memory into it. It contains the
ROM of 6 to 16KB,RAM of 128 to 256 bytes and EEPROM of 3 to 8KB

2. Base Transceiver  BTS has a set of Transceivers to talk to MS.


Station (BTS)  One BTS covers one or more than one cell.
 Capacity of BTS depends on no of Transceivers.
 BTS is connected to BSC via A’bis interface.
 Transmission rate on A’bis is 2 Mbps (G.703).
 Interface between MS & BTS is called Air I/f.
 Transmission rate on Air interface is 13 Kbps.
 BTS controls RF parameters of MS.
 Each TRx has 8 TDMA channels to carry Voice & signaling
3. Base Station  BSC controls several BTSs.
Controller (BSC)  BSC manages channel allocation, & Handoverof calls from one BTS to
another BTS.
 BSC is connected to MSC via A interface.
 Transmission rate on A I/f is 2 Mbps (G.703).
 Interface between BSC & BTS is called A’bis I/f.

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 BSC has database for all of its BTS’s parameters.
 BSC provides path from MS to MSC.
4. Mobile Switching  MSC is heart of the entire network connecting fixed line network to Mobile
Centre (MSC) network.
 MSC manages all call related functions and Billing information.
 MSC is connected to HLR & VLR for subscriber identification & routing
incoming calls.
 MSC capacity is in terms of no of subscribers.
 MSC is connected to BSC at one end and Fixed Line network on other end.
 Call Detail Record (CDR) is generated for each & every call in the MSC.

5. Visiting Location  Active Subscriber is registered in VLR.


Register (VLR)  It has temporary database of all the active subscribers used for their call
routing.
 HLR validates subscriber before registration.
 MSC ask VLR before routing incoming call.
6. Home Location  All Subscribers data is stored in HLR.
Register (HLR)  It has permanent database of all the registered subscribers.
 HLR has series of numbers for all subscribers.
7. Authentication  Authentication is a process to verify the subscriber SIM.
Centre (AUC)  Secret data & verification algorithm are stored in to the AUC.
 AUC & HLR combined to authenticate the subscribers.
 Subscriber authentication can be done on every call, if required.
8. Equipment  All subscriber's mobile handset data is stored in EIR.
Identity Register  MSC asks mobile to send it IMEI & then checks it with data available in EIR.
(EIR)  EIR has different classification for mobile handsets like, White list, Grey list &
Black list.
 According to category, the MS can make calls or can be stopped from
making calls.
9. Operation and  All the network elements are connected to OMC.
Maintenance Centre  OMC monitors health of all network elements & carry out maintenance
(OMC) operation, if required.
 OMC link to BTSs are via parent BSC.
 OMC keeps records of all the faults occurred.
 OMC can also do Traffic analysis.
 OMC may prepares MIS Report for the network
10. VMSC and
SMSC
 Voice Mail Service Centre: To provide Voice Mail service.
 It has database for all the VMS subscribers & stores voice messages for
them.

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 Short Message Service Centre: To provide text message service.
 To send short messages from mobile to another mobile subscriber.
Messages can also be sent by Manual Terminal connected to SMSC

Switching System

Figure 3.7 Switching System Diagram

In the switching system, the AC input (50/60Hz) which has been converted to DC is converted back to high-
frequency AC, permitting the use of smaller transformers and output capacitors, thus substantially reducing
the form factor. In the section on basic operations we stated that “the switching system, after rectifying and
smoothing of the input AC, operates in the same manner as a DC/DC converter,” and this is also precisely
true for the switching wall adapter. In terms of efficiency also, the switching permits the extraction exclusively
of the required power, for improved efficiency, and obviously, reduced heat dissipation.

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Figure 3.8 PWM Module

The principles of voltage stepping down using a pulse-width modulation (PWM) system, which is a
representative control method. PWM is a control method that controls the on/off time ratio, which is the duty
cycle, by keeping the cycle (frequency) constant, and it is used in a variety of applications. PWM converts
DC voltage to a required duty-cycle AC by switching, and returns it to DC by rectifying it to produce a desire
the principles of voltage stepping down using a pulse-width modulation (PWM) system, which is a
representative control method. PWM is a control method that controls the on/off time ratio, which is the duty
cycle, by keeping the cycle (frequency) constant, and it is used in a variety of applications. PWM converts
DC voltage to a required duty-cycle AC by switching, and returns it to DC by rectifying it to produce a desired
DC voltage.

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Design of Buck Converter

The basic Configuration of a Buck Converter


Based on the figure 1 below shows that the basic configuration of buck converter is the switch is integrated
with Integrated Circuit (IC).

Figure 3.9 Buck Converter Diagram

Necessary Parameters of the Power Stage

Input Voltage 220V

Output Voltage 5V

Output Current (max) 3A

Integrated Circuit LM2596 SIMPLE SWITCHER

( Based on the parameters given)

Table 3.2 Parameters of the Buck Converter

Calculating the Maximum Current


The first step is to calculate the Duty Cycle, D, for the maximum input voltage. The maximum input voltage
is used because this leads to the maximum switch current.

𝑉𝑖𝑛(max) = 12V Data Sheet According to Section


2 (1), of Texas Instruments 2015
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 5V
Ƞ = 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 90%
𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝐷𝑢𝑡𝑦 𝐶𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒: 𝐷 = 𝑉𝑖𝑛 𝑥 Ƞ

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5𝑉
𝑀𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 𝐷𝑢𝑡𝑦 𝐶𝑦𝑐𝑙𝑒: 𝐷 = = 0.4630
220 𝑥 0.9

Data Sheet According to Section


𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 = 22 µ𝐻
2 (1), of Texas Instruments 2015
𝑓𝑠 = 150 𝑘𝐻𝑧

(𝑉𝑖𝑛−𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡)𝑥 𝐷
𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑖𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡: 𝛥 𝐼 L = 𝑓𝑠 𝑥 𝐿

(12−5)𝑥 0.4630
𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑅𝑖𝑝𝑝𝑙𝑒 𝐶𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡: 𝛥 𝐼 L = = 0.9821
150𝑘𝐻𝑧 𝑥 22µ𝐻
Data Sheet According to Figure
𝐼𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 3 𝐴 27 of Texas Instrument 2016

𝛥𝐼𝑙
𝐼𝑠𝑤 = + 𝐼𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 3.4910
2

Inductor Selection
Data Sheet According to Table 2
of Diodes incorporated
𝐿 = 22 µ𝐻 Data Sheet According to Table 2
of Diodes incorporated
ΔIL= estimated inductor ripple current

𝛥𝐼𝑙 = 0.3 𝑥 𝐼𝑜𝑢𝑡 = 0.9


Rectifier Diode Selection
To reduce losses, use Schottky diodes. It have a much higher peak current rating than average rating.
Therefore, the higher peak current in the system is not a problem.

