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BUILDING SCIENCE II

MARCH/2018 BLD 60803)


SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, BUILDING AND DESIGN
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (Hons) IN ARCHITECTURE

PROJECT 1:
Auditorium : A Case Study on Acoustic Design

TUTOR: Mr Azim Sulaiman


GROUP OF:

Ho Jing Wen 0331377


Olivia Jong Jing 0331211
Tan Kah Inn 0322020
Tan Tze Yih 0331212
Tay Siew Wen 0322879
Sii Siaw Hua 0322608
Wee Sue Wen 0322633
Wong Mei Xin 0323824
TABLE OF CONTENT

1.Introduction
1.1 Architectural Acoustic Design
1.1.1 Literature Review
1.1.2 General Principle
1.1.3 Acoustical Phenomena in Enclosed Spaces
1.1.4 Acoustic defects (echo, delayed reflected sound, sound shadow)
1.2 Site Introduction
1.2.1 About SDCC
1.2.2 Background
1.2.3 About SDCC Auditorium
1.2.4 Auditorium Floor Plan
1.2.5 Auditorium Sectional Plan

2.0 Acoustic Design Analysis


2.1 Construction Materials
2.1.1 Sound Absorption Materials
2.1.3 Sound Reflector at Ceiling/Wall
2.2 Sound Source
2.2.1 Interior
2.2.2 Exterior
2.3 Sound Propagation
2.3.1 Sound Source Location
2.3.2 Numbers & Position of Speakers
3.3.3 Sound Travel Path
3.3.4 Sound Shadow Area

4.0 Sound Meter Reading


5.0 Reverberation Time Calculation
6.0 Conclusion
6.1 Recommend
7.0 References
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

1
INTRODUCTION
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

1.1 Architectural Acoustic Design


1.1.1 Literature Review

Architecture acoustic is defined as the study of a sound in space. It is the science and
engineering of achieving a good sound within a building for example, achieving good speech
intelligibility in a theatre, restaurant or railway station, enhancing the quality of music in a
concert hall or recording studio, or suppressing noise to make offices and homes more
productive and pleasant places to work and live in. Architectural acoustic design is usually
done by acoustic consultants.

With proper design efforts, wanted sound can be heard properly an unwanted sounds(noise)
can be attenuated or masked to the point where they do not cause annoyance.Achieving good
acoustics, however, has become increasingly difficult for a variety of reasons. To lower
construction costs, the weight of various materials used in many of today’s buildings has
been reduced. Since light structures generally transmit sound more readily than heavy ones,
lightweight buildings have the potential for major acoustical problem.

Building owners and tenants are aware that quality acoustic environments are required for
high productivity and comfort in buildings and hence competitive rental or purchase values.
The architect is expected to provide such acoustic quality. Proper acoustic design responses
early in the design process are critically important, as after-the-fact acoustics “repair” is
often difficult and sometimes impossible without substantial structural alterations which
are very costly.
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

1.1.2 General Principle

The main driver behind acoustic design in auditoriums comes down to the phenomenon above: Strive
to keep and enhance ‘early’ reflections to arrive at the listener no more than 50 milliseconds after the
direct sound; and dampen and reduce ‘late’ reflections that would arrive at the listener more than
50ms after the direct sound. At a given listener location, if there is more early acoustic energy than
late, speech will be intelligible. To that end, surfaces should be provided and shaped to provide such
early reflections, and reflection paths that provide late acoustic energy should be made acoustically
absorptive. The auditorium, as a place for listening developed from the classical open-air theaters.
An auditorium includes any rooms intended for :
- Listening to music including theaters
- Classrooms
- Churches
- Meeting Hall

The design of various types of auditoriums has become a complex problem, because in addition to its
various, sometimes conflicting, aesthetics, functional, technical, artistic and economical
requirements, an auditorium often has to accommodate an unprecedentedly large audience.
Sound in the outdoors, travelling room their source in a continuously extending spherical wavefront
rapidly attenuate as the distance from their source increases.
In designing rooms for various purposes, the architect will encounter acoustical problems associated
with enclosed spaces.
The propagation and behaviour of sound in enclosed spaces however are more complex than in the
open air.
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

Different Shape of Hall

Floor plan of various shape of general hall for auditorium

To give satisfactory results without introducing complications in the acoustical treatment of the hall
is the FAN-SHAPED PLAN.

