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UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE INGENIERÍA LIMA-PERÚ

Facultad de Ingeniería Civil

SEISMIC MICROZONATION OF
LIMA CITY

GEOTECHNICAL LABORATORY – CISMID

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
GRUPO DE INVESTIGADORES DEL LABORATORIO GEOTÉCNICO

ASESORES: BACHILLERES TÉCNICOS:


Dr. Jorge Alva Hurtado Bach. Ramilo Piedra Rubio Víctor Valenzuela Palomino
M.I. Alberto Martinez Vargas Bach. Doris Veneros Julio Olavarría Olavarría
JEFE DE PROYECTO: Bach. Juan Franco Zenozaín Tomás Guerrero Asencio
Dr. Zenón Aguilar Bardales Bach. César Luna Farah Marco Antonio Rivera
INGENIEROS: Bach. Diana Calderón Cahuana José Bonifacio Pérez
Ing. David Luna Durán Bach. Marlene Limaymanta Pilar Ramos Aguilar
Ing. Milagro Castro Cuba Valencia Bach. Yeseña Cantoral
Ing. Luis Chang Chang Bach. Juan Pablo Aldaba
Ing. Martín Rodriguez Trujillo Bach. Jorge Chávez Obregón
Ing. Fernando Lázares La Rosa Bach. José Castro Mitac
Ing. Ronald Macazana Erique Bach. Alexei Nájar
Ing. Roberth Aguilar Chuquimuni Bach. Juan Eduardo Velarde
Bach. Erick Bedriñana

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
INTRODUCTION

- This study has been developed by CISMID – FIC – UNI, under the requirement
of the APESEG (Peruvian Association of Insurance Companies).
- Basic information of topography, geology, geomorphology and soil mechanic
has been compiled from former studies. A field exploration campaign was
carried out to verify and complement the soil mechanic information. It included
tests of both, single and array microtremor measurements to determine the
dynamics behavior of soils.
- Based on this information a preliminary five zone microzonation map of Lima
city is proposed, which is in accordance with the type of soils defined by the
seismic design code.

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
8720000

256000

264000

272000

280000

288000

296000

304000

312000

320000
1000
14
00

800

TOPOGRAPHIC MAP OF LIMA CITY


N

0
1 000

80
0
60
12
00

8712000

18
00
16
80

00
14
0

00
10
• Area: 3,924 Km2

00

12
00
0
40

0
60

0
80
0
60

8704000 40
0

800

16
2 00 1000

1400
00
1 200
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• Shore Line of 65 Km.


800

1400

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8696000

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1200
1000
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• Gradient of 4% to 5% in the
0
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ill
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NE-SW direction
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5
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120
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Lurigancho (Chosica) 120 0

Independencia

100
San Juan de 80

0
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C allao
40

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60
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Lurigancho 400
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0
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8672000
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28

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24
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1 000
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CONTORNOS BATIMÉTRICOS
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20
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60 0

60 0

Lurin

Instituto Geográfico Nacional (1999)


40
0

8640000 CARRETERA
Dolfus (1965) y A. Martínez Vargas (1975)
20
0

PU N TA H ERMO SA

0 4 8 Km

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
GEOLOGIC MAP OF LIMA CITY
• Lima is located in the dejection
cone of Rimac and Chillon
Rivers.
• The alluvial deposits have a
thickness of 400 to 600 m.

INGEMMET (1992)
Ing. A. Martínez Vargas (1975)

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
GEOMORPHOLOGIC MAP OF
LIMA CITY

Ing. A. Martínez Vargas (1975)

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
UNDERGROUND WATER
TABLE IN LIMA CITY
• In the Rimac basin the ground-
water table depth ranges from 5
to 70 m.
• In the Chillon basin the ground
water table depth ranges from 5
to 40 m.

Ing. A. Martínez Vargas (1971)

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
GEOTECHNICAL EXPLORATION

A large number of soil mechanic studies were compiled to evaluate the


mechanical behavior of the different types of soils. Furthermore, to verify
and complement the compiled information, a geotechnical exploration
program was carried out in each of the 42 district that were studied.
Manhole pits, SPT and DPL tests were carried out according to the type
of soil and the quality of the available information.

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
GEOTECHNICAL EXPLORATION IN
SAN MARTÍN DE PORRES DISTRICT

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
GEOTECHNICAL EXPLORATION IN
SAN JUAN DE LURIGANCHO – CHOSICA DISTRICT

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
GEOTECHNICAL EXPLORATION IN
ANCÓN DISTRICT

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
GEOTECHNICAL EXPLORATION IN
BARRANCO DISTRICT

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILS
To define the geotechnical characteristics of the soils a Type of Soil Map
was developed, zoning the study area according to the following criteria:

ALLUVIAL GRAVEL :
This zone is conformed by thick alluvial deposits of the Rimac basin and of
some sector of Chillon and Lurin basins. This type of soil covers a large
portion of the study area, and present a good geomechanic behavior.