𝛥𝐼𝑓 = 𝐼𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑥 (1 − 𝐷) = 2 Data Sheet According to Figure


27 of Texas Instrument 2016
𝐼𝑓 = 0.2A
Data Sheet According to Section
𝑉𝑓 = 0.15V 2 (1), of Texas Instruments 2015

𝑃𝑑 = 𝐼𝑓 𝑥 𝑉𝑓 = 0.03

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Output Voltage Setting

Figure 3.10 Resistive Divider for Setting the Output Voltage

The current through the resistive divider needs to be at least 100 times as big as the feedback bias current.

Data Sheet According to Table


𝐼𝑓𝑏 = 50𝑛𝐴 7.9 of Texas Instrument 2016

𝐼𝑟1.2 ≥ 𝐼𝑓𝑏 x 100 Data Sheet According to Table


7.8 of Texas Instrument 2016
𝐼𝑟1.2 = 50µ𝐴

𝐼𝑟1.2 = 50µ𝐴

𝑉𝑓𝑏 = 1.267 𝑉
𝑉𝑓𝑏
𝑅2 = = 25340
𝐼𝑟1.2

𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡
𝑅1 = 𝑅2 𝑥 ( 𝑉𝑓𝑏 − 1) = 4374660

This adds less than 1% inaccuracy to the voltage measurement and for the calculation of the feedback
divider: the current into the feedback pin can be neglected. The current also can be a lot higher. The only
disadvantage of smaller resistor values is a higher power loss in the resistive divider, but the accuracy is
increased a little.

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Input Capacitor Selection
The minimum value for the input capacitor is normally given in the data sheet. This minimum value is
necessary to stabilize the input voltage due to the peak current requirement of a switching power supply

𝐼𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝐶𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑜𝑟 = 470 µ𝐹 Data Sheet According to Figure


21 of Texas Instrument 2016

Output Capacitor Selection


With internally compensated converters, the recommended inductor and capacitor values must be used, or
the recommendations in the data sheet for adjusting the output capacitors to the application in the data
sheet must be followed for the ratio of L × C.

𝛥𝐼𝑙
𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑡 = = 150nF
8 𝑥 𝑓𝑠 𝑥 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡

Often the selection of the output capacitor is not driven by the steady-state ripple, but by the output
transient response. The output voltage deviation is caused by the time it takes the inductor to catch up with
the increased or reduced output current needs
The following formula can be used to calculate the necessary output capacitance for a desired maximum
overshoot:

𝑉𝑜𝑠 = 𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒 𝑑𝑢𝑒 𝑡𝑜 𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑡


𝐼𝑜𝑢𝑡 2 𝑥 𝐿
𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑡(𝑜𝑠) = = 3.96µF
2 𝑥 𝑉𝑜𝑢𝑡 𝑥 𝑉𝑜𝑠

PROS CONS

 Smaller size and weight.  Complex Circuitry

 High efficiency  Switching Noise

 Many high-voltage tolerant components  Low heat dissipation

Table 3.3 PRO’s and CON’s for Buck Converter

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Raspberry-Pi Microcontrollers
The Raspberry Pi is a low cost, credit-card sized computer that plugs into a computer monitor or TV, and
uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It is a capable little device that enables people of all ages to explore
computing, and to learn how to program in languages like Scratch and Python.

Raspberry-Pi Parameters
Raspberry Pi 3 Model B
- Quad Core 1.2GHz Broadcom BCM2837 64bit CPU - 1GB RAM
- BCM43438 wireless LAN and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) on board - 40-pin extended GPIO
- Upgraded switched Micro USB power source up to 2.5A - 4 USB 2 ports
- CSI camera port for connecting a Raspberry Pi camera - Full size HDMI
- 4 Pole stereo output and
- DSI display port for connecting a Raspberry Pi touchscreen display
composite video port
- Micro SD port for loading your operating system and storing data

PROS CONS
● Super powerful with lot of memory and
processing capabilities. Expandable ● You need good knowledge of Linux
memory. systems to get things moving.
● Linux based OS and now even Windows ● The processing power will be an overkill
10 can be run on top of it to make processing-wise for most of the
processing more user friendly. applications since we will use it only to
● Python, C, C++, Ruby, Go and many send data across.
more can be used to program the Pi ● Closed source.
exactly the way you can code any ● Power hungry.
computer.
Table 3.4 PROS and CONS for Raspberry-Pi Microcontroller

Algorithm for Image Drop Detection


In1 this Design algorithm the Program uses image processing by the MCU to determine a drop. The MCU
then transmits the data to the web for monitoring. Meanwhile the Web can control the MCU by ON/OFF
which sets the MCU to process data or not. And the pinching value would determine the pinch value
mechanism.