1.1.3 Acoustical Phenomena in Enclosed Spaces

Sound waves change their direction of travel through four categories of phenomena : reflection,
refraction, diffraction and diffusion. These phenomena can occur when changes occur in a sound
wave's medium of travel.

Behaviour Of Sound in Enclosed Spaces :


1. Incident or Direct sound
2. Reflected Sound
3. Sound absorbed by surface treatment
4. Diffused or Dispersed sound
5. Diffracted or bent sound
6. Transmitted sound
7. Sound Dissipated within the structure
8. Sound conducted by the structure

1.1.4 Acoustical Defects


Acoustical conditions in a big room, ballroom or auditoriums, are achieved when there is clarity
of sound in every part of occupied space. Acoustical defects includes echoes, sound shadows
and reverberation.

To avoid acoustical defects, sound should rise to a suitable intensity without echoes or
distortion of original sound delivered to the listener, with correct reverberation time.
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

1.2 Site Introduction


1.2.1 About SDCC
Owned by SIme Darby Property Berhad, the Malaysia-based diversified multinational, Sime
Darby Convention Centre is located within the vicinity of the TPC Kuala Lumpur.

Name of Building : Sime Darby Convention Centre (SDCC)


Location of Building : 1A. Jalan Bukit Kiara 1, Bukit Kiara, 60000 Kuala Lumpur,
Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur.
Founded : 2006
Location of Auditorium : LG Level
Type of Auditorium : Speech Purposes
Total Volume : 3,000 sq.ft.
Total Ceiling Height : 19 ft.
Total Seat : 180

1.2.2 Background

Officially launched on 6 Dec 2007 by the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Sime Darby Convention
Centre (SDCC) caters to meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibitions and is well
known for weddings and celebrations. Since then, SDCC has had a new look with new
facilities.

Set in the vicinity of the prestigious Kuala Lumpur Golf & Country Club, SDCC brings a new
level of charm and sophistication to the art of meetings, exhibitions and banquets.

With a beautiful backdrop of lush greenery and undulating fairway, the SDCC offers a perfect
setting for business and social events in an elegant and exclusive environment.
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

1.2.3 About Auditorium

The fan shaped 180-seater auditorium is an ideal venue for award presentations, seminars
and training. The state-of-the-art audio visual system and the luxurious seating in a
conducive set up allows full view of the presenters and perfect for a plenary session or
stages theater production.

Auditorium
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

1.2.4 Auditorium Floor Plan

Sime Darby Lower Ground Floor Plan

STAGE

APRON
SE
CA
AIR
ST

HOUSE LEFT HOUSE RIGHT

AUDIENCE (HOUSE)

CONTROL ROOM

MAIN ENTRANCE

Auditorium Floor Plan


A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

1.2.5 Auditorium Sectional Plan

Auditorium Floor Plan

MAIN ENTRANCE
EXIT
STAGE

AUDIENCE (HOUSE)

Auditorium Sectional Plan


A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

2
ACOUSTIC DESIGN ANALYSIS
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

2.1 Construction Materials

WALL
In this auditorium, the walls are designed with specific angles to reflect sound and they are also
covered with different material such as timber wall frame, acoustic cushion panels and hollow timber
wall frame, in order to achieve the acoustic requirement as a speech hall.