COLLUVIAL GRAVEL:
This zone is conformed by colluvial gravel that covers the hills slopes and
the lower part of the outcropping rock that surrounds the city. These soil
deposits present similar behavior than the alluvial gravel, however, in some
sector they are cemented by soluble salts that make them collapsibles.

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
SAND AND SILT DEPOSITS WITH THICKNESS 10 m OR LESS:
In this zone the alluvial gravel is covered by a 3 to 10 m thick sandy or silty
soil deposit, that conform the bearing layer of shallow foundation of
conventional structures.

SAND AND SILT DEPOSITS WITH THICKNESS FROM 10 TO 20 m:


In this zone the alluvial or colluvial gravel is covered by a 10 to 20 m thick
sandy or silty soil deposit, which increase the dynamic response of the
structures.

SAND AND SILT DEPOSITS WITH THICKNESS LARGER THAN 20 m:


In this zone the alluvial or colluvial gravel is covered by a sandy or silty soil
deposit with thickness larger than 20 m. The seismic amplification due to the
thickness and the basin effect in this area has generated large damage to
structures in past earthquakes.

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
CLAY AND ORGANIC SOIL DEPOSITS WITH THICKNESS 10 m 0R LESS:
This zone is conformed by a sandy silt or clay with highly organic soils and peat,
which thickness is less than 10 m, and the groundwater table is 1 to 3 m depth.
Underlying are the alluvial gravel of the Rimac and Chillon basin.

THICK LAYERS OF GRAVEL AND CLAY:


This zone is conformed by a thick layer of gravel (10 to 20 m) that overlies a thick
layer of clay. The gravel and clay layers alternate in depth. The groundwater
table is 1 to 3 m depth.

SOFT CLAY:
This zone is conformed by a 5 to 15 m thick layer of soft saturated clay and
organic soils. The groundwater table is 1 to 2 m depth. Underlying are the thick
layers of gravel and clay that alternate in depth.

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
EOLIC SAND:
This zone is conformed by loose sandy soils of variable thickness, transported
by the wind and deposited on the hills slopes. In several places they are
cemented by soluble salts and present collapsible behavior.

SWAMPY SOILS:

This zone is conformed by clayish and organic soils where the groundwater table
is at the surface. This soils present high compressibility and very low bearing
capacity.
CLIFFS OF LIMA:
This zone is conformed by a 100.0 m width stripe along the shore, that
constitute a discontinuity with 70 m high slopes. Besides it is conformed by firm
alluvial gravel, seismic amplification and permanent deformation are expected
during large earthquakes.

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
MARINE SAND DEPOSITS:

Stripe of beach conformed by saturated loose sand, that are potentially


licuefactable under ground shaking.

SOLID WASTE DEPOSITS:


This zone is conformed by solid waste deposits with thickness of 5 to 15 m, that
formerly were located outside the urban area and at the present were urbanized.
They present an erratic behavior and should not be used as ground foundation
without treatment.

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
MAP OF TYPE OF SOILS IN
LIMA CITY

Ing A. Martínez Vargas (1975)


CISMID (2003)

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF SOILS

The dynamic behavior of soils was evaluated using microtremor measurements


and SPAC analysis of array microtremor measurements. One-dimensional and
two-dimensional response analysis were performed in places were soil profile
information was available.

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
MICROTREMOR MEASURMENT EQUIPMENT

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
MICROTREMOR ARRAY MEASUREMENT
SPAC METHOD

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
STRUCTURAL SOIL PROFILE

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
ONE DIMENSIONAL RESPONSE ANALYSIS

Vs = 239 m/s p = 18 KN/m3

Vs = 567 m/s p = 20 KN/m3

Vs = 833 m/s p = 22 KN/m3

Vs = 1000 m/s p = 25 KN/m3

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
RESPONSE
SPECTRA
AT LA MOLINA
DISTRICT

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
NORMALIZED SPECTRAL RATIO
ONE DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS – LA PUNTA CALLAO

ENVOLVENTE DE COCIENTES ESPECTRALES NORMALIZADOS ENVOLVENTE DE COCIENTES ESPECTRALES NORMALIZADOS


LA PUNTA-CALLAO LA PUNTA-CALLAO
3 3

2.5 2.5

2 2

Factor de Amplificación
Factor de Amplificación

1.5 1.5

1 1

0.5 0.5

0 0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
Periodo(s) Periodo(s)

sismo 66(0.1g) sismo 70(01g) sismo 74(0.1g) sismo 66(0.2g) sismo 70(0.2g) sismo 74(0.2g) sismo 66(0.3g) sismo 70(0.3g) sismo 74(0.3g) sismo 66(0.4g) sismo 70(0.4g) sismo 74(0.4g)

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SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
TWO DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

STRATIGRAPHIC SOIL PROFILE AT LAS LAGUNAS,


LA MOLINA DISTRICT

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
FEM MESH
Urb. Las Lagunas, La Molina

