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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

Project:
System Improvement of KESC Network (Transmission System
and Grid Stations) and Reduction in T&D Losses
Project: KESC / 2480-04

Title:
Protection Relay Setting Calculation
Setting Calculation for
Hybrid Grid Station PRL

Client:
THE KARACHI ELECTRIC SUPPLY CORPORATION Ltd. (KESC)

Contract-No. 2001 66 389/SS


Order no: ABB/PTST - 8766000400
Doc.-No. 1HDC54 1402
Revision: D)
Date: 03/08/2007
Revision: A) 09.06.2008 Undervoltage protection and tertiary winding earth fault
protection switched off and setting calculation for capacitor
bank protection added.
Revision: B) 04.02.2009 Protection settings for 11kV aux transformer added, Capacitor
Bank Protection modified and settings for 11kV Synchronizing
added.
132 kV- and 11 kV-Protection updated according to “Minutes of
Meetings held at KESC Office on 28/01/2009, Contract KESC-
2480-04”
Revision: C) 20.04.2009 11kV outgoing feeder earth fault protection setting up according
Email 06..04.2009
Revision: D) 05.05.2009 As Built

Issued by:
ABB AG Power Technology Systems, Dept. DEPTST-E21, Mannheim, Germany

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

Contents

1 Preface ...............................................................................................................................................6
2 REL670 - Main Line Protection Feeder =Q04 - PRL –> KTPS St......................................................7
2.1 Data of 132 kV Overhead Line PRL –> KTPS St........................................................................... 7
2.2 REL670 - Setting of Analogue and Digital Channels ..................................................................... 8
2.3 REL670 - Signal Matrix for Analogue Inputs (SMAI) ................................................................... 10
2.4 REL670 - Setting Methodology - Zone reach and timer settings................................................. 11
2.5 REL670 - Current and Voltage Transformer Data, Impedance Ratio.......................................... 12
2.6 REL670 – Relay Parameter ......................................................................................................... 12
2.7 REL670 - Distance protection zone 1 .......................................................................................... 17
2.8 REL670 - Distance protection zone 2 .......................................................................................... 18
2.9 REL670 - Distance protection zone 3 .......................................................................................... 19
2.10 REL670 – Settting of Phase Selection Function.......................................................................... 20
2.11 REL670 - Distance protection zone 4 .......................................................................................... 21
2.12 REL670 – Setting of Local acceleration logic (PLAL) .................................................................. 22
2.13 REL670 - Setting of two step undervoltage protection (PTUV, 27) ............................................. 23
2.14 REL670 - Distance protection zone 5 .......................................................................................... 24
2.15 REL670 – Setting of Directionality (ZDRDIR) .............................................................................. 25
2.16 REL670 - Power Swing Detection (PSD)..................................................................................... 26
2.17 REL670 - Switch-onto-fault Function (SOFT) .............................................................................. 28
2.18 REL670 - Tripping logic (PTRC, 94) ............................................................................................ 29
2.19 REL670 - Fuse Failure Supervision (zero sequence) (RFUF)..................................................... 30
2.20 REL670 - Scheme communication logic for distance protection (ZCOM) ................................... 31
2.21 REL670 - Setting of current reversal and WEI logic for distance protection (ZCAL) ................... 32
2.22 REL670 – Sensitive Directional Earthfault Protection in Carrier Scheme ................................... 33
2.23 REL670 - Autoreclosure settings ................................................................................................. 36
2.24 REL670 - Synchronism check settings ........................................................................................ 40
2.25 REL670 - Fault locator (RFLO) .................................................................................................... 44
2.26 REL670 - Final Back-up Directional Overcurrent Protection (TOC) ............................................ 45
3 REL670 - Main Line Protection Feeder =Q02 - PRL –> K.West ......................................................47
3.1 Data of 132 kV Overhead Line PRL –> K.West........................................................................... 47
3.2 REL670 - Setting of Analogue and Digital Channels ................................................................... 48
3.3 REL670 - Setting Methodology - Zone reach and timer settings................................................. 49
3.4 REL670 - Current and Voltage Transformer Data, Impedance Ratio.......................................... 50
3.5 REL670 – Relay Parameter ......................................................................................................... 50
3.6 REL670 - Distance protection zone 1 .......................................................................................... 51
3.7 REL670 - Distance protection zone 2 .......................................................................................... 52

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3.8 REL670 - Distance protection zone 3 .......................................................................................... 53