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Figure 3.11 Image Drop Detection Algorithm Flowchart

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Getting the Time cost for an algorithm:

In-order to get the cost of the algorithm, the proponents use the microcontroller to check for the milliseconds
time in-order to run a specific code. Below are the codes that have been set for the microcontroller to run and
print. Gathering the specific time needed by the microcontroller to run such codes using (arduino).

void setup() { x=0;

// put your setup code here, to run once: x=0;

Serial.begin(9600); x=0;

} x=0;

x=0;

void loop() { x=0;

// put your main code here, to run repeatedly: x=0;

int x=0; x=0;

x=0;

Serial.print("Start Time For (Assignvalues): "); x=0;

Serial.println(micros()); x=0;

x=0; x=0;

x=0; x=0;

x=0; x=0;

x=0; Serial.print("Stop Time For (Assignvalues): ");

x=0; Serial.println(micros());

x=0; delay(1000);

x=0;

x=0; Serial.print("Start Time For (IF Statement): ");

x=0; Serial.println(micros());

x=0; if (x=0){} else {}

x=0; if (x=0){} else {}

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if (x=0){} else {} if (x=0){} else {}

if (x=0){} else {} if (x=0){} else {}

if (x=0){} else {} Serial.print("Stop Time For (IF Statement): ");

Serial.println(micros());

if (x=0){} else {} delay(1000);

if (x=0){} else {}

if (x=0){} else {} Serial.print("Start Time For (computation): ");

if (x=0){} else {} Serial.println(micros());

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

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x = x+1; x = x+1;

x = x+1; x = x+1;

x = x+1; Serial.print("Stop Time For (computation): ");

x = x+1; Serial.println(micros());

x = x+1; delay(1000);

x = x+1; }

After running the codes listed above the microcontroller displays the start and stop time for each type of code
such as IF statements, assign statements, and computation statements. Below are the outputs shown in the
microcontroller.

Start Time For (Assignvalues): 29712111

Stop Time For (Assignvalues): 29712205

Start Time For (IF Statement): 30712331

Stop Time For (IF Statement): 30712412

Start Time For (computation): 31712548

Stop Time For (computation): 31712641

There for the time cost in nanoseconds would be the difference of each statement and divided upon by 25.

For Assigning values:


(𝑆𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒−𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒)
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 = = 3.76 𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠
25

For Assigning values:


(𝑆𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒−𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒)
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐼𝐹 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 = = 3.2 𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠
25

For Assigning values:


(𝑆𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒−𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒)
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑢𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 = = 3.72 𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠
25

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Pseudo Code for Image Drop Detection Algorithm: (1408x792 resolution)
1 - Load values to client

2 - load current time

3 - if (time interval is 60s)

4 - {

5 - set previous time to current time

6 - assign drop count to drops per minute

7 - Print Drops per minute value

8 - Print Remaining Volume

9 - }

10 - else

11 - {

12 - For (int i = 0, i<1408, i++)

13 - {

14 - For (int j=0, j<792, j++)

15 - {

16 - if (pixelcolor[i][j] = steadypixelcolor[i][j])

17 - {}

18 - else

19 - {

20 - drop count + 1

21 - decrease remaining volume

22 - print drop count

23 - }

24 - }

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25 - }

26 - set servo run value

27 - run servo to run value

28 - delay

Program Time Algorithm Complexity For Image Drop Detection:


Program Line Code Cost (nS) Frequency Total Cost (nS)

3.76 1 3.76
1
2 3.76 1 3.76

3 3.2 1 3.2

5 3.76 1 3.76

6 3.76 1 3.76

7 3.76 1 3.76

8 3.76 1 3.76

10 3.2 1 3.2

12 3.2 1409 4508.8

14 3.2 1408 4505.6

16 3.2 830016 2656051.2

18 3.2 830016 2656051.2

20 3.72 830016 3087659.52

21 3.72 830016 3087659.52

22 3.72 830016 3087659.52

26 3.76 1 3.76

27 3.76 1 3.76

3.76 1 3.76
1
2 3.76 1 3.76

31
3 3.2 1 3.2

5 3.76 1 3.76

6 3.76 1 3.76

7 3.76 1 3.76

8 3.76 1 3.76

10 3.2 1 3.2

12 3.2 1409 4508.8

14 3.2 1408 4505.6

16 3.2 830016 2656051.2

Total Time Cost 14584131.84 nS

Table 3.5 Algorithm of IR

Web applications
Web applications are used to handle data’s through the cloud. In which all data’s and controls were met
wirelessly. This applications should determine the control of the given device via user interface and also
monitors via web application. Which means all controls and monitoring would be handles in the user interface
of the web application.

Dynamic Web Applications


These applications are much more complex at a technical level. They use databases for loading data
and their contents are updated each time the user accesses them. They generally have an administration
panel from where administrators can correct or modify the app’s content including text and images. Many
different programming languages can be used for dynamic web app development. PHP and ASP are the
most common languages used for this purpose because they allow you to structure the content.

In this kind of app, upgrading content is very simple and the server doesn’t even have to be accessed when
modifying it. In addition, it allows the implementation of plenty of features such as forums or databases.
Design − besides content − can be modified to match the administrator’s preferences.

PROS CONS

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● Higher conversion rates: personalized, ● Relatively expensive: it takes time and
relevant content converts at much higher effort to produce high quality blog posts on
rates than static content and landing pages. a regular basis or to develop content
● Improved search visibility: Google and strategies for multiple personas and buyer
other search engines respond positively to journeys. Finding and hiring brand
fresh, dynamic content, especially content journalists or content marketing agencies
that is shared and subscribed to. can add significantly to your marketing
budget.
● Requires analysis: it doesn't do you any
good to simply publish dynamic content.
You need marketing automation
technology and experts to monitor the
different channels, optimize for conversion
rates and report results to managers
looking for budget justification and
planning.
Table 3.6 PROS and CONS for Dynamic Web Applications

Servo Motor
A servomotor is a rotary actuator or linear actuator that allows for precise control of angular or linear position,
velocity and acceleration. It consists of a suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback. It also
requires a relatively sophisticated controller, often a dedicated module designed specifically for use with
servo motors. Servo motors are not a specific class of motor although the term servomotor is often used to
refer to a motor suitable for use in a closed-loop control system.

Servomotors are used in applications such as robotics, CNC machinery or automated manufacturing.

