You are on page 1of 63

GSC TCAP Process—A-Z

Teacher Candidate: Certification Program:

Jasmine Race Elementary Education/General Special Education

Email: Phone Number:

jasminemr@gmail.com 603-203-7321

FPF: Supervising Practitioner:

Diane Lurvey Lisa Place

STRAND 1: Contextualizing Learners

A. Write a scholarly philosophy of education for your specific endorsement area, complete
with citations of research and professional literature (1 page). List all sources cited in your
philosophy (section Y below).

Philosophy of Education

Education has changed so much over the years, and with that came changes in what is expected of both

teachers and learners. Even from the time that I attended school, education has taken a drastic turn, which has

both positive and negative connotations. These changes have not only affected the regular education

classrooms, but also the special education classrooms. I have looked at the various strategies and methods that

I’ve seen in the classroom, both from my own schooling and my career, and came up with my own philosophy

of education that focuses on gradual release methods, student choice, and creating respectful environments, all

of which aligns with my values and goals for myself and my students.

One of the most important things that I want my students to take away from being in my classroom is

the idea of being a lifelong learner. I want to model for them my own lifelong learning goals, and I hope to

1
inspire them to do the same. I also want my students to enjoy learning and show pride in the accomplishments

they produce. At the same time, I want them to know that mistakes do happen, and that this is all a part of the

process of learning. I think one of the best ways to accomplish this in the classroom is through a gradual release

model. This instructional practice focuses on transferring responsibility of the learning from the teacher onto the

students. Through this method of teaching, I know that I can accommodate all my students and their variety of

needs as well as being sure to address the Common Core Standards (Fisher, 2008).

I also believe that students should have a choice in their education. Students should be responsible for

their own learning, and giving them choices encourages them to achieve that responsibility. This strategy also

allows for differentiation by providing students with a variety of ways to show their mastery and understanding

(Draeger & Wilson, 2016). I want my students to feel empowered by their learning, as I believe it is this sense

of empowerment and pride that drive students to continue their education. Many students get stuck going

through the motions of schooling, but by providing students with choices regarding their learning, every student

can shine.

One thing that I realized is very important to me is the idea of creating a positive, caring, and safe

environment for my students. Many students come to school seeking the love and support that they do not see at

home. I want my students to feel welcome as soon as they walk through the classroom door on the first day of

school. I also want to make sure that all my students have respect for themselves and respect for others. This

begins with the educators and staff of the school. If students see adults modeling appropriate and respectful

relationships with each other, eventually they, too, will begin to emanate this behavior. If they are constantly

bombarded with inappropriate behaviors, they are going to reflect that. One way to foster a safe and respectful

classroom is to ensure that there are logical and consistent consequences for when behaviors are presented

outside of the established classroom rules of conduct (Parrett & Budge, 2012). I see many students suffer from

lack of respect from their peers, and it takes a negative toll on their education, as well as others’ education in the

classroom. I want my students to understand that, although not everyone is going to be your friend, you can still

show them respect.

2
Just like education, my philosophy of education has changed over the years. When I began this path

toward my teacher certification, my philosophy of education was completely different. I think that lifelong

learning played a huge role in my current philosophy, and I this is why I want my students to display a similar

love for learning. Students should feel empowered in their education through the choices they are able to make

and the ability to accomplish tasks independently. This, along with a safe and respectful learning environment,

would describe the idea of my perfect teaching scenario, where the values and goals of my philosophy of

education can be at the forefront of my students’ education.

B. Briefly provide general contextual information for the school in which you will be doing
your 3-5 lessons. Begin by describing attributes of the greater community, then narrow
your focus to discuss the school population. Finally, describe the general characteristics of
the classroom in which your lessons will occur. Some contextual details might include (e.g.,
public, private, magnet, charter, etc.), grade levels, number of students, and any other
characteristics of the school or its community that may be pertinent. If the community has
relevant demographic or other circumstances that would influence your instructional
decisions, note them as appropriate. (1-page max.)
SAU 37 is a large school district in Manchester, New Hampshire, featuring fourteen elementary schools,
servicing kindergarten through fifth grade, four middle schools, servicing sixth through eighth grade, and four
high schools, one of which is a school of technology, servicing ninth through twelfth grade. Northwest
Elementary School, the school that I work at and will complete my teaching experience with, is one of the
larger ones, featuring about 650 students. The average class size varies by grade level, with third grade having
the highest population of students with 30 to a classroom. The other grades average between 20 and 24 students.
We also have a high population of special needs students. There are many students in our school that have a
great number of tardies or absences for the school year, which affects their learning greatly. Our school also
features a variety of students from both ends of the economic spectrum, with some students getting free or
reduced lunches. There are also many students who come from non-English speaking homes, or homes where
English is the second language.
The teachers at our school are given a 30-minute lunch and a 45-minute prep period during student
specials each day. Teams will often meet during the prep period, but the specials do not always line up
accordingly. Meetings are often held during these periods as well, leaving many teachers to prep before or after
school. We also seem to have a high number of staff absences, which may be due to low pay, high demands,
and contract negotiations that left teachers making less than they should be. This, accompanied with a lack of
substitutes for the district, has made some days challenging, and forcing other educators to take over a
classroom, thus taking away from their own students. However, the professional learning network available to

3
me is astounding. No matter who you turn to, whether it be the speech therapist, occupational therapist, physical
therapist, social worker, guidance counselor, administration, and other educators, everyone is very willing to
help each other out.
The classroom that I work in is a third-grade classroom featuring 29 students. We originally had 30
students, but 1 student moved away. Our classroom does not allow for much space due to the number of desks
that are in the classroom. We do have two kidney tables (one of which is missing a leg and sometimes tips
over), and a space for a small group gathering. Currently, I work with anywhere between three to ten different
students a day, while also assisting others with their needs. Lately, it’s been difficult to work with many of them
due to Smarter Balanced and NWEA testing. With all the testing, it’s hard to address every students’ needs
accordingly.
Our current schedule consists of a 15-minute block in the morning for students to practice math facts.
Then, half the class goes to the computer lab for thirty minutes to do reading intervention on I-Ready. During
this time, the classroom teacher meets with the rest of the students. When the students come back from I-Ready,
it is snack and Reader’s Workshop. Once reading is complete, we move onto writing and/or word work. This is
the time that many students get pulled for speech or occupational therapy services. Students then have lunch and
recess, followed by special. Once special is complete, about half of the class goes back to the computer lab for
math intervention on I-Ready. This goes on for thirty minutes before they return to the class to receive
instruction in math. The last half an hour of the day is supposed to be devoted to science or social studies, but
with the amount of kids leaving the room during the day, it’s often hard to complete the necessary reading and
math lessons during their specified time slots, and they will often spill over into this time.

C. Student Profiles

Case Study Student # 1: AC


Age: 9
Grade: third
Gender: female
Primary Language: English

Identified IEP Academic Goal: By December 2017, when given a third-grade fluency probe, AC will recall 3
important events with 2 or less adult prompts, as measured by bi-weekly quizzes by a certified educator.

Identified IEP Functional Goal: By December 2017, AC will attend to teacher directed activities by looking
and participating for 30 minutes, in 4 out of 5 opportunities, as measured by observations and a checklist.

Measurable Learning Objectives for this unit:


Functional: By the end of the unit, AC will attend to teacher-direct activities by looking and
participating for 10 minutes, in 2 out of 3 opportunities, as measured by observations and a checklist.

Academic: By the end of the unit, AC will recall 2 important events and make a connection with the
text, with 2 or less adult prompts, as measured by completion of the graphic organizer.
4
Case Study Student # 2: JV
Age: 8
Grade: third
Gender: male
Primary Language: English

Identified IEP Academic Goal: By June 2017, when given a third-grade fluency probe, JV will read with 94%
accuracy, as measured by observations and quizzes.

Identified IEP Functional Goal: By June 2017, with the support of staff and accommodations, JV will
participate in nonpreferred activities such as whole class instruction, for a duration of at least 10 consecutive
minutes, as measured by an observational probe two weeks prior to each grading period.

Measurable Learning Objectives for this unit:


Functional: By the end of the unit, with the support of staff and accommodations, JV will participate in
nonpreferred activities, such as whole class instruction, for a duration of at least 7 consecutive minutes,
as measured by observations and a checklist.

Academic: By the end of the unit, JV will complete the graphic organizer, using information from the
text, with 85% accuracy, as measured by the completion of the graphic organizer.

C. Classroom Profile Form

5
Specific Services
504 = Legal
Accommodation
for a Student

APE = Adaptive
Physical Education

DHH = Deaf—
Hard of Hearing

GATE = Gifted or
Talented Education
Student Primary ELL MED = Medical
Names Additional Information
Language Level Condition

RSP = Reading
Specialist Program

S/L = Speech or
Language Therapy

SP = Special
Education IEP

SST = Student
Study Team

T1 = Title One

NWEA Reading Score: 187


Reading Level: P
Strengths: writing/art/music
1. AB English n/a n/a Interests: enjoys drawing and creating things
Learning Style(s): visual
Other: parents are divorced; lives with mom

NWEA Reading Score: 219


Reading Level: Q
2. RB Monitor Strengths: reading/writing
English n/a
(Year 2) Interests: reading
Learning Style(s): kinesthetic/read & write

6
NWEA Reading Score: 180
Reading Level: P
Strengths: math/art
Weaknesses: reading comprehension/writing
Interests: creating stories, drawing,
imaginary play
Learning Style(s): visual
Accommodations: present auditory
information in smaller chunks using
clear/concise language; repeat and model
auditory information to aid her ability to
understand and appropriately follow through;
provide modeling and repeated practice to
improve AC’s ability to use appropriate
grammatic structures and expand her sentence
length; needs modeling and repeated practice
to improve her ability to appropriately
respond and verbalize in context with peers
and adults; when introducing new activities,
model, demonstrate, or provide visual cues in
3. AC conjunction with verbal instructions; break
English n/a SP, S/L, MED
down tasks into smaller steps to improve
comprehension; AC responds well to social
stories; alternate lunch in a quiet
environment; allow movement when working,
beyond what is typical for a child her age,
including standing while working, walking
while practicing skills, and laying prone while
completing a task; provide AC with a
visual/written daily schedule to help facilitate
transitions throughout her day; provide a
visual checklist to help increase AC’s
initiation and participation in academic tasks;
allow for sensory breaks incorporated
throughout the day; prior warning to loud
noises (music, fire drills, etc.) and access to
headphones; alternative fire drill procedure;
alternate recess; use of Chromebook to
complete longer writing assignments;
participation in a typing program
Other: diagnosed with Autism; primary
disability labeled as Autism; allergic to