HOLLOW TIMBER WALL FRAME WITH


ACOUSTIC CUSHION PANELS

Wall panel
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

MATERIALITY OF THE WALL

Material of wall

ACOUSTIC TIMBER WALL + ACOUSTIC CUSHION


The wall framing and internal wall coverings often help sound to travel through walls.The sound
bounces off the timber wall in one room.
The most effective ways to ensure walls are :
- Install double frame
- Two unattached wall frames
- Added bonus of allowing extra insulation to be packed inside the wall cavity
Material Indication Diagram
The floor plan below indicate the location of the wall panel. The wall elevations show the acoustic
materiality that applied in the auditorium room.
2

1
1. Entrance Wall

2. Stage Wall

3. Side Wall

Concrete Floor Under Carpet

Gypsum Wall

Acoustic Timber
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

CEILING

Wall panel and ceiling

GYPSUM BOARD WALL AND CEILING


The ceiling in the auditorium room is considered as tilted ceiling. The characteristics of the
ceiling are :
- High mass is the best defence to reduce airborne noise nuisance -cheap and easy way
to improve the soundproofing of walls and ceilings
- When used along with other noise control products to obtain maximum efficiency.
- Due to its extra high mass, it is better for acoustic control for walls and ceilings.

Detail of wall panel


A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

FLOOR

Carpet floor

Carpet

Carpet Padding

Cement Slab

Detail of flooring system

CARPET + CONCRETE FLOOR

- Concrete absorb sound but has poor sound insulation


- Low sound transmission loss
- Sound absorption coefficient for plain cast concrete is about 0.02,
indicating that about 98% of the sound energy is reflected by the surface
- The more the concrete weighs, or the denser the concrete, the more sound
insulation rating
- A concrete slab is generally an asset for airborne sound isolation. The large
mass provides for a great deal of sound isolation from vibrations entering or
leaving the room
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

2.1.1 Sound Absorption Materials

Room acoustics describes how sound behaves in a space. That means the listener and the sound
source are in the same room. If the room has nearly no sound absorbing surfaces (wall, roof and
floor), the sound will bounce between the surfaces and it takes a long time before the sound dies
out. The listener in this kind of room will then have a problem registering the speaker because he
hears both the direct sound and repeated reflected sound waves.

If the surfaces instead are covered with sound absorbing material, the reflected sound will decrease
much quicker and the listener will only hear the direct sound. Also, the general sound level in the
room will decrease.

Section of wall showing how sound is absorbed and or reflected

Sound is absorbed at the end of the auditorium to prevent echoes.


A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

FABRIC PANEL

Fabric Panels

Details of fabric panels

Fabric panels are cloth wrapped acoustical panels are designed to absorb unwelcome background
noise inside a hall, reduce echoes and deliver premium sound quality back to the hall
Characteristics: The fabric panels are class A fire rated, decorative, durable, and easy to self install.
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

PADDED SEATING

Padded Seats

Experts in acoustics says that “if you can’t see, you will think you can’t hear”, so sightlines
are a critical element to a successful venue

Seats in this auditorium is arranged in staggered manner to ensures that everyone in


the room has a great view of the presenter in front. For our auditorium, seats are designed
two-row sightlines. Two-row sightlines rely on staggered seating to allow a view between the
heads in the row immediately ahead and on rise between rows to see over the heads two
rows ahead.
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

Seat and Back Characteristics

Fire Barrier
Steel
Fabric FCAM
(Optional) Frame

Arms Characteristics (Audit 10 & 20)


Fire
Barrier
Fabric MDF
FCAM
(Optional) Panel

Details of padded seats

Padded seats add to the acoustical absorption of an empty auditorium and allows the space to achieve
a similar quality of sound whether the auditorium is filled to partial or maximum capacity.This can only
be achieved if the material is a padded fabric. A solid, hard material changes the acoustic performance
of the auditorium depending on the number of occupants and the reflected sound vibrations.
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

CARPET

Carpet

The nylon carpet flooring in the auditorium prevents hard contact with the floor, although there are
no help against airborne sound transmission, and thus attenuates impact sounds. It is, in fact, the
only floor finish that absorbs sound. The noise reduction coefficient (NRC) for typical commercial
carpets is around 0.20. The absorptivity is confined mainly on high frequency. However, it also
helps to absorb the bass.