PROS CONS

● Requires modification for continuous


● Least expensive non-surplus source for
rotation.
gear motors.
● Requires special driving circuit.
● Can be used for precise angular control, or
● Though more powerful servos are
for continuous rotation (the latter requires
available, practical weight limit for powering
modification).
a robot is about 10 pounds.
● Available in several standard sizes, with
standard mounting holes.

Failure Rate of Design Option 1

Microcontroller (Raspberry pi)

33
Based on the MIL-Hdbk217f for 8
bit microcontrollers
𝝀𝒑 = [(𝑪𝟏 ∗ 𝝅𝒕) + (𝑪𝟐 ∗ 𝝅𝒆)] ∗ 𝝅𝒒 ∗ 𝝅𝑳

𝑪𝟏 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟒

𝝅𝒕 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟖

T= 85 ⁰C
Based on equation from MIL-Hnbk-
𝑪𝟐 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟏𝟔𝟔𝟕𝟔 217f page 5-14 [1] for SMT with 44
pins
𝝅𝒆 = 𝟐

𝝅𝒒 = 𝟏𝟎

𝜋𝐿 = learning factor
Number used for devices older
𝝅𝑳= 1 than 2 years in production pins

𝟏. 𝟕𝟎𝟓𝟓𝟐
𝝀𝒑 =
𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒔
Servo Motor

𝒕𝟐 𝟏
𝝀𝒑 = 𝟑
+
⍶𝒃 ⍶𝒘
2357
1
⍶𝑏 = (102.534−𝑇+273 + 4500 )-1
(20− )
10 𝑇+273 +300

T= 55⁰C

⍶𝑏 = 44000
2357
⍶𝑤 = 10(𝑇+273−1.83)

⍶𝑤 = 2.3𝑒 5

𝟎. 𝟎𝟐𝟔𝟑𝟕
𝝀𝒑 =
𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒔
Availability of Design Option 1

𝑼𝒏𝒂𝒗𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒂𝒃𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒕𝒚 = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟔𝟑𝟕 + 𝟏. 𝟕𝟎𝟓𝟓𝟐

𝑼𝒏𝒂𝒗𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒂𝒃𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒕𝒚 = 𝟏. 𝟗𝟔𝟗𝟐𝟐

𝑨𝒗𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒂𝒃𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒕𝒚 𝒐𝒇 𝑫𝒆𝒔𝒊𝒈𝒏 𝑶𝒑𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝟏 = |𝟏 − 𝟏. 𝟗𝟔𝟗𝟐𝟐|

34
𝑨𝒗𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒂𝒃𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒕𝒚 𝒐𝒇 𝑫𝒆𝒔𝒊𝒈𝒏 𝑶𝒑𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝟏 = |𝟏 − 𝟏. 𝟗𝟔𝟗𝟐𝟐|

𝑨𝒗𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒂𝒃𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒕𝒚 𝒐𝒇 𝑫𝒆𝒔𝒊𝒈𝒏 𝑶𝒑𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝟏 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟔𝟗𝟐𝟐

Design Option 2
In this design the system is capable of determining drops on the primary IV tubing by detecting the emission
of infrared from the emitter IR. The design should also be capable of handling communication transfers from
web to the system and vice versa. And The microcontroller should be capable of handling the control system
of the pinching module which is powered by a specific power converter. The Figure below shows the
connection of the Design per module.

35
Figure 3.12 Infrared drop detection Hardware diagram

Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)


Wi-Fi is defined as an abbreviation for wireless fidelity, meaning you can access or connect to a
network using radio waves, without needing to use wires. An example of Wi-Fi is when you go to Starbucks
and can join on their network to get on the Internet without having to connect your computer to any wires.

PROs CONs

● The wireless nature of such networks allow ● To combat this consideration, wireless
users to access network resources from networks may choose to utilize some of the
nearly any convenient location within their various encryption technologies available.
primary networking environment. Some of the more commonly utilized
● With the emergence of public wireless encryption methods, however, are known to
networks, users can access the internet have weaknesses that a dedicated
even outside their normal work adversary can compromise.
environment. Most chain coffee shops, for ● The typical range of a common 802.11g
example, offer their customers a wireless network with standard equipment is on the
connection to the internet at little or no cost. order of tens of meters. While sufficient for
● Users connected to a wireless network can a typical home, it will be insufficient in a
maintain a nearly constant affiliation with larger structure. To obtain additional range,
their desired network as they move from repeaters or additional access points will
place to place. For a business, this implies have to be purchased. Costs for these items
that an employee can potentially be more can add up quickly.
productive as his or her work can be ● The speed on most wireless networks

36
accomplished from any convenient (typically 1-54 Mbps) is far slower than even
location. the slowest common wired networks
● Initial setup of an infrastructure-based (100Mbps up to several Gbps). However, in
wireless network requires little more than a specialized environments, the throughput of
single access point. Wired networks, on the a wired network might be necessary.
other hand, have the additional cost and ● Like any radio frequency transmission,
complexity of actual physical cables being wireless networking signals are subject to a
run to numerous locations (which can even wide variety of interference, as well as
be impossible for hard-to-reach locations complex propagation effects that are
within a building). beyond the control of the network
administrator.
● Wireless networking hardware is at worst a
modest increase from wired counterparts.
This potentially increased cost is almost
always more than outweighed by the
savings in cost and labor associated to
running physical cables.
Table 3.7 PRO’s and CON’s for Wi-Fi

Wireless Local Area Network Design Parameters


A. Population Density
According to the website of SecurEdge Networks, there are 7 must – follow guidelines for a better wireless
network design. One of these is to consider the capacity or the total number of devices that will be able to
access the network. On the case of the client’s building, the building had the same floor plan from the second
floor up to the last floor. It has been determined that there is a possibility of a maximum of 50 users on every
floor except at the nurse station, where the main screen is connected. By recognizing the estimated number
of population density, the network design can be accurate and efficient. The formula used to compute for the
population density is:

𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑃𝑒𝑜𝑝𝑙𝑒
𝑃𝑜𝑝𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐷𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 =
𝐹𝑙𝑜𝑜𝑟 𝐴𝑟𝑒𝑎

Estimated Floor Area Population Density


Floor Area Number of User
(device) (m2 ) (pop/m2 )

Ward 1 12 100m x 200m .0006

37
Ward 2 13 100m x 200m .00065
2nd to 5th
Ward 3 13 100m x 200m .00065
Floor
Ward 4 10 100m x 200m .0005

Whole Floor w/ Nurse Station x 250m x 600m x

Table 3.8 shows the estimated number of users per floor and population density

B. Identifying the Zones


Zone is an area that is subjected to a particular purpose, in this case, access to the network. Identifying zones
enable us to place the access points. These zones will serve as an indication that a Wi-Fi service needed in
that specific area.