7
peanuts; lives with dad, step-mom, and 3
younger brothers; seeing birth mother causes
high levels of anxiety; attends afterschool
program

8
NWEA Reading Score: 184
Reading Level: P
Strengths: reading/writing
4. JCP English 4.6 n/a Weaknesses: math
Interests: enjoys drawing
Learning Style(s): visual/kinesthetic

NWEA Reading Score: 202


Reading Level: Q
Strengths: reading
Weaknesses: writing/doing something he
5. AD English 4.6 n/a doesn’t want to do
Interests: enjoys having conversations with
peers and adults
Learning Style(s): auditory
Other: attends afterschool program

9
NWEA Reading Score: 189
Reading Level: N
Strengths: writing (with a scribe)/reading/art
Weaknesses: writing (without a scribe)/math
fact fluency/listening
Interests: loves Transformers and video
games; loves to talk about his favorite games
with those who will listen; loves to draw
video game characters and create comic strips
Learning Style(s): visual/kinesthetic
Accommodations: assign shorter tasks and
gradually increase the number over time as
success is demonstrated; break down large
tasks into smaller tasks; break task/skill into
small steps; have LD use a timer in order to
complete tasks within a given period of time;
make frequent checks for work/assignment
6. LD English n/a SP, S/L completion; present one assignment at a time;
provide modeling/language stems and
repeated practice to initiate, maintain, and
seek clarification while participating in
routine and novel conversations; pre-warned
before transitioning using a timer; use of
breaks to self-regulate frustrations; present
expectations clearly before an activity and
define the outcome of the activity; application
of “heavy work” techniques, such as wall
push-ups, body weight exercises, etc. before
participating in activities that require
sustained attention
Other: primary disability labeled as
developmental delay; often falls behind in
schoolwork due to many absences; easily gets
frustrated when something doesn’t go his
way; tough home life

10
NWEA Reading Score: 195
Reading Level: N
Strengths: math/reading
Weaknesses: focusing on topic at hand
7. WD English n/a n/a Interests: enjoys working with a partner or
group to complete a task
Learning Style(s): visual/kinesthetic
Other: attends afterschool program

NWEA Reading Score: 201


Reading Level: Q
Strengths: math/writing
Interests: likes being able to have options
when it comes to learning
Learning Style(s): read & write/kinesthetic
8. CD English n/a S/L Other: often comes in late; may be moving to
New York; parents are divorced after mother
took off; lives with dad, older brother, and
younger sister; very quiet; typically chooses
not to share during group discussions unless
called upon

NWEA Reading Score: 196


Reading Level: O
Strengths: math
9. MF English 4.6 n/a Weaknesses: writing
Interests: enjoy working with others
Learning Style(s): visual

11
NWEA Reading Score: 165
Reading Level: not updated
Strengths: working well with others
Weaknesses: reading/writing
Interests: video games
Learning Style(s): visual/kinesthetic
Accommodations: break tasks/skills into
small steps; provide extra time for completing
assignments; provide opportunities to respond
orally; reduce the number of problems on a
page; allow extra time for oral response;
10. FF English n/a SP, MED allow extra time for written response; ask
student to repeat and explain instructions;
provide frequent feedback; provide hands-on
learning activities
Other: diagnosed with ADD; primary
disability is labeled as Other Health
Impairments; diagnosed with asthma; allergic
to milk; often uses the bathroom to avoid
nonpreferred activities; looks to others to tell
him answers as opposed to solving it himself;
receives special education services for
reading, writing, and math

NWEA Reading Score: 192


Reading Level: P
Strengths: math/physical education
Interests: playing soccer and other sports
11. AH English 4.7 n/a Learning Style(s): kinesthetic
Other: moving to California; does not give
himself enough credit when it comes to
knowing and completing assignments

NWEA Reading Score: 208


Reading Level: Q
Strengths: math/physical education
12. DJ English n/a n/a Interests: playing soccer and other sports
Learning Style(s): visual/kinesthetic
Other: attends afterschool program

12
NWEA Reading Score: 179
Reading Level: O
Strengths: math
Weaknesses: writing/spelling
Interests: enjoys reading preferred texts
Learning Style(s): visual/kinesthetic
13. LJ English n/a n/a Other: new to our school this year; was
tested for a learning disability, but results
were inconclusive; is very capable, but insists
that he requires extra supports; often behaves
like others in the classroom to seek attention
(typically negative)

NWEA Reading Score: 212


Reading Level: Q
Strengths: math/reading/writing
Weaknesses: not giving others a chance to
answer a question or share their thinking
Interests: enjoys reading preferred texts; likes
14. KK English n/a n/a solving challenging math problems
Learning Style(s): kinesthetic
Other: has a hard time staying in one place;
often moves about the classroom during
lessons; knows many answers to questions,
but speaks out of turn

13
NWEA Reading Score: 202
Reading Level: O
Strengths: reading
Interests: working with a partner; helping
other students understand and complete work
Learning Style(s): visual
Accommodations: preferential seating for
optimal auditory/visual access to teacher and
classmates; noise cancelling headphones
when using computer; use of FM system
during instructional settings; have SM’s
attention (eye contact) before beginning a
15. SM English n/a 504, DHH lesson or activity; provide a full view of a
speaker’s face; avoid ‘yes’ or ‘no’ questions;
present directions in short, concreate
segments with visual cues; repeat student
responses/comments so that SM can
understand what was said; environment free
of noises such as fans, fish tanks, noises in
hallways, etc.; sitting with back toward
window to reduce interference in speech
reading from glare
Other: diagnosed with hearing loss; doubts
her abilities although very capable (needs
reassurance)

NWEA Reading Score: 200


Reading Level: R
Strengths: math/art
Interests: enjoys working with others; likes
to show off his abilities
Learning Style(s): visual/kinesthetic
16. KMT English n/a n/a Other: lives with dad, step-mom, and baby
sister; biological mom is a drug addict who is
no longer in the picture; has high anxiety
about home life (resulting in hair loss over
summer); often hides true feelings by
speaking out and behaving rudely

14
NWEA Reading Score: 210
Reading Level: R
Strengths: reading/writing/art
17. JN English n/a n/a Interests: enjoys drawing and writing
Learning Style(s): read & write/kinesthetic
Other: new to our school this year

NWEA Reading Score: 185


Reading Level: not updated
Strengths: math
Weaknesses: reading/writing
Interests: learning new things; creating
things
Learning Style(s): visual/kinesthetic
Accommodations: allow DN to
communicate via pointing/gesturing; impart
no pressure for him to speak; provide a tablet
for writing responses as in accordance with
his ability; seat DN with a familiar
person/buddy; ask DN direct yes/no choice
18. DN English 4.3 SP, S/L, MED questions; avoid open ended
directions/questioning; do not draw attention
to DN when he does verbalize; allow DN
extra time to respond; allow DN to whisper
responses in a more private environment
during assessments; continue to model
appropriate speech sounds and encourage DN
to imitate; pair DN with a buddy/friend
Other: primary disability is labeled as
developmental delay; allergic to peanuts; has
selective mutism, often struggling to
communicate in whole-class situations and in
one-on-one situations; receives special
education services for reading

15
NWEA Reading Score: 182
Reading Level: N
Strengths: enjoys learning; participates in
learning activities enthusiastically
Weaknesses: writing
19. EN English 3.2 n/a Interests: enjoys drawing and working with
others
Learning Style(s): visual/auditory
Other: has been known to steal items from
the classroom; language ability affects
reading and writing ability

NWEA Reading Score: 188


Reading Level: P
Strengths: math
Weaknesses: reading/completing tasks
Interests: enjoys reading preferred texts; likes
working with others
20. LP English n/a n/a Learning Style(s): visual/kinesthetic
Other: has a hard time staying still;
organization is an issue and results in
misplaced work; struggles to complete
independent tasks without reminders; attends
afterschool program

NWEA Reading Score: 207


Reading Level: R
Strengths: writing/art
Interests: enjoys writing stories and drawing
21. TP English n/a MED pictures
Learning Style(s): read & write/kinesthetic
Other: diagnosed with asthma; often loses
track of time when completing an
assignment/project

16
NWEA Reading Score: 192
Reading Level: P
Strengths: math
Weaknesses: completing work
Interests: enjoys physical stimulation
through hugs; collecting objects; working on
the computer
Learning Style(s): auditory/kinesthetic
Other: new to our school this year; previous
22. MPC English n/a SP? (being tested) school listed him as having autism, but there
was no medical documentation; currently
being tested for a disability; often becomes
inappropriate in seeking to touch others;
rarely completes work unless someone walks
him through it, although he is very capable of
completing it; often needs to leave the room
for disrupting the class; has difficulty with his
home life; got kicked-out of afterschool
program

17
NWEA Reading Score: 198
Reading Level: Q
Strengths: math
Weaknesses: writing
Interests: enjoys telling stories; likes
working with an adult to complete
assignments
Learning Style(s): visual/auditory
Accommodations: needs clear understanding
of expectations and consequences; needs
frequent cues and encouragement to stay on
task; limit materials on desk when working;
preferential seating near teacher; sensory
23. CS English n/a 504, MED supports to increase focus; allow a quiet place
to go when completing work to enhance
attention; find opportunities to
compliment/praise CS for appropriate
behaviors/tasks
Other: diagnosed with ADHD; fluctuates
between taking medication and not taking
medication; cannot control the impulse to
speak out of turn; often lies about things
without gaining anything; feels the need to
“tattle” on others, whether involving him or
not; impulses have had a negative impact on
all aspects of learning; attends afterschool
program

NWEA Reading Score: 206


Reading Level: Q
Strengths: reading
Weaknesses: math
24. ARS English n/a n/a Interests: enjoys reading; enjoys working
with a partner or small group to complete a
task; likes to draw
Learning Style(s): read & write/auditory

18
NWEA Reading Score: 195
Reading Level: Q
Strengths: reading
Interests: enjoys sharing life stories with
adults and peers; enjoys working with others;
likes drawing
25. JS English n/a MED Learning Style(s): visual/read & write
Other: diagnosed with chronic constipation;
often becomes distracted with a preferred
activity when trying to complete a
nonpreferred task; often feels the need to
“tattle” on someone, even when the situation
does not involve her

NWEA Reading Score: 207


Reading Level: R
Strengths: math/reading/physical education
26. AAS English n/a n/a Interests: enjoys working with others; likes
to tell stories; likes to draw
Learning Style(s): read & write/kinesthetic

NWEA Reading Score: 199


Reading Level: Q
Strengths: math/physical education/art
Interests: enjoys playing soccer and other
27. RT English n/a MED sports; likes to read; loves to draw
Learning Style(s): read & write/kinesthetic
Other: diagnosed with asthma; attends
afterschool program