High sound absorption Low sound absorption

carpet Hard floor

Neighbour not disturbed Neighbour disturbed

Diagram showing how carpet absorbs sound


A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

2.1.3 Sound Reflector

Acoustic design began as far back as Ancient Greece — the origin of performance and auditoriums.
Before the advances of microphones hanging from the ceiling or fingernail-sized microphones hidden in
performers’ wigs, builders had to learn how to design their amphitheatres to allow sound from a
performance to be heard all the way in the back. This was achieved through “stepped” seating
arrangements that are still used for theatres and auditoriums today, with the first row at the same
level as the stage, the next row a little higher, and so on and so forth. This “stepped” design is used for
the ceiling in many auditoriums too. This is to let audience have the same distribution of sound.

Smooth walls have a tendency to direct sound waves in a specific direction. Subsequently the
use of smooth surface in an auditorium will cause spectators to receive a large amount of sound from
one location along the wall; there would be only one possible path by which sound waves could travel
from the speakers to the listener. The loudspeaker illuminates its entire view but only a tiny fraction of
the sound actually hits the target, the ears of the people below, the “direct sound”. The rest of the
sound crashing into the walls, floors and carpet, the people, coats, and chairs, the walls, windows and
doors. Everytime some part of the indirect sound hits a surface, it reflects.

Shows how sound is distributed in the auditorium


A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

SOUND DIFFUSER PANEL

Sound Diffuser Panel

Diagrams of reflection, absorption, diffusion

Acoustic treatment is the act of stopping the sound bouncing off the various surfaces of the room. A
diffuser jumbles up these reflections so they don’t return back into the room directly.

The uneven spacing of dented surface helps diffuse sound waves to different direction, hence
reduces the sound intensity.
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

FABRIC CURTAIN

Fabric curtain

All of the soundwave Some of the


bounces off soundwave is
absorbed

Acoustically absorbing
Acoustically reflective surface (curtains,
surface (wallboard, wood) carpets)
Diagram of how sound bounces off and absorbed

Fabrics include a wide range of textiles that are used on their own (as curtains) or as coverings for
other materials that may or may not be sound absorbing. The curtains used on the stage of the
auditorium can be considered absorbing as they are reasonably heavy (around 500g/m2). A heavy, low
resistant fabric may rate NRC 0.70 or more. Provided they are not airtight, the fabrics make an
acoustically excellent finish that fully preserves the absorptivity of the substrate.
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

3.2 Sound Source


Sound generated inside a building can be separated into two sources of transmission – airborne
sound and sound transmitted through the building itself.

Airborne sound, from human activities in adjacent living spaces or from mechanical noise, travels
through air, walls, floors and ceilings. Building-transmitted sound can come from occupants in
living spaces above, or low frequency noise transferred through the ground and buildings.

3.2.1 Interior

Sound source

When there are event happening in the Sime Darby Convention Center’s auditorium, sound
may come from the music from speaker, person who is giving speech and etc.

Presenter

Speaker
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

The interior sounds are enhance via the public address (PA) system, include input and output
components which are the microphone, mobile speakers as well as the mixer.

Microphone PA speaker

Mixer

The location of the components are as following:

Mixer

Speaker

Microphone
Location of components
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

Unwanted sound source

Unwanted sounds are the sound that is not produced to purpose of the event. These sounds
are categorized as noise. Noises may be coming from the air conditioner, audience chit
chatting, walking down the steps, the opening and closing of the seats and etc.

Air-conditioner

Audience

Walking on the steps


A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

2.2.2 Exterior

Sound Intrusion

Noise entering from the exterior of the auditorium is also known as sound intrusion. From the
diagram below, the yellow highlighted area shows the corridor outside the hall. We conclude
that when there are no event happens at the hall, there are minimal sound intrusion from the
exterior due to the enclosed spaces and lower user at the lower ground floor. They are no
openings at that corridor that allow sound intrusion from exterior into the hall. All the doors at
other rooms are closed. Also, the flooring materials used at the corridor are carpets that
absorbs sound.