Normal zones: zones that are in need of Wi-Fi service and an AP can be placed in it.

Limited zones: zones that may or may not be in need of Wi-Fi service but nonetheless, an AP
cannot be placed in it for some reasons.

Exclusion zones: zones that do not need Wi-Fi service, therefore, no AP can be placed in it

Figure 3.13 Floor Plan Zones

Floor Normal Zone Limited Zone Exclusion Zone

38
Hallways, Comfort Emergency Exits
2nd to the 5th Floor Wards
Rooms Free Space

Table 3.9 shows the different zones on every floor


C. Floor Plan Structures
Every floor has its own characteristics of structure. The Xirrus Wi-Fi Designer provides different materials for
the division of the rooms / areas. These materials have different attenuation factor.

Figure 3.14 Floor Wall structures


There are different attenuation for different materials, above shows the composition of walls per floor.
Legend:
Dry Wall

Cubicle

Door

Attenuation per Frequency


Material
2.4 GHz 5.0 GHz

Interior Drywall 3–4 3–5

Cubicle Wall 2–5 4–9

39
Wood Door (Hollow Solid) 3–4 6–7

Brick/Concrete Wall 6 – 18 10 – 30

Glass/Window (Not Tinted) 2–3 6–8

Double-pane coated glass 13 20

Bullet-proof glass 10 20

Steel/Fire Exit Door 13 – 19 25 – 32

Table 3.10 Difference in attenuation between 2.5 GHz and 5 GHz

C. Co-Channel Interference
Co – channel interference is present when two adjacent access points use the same channel. It is most likely
the cause of limited performance and capability of a Wi-Fi network. In order to prevent this scenario, access
points that have the same channel will be assigned separately. No adjacent access points will be set up with
the same channel. Available channels for 2.4GHz band and 5GHz band are presented at Figure 3.5

Figure 3.15 Frequency allocation for 2.5GHz


C. Access Point Placement
With regard to the placing of the access points, the location must be considered. Based on the Wi – Fi
Location – Based Services 4.1 Design Guide Chapter 5 Best Practices – Location – Aware WLAN Design
Consideration, the access points interspacing must be greater than 25 feet to avoid the negative effect of the
close APs.

40
Figure 3.16 Effective Radius of Access Point – to – Access Point
Distance
𝐝 𝟏
𝐎𝛑𝐑𝟐 = 𝟐𝐑𝟐 𝐜𝐨𝐬 −𝟏 ( ) − 𝐝√𝟒𝐑𝟐 − 𝐝𝟐
𝟐𝐑 𝟐
Where: R - Access Point Effective Radius

O – Cell to cell Overlapping d - Access Point Interspacing

10% - for High Priority Data 20% - for Minimal Coverage

The cell-to-cell overlapping intended to increase the chance of accessibility of a user to the network. To
accomplished this intent, the recommended degree of cell to cell overlap should be considered. For sufficient
reliable roaming with data applications, a minimum of 10% cell-to-cell overlap is recommended. After
computing for the AP effective radius, the computation for effective transmitted power of an AP can now be
completed using the formula:

𝐓𝐱 𝐩𝐨𝐰𝐞𝐫 = 𝐑𝐱 𝐩𝐨𝐰𝐞𝐫 − 𝐆𝐚𝐢𝐧𝐓𝐱 + 𝐏𝐥𝟏𝐦𝐞𝐭𝐞𝐫 + 𝟏𝟎 𝐥𝐨𝐠 𝐑𝐧

Where

Txpower – Transmit Power GainTx – Transmitted Antenna Gain

Rxpower – Minimum Received Signal Strength Pl1meter – Path Loss Model

R – Effective Radius n – Path Loss

The Rxpower depends on the requirement of the designs. However, the GainTx depends on the antenna
gain of the AP used. For 2.4GHz, the antenna gain is 3dBi, while for the 2.4 / 5GHz, the antenna gain is 5dBi.
Furthermore, the path loss model corresponds to free space loss with the distance referenced to 1 meter.
Lastly, the path loss exponent depends on the environment that surrounds the position of the AP. For the
designs, the chosen value of n is 6. For reference, below is the table of different path loss exponent for
different environments.

41
Radio Frequency Propagation Simulation

Figure 3.18 Radio Frequency Propagation Simulation

Servo Motor
A servomotor is a rotary actuator or linear actuator that allows for precise control of angular or linear position,
velocity and acceleration. It consists of a suitable motor coupled to a sensor for position feedback. It also
requires a relatively sophisticated controller, often a dedicated module designed specifically for use with
servo motors. Servo motors are not a specific class of motor although the term servomotor is often used to
refer to a motor suitable for use in a closed-loop control system.

Servomotors are used in applications such as robotics, CNC machinery or automated manufacturing.

PROS CONS

● Requires modification for continuous


● Least expensive non-surplus source for
rotation.
gear motors.
● Requires special driving circuit.
● Can be used for precise angular control, or
● Though more powerful servos are
for continuous rotation (the latter requires
available, practical weight limit for powering
modification).
a robot is about 10 pounds.
● Available in several standard sizes, with
standard mounting holes.
Table 3.11 PRO’s and CON’s for Servo Motor

42
Transformer System

Figure 3.19 Transformer System

For the transformer used for AC/AC conversion, a low-frequency transformer is used since AC frequency is
60 Hz. Transformers that are designed as power supply units are called power transformers or commercial
frequency transformers (commercial transformers). The size (volume) of a transformer may be thought of
as being proportional to the output power of the power supply unit. A familiar example is AC adapters,
which are supplied in units such that the larger their current capacity the bulkier and heavier the units. The
basic structure of a transformer consists of an iron core, and primary and secondary winding wires. A core
is commonly made of a silicon steel plate.