NWEA Reading Score: 195


Reading Level: P
Strengths: math/art
Interests: likes to draw; enjoys working with
28. KV 4-5 others
English n/a
(estimate) Learning Style(s): visual/kinesthetic
Other: missed the initial testing window for
EL services, which is why her level is
estimated; attends afterschool program

19
NWEA Reading Score: 171
Reading Level: I
Strengths: math
Weaknesses: reading
Interests: likes to read preferred texts; loves
to draw and create things; likes writing with
the assistance of an adult when spelling words
Learning Style(s): visual/kinesthetic
Accommodations: break down tasks into
smaller steps; frequent exposure and
repetition; allow for quick movement breaks
29. JV English 3.6 SP, MED incorporated throughout day to help promote
self-regulation; alphabet strip easily
accessible, along with visual and verbal cues
to remind JV where to begin when forming
each letter; multi-sensory approach to
enhance participation and performance
Other: primary disability labeled as
developmental delay; diagnosed with ADHD;
struggles with reading comprehension and
decoding words; has a hard time staying
focused and controlling verbal outbursts and
impulses; attends afterschool program

STRAND 2: Planning and Preparing

D. As in section 1c of the RASW, please provide current evidence/data regarding the class
or specific students with whom you will be working.
NWEA Reading
Whole Class:
- Date of Assessment: 05/02/17
- Description of Assessment: The Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress
(MAP) in reading measures a “student’s achievement and academic growth, independent of grade, across time”
(2011 NWEA Measures of Academic Progress Normative Data, 2015). Educators can use this assessment to
keep track of student achievement over the school year, and determine where the students are in accordance
with the normative data provided. By this time of year, students in the third grade should have a score of about
20
199.2.
- Average Score on Assessment: 195
- Weaknesses/Patterns of Error: It was observed that a few of the students were moving through the
assessment rather quickly, and they were made to restart the test. The average scores in reading also dropped
from their mid-year average of 198, but were still above the beginning-of-year scores of 188.

Case Study Student #1:


- Date of Assessment: 05/02/17
- Description of Assessment: The Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress
(MAP) in reading measures a “student’s achievement and academic growth, independent of grade, across time”
(2011 NWEA Measures of Academic Progress Normative Data, 2015). Educators can use this assessment to
keep track of student achievement over the school year, and determine where the students are in accordance
with the normative data provided. By this time of year, students in the third grade should have a score of about
199.2.
- Score on Assessment: 180
- Weaknesses/Patterns of Error: This score translates to be about the same as a beginning to mid-year score
for second graders. It was observed that when faced with a long question or passage, AC would click on a
random answer and move on without reading the question. She would also choose random answers to simply
move on and complete the assessment quickly. When she did read the question, she had difficulty extracting the
current answer from the passage. Her score went down from 182 on the mid-year assessment, but is still up
from her beginning-of-year score of 175.

Case Study Student #2:


- Date of Assessment: 05/02/17
- Description of Assessment: The Northwest Evaluation Association (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress
(MAP) in reading measures a “student’s achievement and academic growth, independent of grade, across time”
(2011 NWEA Measures of Academic Progress Normative Data, 2015). Educators can use this assessment to
keep track of student achievement over the school year, and determine where the students are in accordance
with the normative data provided. By this time of year, students in the third grade should have a score of about
199.2.
- Score on Assessment: 171
- Weaknesses/Patterns of Error: This score translates to be about the same as mid- to end-of-year scores for
first graders. JV often has questions read to him on these types of assessments, but the passages could not be

21
read to him, thus leading to a much lower score. JV would often stay on the same question for about five
minutes before choosing an answer. It is undetermined whether he read the passage or simply guessed the
answers. He was given the opportunity to read the questions aloud and discuss the answers, but the adult that
was working with him had other students to work with as well, resulting in having to complete about half of the
questions independently. For shorter questions and answers, JV seemed to understand what it was asking and
either choose the correct answer or make a choice that made the most sense to him. His scored went up 1 point
from his mid-year score of 170, and considerably up from his beginning-of-year score of 160.

Running Records
Whole Class:
- Date of Assessment: 04/17/17 – 05/18/17
- Description of Assessment: The Fountas & Pinnell Benchmark Assessment Systems (BAS), created by Irene
C. Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell, are used to determine a student’s independent and instructional reading levels.
Also known as running records, these assessments are used to inform instruction and place students in
appropriate reading groups. The assessments come in three different systems, depending on age and ability.
Teachers assess students individually, which allows for a close monitoring of a student’s reading fluency, as
well as an engaging conversation regarding a student’s comprehension of the story (Benchmark Assessment
System (BAS), n.d.).
- Average Reading Level from Assessment: Level P
- Weaknesses/Patterns of Error: This score is consistent with an end of third grade/beginning of fourth grade
reading level.

Case Study Student #1:


- Date of Assessment: 04/17/17 – 05/18/17
- Description of Assessment: The Fountas & Pinnell Benchmark Assessment Systems (BAS), created by Irene
C. Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell, are used to determine a student’s independent and instructional reading levels.
Also known as running records, these assessments are used to inform instruction and place students in
appropriate reading groups. The assessments come in three different systems, depending on age and ability.
Teachers assess students individually, which allows for a close monitoring of a student’s reading fluency, as
well as an engaging conversation regarding a student’s comprehension of the story (Benchmark Assessment
System (BAS), n.d.).
- Score on Assessment: Level P
- Weaknesses/Patterns of Error: This score is consistent with an end of third grade/beginning of fourth grade

22
reading level. AC had a low comprehension level when taking her running record. When she was unsure of a
word, she would whisper it so that the teacher could not hear her say the word incorrectly and then keep on
reading.

Case Study Student #2:


- Date of Assessment: 04/17/17 – 05/18/17
- Description of Assessment: The Fountas & Pinnell Benchmark Assessment Systems (BAS), created by Irene
C. Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell, are used to determine a student’s independent and instructional reading levels.
Also known as running records, these assessments are used to inform instruction and place students in
appropriate reading groups. The assessments come in three different systems, depending on age and ability.
Teachers assess students individually, which allows for a close monitoring of a student’s reading fluency, as
well as an engaging conversation regarding a student’s comprehension of the story (Benchmark Assessment
System (BAS), n.d.).
- Score on Assessment: Level I
- Weaknesses/Patterns of Error: This score is consistent with an end of first grade/beginning of second grade
reading level. JV struggles with comprehension and word decoding strategies.

State the measurable objective for this 3-lesson unit (consistent with section 1b of the
RASW).
Using a graphic organizer, students will organize their responses to the selected literature and compose a three-
five paragraph essay, completed with minimal assistance over three consecutive days, as measured by a third-
grade writing rubric.

Provide an outline of the content to be taught and materials/resources to be used in this


unit.
 recap of “Grandfather’s Journey” by Allen Say
 revisit graphic organizer for “Grandfather’s Journey”
 recap different sections of graphic organizer, specifically making connections
 show “Making Connections” YouTube video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=338VZ7dSeGk)
 read “Tea with Milk” by Allen Say
 have students complete graphic organizer for “Tea with Milk”
 introduce rubric for essay
 have students work on literature response essay
 share essays

23
E. List the Common Core State Standards being addressed in this sequence of lessons.
CCSS:ELA:W:3:1: Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.

CCSS:ELA:W:3:4: With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and
organization are appropriate to task and purpose.

CCSS:ELA:W:3:10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and
shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and
audiences.

CCSS:ELA:SL:3:1: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and


teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own
clearly.

CCSS:ELA:SL:3:2: Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information
presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

CCSS:ELA:L:3:2: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation,


and spelling when writing.

F. Provide baseline data/evidence regarding the current learning capabilities and/or needs
of the students participating in the lesson (consistent with section 1c of the RASW).
5-Paragraph Essays
Whole Class:
- Date of Assessment: 05/16/17 – 05/18/17
- Description of Assessment: The students were asked to prepare a letter to our principal persuading her to
allow for extra recess. The students were to write a traditional five-paragraph essay/letter, including an
introduction, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion. The purpose of this assessment was to gauge students’
understanding of writing five-paragraph essays as a pre-assessment for this unit, and their ability to create a
friendly letter, which was a post-assessment from a previous unit.
- Assessment Data: Out of the 29 students in the class, only 7 could complete this activity independently. Out
of the 7 students who completed it independently, only 2 provided five separate paragraphs. During the
introduction to the assessment and while participating in it, many students became unfocused. Examples of the
unfocused behavior include talking with neighbors, drawing, using the bathroom, and focusing on other
distractions in the room. Some students were not able to complete the assessment due to time constraints.
- Weaknesses/Patterns of Error: Many of the students had never written an essay that required five

24
paragraphs. Out of the 29 students, 22 of the students wrote one paragraph as their letter, with only one reason
as to why the principal should let them have extra recess. After it was determined that the students were not
very strong in this area, the classroom teacher walked the class through each step of the letter, providing much
of the information for them.

Case Study Student #1:


- Date of Assessment: 05/16/17 – 05/18/17
- Description of Assessment: The students were asked to prepare a letter to our principal persuading her to
allow for extra recess. The students were to write a traditional five-paragraph essay/letter, including an
introduction, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion. The purpose of this assessment was to gauge students’
understanding of writing five-paragraph essays as a pre-assessment for this unit, and their ability to create a
friendly letter, which was a post-assessment from a previous unit.
- Assessment Data: could not complete independently
- Weaknesses/Patterns of Error: AC struggled with setting up the friendly letter, as well as providing reasons
as to why there should be extra recess. Once examples of reasons were provided for her, she still could not
come up with supporting details. Once the teacher did it with the whole class, she simply copied what the
teacher had come up with. During the assessment, AC needed to leave the room for 10 minutes due to becoming
frustrated with another student’s behavior. This caused her to become unfocused on the topic at hand. When
returning to the assessment, the instructions needed to be presented again.

Case Study Student #2:


- Date of Assessment: 05/16/17 – 05/18/17
- Description of Assessment: The students were asked to prepare a letter to our principal persuading her to
allow for extra recess. The students were to write a traditional five-paragraph essay/letter, including an
introduction, three body paragraphs, and a conclusion. The purpose of this assessment was to gauge students’
understanding of writing five-paragraph essays as a pre-assessment for this unit, and their ability to create a
friendly letter, which was a post-assessment from a previous unit.
- Assessment Data: could not complete independently
- Weaknesses/Patterns of Error: When the students first began this assessment, JV was not included do to
being pulled for services. When the teacher determined that she needed to walk through the assessment with the
students, JV was present, and simply copied the information from the board. He was not able to completely
copy the information as he did not have time.