3.9 REL670 – Settting of Phase Selection Function.......................................................................... 54
3.10 REL670 - Distance protection zone 4 .......................................................................................... 55
3.11 REL670 – Setting of Local acceleration logic (PLAL) .................................................................. 56
3.12 REL670 - Setting of two step undervoltage protection (PTUV, 27) ............................................. 56
3.13 REL670 - Distance protection zone 5 .......................................................................................... 56
3.14 REL670 – Setting of Directionality (ZDRDIR) .............................................................................. 57
3.15 REL670 - Power Swing Detection (PSD)..................................................................................... 57
3.16 REL670 - Switch-onto-fault Function (SOFT) .............................................................................. 59
3.17 REL670 - Tripping logic (PTRC, 94) ............................................................................................ 59
3.18 REL670 - Fuse Failure Supervision (zero sequence) (RFUF)..................................................... 59
3.19 REL670 - Scheme communication logic for distance protection (ZCOM) ................................... 60
3.20 REL670 - Setting of current reversal and WEI logic for distance protection (ZCAL) ................... 61
3.21 REL670 – Sensitive Directional Earthfault Protection in Carrier Scheme ................................... 62
3.22 REL670 - Autoreclosure settings ................................................................................................. 62
3.23 REL670 - Synchronism check settings ........................................................................................ 62
3.24 REL670 - Fault locator (RFLO) .................................................................................................... 62
3.25 REL670 - Final Back-up Directional Overcurrent Protection (TOC) ............................................ 62
4 REC670 - 132 kV-Bus Coupler Protection (51,51N) ........................................................................63
4.1 REC670 - Time delayed phase overcurrent protection 51 (TOC) ............................................... 63
4.2 REC670 - Time delayed residual overcurrent protection 51N (TEF)........................................... 65
5 REC670 - 132 kV-Line Protection (67,67N, 51,51N)........................................................................67
5.1 REC670 – Directional time delayed phase overcurrent protection 67 (TOC).............................. 67
5.2 REC670 – Directional time delayed residual overcurrent protection (TEF)................................. 69
5.3 REC670 – Non-Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection (51,51N)............................... 70
6 Selectivity diagrams of 132 kV-overcurrent and earthfault coordination ..........................................71
7 Overview on 132/11 kV-Overcurrent and Earthfault Coordination ...................................................73
7.1 Overcurrent protection coordination............................................................................................. 73
7.2 Earthfault protection coordination ................................................................................................ 74
8 132/11 kV-Network and Short-circuit Data .......................................................................................75
9 132 kV- and 11 kV-Feeder CT Data .................................................................................................76
10 132/11 kV-Transformer Data ............................................................................................................78
11 RET670 - 132/11 kV-Power Transformer Differential Protection Relay (Main 1).............................80
11.1 RET670 - Protection Relay CT Data (132/11 kV) ........................................................................ 80
11.2 RET670 - Setting of Analogue and Digital Channels................................................................... 80
11.3 RET670 - Signal Matrix for Analogue Inputs (SMAI) ................................................................... 83
11.4 RET670 - Transformer Differential Protection Settings (PDIF, 87T) ........................................... 84
11.5 RET670 – 11 kV-side Transf. Tertiary Winding Overcurrent Protection Phase .......................... 90
11.6 RET670 – 11 kV-side Transf. Tertiary Winding Earthfault Protection ......................................... 93

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

12 RET670 - 132/11 kV-Power Transformer Protection Relay (Main 2) ...............................................96


12.1 RET670 - Protection Relay CT Data (132/11 kV) ........................................................................ 96
12.2 RET670 - Setting of Analogue and Digital Channels................................................................... 96
12.3 RET670 - Signal Matrix for Analogue Inputs (SMAI) ................................................................... 99
12.4 RET670 – 132 kV-side Transformer Restricted earth fault protection (87N)............................. 100
12.5 RET670 – 11 kV-side Transformer Restricted earth fault protection (87N)............................... 102
12.6 RET670 – 132 kV-side Transformer Phase Overcurrent Protection ......................................... 104
12.7 RET670 – 132 kV-side Transformer Neutral Protection ............................................................ 108
12.8 RET670 – 11 kV-side Transformer Neutral Protection .............................................................. 111
12.9 RET670 –Transformer Thermal Overload Protection (11 kV-side) ........................................... 114
13 REF543 - 11 kV-Power Transformer Feeder Protection Relay ......................................................116
13.1 REF543 – OC Protection (IDMT Phase, non-dir) ...................................................................... 116
13.2 REF543 - EF Protection (IDMT Earth) ....................................................................................... 117
14 REF543 - 11 kV-Bus Coupler Protection Relay .............................................................................118
14.1 REF543 – OC Protection (IDMT Phase, non-dir) ...................................................................... 118
14.2 REF543 - EF Protection (IDMT Earth) ....................................................................................... 119
15 REF543 - 11 kV- Outgoing Feeder Protection Relay .....................................................................120
15.1 REF543 – OC Protection (IDMT Phase).................................................................................... 120
15.2 REF543 - EF Protection (IDMT Earth) ....................................................................................... 121
16 11 kV- Capacitor Bank Protection ..................................................................................................122
16.1 REF543 - Capacitor Bank Over-Current Protection................................................................... 122
16.2 REF543 - Capacitor Bank Earthfault Protection ........................................................................ 123
16.3 ESTA sym MD - Capacitor Bank Protection .............................................................................. 123
17 REF543 - 11 kV-Auxiliary Transformer Feeder Protection Relay ..................................................127
17.1 REF543 – Overcurrent Protection.............................................................................................. 127
17.2 REF543 - EF Protection (IDMT Earth) ....................................................................................... 128
18 REF543 - 11kV Incomer and Bus Coupler Feeder Synmchronizing..............................................129
19 REB670 – 132 kV Bus Bar and Breaker Failure Protection ...........................................................131
19.1 REB670 – Bay Function Block Settings (BTHn) ........................................................................ 132
19.2 REB670 – Zone function block settings (BTZA & BTZB)........................................................... 134
19.3 REB670 – Check Zone settings (BTCZ) .................................................................................... 138
19.4 REB670 - Zone interconnection (Load transfer) (BTZI)............................................................. 139
19.5 REB670 - Switch status monitoring function block settings....................................................... 139
19.6 REB670 - End fault protection settings ...................................................................................... 140
19.7 REB670 - Breaker failure protection (RBRF, 50BF) .................................................................. 142