For wattage rating

Power=2.5 x 5=12.5 ≈15 watts

Core Area:

√Wattage Rating
Core Area=
5.58

√15
Core Area= =0.69≈1 sq.in
5.58
Where: 0.69 is constant for 60-cycle frequency according to transformer winding and trouble shooting

43
The number of turns per Volt

T 7.5
=
V Core Area
T 7.5
= =7.5 volts per turn
V 1
Where: 7.5 is constant for 60-cycle frequency according to transformer winding and trouble shooting

Turns Primary

T
Turns Primary=Ep x
V
Turns Primary=220 x 7.5=1655 turns

Turns Secondary

T
Turns Secondary=Es x
V
Turns Secondary=5 x 3.55=17.75 or 18 turns

To this, add 6% for core losses. Thus, 6% of 90 is equal to 5.4. Therefore, the total number of turns in
secondary is equal to 18 turns.

Primary current

W
Primary Current=
Ep

15
Primary Current= =0.0682 A
220
Secondary Current

W
Secondary Current=
Es

44
15
Secondary Current= =3 A
5
Size of Wire Primary

cm.pri=0.0682 x 1000= 68.2 circular mills, size no. 29 According to Table 1.4 in [35]
Size of Wire Secondary

cm.pri=3 x 1000= 3000 circular mills, size no. 13 According to Table 1.4 in [35]
Computation For losses

Core loss= Is xVs

Core loss=3x2.5=7.5 Watts

Copper loss= I2 R
2
Copper loss=(0.0652) (2)=0.0085 Watts

Since the required current of load is 2.5 ampere the resistance to be used is 2 ohms using ohms law.

Total losses=Copper loss+Core loss

Total losses=7.5+0.0085=7.5085 watts

pout
η=
pin

Pout
η= x 100%
Pout+Plosses
15
η= x 100
15+7.5085
η=66.64%

Computations on Capacitor

Vdc = 3.55V / 0.71 = 5V

Where: 0.71 is constant for zener diode

Idc= 3A / 1.61 = 1.86

Where: 1.61 is constant for zener diode

45
V= IZ

Z= 5V / 0.86 = 5.8140 Ω

For the value of capacitor:

Z= 1 / 2 pi (60) ( C )

5.8140= 1 / 2 pi (60) ( C )

C = 0.456mF

PROS CONS

 Simple Circuitry  Bulky volume and significant weight

 Low noise  Low efficiency

 .Substantial heat dissipation

Table 3.12 PRO’s and CON’s for Transformer System

Arduino Microcontrollers
An open-source platform used for building electronics projects. Arduino consists of both a physical
programmable circuit board and a piece of software, or IDE that runs on your computer, used to write and
upload computer code to the physical board.

A.1 Arduino Parameters

Arduino R3: (P500.00) - PWM Digital I/O Pins 6

- Operating Voltage 5V - Analog Input Pins 6

- Input Voltage (recommended) 7-9V - DC Current per I/O Pin 20 mA

- DC Current for 3.3V Pin 50 mA - Digital I/O Pins provide PWM output) 14 (of which 6

46
PROS CONS

● Low power architectures.


● Easy to get started with great online
● Memory limitations
support, rapid prototyping super easy.
● Connectivity to the internet needs
● Easy interfacing with sensors and data
additional shields which are not cost
collection is very easy too.
friendly, especially in India.
● Can send data wireless-ly using Bluetooth,
● Less powerful compared to Rpi. You
Rf etc. to the server via a computer.
cannot run a lot heavy algorithms, or
● Allot of GPIOs with PWM capabilities and
interface say a touchscreen, etc. without
maker friendly.
using additional shields. Example, you
● You can use IDE, python, ruby, embedded
can't run Open Cv on an arduino.
C etc. for programming it.
● Open-source, completely.
Table 3.13 PROS and CONS for Arduino Microcontroller

Algorithm for Infrared Drop Detection


Using this Design the Infrared emits Infrared Light while the IR photodiode detects the IR emitted. Then the
photodiode passes the value to the microcontroller to process the data and determines a drop. Then the
processed data would be send to the web interface for monitoring. Meanwhile the web monitoring can also
control the pinch value of the servo motor.

47
Figure 3.20 Infrared Algorithm Flowchart

Getting the Time cost for an algorithm:

In-order to get the cost of the algorithm, the proponents use the microcontroller to check for the milliseconds
time in-order to run a specific code. Below are the codes that have been set for the microcontroller to run and
print. Gathering the specific time needed by the microcontroller to run such codes.

48
void setup() { x=0;

// put your setup code here, to run once: x=0;

Serial.begin(9600); x=0;

} x=0;

x=0;

void loop() { x=0;

// put your main code here, to run repeatedly: x=0;

int x=0; x=0;

x=0;

Serial.print("Start Time For (Assignvalues): "); x=0;

Serial.println(micros()); x=0;

x=0; Serial.print("Stop Time For (Assignvalues): ");

x=0; Serial.println(micros());

x=0; delay(1000);

x=0;

x=0; Serial.print("Start Time For (IF Statement): ");

x=0; Serial.println(micros());

x=0; if (x=0){} else {}

x=0; if (x=0){} else {}

x=0; if (x=0){} else {}

x=0; if (x=0){} else {}

x=0; if (x=0){} else {}

x=0;

x=0; if (x=0){} else {}

x=0; if (x=0){} else {}

49
if (x=0){} else {} Serial.print("Start Time For (computation): ");

if (x=0){} else {} Serial.println(micros());

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

if (x=0){} else {} x = x+1;

Serial.print("Stop Time For (IF Statement): "); x = x+1;

Serial.println(micros()); x = x+1;

delay(1000); x = x+1;

x = x+1;

50
x = x+1; Serial.println(micros());

x = x+1; delay(1000);

Serial.print("Stop Time For (computation): "); }

After running the codes listed above the microcontroller displays the start and stop time for each type of code
such as IF statements, assign statements, and computation statements. Below are the outputs shown in the
microcontroller.