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
SPECTRAL RATIO AT LAS LAGUNAS,
LA MOLINA

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
STRATIGRAPHIC SOIL PROFILE AT
EL REMANSO – LA MOLINA VIEJA – UNA

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
SPECTRAL RATIO: El Remanso – La Molina Vieja – UNA

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
A NC ÓN
MAP OF DYNAMIC
BEHAVIOR OF SOILS OF
LIMA
Carabayllo

H UAR O C HIR Í
Río Chillón

V entanilla Puente
Piedra

Com as

Los
O livos
Independencia San Juan de
Lurigancho
Lurigancho (Chosica)

Chaclacayo
LEYENDA
Callao
San M artin
de Porres
Rím ac Río Rímac
A te V itarte ZONAS PERIODO SIM BOLO
Carm en de la
Legua Reynoso
Lima
(Cercado)
Santa
A nita
(s)
Breña
Bellavista
La Victoria
L a Perla Pueblo Jesus San
La M olina
ISLA
S AN LOR ENZO
L A PU NTA San M iguel L ibre M aria
Lince
M agdalena San Isidro
Luis Cieneguilla

ZONA I 0.1-0.2
San Borja
del Mar

OC Surquillo

ÉA 0.2-0.3
M iraflores

NO Santiago
de Surco
PA Barranco

rín

San Juan

Lu
FI
de V illa M aria del

o

CO 0.3-0.4
M iraflores Triunfo Pachacamac
Chorrillos

V illa El
ZONA II
C HO RR ILLOS Salvador
0.4-0.5
L urín
n
Lurí
Río

P UNT A H ERM OSA


0.5-0.6
ZONA III
0.6-0.7
CISMID (2004) 0 4 8 Km

G r á fic o r educido
de l 1 /1 00000

ZONA IV >0.7

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
GEOTECHNICAL SEISMIC MICROZONATION OF LIMA CITY

ZONE I: It is conformed by outcropping rock and thick alluvial gravel deposits of


the Rímac y Chillón basin. The predominant period ranges from 0.1 to
0.3 sec. classifying as Type I Soil of the seismic code. This zone covers
a large area of Lima city.
ZONE II: It is conformed by a layer of 3 to 10 m thick sandy and silty soil, that
overlies the alluvial and colluvial gravel . The predominant period ranges
from 0.3 to 0.5 sec. classifying as Type II Soil of the seismic code.
ZONE III: It is conformed by thick and loose sandy and silty soil deposits, mostly of
eolic origin, that cover the northern and the southern part of the
metropolitan area. The predominant period ranges from 0.5 to 0.7 sec.
classifying as Type III Soil of the seismic code.

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
GEOTECHNICAL SEISMIC MICROZONATION OF LIMA CITY

ZONE IV: It is conformed by thick deposits of loose eolic sand, saturated marine
sand and swampy soils. In this zone were also included the deposits of
thick gravel and clay layers located in La Punta and Callao districts, that
present large amplification factors. The predominant period is larger than
0.7 sec. classifying as Type IV Soil of the seismic code.
ZONE V: It is conformed by localized solid waste deposits with thickness of 5 to
15 m that were used as foundation soils, and where several problems
have been reported. In this zone a specific study is required to evaluate
its dynamic behavior, therefore it was classified as Type V Soil, which is
not considered in the seismic code.

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID
A N CÓN

GEOTECHNICAL SEISMIC
MICROZONATION MAP OF
Carabayllo

LIMA CITY
ló n
Puente Piedra
H U ARO CH IRÍ

hil
oC

Ventanilla

Comas

Lurigancho
(Chosica)
Los Olivos
San Juan de
Independencia Lurigancho
Chaclacayo

Callao San Río Rím ac


M artin de Ate V itarte
Rimac

LEYENDA
R ío R Porres
ím ac 1
Carmen de la
L egua
Lima (Cercado) Santa Anita

Bellavista Breña
3 La Victoria

LA PU N TA
La Perla
4

San M iguel
Pueblo Jesus
Libre M aria
San
Luis Cieneguilla TIPO
ISLA
SAN LO R EN ZO
OC
Lince
M agdalena San Isidro
La M olina
ZONAS SIM BOLO
ÉA
NO
del M ar
San Borja
2
Surquillo
DE SUELO
PA
M iraflores


FI
Santiago
de Surco ZO NA I S1
CO
Barranco r ín
Lu

San Juan
o

de V illa M aria del


M iraflores Triunfo Pachacamac
Chorrillos
5
ZONA II S2
Villa El
C HO RR ILLOS
Salvador

ZO NA III S3
urín

Lurín
Río L

ZONA IV S4

CISMID (2004) 0 4 8 Km ZONA V Rellenos de desm onte 1


G ráfico reducido
del 1/100000
basura ubicados

CENTRO PERUANO JAPONÉS DE INVESTIGACIONES


SÍSMICAS Y MITIGACIÓN DE DESASTRES - CISMID