25
G. Craft 3-5 reflective questions regarding the current baseline data/evidence and student
learning needs (consistent with column 2 of the RASW).
Whole Class:
- What previous writing instruction have the students had in writing essays?
- How did the students’ inability to focus fully affect the outcome?
- What benefit would having a graphic organizer have on being able to complete the assignment independently?

Case Study Student #1:


- How might providing sentence stems affect AC’s ability to independently complete the assignment?
- How might AC’s environment affect her ability to complete assignments?
- How might minimal assistance from a teacher affect AC’s ability to complete the assignment?

Case Study Student #2:


- What affect would a reintroduction to the assignment have on JV’s ability to complete it independently?
- How might JV benefit from remaining in class for the introduction of an assignment before being pulled for
services?
- What affect would the use of a word processing system have on JV’s ability to complete a writing assignment
in a timely manner?

H. Record your Professional Learning Network’s input regarding your students’ current
baseline data and learning needs (consistent with column 3 of the RASW).
Classroom Teacher:
What previous writing instruction have the students had in writing essays?
After some discussion with the classroom teacher, it was determined that the students have not participated in
many writing assignments this year, and have not really experienced having to write essays that include five
paragraphs. The students who could complete the essays independently were our strongest writers in the class,
and so she feels that they’ve already had extensive practice in this area. However, she agreed that the students
would benefit from further practice in writing essays.

How did the students’ inability to focus fully affect the outcome?
The students in the classroom have a hard time focusing during whole-group instruction. She believes that many

26
of the students were not focused on the introduction to the assignment, and therefore were not fully clear on the
directions. She suggested that the directions be repeated for the students, and once they begin to work
independently, I should check in with some of the ones who are known to lose focus to ensure that they are on
task.

What affect would a reintroduction to the assignment have on JV’s ability to complete it independently?
The classroom teacher agreed that it’s hard to include JV in the assessment data as he was not present for the
introduction of the assignment, and therefore couldn’t possibly know what was expected. She is unsure of
whether or not JV would be able to complete the assignment had he been present, but she did agree that it
would’ve been fair to JV to introduce him to the assignment and explain the expectations before including him
in the whole-group aspect of it, as it would’ve given him a chance to show his understanding.

Special Education Teacher:


What benefit would a graphic organizer have on the completion of the assignment independently?
Although students have had little practice writing essays, they have had less time practicing using graphic
organizers. I was discussing the use of implementing a graphic organizer into my lessons, and how that would
benefit many of the students. She mentioned that one of the students becomes frustrated when he is required to
fill in a graphic organizer and then “copy” the information onto a final draft. She suggested that he does fill in
the graphic organizer, but that he be allowed to either type his final copy or use a scribe to complete the writing.

How might providing sentence stems affect AC’s ability to independently complete the assignment?
When AC is required to write, it is observed that she struggles with beginning a writing piece. She becomes
frustrated because she is unsure of exactly what is expected of her. In second grade, AC was often provided
with story starters for her to successfully begin writing. The special educator noted that it would be helpful to
provide AC with some sort of sentence stem for her to become independent in completing her writing
assignments.

How might JV benefit from remaining in class for the introduction of an assignment before being pulled
for services?
Although this would be ideal, it is highly unlikely that this could occur. Most of the time, the special educators
and service specialists are on a tight schedule, and cannot wait around for one student to finish. However, there
have been instances where a student will meet up with the rest of his group after a quiz or test is given. It was
suggested that it would be more beneficial to all parties if JV was given the directions after he returned and was

27
given an allotted time to work on it before moving on to what the rest of the class was doing.

How might minimal assistance from a teacher affect AC’s ability to complete the assignment?
When AC is asked to work independently, she often becomes frustrated and displays inappropriate behavior,
such as yelling out and slamming the desk. This behavior is also displayed when a teacher moves from assisting
her to assisting another student. Typically, once AC is comfortable with her ability to complete an assignment
independently, these behaviors are rarely seen. It was suggested that AC be given assistance by a teacher at the
beginning of an assignment to ensure that she knows the expectations. Once she feels confident in completing
it, the teacher can slowly make her way to assist other students, leaving AC to work independently. If AC gets
stuck, she will know that the teacher will be right over to assist her.

Behavior Specialist:
How might AC’s environment affect her ability to complete assignments?
When another student in the classroom becomes disruptive or frustrated, AC often acts on impulse and copies
the student or lashes out at the teachers(s) handling the situation. This is something that AC has struggled with
during her entire schooling career. The behavior specialist suggested introducing AC to a social story about
when other students become disruptive or upset in the classroom, and the tools that she can use instead of
copying the behavior or becoming aggressive towards others. The behavior specialist believes that this is the
first step in solving the tremulous environment that can occur in the classroom.

Occupational Therapist:
What affect would the use of a word processing system have on JV’s ability to complete a writing
assignment in a timely manner?
When speaking with the occupational therapist regarding the use of a computer for JV to complete writing, she
thought it was not a good idea. She has worked with JV on typing, and found that he has very poor typing skills.
She felt that it would take JV longer if he were required to type it. She suggested that it may be beneficial for JV
to use the voice-typing feature instead so that he can simply say what he wants to write. However, after a
discussion about this, we concluded that it may not be a good idea, either, as his accent and speech abilities may
produce inaccurate wordings in the writing.

Lesson Plan Key


black text = original lesson plan
blue text = revised/taught lesson
green text = added during the lesson
red text = case study students/collected student samples
28
I-1. LESSON PLAN #1:

Measurable Objective:
When presented with a recap of graphic organizers and an in-depth look at making connections, students will be
able to apply their knowledge of making connections between texts and the importance of it in responding to
literature, independently, as measured by observations of discussions and individual responses on sticky notes.

Content:
What Prior Knowledge and understanding do students need to be successful in this lesson?
The students must understand the text previously read, “Grandfather’s Journey.” Students must also be familiar
with the graphic organizer that was used to compile information from the text, and why it is an essential step in
writing a response to literature essay.

What Essential Questions does this lesson address?


 What was “Grandfather’s Journey” about?
 How can the use of a graphic organizer benefit the writing of an essay?
 What are the components of a graphic organizer?
 How can we use this graphic organizer for other texts?
 What does it mean to “make connections” to a text?

List the Specific Skills students will acquire during this lesson that will progress them
toward mastery of the lesson/unit objective:
 Identifying the benefits of using a graphic organizer to formulate ideas.
 Describing and sharing the components of a graphic organizer.
 Determining what each component of a graphic organizer is used for.
 Applying the use of a graphic organizer to future texts.
 Making connections to a text.

List the Aligned Resources you will use during this lesson:
 “Tea with Milk” by Allen Say
 “Making Connections” YouTube video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=338VZ7dSeGk)
 graphic organizer template (see Appendix A)
29
 sticky notes (see Appendix F)
 FM System

Lesson Detail:
Systematic Introduction of Lesson (Anticipated Length: 5 minutes (3 minutes)):
I will introduce the lesson by activating the prior knowledge of a text that was previously read (“Grandfather’s
Journey” by Allen Say) and how we respond to literature. I will remind them of the graphic organizer that we
completed as a class. I will ask the students why using a graphic organizer is beneficial to our writing. Students
will turn and talk with a partner about their thinking. I will then ask a few pairs to share their thinking. I will
then ask students if they agree or disagree by a show of thumbs up or thumbs down. I will then explain to them
that we are going to continue the author study on Allen Say by reading another book called “Tea with Milk.” I
will also explain that the students will be completing a graphic organizer with information from “Tea with
Milk” that will be helpful for them to complete a response to literature essay.

The beginning of the lesson will include an explanation that we will be continuing our author study. Ask: “Who
is the author we’re studying?” (Response: Allen Say). Ask: “What previous texts have we read by Allen Say?”
(Response: “Tree of Cranes” and “Grandfather’s Journey”). Introduce the book “Tea with Milk.” Ask: “Who is
the illustrator of this book?” (Response: Allen Say).

Systematic Body of Lesson (Anticipated Length: 30 (40 minutes)):


I will begin reading “Tea with Milk” by Allen Say, pausing to ask and answer any questions. Once the text is
complete, I will ask students about any connections they had to previous texts. I will also ask students about
what it means to make connections and what they already know about it. Have you made connections with texts
before? I will then play the “Making Connections” YouTube video. I will ask students what they’ve learned
about making connections with a text that they did not previously think about. I will also ask the students why it
may be important to make connections when completing an author’s study.

Begin reading “Tea with Milk,” pausing to ask and answer questions whenever appropriate. Reintroduce
graphic organizer that was discussed on previous day. Ask: “What is a graphic organizer?” “What’s a response
to literature?” Explain that responding to literature is a way to connect to books that are read. Ask: “Can you
name some of the parts of the graphic organizer that we had discussed?” Introduce the idea of making
connections with a text. (Added during lesson due to downtime from computer malfunction: “Turn and talk
with a partner about a connection that you made to the text.”) Play the “Making Connections” YouTube video.
Introduce teacher-created Response to Literature Graphic Organizer for “Grandfather’s Journey” on chart
paper. Discuss responses and other options that could have been included. Go over the connection section of
teacher-created graphic organizer. Discuss conclusion section of graphic organizer.

Systematic Closing of Lesson (Anticipated Length: 10 minutes (5 minutes)):

30
I will remind students of how helpful graphic organizers are in organizing our thoughts, which includes any
connections we have made with the text. I will then have students write down one connection they have made
to either “Grandfather’s Journey” or “Tea with Milk” and pass it in to me.

Remind students that we use a graphic organizer to help set-up and organize our thinking before writing a
response to literature. Pass out sticky notes. Have students write a connection to “Tea with Milk” on the sticky
note. Have them pass them in (see Appendix F).

Describe the strategies you will use to provide Equity for diverse individual student needs
and how these strategies will increase the success of all students.
During the lesson, I will be sure to meet the needs of all my students. I will reintroduce the graphic organizer
that they will be using for their essay, as well as a discussion of the various parts to ensure understanding. I will
also use the turn-and-talk as a way for every student to be able to share their thinking. The use of a video
explaining making connections allows for those students who focus better on videos to fully grasp the concepts.
I will also be sure to use appropriate wait time when asking for responses to questions. Students will be able to
show their understanding both orally and through writing.

Assessment: Describe how you will assess students’ progression toward mastery of the
lesson objective (consistent with section 4b of the RASW).
I will assess students’ verbal responses to the questions I pose to them and make note of students that are
struggling with the concepts. I will also use the discussions posed during the turn-and-talks to determine which
students have a stronger grasp on the concepts and which students need more practice. I will also determine
what students already know about making connections versus what they’ve learned from the video to determine
if the video was beneficial in their learning of the concepts. I will also use the students’ individual sticky notes
to determine if they have the idea of making connections to the text.