Start Time For (Assignvalues): 29712111

Stop Time For (Assignvalues): 29712205

Start Time For (IF Statement): 30712331

Stop Time For (IF Statement): 30712412

Start Time For (computation): 31712548

Stop Time For (computation): 31712641

There for the time cost in nanoseconds would be the difference of each statement and divided upon by 20.

For Assigning values:


(𝑆𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒−𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒)
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐴𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 = = 3.76 𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠
25

For Assigning values:


(𝑆𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒−𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒)
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐼𝐹 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 = = 3.2 𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠
25

For Assigning values:


(𝑆𝑡𝑜𝑝𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒−𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒)
𝑇𝑖𝑚𝑒 𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑢𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑆𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 = = 3.72 𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑆𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑𝑠
25

Pseudo Code for Infrared Drop Detection Algorithm:


1 - Load values to client

2 - load current time

3 - Read analog data from Infrared

51
4 - save analog data from infrared to int x

5 - if (time interval is 60s)

6 - {

7 - set previous time to current time

8 - assign drop count to drops per minute

9 - Print Drops per minute value

10 - Print Remaining Volume

11 - }

12 - else

13 - {

14 - if (Photodiode value < 1024)

15 - {}

16 - else

17 - {

18 - if (Photodiode value <1024)

19 - {

20 - drop count + 1

21 - decrease remaining volume

22 - print drop count

23 - }

24 - assign Photodiode value Previous Photodiode value

25 - set servo run value

26 - run servo to run value

27 - delay

52
Program Time Algorithm Complexity For IR Drop Detection:
Program Line Code Cost (nS) Frequency Total Cost (nS)

3.76 1 3.76
1
2 3.76 1 3.76

3 3.76 1 3.76

4 3.76 1 3.76

5 3.2 1 3.2

7 3.76 1 3.76

8 3.76 1 3.76

9 3.76 1 3.76

10 3.76 1 3.76

12 3.2 1 3.2

14 3.2 1 3.2

16 3.2 1 3.2

18 3.2 1 3.2

20 3.72 1 3.72

21 3.72 1 3.72

22 3.76 1 3.76

24 3.76 1 3.76

25 3.76 1 3.76

26 3.76 1 3.76

27 3.76 1 3.76

Total Time Cost 72.32 nS

Table 3.14 Algorithm of IR

53
Web applications
Web applications are used to handle data’s through the cloud. In which all data’s and controls were met
wirelessly. This applications should determine the control of the given device via user interface and also
monitors via web application. Which means all controls and monitoring would be handles in the user interface
of the web application.

Dynamic Web Applications


These applications are much more complex at a technical level. They use databases for loading data
and their contents are updated each time the user accesses them. They generally have an administration
panel from where administrators can correct or modify the app’s content including text and images. Many
different programming languages can be used for dynamic web app development. PHP and ASP are the
most common languages used for this purpose because they allow you to structure the content.

In this kind of app, upgrading content is very simple and the server doesn’t even have to be accessed when
modifying it. In addition, it allows the implementation of plenty of features such as forums or databases.
Design − besides content − can be modified to match the administrator’s preferences.

PROS CONS

● Higher conversion rates: personalized, ● Relatively expensive: it takes time and


relevant content converts at much higher effort to produce high quality blog posts on
rates than static content and landing pages. a regular basis or to develop content
● Improved search visibility: Google and strategies for multiple personas and buyer
other search engines respond positively to journeys. Finding and hiring brand
fresh, dynamic content, especially content journalists or content marketing agencies
that is shared and subscribed to. can add significantly to your marketing
budget.
● Requires analysis: it doesn't do you any
good to simply publish dynamic content.
You need marketing automation
technology and experts to monitor the
different channels, optimize for conversion
rates and report results to managers
looking for budget justification and
planning.
Table 3.15 PROS and CONS for Dynamic Web Applications

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Comparison between Wireless Standards

---
Wi-Fi
Market Name Standard GSM/GPRS
802.11b
CDMA/1Xrtt

Application Focus Wide Area Voice and Data Web, E-mail and Video

System Resources 16Mb+ 1Mb+

Battery Life (days) 1-7 .5-5

Network Size 1 32

Bandwidth (Kb/s) 64 to 128+ 11,000+

Transmission Range (meters) 1,000+ 1 to 100

Success Metrics Reach and Quality Speed and Flexibility

Table 3.16 Comparison between Wireless Standards

Comparison Table for Communication Systems

GSM Module Wi-Fi

Range Signal Dependent 100m

Speed Very Low 54 Mb/s

Power Low High

Complexity Low High


Table 3.17 The comparison table below shows the parameters to be taken into account for this project.