Corridor

Sound Intrusion

Floor Plans of Site with Highlighted Corridor

The red highlighted shows the sound intrusion that there are users at that level. The sound
intrusion at the corridor are when people passing by the hall. There are minimal sound
intrusion into the hall but it only intrude before the seatings. The other possible sound
intrusion is from the right side of the hall, which has a door next to the stage. Sound intrusion
happens when there are users using the room and the sound intrude from the door.
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

2.3 Sound Propagation


Sound is a succession of waves of pressure which propagates through compressible media, for example,
air or water. Sound can proliferate through solids too, however there are extra methods of engendering.
During their propagation, waves can be reflected, refracted, or attenuated by the medium.

2.3.1 Sound Sources Location

When a person is giving a speech, the coverage area where the audience can hear clearly is only
focused at the center area of the seats.

Speech

However, when the presenter is giving speech using the microphone, the sound comes out from
the 2 speakers cover a wider area as compared to speech without microphone.

Speech using sound amplifying system


A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

2.3.2 Sound Travel Path

Sound path is the path showing the direction of sound travels out of different sources. Sound path is
controlled within an enclosed area whereas sound path of outdoor sounds are affected by spreading,
absorption, ground configuration, obstacles, wind, pressure and etc.

Sound Propagation from center

Sound Propagation from Speakers at the side.


A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

Sound reflection through tilted ceiling, properly tilted ceilings can contribute more useful sound
reflections. Reflections may be used in room acoustics to distribute and reinforcements sounds.

Sound Propagation from Center through Ceiling


A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

2.3.2 Sound Shadow Area


Sound path is the path showing the direction of sound travels out of different sources. Sound path is
controlled within an enclosed area whereas sound path of outdoor sounds are affected by spreading,
absorption, ground configuration, obstacles, wind, pressure and etc.

Corners that create sound shadow

Sound shadow diagram

Sound shadow is a region of relative silence behind a screen opaque to sound waves,area that is blocking
sound transmission by a non-transmitting object. The sound shadow cast by the head enables humans to
locate the source and direction of the sound.
The collected data shown that the intensity level at this two area is 44 dB which drop from 54 dB. This is
because this two area is located at the left and right corner of the auditorium, this area is blocked by the
timber wall and created a small angled corner which only transmits weak sound wave to here.
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

4
SOUND METER READING
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

4.0 Sound Meter Reading


The readings of the sound are taken from air-conditioned hall, from different position of the seats at a
normal speech level without using microphone and with usage of microphone.

Reading without microphone

Reading with Microphone


Low High

Sound Meter Reading


A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

5
REVERBERATION TIME (RT)
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

5.0 Reverberation Time On Acoustic


Reverberation Time (RT)

The reverberation time can be said to be a measure of a room’s echo since it is the time that it takes
for a sound to decrease with 60 dB from its original sound level.

3360mm

5300mm 4930mm

Sime Darby lower auditorium section

Area of Sime Darby Auditorium: 293m2


Area of Auditorium ceiling : 293m2
Height of Sime Darby Auditorium at main entrance: 3.36 m
Height of Sime Darby Auditorium: 5.3 m
Height of Sime Darby Auditorium at stage area :4.93 m
Volume Sime Darby Auditorium: (3.36m +5.3m)/2 x 293m2= 1268.69m3
Amount of Fabric Panels : 146, total area: 146 x(1m x 0.6m)= 87.6m2
Total Area of Timber Gypsum Wall board :(8+21.12+16.32+12.32)m2= 57.76m2
Area of Gypsum Plaster Wall board:(16.42m x 4.9m)= 80m2
Seating Capacity: 180 pax
Padded Cushioned Seating total area: (0.4m x 0.6m)x 181= 43.44m2
Amount of Acoustic Timber Doors:2, area : 1.57m x 2m= 3.14 m2
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

Materiality Absorption Coefficient Table


Surface Area (m2) 500HZ

Absorption coefficient Abs. units (m2 sabins)