Academic Language:
Identify the vocabulary clusters utilized in this lesson.
 graphic organizer
 connections
 text-to-self
 text-to-text
 text-to-world
 response to literature essay

31
Articulate how you will scaffold your instruction to meet variations in students’ language
needs.
During introduction to the various vocabulary and academic terms, I will be sure to provide examples of each
so that the students understand what it is that I’m talking about. When appropriate, I will provide a breakdown
of the vocabulary so that they can understand the word parts and how they fit together to make a word or
phrase.

J1. Proactive Considerations:


Anticipate where adjustments in your teaching may be necessary (in regard to flexibility of
approach, student groupings, and/or accommodations).
Students may require further discussion on “Grandfather’s Journey” and graphic organizers, depending on how
much we get done prior to the lesson. They may also need more practice as a class completing the graphic
organizer and understanding its parts. If this is true, we will complete the quick summary for “Tea with Milk”
together before they move on to completing the rest independently in future lessons. If I notice students are
becoming too rowdy, I will end the turn-and-talk early and model appropriate discussion behavior.

STRAND 3: Instructing Students and Supporting Student Learning

K1. Carry out and record the observed lesson. See GSC Lesson Observation Feedback Tool
(LOFT) for criteria of observed components (consistent with section 4a of the RASW).

STRAND 4: Assessing Student Learning

L1. Describe the student data/evidence that was gathered during this lesson. Be sure to
include new current evidence (consistent with section 1c of the RASW). In your description,
reference and include specific student work samples, any formative assessment tracking
systems, and/or time stamped video, and include them in the appendices.
During the lesson, I made a mental note of who was willing to answer questions, as well as who could give
correct answers. After the lesson, I wrote these names down so that I can be sure to allow other students to
show me what they know as well. I also collected exit slips consisting of a connection that they made with “Tea
with Milk” by Allen Say. Many of the students, 14 out of the 25 that participated, made text-to-self
connections, 5 out of the 25 made text-to-text connections, 2 out of the 25, made text-to-world connections, and
32
4 out of the 25 did not show understanding of making connections with a text. RB made a text-to-self
connection by stating: “I sometimes have tea with milk.” SM made a text-to-self connection by stating: “I ues
(used) to live in Florea (Florida) and she moves to Janan (Japan).” ARS made a text-to-self connection by
stating: “My mom drinks tea and milk.” AC did not complete a connection exit-slip, and JV was pulled for
occupational therapy prior to completing the exit slips (see Appendix F). This shows me that most of the
students are easily able to make text-to-self connections, while other students tried their hand at text-to-text and
text-to-world connections. Knowing that four of the students are not quite able to grasp it shows that I will need
to work a little bit hard with these students to ensure that they are able to make those connections.

M1. Give examples of any written feedback or write a brief summary of oral feedback
provided to individual students and/or the whole group throughout the lesson.
During the lesson, I presented students with oral feedback as they were answering the questions that I posed. I
looked for answers that were correct, such as with predictions of the text and answers to the closed-ended
questions regarding the graphic organizer. I also explained some of the reasons that answers weren’t correct,
such as the incorrect assumption that the man that May married in the text was the same man that her family
tried to match her with previously. I also tried to defer any off-topic discussions that would pop up, such as the
discussion of the Titanic after a student saw the picture of the ship in the book. When students had the
opportunity to turn and talk, I assisted one of the pairs with coming up with a way to determine a connection
that can be made. During the completion of the exit ticket, I also provided some feedback on how the students
could make connections with the text, providing examples such as leaving your home to move somewhere else
or not being able to understand those around you because they speak a different language.

Give examples of how your feedback


a. supported students’ further learning
b. addressed individual students’ needs and learning goals
c. was timely and appropriate
The feedback supported students’ further learning by keeping them on task to what we were discussing. I also
reassured students when they gave correct responses, and explained why a response may be incorrect or not
applicable to what we’re talking about. I also addressed individual students’ needs by working with a couple of
students on determining a connection that they can make with a text. After some discussion on what they could
include, the students were able to come up with a connection to the text, which both addressed their needs and
moved them toward their learning goals. The feedback I provided was timely and appropriate in that the
feedback was presented immediately, and was accurate and beneficial to the students and their learning.

STRAND 5: Reflecting and Growing Professionally

33
N1. To what extent were the students productively engaged in the lesson?
I felt that many of the students were listening to the story, but perhaps not as engaged as I would like. I was
expecting more questions about the text while I was reading. I was genuinely surprised at how quiet the students
were because they have a very hard time sitting in one spot for very long. They also struggle with shouting out
answers when they are speaking out of turn. In that sense, I believe the students were engaged. The students
were also engaged in the video that was played explaining how to make connections with a text. After the
video, the students began to get restless, and I lost a lot of their engagement.

O1. Did the student(s) learn what was intended? How do you know? Were the instructional
objectives met? What data do you have to demonstrate learning?
The students did learn what was intended. I provided the students with the opportunity to show what they know
through the lesson with questioning, but many students were choosing not to participate in answering the
questions. However, the exit slips that I provided, asking the students to make a connection with the text,
showed that most of the students, 21 out of 25, could make text-to-self, text-to-text, or text-to-world
connections with the text. These exit slips showed me that the students could meet the instructional objective.
Four of the students were unable to show their understanding of making connections, and four other students
were either pulled for services or absent before they could present their understanding.

P1. How does the data gathered during this lesson inform your instruction for the next
lesson?
My next lesson was going to begin the process of filling in the graphic organizers. However, due to the data
from this lesson, I may present a recap of making connections by providing students with the opportunity to
make more connections, different than the ones they’ve already demonstrated. This way, I can make sure that
they can make these connections to texts which will provide them with a much deeper understanding of both the
text and the graphic organizer itself.

Q1. Were the objectives and/or instructional plan altered as the lesson(s) was taught? How
did student data inform your decision making?
As the lesson was taught, I did add something that wasn’t in the plan. When the computer was not connecting to
our classroom television, instead of having the students sit there, I had them turn and talk with a partner about a
connection they made with the text. I noticed them begin to get antsy as they were waiting for the video to play,
which led to my decision to keep them engaged somehow. My original lesson plan had also been different than
the one I taught, as we had not had enough time prior to this lesson to discuss and complete a whole-class
graphic organizer. We also didn’t have too much time to discuss graphic organizers prior to this lesson.

R1. How did the resource(s), strategies, etc. that you chose affect the student(s) ability to
meet the lesson objectives?
34
The text that was chosen provided many opportunities for students to make connections to other Allen Say
texts, as well as to themselves and the world. These connections allowed for students to record many insightful
connections on their exit slips, which shows me that they could meet the objective. The “Making Connections”
video was also helpful as the students enjoy watching videos and are typically engaged with them the entire
time. This allows them to get more information about a topic that doesn’t involve me talking to them about it. I
think that the lack of opportunities for the students to be involved and fully engaged in the lesson did affect their
ability to fully comprehend making connections.

S1. If you had the opportunity to teach this lesson again, what would you do differently?
Why?
If I could teach this lesson again, I provide much more opportunities for the students to make connections with
the text as I’m reading it. I would have the students turn and talk about the connections they have made. I think
this will keep them engaged during the lesson and not become too antsy. I would also be sure to clearly state my
objective, as I didn’t clearly touch upon it in my lesson. I would also make sure to provide a copy of the actual
graphic organizers to the students that prefer to look at it while we’re going through it. This will ensure that all
students are able to see and understand the expectations of completing the graphic organizer. At the end of the
lesson, I would also make sure that the students that are challenged to complete more than one connection if
they are able to finish quickly. This will allow for the students who need extra time not to feel rushed and
provide those that finish quickly to expand their knowledge by making more connections.

I-2. LESSON PLAN #2:

Measurable Objective:
State the measurable objective of this lesson. Individual lesson objectives may be the same
as the overall unit objective, or candidates may choose an incremental objective for each of
the three lessons that lead students to mastery of the unit objective.
Using a graphic organizer, students will organize their responses to the selected literature, focusing on including
appropriate connections with the text, and compose a three-paragraph essay, completed with minimal assistance
over three consecutive days, as measured by a third-grade writing rubric.

When given an example, students will complete the first side of the graphic organizer, which includes a quick
summary, topic statement, and evidence from the text, with minimal assistance, as measured by check-ins with
students and a checklist.

Content:
35
What Prior Knowledge and understanding do students need to be successful in this lesson?
Students should understand a graphic organizer and its various parts. Students must also understand the story
“Tea with Milk” by Allen Say and how to connect with the text.

What Essential Questions does this lesson address?


 What is a connection that can be made to “Tea with Milk?”
 What connections can I make between the text and myself, another text, or something in the world?
 How can the use of a graphic organizer benefit the writing of an essay?
 What are the components of a graphic organizer?
 How do I use the information from a graphic organizer in my writing?

List the Specific Skills students will acquire during this lesson that will progress them
toward mastery of the lesson/unit objective:
 Identifying the benefits of using a graphic organizer to formulate ideas.
 Describing and sharing the components of a graphic organizer.
 Determining what each component of a graphic organizer is used for.
 Applying the use of a graphic organizer to future texts.
 Making connections to a text.

List the Aligned Resources you will use during this lesson:
 making connections notes (see Appendix C)
 completed graphic organizer (see Appendix D)
 student checklist (see Appendix E)
 graphic organizer template (see Appendix A)
 pencils
 FM System

Lesson Detail:
Systematic Introduction of Lesson (Anticipated Length: 10 minutes (8 minutes)):
I will assess the students prior understanding of the text “Tea with Milk.” We will discuss any questions that a
student may have regarding the text. I will pass out the graphic organizer template that students will be using to
organize their thinking. I will briefly walk the students through each section of the graphic organizer. Once that
is complete, I will remind students that they will be completing this independently, and it’s not much different
than the one we created as a class. Before I have students begin working on the graphic organizer, I will ask

36
them to show me how they feel regarding their understanding of a graphic organizer by giving me thumbs up or
thumbs down. I will make note of the students who have their thumbs down.

The lesson will begin with the activation of prior knowledge of making connections. Ask: “What are the three
ways that you can make connections with a text?” (Response: text-to-self, text-to-text, text-to-world). (Added
during lesson due to students not remembering the three ways to make connections to text: “Turn and talk with
a partner about the three ways you make a connection to a text.”) Write student responses on the board. Ask:
“Why are making connections with a text important?” (Response: “They help us to become better readers and
have a deeper understanding of the text.”). Pass out notes on making connections. Walk through how the notes
can help make connections. Explain that this thinking will help develop essay, and by the end of these lessons,
they will have created a 3-5 paragraph response to literature. Pass out completed graphic organizer.