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Failure Rate of Design Option 2

Based on the “Military Handbook: Reliability Prediction of Electronic Equipment”

Component 1: Resistors (10kΩ)

𝝀𝒑 = 𝝀𝒃 ∗ 𝝅𝒓 ∗ 𝝅𝒒 ∗ 𝝅𝒆

λb = base failure rate


𝑇+273 𝑆 𝑇+273
λb = 4.5 x 10−9 ∗ 𝑒 12( )
343 ∗ 𝑒 0.6(273
)
Based on the given parameters of
resistor datasheet
T = 100 ⁰C
Based on the given parameters of
S = 0.1 resistor datasheet

𝛌𝐛 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟐𝟔

πr = resistance factor

πr =< .1MΩ

𝛑𝐫 = 𝟎. 𝟏

πq = quality factor According to p.10, Military


Resistors
𝛑𝐪 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟑

56
πe = environmental factor

πe = GB ( ground, fixed for medical devices)

𝛑𝐞 = 𝟏. 𝟎

𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟐𝟔
𝝀𝒑 =
𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒔
Component 2: IR Emitter

𝝀𝒑 = 𝝀𝒃 ∗ 𝝅𝒕 ∗ 𝝅𝒒 ∗ 𝝅𝒆

𝛌𝐛 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟏𝟑
1 1
𝜋𝑡 = 𝑒 −2790 ( 𝑇+273− 298)

𝑇 = 85 ⁰𝐶

𝝅𝒕 = 𝟒. 𝟖

πq = quality factor According to Table 4, Appendix E of


MIL-PRF-19599M
𝛑𝐪 = 𝟎. 𝟕

πe = environmental factor

πe = GB ( ground, fixed for medical devices)

𝛑𝐞 = 𝟏. 𝟎

𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟒𝟑𝟔𝟖
𝝀𝒑 =
𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒔
Component 3: IR Photodiode

𝝀𝒑 = 𝝀𝒃 ∗ 𝝅𝒕 ∗ 𝝅𝒒 ∗ 𝝅𝒆

𝛌𝐛 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟒𝟎
1 1
𝜋𝑡 = 𝑒 −2790 ( 𝑇+273− 298)

𝑇 = 60 ⁰𝐶

𝝅𝒕 = 𝟐. 𝟕
According to Table 4, Appendix E of
πq = quality factor MIL-PRF-19599M

57
𝛑𝐪 = 𝟎. 𝟕

πe = GB ( ground, fixed for medical devices)

𝛑𝐞 = 𝟏. 𝟎

𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟖𝟑𝟏𝟔
𝝀𝒑 =
𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒔

Component 4: Servo Motor

𝒕𝟐 𝟏
𝝀𝒑 = 𝟑
+
⍶𝒃 ⍶𝒘
2357
1
⍶𝑏 = (102.534−𝑇+273 + 4500 )-1
(20− )
10 𝑇+273 +300

T= 55⁰C

⍶𝑏 = 44000
2357
⍶𝑤 = 10(𝑇+273−1.83)

⍶𝑤 = 2.3𝑒 5

𝟎. 𝟎𝟐𝟔𝟑𝟕
𝝀𝒑 =
𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒔

Component 5: Capacitor

𝝀𝒑 = 𝝀𝒃 ∗ 𝝅𝒄𝒗 ∗ 𝝅𝒒 ∗ 𝝅𝒆
𝑠 5 𝑇+273 18
λb = 0.0086[( ) + 1] ∗ 𝑒 0.25 ( 398 ) Based on the given parameters of
0.4
capacitor datasheet
𝑠 = 0.23
Based on the given parameters of
𝑇 = 85 ⁰𝐶 capacitor datasheet

λb = 0.0014

πcv = 1.2 𝑐 0.95 According to MIL-C-25 datasheet


πcv = 0.7

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πq = quality factor

𝛑𝐪 = 𝟑. 𝟎

πe = GB ( ground, fixed for medical devices)

𝛑𝐞 = 𝟏. 𝟎

𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟐𝟗𝟒
𝝀𝒑 =
𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒔
Component 6: PCB

𝝀𝒑 = 𝝀𝒃 ∗ 𝝅𝒌 ∗ 𝝅𝒑 ∗ 𝝅𝒆
−2073.6 𝑇+273 4.66
λb = 0.216 𝑒 [( 𝑇+273 + 423
)

T= 130 ⁰C

𝛌𝐛 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟒𝟒

𝝅𝒌 = 𝟏. 𝟎
𝑁−1 0.51064
𝜋𝑝 = 𝑒 ( 10
)

N= 7 contacts

𝝅𝒑 = 𝟐. 𝟐

𝝅𝒆 = 𝟏. 𝟎

𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟗𝟔𝟖
𝝀𝒑 =
𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒔
Component 7: Microcontroller (Arduino)

𝝀𝒑 = [(𝑪𝟏 ∗ 𝝅𝒕) + (𝑪𝟐 ∗ 𝝅𝒆)] ∗ 𝝅𝒒 ∗ 𝝅𝑳


Based on the MIL-Hdbk217f for 8
𝑪𝟏 = 𝟎. 𝟏𝟒 bit microcontrollers

𝝅𝒕 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟖

T= 85 ⁰C
Based on equation from MIL-Hnbk-
𝑪𝟐 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟏𝟔𝟔𝟕𝟔 217f page 5-14 [1] for SMT with 44
pins
𝝅𝒆 = 𝟐

59
𝝅𝒒 = 𝟏𝟎
Number used for devices older
𝜋𝐿 = learning factor than 2 years in production pins

𝝅𝑳= 1

𝟏. 𝟕𝟎𝟓𝟓𝟐
𝝀𝒑 =
𝟏𝟎𝟔 𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒔

Design Option 2

A B C

0.0008316 0.0026 0.0004368

0.02637 0.00294 0.0026

1.70552

Figure 3.21 Design Option 1

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Availability of C

𝑈𝑛𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = 0.0004368 + 0.0026 + 1.70552

𝑈𝑛𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = 1.7085568

Availability of B

𝑈𝑛𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = 0.0026 + 0.00294

𝑈𝑛𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = 0.00554

Availability of A

𝑈𝑛𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = 0.0008316 + 0.02637

𝑈𝑛𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑆𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝐿𝑜𝑎𝑑 = 0.0272016

Availability of Design Option 2

𝑈𝑛𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑂𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 2 = 1.7085568 ∗ 0.00554 ∗ 0.0272016

𝑈𝑛𝑎𝑣𝑎𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑏𝑖𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑂𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 2 = 0.000257474

𝑨𝒗𝒂𝒊𝒍𝒂𝒃𝒊𝒍𝒊𝒕𝒚 𝒐𝒇 𝑫𝒆𝒔𝒊𝒈𝒏 𝑶𝒑𝒕𝒊𝒐𝒏 𝟐 = 1 − 0.000257474 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟗𝟗𝟕𝟒

61