Ceiling

Gypsum Plaster Board 293 0.15 43.95

Wall

Timber Gypsum Wall Board 57.76 0.08 4.62

Gypsum Plaster Wall Board 80 0.15 12

Fabric Panel 87.6 0.3 26.28

Curtain hung close to wall 49.28 0.25 12.32

Openings

Acoustic Timber Door 6.28 0.44 2.76

Flooring

Carpet, thin, over thin felt on 293 0.25 73.25


concrete floor

Others

Cloth Cushioned Seating 43.44 0.26 11.29

Occupants 180 0.46 82.8

Total Absorption (A) 269.27

* Absorption coefficient taken from http://www.acoustic.ua/st/web_absorption_data_eng.pdf

The reverberation time (T) can be calculated simply from the room’s volume (V) and absorption area (A) through
Sabine’s formula,

RT= 0.16(1268.69)/ 269.27


= 0.75 sec
The reverberation time for SDCC Auditorium is 0.75sec. Since it is used as a small usage of speech purposes
(RT0.75), the RT is considered in range.
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

6
CONCLUSION
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

6.0 CONCLUSION
6.1 Recommendation
In a conclusion, there are few functions in acoustical design consideration of rooms for speech
when rooms are used primarily for speech, intelligibility must be given top priority.
The reverberation time for SDCC Auditorium is 0.75sec. Since it is used as a small usage of
speech purposes (RT0.75), the RT is considered in range.

General of reverberation time

Throughout this project, we have learned the importance of architectural acoustic design.
Acoustic plays a role in enhancing the quality of sound and silence noise and undesired sound. A
successful acoustic design should depend the types of usage and function of the place then
apply corresponding acoustic design element that involved in types of construction materials,
types of absorption material, types of acoustic features. After site visit and carry out our
research, we learnt about material absorption coefficient, sound reflection, sound propagation
and others, that we also learnt calculation of reverberation time. We have a fruitful lesson from
this project.

SDCC Auditorium is a fan shape (with straight walls) auditorium that have a less diffuse early
sound field that causes larger seat‐to‐seat variations in acoustical quality and a systematic
variation in acoustical characteristics from the front to the rear of the hall. According to the
research above, SDCC Auditorium is a successful acoustical speech hall as it qualified the
recommended range of speech hall RT (0.75RT) by achieving in acoustical materiality and
acoustical features.
A Case Study on Acoustic Design : Sime Darby Convention Centre Auditorium

7.0 References

Mishra, P. (2015, August 08). Importance of INTERIOR ACOUSTICS for Architect and Interior Designer.
Retrieved from
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/importance-interior-acoustics-architect-designer-praveen-mishra/

Acoustical Requirements for Auditorium Design | Auditorium Acoustics Design. (2018, April 09).
Retrieved from https://www.controlnoise.com/2017/09/29/auditorium-acoustics-design-now/

Sime Darby Convention Centre. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.simedarbyhospitality.com/sdcc

Sime Darby Property. (n.d.). Retrieved from


https://www.simedarbyproperty.com/sime-darby-convention-centre

Indoor noise – Daylight, Energy and Indoor Climate Book. (n.d.). Retrieved from
https://www.velux.com/deic/acoustics/indoor-noise

Propagation of Sound. (n.d.). Retrieved from


http://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/noise_education/web/text/ENG_EPD_HTML/m1/intro_6.html

Theatre Solutions Inc., & Theatre Solutions Inc. (2017, June 30). Auditorium Design: Complete Intro
Guide. Retrieved April 25, 2018, from http://www.theatresolutions.net/auditorium-design/

J., N., Chauhan, R., S., & Theatre Solutions Inc. (2017, June 30). Auditorium Seating Layout &
Dimensions Guide. Retrieved May 27, 2018, from
http://www.theatresolutions.net/auditorium-seating-layout/

(n.d.). Retrieved April 23, 2018, from


https://www.customaudiodirect.co.uk/soundproofing-help-articles/noise-control-for-village-halls

Gade, A. C. (1970, January 01). Acoustics in Halls for Speech and Music. Retrieved May 1, 2018, from
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4939-0755-7_9