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PRODUCT FEATURE

A HIGH FREQUENCY
BROADBAND FILTER

X
2Y technology is a new balanced com- an alternating fashion during the fabrication
ponent capable of high frequency per- process. The layers are repeated to increase
formance across a broad frequency capacitance value, C = ε • Area/DistanceBe-
range. The component uses a standard ceram- tweenPlates. X2Y components use this stan-
ic capacitor with subtle, but important modifi- dard structure and add an additional “refer-
cations to its structure. These structural ence” layer between the opposing electrodes.
changes create a circuit inside the capacitor Figure 1 illustrates the structural differences
Fig. 1 Component that is capable of broadband electromagnetic between a standard capacitor and an X2Y com-
comparisons. ▼ ponent; every “hot” electrode (labeled A and
interference (EMI) re-
X2Y duction from kilohertz B) is surrounded by a reference electrode. For
CAPACITOR
STANDARD to gigahertz frequen- a given capacitance, the X2Y capacitor has one
CAPACITOR
REFERENCE cies. Presently, multi- more electrode layer than a standard capacitor.
A ple passive compo- All X2Y reference electrodes are commonly
TOP VIEW B nents are used for terminated to the sides of the component
ELECTRODES
B EMI reduction. X2Y body. The two new terminations are called G1
REFERENCE can provide better per- and G2.
A formance using only a It is also important to describe what is not
A single component. In different, because the X2Y component was
B addition, the compo- designed so that manufacturers and end-users
REFERENCE
nent is in bypass and suffer minimal design changes when imple-
does not carry the DC menting the device. That is, they use the same
line current. All these dielectric material, electrode material and ter-
ELECTRODE benefits mean electro- mination material, and are available in the
STACK UP
magnetic compatibility same industry standard sizes, with the same
(EMC) compliance capacitance and voltage ratings.
STACK UP and significant cost
SIDE VIEW savings to users of the MICROWAVE TEST FIXTURE
device. To accurately measure the high frequency
COMPONENT performance of the components, an industry
X2Y DEVICE accepted test fixture is used. X2Y components
CONSTRUCTION are measured with a test fixture designed by In-
A A
Standard two termi- ter-Continental Microwave (ICM) for measur-
G1 G2 nation capacitors are ing four-terminal surface-mount chip capacitors
SCHEMATIC made up of two oppos- from DC to 10 GHz. A calibration kit is provid-
ing electrodes that are
screened onto layers of X2Y ATTENUATORS LLC
B B Erie, PA
dielectric material in
PRODUCT FEATURE
ed with each of their test fixtures, ground reference. Two midsection con- acteristic is the result of cancellation of
which allows the ability to de-embed tact tabs make electrical contact with the opposing magnetic fields (right
the component data using TRL/LRM the G1/G2 side terminations during hand rule) within the structure’s alter-
or TOSL calibration standards, remov- measurement for grounding to the fix- nating layers of active and reference
ing the effect of the test fixture from ture. The addition of the grounded electrodes. The low inductance can be
the device under test (DUT) measure- midsections to the series-thru test fix- shown in the ICM fixture with an S21
ments. ture produces shunt data for the X2Y measurement. The component can be
The fixture comes with metallized due to its unique internal construction. rotated in the test fixture so that various
midsections that are clamped into the shunt-to-ground measurements can be
fixture main frame between the signal BALANCED COMPONENT performed on the internal circuit, as
launch pads. The midsection provides a With the insertion of a reference shown in Figure 3. By inserting non-
dual purpose, that is, dimensional sepa- electrode between the A and B elec- conductive material between a midsec-
ration when measuring different sized trodes, the standard capacitor changes tion contact and one of the side termi-
components (0603, 0805, 1206, etc., for from a single-ended device to a bal- nations of the component (G1 or G2),
example). Once clamped, the midsec- anced device with two nominally equal repeatable measurements can be made
tion also becomes part of the circuit halves. Benefits of two balanced ca- to show the pass function of the device.
pacitors sharing a common structure
are matched capacitance (1 to 2.5 per- CIRCUIT APPLICATION
+180 cent) line-to-ground, effects of tem- There are a variety of circuit appli-
CAP A S22
+90 perature variation and the elimination cation scenarios for the four-terminal
CAP B S11
PHASE (°)

0 of the effects of voltage variation; the X2Y capacitor. The most effective use
−90 effect of aging is equal on both caps. of the device is in a differential appli-
−180 Making S11/S22 phase and magnitude cation. In this scenario, a user can
measurements of the component achieve the broadest performance
with a vector network analyzer can plot. Attached differentially as a filter,
0.1 1 10 100 1000 show the relative balance of the two the device is highly effective for noise
FREQUENCY (MHz) internal capacitors. Each screen shot canceling. X2Y typically replaces five
(a) in Figure 2 shows two comparative to seven standard passive elements
data plots (each component half). used for the same purpose. The most
0
These measurements would nor-
CAP A S22 mally be reciprocal with a standard
MAGNITUDE (dB)