Systematic Body of Lesson (Anticipated Length: 25 minutes (22 minutes)):


Once students have begun completing their graphic organizer, I will check-in with the students that had their
thumbs down when assessed of their understanding. I will go over any questions or issues that the student is
having to ensure that they are successful in their completion of the graphic organizer. I will work with the
individual students that I feel made need extra support, such as JV, FF, LJ, AC, LD, and EN. When a student
finishes, I will check-in with them to determine if they understood what was asked of them, and which areas
they need to work on. If they seem to be okay, I will have them begin working on completing their essay.

Walk through the example graphic organizer. (Added during lesson to try and connect them with writing
persuasive essays: “Number the sections with either a 1, 2, or 3, based upon which paragraphs are which.”)
Direct student attention to the last part of the organizer, recommendation, and simply discuss what it means to
recommend something. Ask: “Is there any part that you are confused on? If so, what?” Clarify any
misunderstandings. Students will begin working on completing their graphic organizers. Check in with 2 case-
study students, AC and JV, as well as other struggling students, such as FF, LJ, LD, EN, CS, and MPC.

Systematic Close of Lesson (Anticipated Length: 15 minutes (3 minutes)):


Once everyone has finished what they were able to complete, we will meet as a whole-group to discuss any
issues that anyone may have had in completing the graphic organizer. I will also ask if any students were
unable to finish it, and determine a time that is appropriate to complete it. I will clarify any questions or
concerns that the students may have. I will remind them that this organizer will be beneficial in writing the final
essay as all the information is presented in one place. I will introduce the rubric for the essay and have the
students circle which area they think they will struggle with the most and which area they think they will excel
in. The students will then return these to me and I will use them when rating their essays. I will close the lesson
by reassuring the importance of being able to respond to literature and making connections, as it allows for
thinking that can be applied elsewhere, such as recommending a text to someone.

37
Determine who still needs to work on completing graphic organizer. Make note of these students to work with
for next lesson. Revisit the idea of creating a response to literature, assuring students that they have the
information in front of them. Have students put graphic organizer and notes into writing folder. Restate how
helpful this graphic organizer will be in completing their response to literature essays.

Describe the strategies you will use to provide Equity for diverse individual student needs
and how these strategies will increase the success of all students.
Knowing that the students have trouble with writing essays and using graphic organizers, I provided them with
a modified version of one created by Nancy Fetzer. I simplified the ideas, as well as provided sentence starters
to get the students thinking. This will be beneficial to my two case study students as I believe they will find it
less frustrating to complete than a normal graphic organizer. I also will provide a copy of my completed graphic
organizer as an example, as well as notes on making connections and ways they can begin thinking about
making connections with the text. I will also be sure to check in with the students who need the most support
during writing to ensure that they are understanding what is expected of them.

Assessment: Describe how you will assess students’ progression toward mastery of the
lesson objective (consistent with section 4b of the RASW).
I will use the students’ knowledge of “Tea with Milk” to determine whether they are ready to begin filling in
their graphic organizer. I will use their responses to their self-assessing their own understanding to determine
which students will need extra support during the writing of their graphic organizer. I will use the students’
responses to their worst and best areas from the rubric to have a better understanding of their thinking going
into writing the essays.

I will use formative assessment to determine who knows what the three ways to make connections to a text are.
I will also observe who is able to begin filling in their graphic organizer and who is struggling to complete the
first parts.

Academic Language:
Identify the vocabulary clusters utilized in this lesson.
 graphic organizer
 connections
 text-to-self
 text-to-text
 text-to-world
 response to literature essay

38
Articulate how you will scaffold your instruction to meet variations in students’ language
needs.
During introduction to the various vocabulary and academic terms, I will be sure to provide examples of each
so that the students understand what it is that I’m talking about. When appropriate, I will provide a breakdown
of the vocabulary so that they can understand the word parts and how they fit together to make a word or
phrase.

J2. Proactive Considerations:


Anticipate where adjustments in your teaching may be necessary (in regard to flexibility of
approach, student groupings, and/or accommodations).
I think the students may struggle with the idea of completing these graphic organizers by themselves. If I notice
that many students are struggling, even after checking in and reassuring them, I may bring us back into a
whole-group and work through it together. I may also need to have an in-depth introduction to a rubric as I
don’t believe many of the students have had much experience working with them. This may require extra time
that could make it so parts of the lesson will have to be carried over to the next day. A couple of my students
that struggle with writing may need a scribe to complete their graphic organizer.

STRAND 3: Instructing Students and Supporting Student Learning

K2. Carry out and record the observed lesson. See GSC Lesson Observation Feedback Tool
(LOFT) for criteria of observed components (consistent with section 4a of the RASW).

STRAND 4: Assessing Student Learning

L2. Describe the student data/evidence that was gathered during this lesson. Be sure to
include new current evidence (consistent with section 1c of the RASW). In your
description, reference and include specific student work samples, any formative assessment
tracking systems, and/or time stamped video, and include them in the appendices.
During the lesson, I made quite a few observations based on the discussions and check-ins with students while
completing their introduction on the graphic organizer that many of them are struggling to complete the graphic
organizer independently. A few of the students did not understand what it was that they needed to include, even
39
though we had gone over it previously and before this set of three lessons. This shows me that the way I
presented the material was not an appropriate way to do so to allow them to internalize that knowledge.
Prior to the turn and talk, students were not able to give me the three ways to make a connection to the text.
After the turn and talk, the students that volunteered to answer could name all three. Once the lesson was
complete, only 2 students had moved past the introduction section of the graphic organizer and began
completing the body sections. One of the students that completed the introduction sections was RB. RB was
able to come up with a topic sentence of “The character, May, was not wanting to be a Japanese woman.” 10 of
the students had completed both sections of the introduction of the graphic organizer, and 14 students were still
stuck on filling in the quick summary section of the introduction. SM and ARS filled in the quick summary
section, but struggled to come up with a topic sentence. My case study student, JV, struggled with completing
the quick summary section, and required me and the student next to him to assist in completing it. My other
case study student, AC, was working with the classroom teacher, and could complete the quick summary
section of the introduction with assistance (see Appendix G).

M2. Give examples of any written feedback or write a brief summary of oral feedback
provided to individual students and/or the whole group throughout the lesson.
At the beginning of the lesson, when I asked about ways to make connections to a text, a student, RB, replied
with comparing and contrasting. I briefly replied that comparing and contrasting is a way to think about making
a connection between a text and something else, but I was looking for the three main ways to make connections
with a text. During the turn and talk, a pair of students, one of which was ARS, was struggling with
understanding what it was that I was asking them to talk about. Once I provided them with an example of
connecting a text to themselves, they understood what it was that I was asking and could name the other two.
When students answered a question, I ensured that I repeated what they said and expanded upon it. At one
point, one of my case study students, JV, pronounced that this was “grown up work” because it seemed too
hard. I assured him that it wasn’t too difficult, because it is being used to organize their thoughts and that there
were sentence stems to help them develop their thinking.

Give examples of how your feedback


a. supported students’ further learning
b. addressed individual students’ needs and learning goals
c. was timely and appropriate

The feedback that was provided based upon the answers from the beginning were beneficial to supporting
students’ further learning by narrowing down what it was that I was asking them to do. Providing the turn and
talk and providing individual feedback ensured that students’ individual needs and learning goals were met.
Whenever a student answered a question, and I repeated the answer and expanded upon it, this allowed other
students to hear the answer and understand it further. This both supported student learning and their individual
needs by providing repetition. When JV said that this was grown-up work, I was a little caught off guard, and
explained that it wasn’t as difficult as it looked. I’m not entirely sure that this supported his and others learning.
Instead, I think I could’ve explained that, yeah, it is grown-up work, but that I know that they are ready to
40
complete it. All of my feedback was timely, as it was given immediately. I think that most of it was appropriate,
except for my interaction with JV, which I feel could have been handled better.

STRAND 5: Reflecting and Growing Professionally

N2. To what extent were the students productively engaged in the lesson?
Many of the students struggled to stay engaged during the lesson. I moved around the room a lot more, which
proved beneficial in helping some students stay on task. While watching the video of the lesson, I noticed that
many of the students in the back row were fooling around or not being engaged. This was also surprising
because they were the students who could complete the graphic organizer sections without assistance. This
shows me that the lesson did not reach their level, and therefore they were bored and restless.

O2. Did the student(s) learn what was intended? How do you know? Were the instructional
objectives met? What data do you have to demonstrate learning?
The students did not learn what was intended and did not meet the instructional objectives. Through my
observations, I noticed that many of the students were struggling to complete the graphic organizer. I was
surprised to learn that many of the students were unable to complete the quick summary independently, which
shows me that a recap of the text is necessary to complete this assignment. Students also struggled with the
concept of completing a graphic organizer. This shows me we need to revisit these ideas before proceeding with
the next lesson.

P2. How does the data gathered during this lesson inform your instruction for the next
lesson?
Through my observations, I now know that we need to either reread or recap “Tea with Milk” by Allen Say.
This will provide students with a refresher of the story so that they can complete their graphic organizer and
make those connections. We will also need to revisit the sections of the graphic organizer, as well as slow down
our completion of the organizer to ensure that everyone is understanding what it is that they are trying to
accomplish.

Q2. Were the objectives and/or instructional plan altered as the lesson(s) was taught? How
did student data inform your decision making?
During the lesson, I added a turn and talk once I realized that students couldn’t provide the three ways we
connect to a text. Once the turn and talk was over, the students could answer the question. I also added to the
lesson the idea of numbering the sections so that the students could see the connection between this writing

41
prompt and our previous one, which was writing a persuasive essay. However, this ended up taking a long time
to complete, and the students didn’t really gain anything from it. This could have been done differently, or even
not done at all. I thought that the students would be able to see that they weren’t having to write too much and
that it was like our previous writing, but it turns out that it just confused them.

R2. How did the resource(s), strategies, etc. that you chose affect the student(s) ability to
meet the lesson objectives?
The opportunity to turn and talk with a partner allowed the students to discuss the ways to connect to a text that
they may or may not have remembered. Once the turn and talk was complete, the students were able to name
the connections. Providing the students with a copy of my completed graphic organizer and notes on making
connections has not shown to be useful yet, as we have not gotten that far. I think the students will need more
practice with making connections before being able to complete this writing assignment completely and
thoroughly. I don’t necessarily think these resources were necessary for today’s lesson.