X2Y CIRCUIT
0.2
CAP B S11 two terminal capacitor. However, in a POWER
balanced device, the same measure-
0.4 GND
ments show the matching characteris-
tics of the two component halves. RETURN
0.6 The data shows nearly perfect match-
STANDARD FILTER CIRCUIT
ing from 30 kHz to 6 GHz. POWER L1
0.1 1 10 100 1000 CM
BROADBAND PERFORMANCE Cy
FREQUENCY (MHz) GND Cx
(b) Cx
The X2Y structure has extremely Cy
▲ Fig. 2 S11 and S22 (a) phase and low internal inductance, which broad-
RETURN
(b) magnitude of a 100 nF, ens the component performance in a
50 V X2Y capacitor. circuit. The minimal inductance char- ▲ Fig. 4 X2Y vs. standard passive
components applied as a filter.
1 Y-CAP TO GND
2 Y-CAPS IN PARALLEL TO GND Fig. 5 Simulation of a single X2Y capacitor
2 Y-CAPS SERIES-THRU TO GND vs. two standard capacitors. ▼
0
STANDARD FILTER:
−10 1206 100 nF
VNA VNA 0603 10 nF
−20 PORT 1 PORT 2
X2Y FILTER:
X2Y 1206 100 nF A-only
−30
X2Y 1206 100 nF A&B
S21 (dB)

−40 0
−10
−50
−20
−30
S21 (dB)

−60
VNA VNA −40
−70 VNA VNA PORT 1 PORT 2 −50
PORT 1 PORT 2 −60
−80 −70
0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 −80
FREQUENCY (MHz) 10K 100K 1M 10M 100M 1G 10G

▲ Fig. 3
FREQUENCY (Hz)
S21 plots of the X2Y circuit for a 100 nF, 50 V capacitor.
PRODUCT FEATURE
lines, power line filtering and in dif- CONCLUSION
CONNECTOR ferent types of connectors. A subtle change to a standard ce-
PINS
In high speed connector applica- ramic capacitor creates a balanced
tions, there are many issues involved X2Y component with broadband per-
that can benefit from X2Y technology formance. Although this concept was
including balance between the lines, illustrated with a multi-layer chip ce-
signal crosstalk and power filtering. ramic capacitor, the X2Y structure
X2Y X2Y technology can address each
1 EVERY 2 PINS can also be embedded in through-
(a) of these issues in a single component: hole planar devices, or a variety of
CONNECTOR INDUCTOR • Balance: X2Y components are other structures to enhance perfor-
PINS BLOCK comprised of two tightly matched ca- mance. Besides ceramic, the struc-
pacitive halves that cancel noise in- ture can be combined with other di-
ternally. Because of the unique inter- electric materials as required by an
nal structure, X2Y is inherently bal- application, such as metal oxide varis-
anced in magnitude and phase. tor (MOV) or ferrite.
STANDARD
CAPACITORS • Signal crosstalk: When standard A single X2Y component dramati-
(b) 1 PER PIN capacitors are placed next to each cally improves performance and re-
other in the connector, component duces cost through component re-
▲ Fig. 6 Comparison of (a) an X2Y-filtered
parastics can cause crosstalk, which duction and space savings. Just a few
connector vs. (b) a standard-filtered
connector. degrades signal integrity. Typical dif- examples of applications now in pro-
ferential insertion loss shows crosstalk duction using X2Y include DC mo-
common elements replaced are illus- isolation in excess of 50 dB across a tors, DC power supply filtering, data
trated in Figure 4. broad spectrum. line filtering for diagnostic equip-
The component can also be used • Power filtering: An obstacle to fil- ment and filtering sensors in automo-
single ended in applications as a low tering power in connectors is the tive applications.
inductance, broadband “X” cap. In cramped space as connector designs X2Y is an open platform technolo-
this circuit scenario multiple standard shrink. A single X2Y can save space gy available through licensed manu-
caps used for broadband filtering can by applying a single component be- facturers, providing users with a
be replaced by a single X2Y capacitor. tween two pins and removing induc- choice and easing the manufacturer
Figure 5 shows simulation data of tive devices. certification process. Current X2Y li-
this application. • Data line filter: An X2Y compo- censed manufacturers include Syfer
The standard caps generate an nent has significantly less inductance Technology Ltd., Johanson Di-
anti-resonance due to mismatch than a comparable standard capacitor. electrics Inc., Yageo/Phycomp Corp.,
caused by one cap going inductive vs. This translates to a higher effective Advanced Monolythic Ceramics Inc.
the other cap functioning in a capaci- series resonant frequency point. X2Y and Maida Development Co. Contact
tive state. A single X2Y can eliminate typically uses less capacitance than information for samples can be found
this effect and offer superior perfor- normally required for filtering, result- at www.x2y.com.
mance. ing in less capacitive loading to the
data line.
CONNECTOR APPLICATIONS Figure 6 provides a visual repre-
X2Y can be applied to a vast num- sentation of the space saving benefits X2Y Attenuators LLC,
ber of applications. Some examples when applying X2Y in an automotive Erie, PA
are servers, PC cards, transmission connector application. (814) 835-8180.