S2. If you had the opportunity to teach this lesson again, what would you do differently?
Why?
If I taught this lesson again, I would make sure that the students have a complete understanding of the text that
was read. Many of the students completely forgot what the text was about, or was confusing it with one of the
other Allen Say texts that we read. I would also provide the students with more practice on making connections
by pairing up the students and have them work on these connections together. Lastly, I will provide smaller
chunks of the graphic organizer to complete, possibly even giving the students just those pieces to work on each
day before putting it all together. This way, the students have a better understanding of making connections and
being able to connect to the book in a way that is beneficial to their understanding and applying that knowledge
to their writing.

I-3. LESSON PLAN #3:

Measurable Objective:
State the measurable objective of this lesson. Individual lesson objectives may be the same
as the overall unit objective, or candidates may choose an incremental objective for each of
the three lessons that lead students to mastery of the unit objective.
Using a graphic organizer, students will organize their responses to the selected literature and compose a three-
paragraph essay, completed with minimal assistance over three consecutive days, as measured by a third-grade
writing rubric.

42
When given an example, students will complete the introduction section of the graphic organizer, which
includes a quick summary and a topic statement, with minimal assistance, as measured by check-ins with
students and a checklist.

Content:
What Prior Knowledge and understanding do students need to be successful in this lesson?
Students should understand a graphic organizer and its various parts. Students must also understand the story
“Tea with Milk” by Allen Say and how to connect with the text.

What Essential Questions does this lesson address?


 What is a connection that can be made to “Tea with Milk?”
 What connections can I make between the text and myself, another text, or something in the world?
 How can the use of a graphic organizer benefit the writing of an essay?
 What are the components of a graphic organizer?
 How do I use the information from a graphic organizer in my writing?

List the Specific Skills students will acquire during this lesson that will progress them
toward mastery of the lesson/unit objective:
 Use the information presented in a graphic organizer to write a response to literature essay.
 Use appropriate grammar and punctuation in writing.
 Use appropriate essay format in writing.
 Complete the first part of a graphic organizer to begin organizing information for writing.

List the Aligned Resources you will use during this lesson:
 making connections notes (see Appendix C)
 completed graphic organizer (see Appendix D)
 topic sentence slideshow
 checklist (see Appendix H)
 students’ graphic organizers (see Appendix G)
 pencils
 FM system

Lesson Detail:
Systematic Introduction of Lesson (Anticipated Length: 10 minutes (15 minutes)):

43
I will begin the lesson by introducing the students to formation of an essay, and revisit the idea of indenting
paragraphs. I will then ask what a response to literature is. I will then ask students what is they are going to be
doing with the essay and why they’re writing it, selecting a few students to respond. I will have a student pass
out the white lined paper while students are retrieving their graphic organizers. I will make sure student double
check that each section is filled in as it will be beneficial to them in writing their response. When students have
finished checking their work, I will ask them to begin working on their essays.

(Added prior to lesson: re-reading of “Tea with Milk” by Allen Say.) (Added during lesson: a quick stretch due
to students becoming very antsy.) Begin with a reminder of the graphic organizer that we began on Friday.
Explain that the evidence that was collected showed that many students struggled when coming up with a topic
statement. Present slideshow on topic sentences. Give students 30 seconds to think about what their topic
statement may be about. Have students turn and talk about their topic statement. Return to whole group and
invite students to share their topic statements. Have students take out their materials to work with.

Systematic Body of Lesson (Anticipated Length: 35 minutes):


Students will work on their essays while I work with specific students that may struggle with it. If students
finish their essay, I will ask them to check it again. Students will then be asked to read independently or free
write in their writer’s notebook while waiting for others to finish. Students may also have the option of having
an illustration to go along with their essay if they choose. Once everyone is finished, I will allow students to
share their essays with a partner. Students will then pass in their essays for assessment.

Have students begin working on the introduction section of the graphic organizer. Take JV, FF, CS, LJ, and EF
to back table to work. Have Ms. St. Clair work with AC, LD, and MPC. Allow students to work together.
Remind students of a working voice volume level.

Systematic Close of Lesson (Anticipated Length: 5 minutes):


Once students have turned in their essays, I will ask them to stand and do a quick stretch because they have
been sitting for so long. I will then ask the students how they think they did with their responses to the
literature. I will allow a few students to share their thinking. I will then ask the group whether they feel like
they can write responses to literature in the future for other texts by showing me thumbs up for yes and thumbs
down for no. I will record who feels that they can’t. I will then encourage them to practice responding to
literature in informal ways, such as a notebook, as it is a good skill to have in the future.

Have students return to their seats. Remind students to place papers in their folder. Ask students to show how
they feel by providing thumbs up, thumbs down, or thumbs sideways. Ask students again if anyone would like
to share their topic statement. Explain that completing the essay is going to be a lot easier now that they have
gathered much of the information on their graphic organizers that they will include in the paragraphs.

44
Describe the strategies you will use to provide Equity for diverse individual student needs
and how these strategies will increase the success of all students.
I will make sure the students that struggle with writing have access to a scribe or word processing software to
ensure that they are able to participate in the writing process without becoming overly frustrated. I will also try
and check-in with as many struggling students as I can to assist them during the writing process and reduce
frustrations.

I will take a small group of students to the back table to work on completing the graphic organizer. This will
help these students focus and take away any distractions they may cause to other students. I will also have Ms.
St. Clair work with LD and AC for them to be able to complete the graphic organizer successfully, which may
include having her scribe for them or present information orally.

Assessment: Describe how you will assess students’ progression toward mastery of the
lesson objective (consistent with section 4b of the RASW).
I will use students’ self-assessments to determine their feelings toward their own understanding. I will also use
a third-grade writing rubric to determine if the students mastered the ability to write a response to literature
essay. I will use the names gathered who felt like they could not apply this knowledge elsewhere and compare
it to their ability in completing the essay. This will help me determine who still needs extra practice in this area
or if they have mastered it.

I will check students’ graphic organizers to determine whether they were able to complete the introduction
section. I will also use my checklist to determine who has been able to go on further. If I notice that students are
struggling, or providing inaccurate information, I will make a note of it to address in the next lesson. I will also
ask the students how they feel about their progress by asking for thumbs up or down. This will give me an idea
of who is not feeling confident.

Academic Language:
Identify the vocabulary clusters utilized in this lesson.
 introduction
 topic sentence
 essay
 paragraph
 graphic organizer
 connections
 text-to-self
 text-to-text
 text-to-world
 response to literature essay

45
Articulate how you will scaffold your instruction to meet variations in students’ language
needs.
During introduction to the various vocabulary and academic terms, I will be sure to provide examples of each
so that the students understand what it is that I’m talking about. When appropriate, I will provide a breakdown
of the vocabulary so that they can understand the word parts and how they fit together to make a word or
phrase.

J3. Proactive Considerations:


Anticipate where adjustments in your teaching may be necessary (in regard to flexibility of
approach, student groupings, and/or accommodations).
If I notice that students are struggling during the writing, I may have them pause and do a quick stretch to
refocus their thinking. This will also benefit those students who require lots of movement throughout the day. I
will also be sure to clarify any concepts that may be confusing to some students. I will also take a small group
of struggling students over to the back table with me to work there. If I notice that others are struggling, or
voices get too loud, I may have to pause and correct behaviors.

STRAND 3: Instructing Students and Supporting Student Learning

K3. Carry out and record the observed lesson. See GSC Lesson Observation Feedback Tool
(LOFT) for criteria of observed components (consistent with section 4a of the RASW).

STRAND 4: Assessing Student Learning

L3. Describe the student data/evidence that was gathered during this lesson. Be sure to
include new current evidence (consistent with section 1c of the RASW). In your
description, reference and include specific student work samples, any formative assessment
tracking systems, and/or time stamped video, and include them in the appendices.
The evidence that I gathered included my observations of both the students around the room and the students I
was working with in the small group. The students in the small group were all able to complete their topic
statement section of the introduction on their graphic organizer, and did so accurately. This shows me that they
could meet the objective. Some students came up to me during the lesson and asked me to clarify the meaning
46
of one of the sections. This showed me who had completed the introduction and/or who was close to finishing. I
also checked the other students’ graphic organizers at the end of the day and determined that everyone had
completed their introduction section, which was my hope for the day. JV was in my small group, and after
about 25 minutes, he finally began writing his topic statement. He even went on to include evidence to support
his statement. AC worked with the classroom teacher on completing the assignment. AC did not fill in her
graphic organizer, and instead had a conversation with Ms. St. Clair about her topic before leaving to go to
occupational therapy. She could come up with a topic statement of, “The character, May, was a very
independent girl.” She was not able to make it further than that due to being pulled for services. RD could
complete the front side of the graphic organizer completely and accurately, and went on to the backside to
continue. SM could complete the two introduction sections of the graphic organizer, but was unable to provide
evidence. ARS could complete the entire first side of the graphic organizer (see Appendix G and H). At the end
of the lesson, I had students show me thumbs up, down, or sideways regarding how they felt about what
they’ve completed so far. Many of the students showed me sideways thumbs, while others gave me thumbs up
and said that they were “almost done.” RB gave me thumbs up, AC did not respond, SM and ARS both gave
me a sideways thumb and JV gave me a thumb down.

M3. Give examples of any written feedback or write a brief summary of oral feedback
provided to individual students and/or the whole group throughout the lesson.
Throughout the lesson, I provided many of the students with oral feedback. This came in the form of
acknowledging and answering questions that students may have had. I also made sure to redirect students’
focus to what it was that we were talking about or provided the opportunity for a correct answer to be said.
During the small group, I made sure to acknowledge each of the students within the group. One of the students,
LJ, simply needed reassurance that what he was completing was correct. Another student, CS, was not in the
room when we were truly discussing the graphic organizers, and therefore needed a little further explanation on
what it was he needed to do. FF struggles with working independently, so I made sure to provide him with
prompts to keep going and assisted him in getting to an answer that was fitting to what it was he wanted to say,
including stating that he may want to consider moving his first topic statement to the evidence section as it was
very specific. JV struggles with focusing and completing work. I spent most of the small group working with
him and providing him with feedback to guide his work. 25 minutes passed before he could come up with a
topic statement and write it down. There were multiple times where I asked him to stop and look at me to be
sure that he was listening to what I was saying.

Give examples of how your feedback


a. supported students’ further learning
b. addressed individual students’ needs and learning goals
c. was timely and appropriate
All my feedback supported students and their further learning. I was sure to clarify anything that may have been
mistake or misconstrued. I also reassured students of when they were completely something correctly, and
gently pushed others to think about what they wrote and how they may be able to change it a bit. My
communication with JV was strictly for addressing his needs and learning goals. Since he struggles to focus, my
47
main concern was getting him to listen to what I was saying and begin to think about what it was that he wanted
to say. I believe that my feedback was both timely and appropriate in all instances as I presented it to the
students at the time that it was needed. I also believe I responded appropriately to students and was sure to
guide them toward what they wanted to say rather than stop them and tell them they were wrong.

STRAND 5: Reflecting and Growing Professionally

N3. To what extent were the students productively engaged in the lesson?
Through my observations, I noticed that about half of the students were engaged for most of the lesson. The
students had just been sitting for a while, and although they stretched, it was hard for them to come back from
that. When we moved onto the writing portion, many of the students were working, but had a lot of time off-
task. I was expecting the students to simply finish the first section, however, many of them almost finished the
whole thing.

O3. Did the student(s) learn what was intended? How do you know? Were the instructional
objectives met? What data do you have to demonstrate learning?
Based on the completion of the introduction section of their graphic organizers, the students did learn what was
intended. The goal for this lesson was to get through the introduction section and come up with a topic
statement. All the students were able to accomplish this, and many were able to continue on to other sections.

P3. How does the data gathered during this lesson inform your instruction for the next
lesson?
Many of the students are almost ready to begin writing their response to literature. Through student questioning
and interaction, I observed that many of the students that were nearing completion struggled with the reflection
and recommendation aspects of the graphic organizer. The next lesson may begin with a brief overview of the
expectations for the reflection portion and what it means to recommend something to someone.

Q3. Were the objectives and/or instructional plan altered as the lesson(s) was taught? How
did student data inform your decision making?
Prior to the teaching of this lesson, the classroom teacher had planned on rereading “Tea with Milk” by Allen
Say to demonstrate that good readers read a text more than once. I hadn’t realized she was planning on doing
this, so instead of having the students turn and talk about a recap of the text, I decided to have them turn and
talk about a topic statement they may be thinking of instead. It still may have been beneficial for them to turn
and talk about the text, but I figured that they had just spent close to 30 minutes reading and talking about it

48
prior to this lesson.

R3. How did the resource(s), strategies, etc. that you chose affect the student(s) ability to
meet the lesson objectives?
The resources that were used in this lesson included a PowerPoint presentation on topic sentences. I believe this
was beneficial in that it clarified what the topic sentence truly was, which is a statement that tells the reader
exactly what it is that you’ll be talking about. I also chose to have the students work together, as I knew that
many of those that didn’t feel confident in their work would be able to bounce ideas off their peers. During that
time, I chose to meet with a small group of students that would greatly struggle staying focused and completing
their work. Although these students didn’t get as far as others, they were able to meet the objective because they
still completed the introduction sections. I think that many of students could have gotten more done if I had
made check-ins with them instead of focusing solely on my small group.

S3. If you had the opportunity to teach this lesson again, what would you do differently?
Why?
If I taught this lesson again, I would make sure that my turn-and-talk session was much quicker. I would even
perhaps provide the one at the beginning with the recap and making connections, and then have one for when
they begin discussing their topics. This way, I’m providing them with multiple opportunities to communicate
with their peers, but also keeping it short and to the point. I would also make sure to check in with each group
of students before making my way over to the small group. I may give them something to work on while I’m
doing this. This is to let the students know that I am holding them accountable for their work. It also gives them
less time-off-task by making sure they’re focused. I would also provide frequent check-ins to see where
everyone was with their graphic organizer. This would most likely be a simple, “Raise your hand if you’ve
completed the introduction section.” This way I know who is working hard on accomplishing their task.

STRAND 5: Reflecting and Growing Professionally

Overall Reflection:
T. What have you learned about your students throughout these three lessons?
Prior to this process, I had a basic understanding of how little writing the students have done throughout
the year. The students had previously been asked to write a 5-paragraph persuasive essay, and I used that data
to determine that the students would greatly struggle with completing another 5-paragraph essay. I decided to
have them work on simply writing 3 paragraphs, starting with the completion of a graphic organizer.

49
When students were introduced to the graphic organizer, I think it was a bit overwhelming to them.
There were many sections to fill out, but some of the information was provided for them. Still, the students
struggled with completing these organizers initially. I was surprised by some of the students who were
struggling, as they were typically students that could complete various writing assignments.
I decided to spend more time going over the graphic organizer before having students complete them
independently. I think this helped the students to understand what it was they were being asked to do and why.
Still, the completion of the graphic organizer took much longer than I had anticipated. I was very surprised by
its difficulty to them, but I suppose it must do with the fact that, along with a lack of writing this year, there was
also a lack of graphic organizers in the classroom. Students weren’t made aware of their importance and how
helpful they can be, which I think affected their ability to complete this one.
I am impressed with many of the students, as I was worried about their ability to complete the graphic
organizer independently. I chose certain students to work with specifically so that I knew they could complete
it. Once the students understood the expectations, they could finish the introduction section of the graphic
organizer. I think it was very beneficial to my students to be exposed to this type of writing, and more
specifically, to the creation of a graphic organizer.

U. What questions do you still have about their learning (consistent with columns 2 & 3 of
the RASW)?
After the set of lessons, I am still curious about the effect of the graphic organizer on the students’
learning. Would it have been more beneficial to simply provide an outline of the essay as opposed to having
them fill in the graphic organizer? How would this have affected their ability to meet the unit objective? I also
wonder whether one of my case study students, JV, would have been more focused on completing the graphic
organizer if he had been able to work in a separate location with no distractions. It took him awhile to get going,
and I think that part of it may have been due to the other students in the group.

V. How was your students’ learning affected by your decisions in the areas of planning,
instruction, and assessment?
During these three lessons, my students learning was greatly affected by the decisions I made. Initially, I
had planned for them to complete the piece of writing, as I had thought it would have been a fun and simple
writing assignment. However, I quickly learned that this was not the case. My plans ended up changing
drastically after learning where my students were regarding their learning in this area. My ability to be flexible
in my plans played an important role in my students’ learning as it ensured that my lessons and activities suited
their specific needs.
The instruction itself also affected my students’ learning. I had begun the unit with the assumption that
the students would be able to complete the graphic organizer and begin writing their essays. However, the
students struggled with completing the graphic organizer. I decided to focus my instruction on the various
sections of the graphic organizers where I saw the most struggles. This gave the students the opportunity to
deepen their understanding of the graphic organizer itself, making it easier and more fulfilling to them when
completing it.
My assessment of the students, both through observations and physical materials, allowed for me to see

50
the level of knowledge my students were at with this unit. I also made sure to check in with my students
regarding their feelings toward their learning as well. I provided students with supplementary notes regarding
making connections with a text after assessing their exit slips and the connections, if any, that they made. I also
used observations of the students’ ability to begin working on the graphic organizer, and noticed that many
students were struggling. This prompted me to focus on one section at a time, which I believe greatly impacted
their understanding of the graphic organizer and what it was they were completing.

W. How were the theories and research cited in your educational philosophy evidenced in
your teaching?
One of my beliefs as a teacher is that students should appreciate learning and enjoy the learning that they
are experiencing. As a teacher, I want to inspire my students and show them that you are always learning, even
if you’re an adult. I showed my students this by completing the graphic organizer myself about a previous text
to demonstrate what the expectations were. I also used the gradual release method of learning by discussing my
completed graphic organizer, going over the various sections of the graphic organizer with the class, and finally,
having the students begin working on their graphic organizers independently. I think this allowed them to gain
more independence in completing their assignment.
Although students didn’t have a choice regarding how they completed the assignment and the text
they’d be responding to, they did have a choice in their topic, the evidence they chose to support it, and
connections they made. They were also able to reflect on the text in a way that they felt comfortable with. I
think that these choices were part of the reason that students struggled with the assignment. The students are
used to being given an assignment and having to complete it a certain way using a certain topic. This was one of
their first experiences choosing some of the aspects of their assignment. I think that if they had more
opportunities to make choices in their learning, they would have been more successful in completing the
assignment.
I also believe that I can create a positive, caring, and safe environment for my students. I was sure to be
respectful of the students, and most of them were respectful of me. Having students work with me in a small
group provided a comfortable place for students to work. My case study student, JV, was in the group, and he
struggled with completing the assignment. When I finally got on his level and had him look at me directly, he
understood what was expected of him and began working on the assignment. This mutual respect proves to
serve students positively.

X. What did you learn about yourself as an educator during the TCAP process?
Throughout this process, I have learned a lot about myself as an educator. I learned that I can meet the
needs of special education students while addressing the broader needs of the students in the classroom. I also
learned that I can gain the respect of my students when presenting them with new information and lessons. I
sometimes feel that I let the classroom teacher take control when it comes to managing behaviors, but I did not
hesitate to manage them myself, including using different strategies to do so.
I had also previously struggled with the idea of changing lesson plans and completely scrapping an
objective to first focus on one that my students would benefit from more. When writing the lessons for this unit,
I fully believed we’d get to the writing of the essays. However, I ended up changing most of my plans and

51
objectives to meet the specific needs of the students. This was something that I hadn’t done as much prior to
this unit.
I have also learned to gain more confidence in myself. I have struggled with this and always felt that
others were judging my teaching. I have learned that others, such as coworkers and teachers, are there to
support and guide me in becoming the best educator that I can. This includes utilizing strategies and plans that
may not work out, and recognizing that. As an educator, I will continue to grow and use my experiences and
professional learning community to become the best version of myself that I can be.

Y. References
2011 NWEA Measures of Academic Progress Normative Data. (2015, May). (Northwest Evaluation
Association) Retrieved from NWEA: https://www.nwea.org/content/uploads/2011/12/2011-NWEA
Measures-of-Academic-Progress-Normative-Data-One-Sheet-APR15.pdf

Benchmark Assessment System (BAS). (n.d.). Retrieved from Fountas & Pinnell Literacy:
http://www.fountasandpinnell.com/bas/

Draeger, C., & Wilson, D. (2016, March 8). How to Give Students More Control Over Their Learning.
Retrieved from Education Week: http://www.edweek.org/tm/articles/2016/03/08/give-students-more
control-over-their-learning.html

Fisher, D. (2008). Effective Us of the Gradual Release of Responsibility Model. Retrieved from
https://www.mheonline.com/_treasures/pdf/douglas_fisher.pdf

Parrett, W. H., & Budge, K. M. (2012). Fostering a Healthy, Safe, and Supportive Learning Environment: How
HP/HP Schools Do It. In W. H. Parrett, & K. M. Budge, Turning High-Poverty Schools into High
Performing Schools. ASCD.

Z. Professional Attachments – Resume

52
53
Appendices

Appendix A – Graphic Organizer Template

54
Appendix B – Response to Literature Rubric

55
Appendix C – “Making Connections” notes

56
Appendix D – Graphic Organizer Example

57
Appendix E – Checklist Template

58
Appendix F – Making Connection Sticky Notes/Exit Slips

59
Appendix G – Students’ Graphic Organizers

60
61
62
Appendix H – Completed Checklist

63