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

1 Preface
1. Parameterisation/switchgroup settings
The parameterisation/switchgroup setting is done by the commissioning engineer during commissioning
according to site conditions and final verification of protection system.

2. Site measured values for CT data, loop resistance, stabilizing resistor, varistor etc.
These values will be determined during commissioning. The settings will be re-calculated and adjusted
based on the measurements. The final settings with measured values will be documented in "As Built"
revision.

3. General
The proposed settings have to be co-ordinated with the settings in the remote station(s) and the general
protection philosophy applied to the network. The settings are submitted as setting proposals for commis-
sioning.

The following documents and data sheets are considered in the protection relay setting calculation:
- Single Line Diagram 132/11kV SINGLE LINE AND RELAYING DIAGRAM 132kV SUBSTATION
PRL, DWG. NO. 2840/BB/7100/R/000A, Rev. A, 04.01.2007
- Network Data, provided as file “Short Circuit Results and Line Parameters.xls”
- Current Transformer Calculation for 11kV Current and Voltage Transformer Calculation for 132/11kV
HYBRID GRID Stations KESC, ( Rev. 0, 08.01.2007
- Current Transformer Calculation for 132kV Current and Voltage Transformer Calculation for
132/11kV HYBRID GRID Stations KESC, Revision: B) 15.01.2007

Note:
The line protection PRL to KTPS St is distance protection of a “very short line” according to REL670
manual. REL670 recommends not using underreaching zone in such applications as due to undervoltage
in case of faults, distance relay may tend to overreach. Therefore, POTT is selected, zone 1 is set as
overreaching zone to 120% of the line.
The line protection PRL to K.West is distance protection with underreaching zone and PUTT communica-
tion scheme.

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 6


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2 REL670 - Main Line Protection Feeder =Q04 - PRL –> KTPS St


The main line protection terminal is of the ABB type REL670. In this protection device the following pro-
tection and monitoring functions are implemented:
21 Distance protection with signal transmission via PLC / MUX
67N Directional earth fault with signal transmission via PLC / MUX
79 3-Phase autoreclosing
25 Synchrocheck

The CT data are presented in following diagram.

2.1 Data of 132 kV Overhead Line PRL –> KTPS St

The provided line data are given in following table.


From
To node Type R1' X1' R0' X0' Length Ampacity
node
Ohm/km Ohm/km Ohm/km Ohm/km km A
OHL T02-LAT
PRL 500 MCM 0,0818 0,3857 0,359 0,8879 1,7 708
Cu 3x1x 500
UGC T06-CAB
KTPS St. 800 sqmm 0,0285 0,1785 0,07125 0,4462 0,3 800
Cu Oil 3x1x 800

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The total length impedance data in positive- and zero-sequence system are:
From node To node R1 X1 Z1 phi Z1 R1/X1 R0 X0 Z0 phi Z0

Ohm Ohm Ohm Deg. Ohm Ohm Ohm Deg.

PRL -> 0,139 0,656 0,670 78,026 0,212 0,610 1,509 1,628 67,985

-> KTPS St. 0,009 0,054 0,054 80,929 0,160 0,021 0,134 0,136 80,928

TOTAL ROUTE 0,148 0,709 0,724 78,243 0,208 0,632 1,643 1,761 68,973

2.2 REL670 - Setting of Analogue and Digital Channels

In order to get correct measurement results as well as correct protection operations the analogue input
channels must be configured and properly set. For power measuring and all directional and differential
functions the directions of the input currents must be properly defined.

• Input Card 1 Settings (TRM 1)


The following table provides the analogue input channel / CT connections of TRM1 in Slot P 40. The TRM
provides 6I+6U inputs nominal current is 1 A, nominal voltage is 100 V.
Hardware Id Signal Description ABB
Object Signal I/O Designation
-X401
Line IL1 AI 01 1 -2 Current Phase L1
Line IL2 AI 02 3 -4 Current Phase L2
Line IL3 AI 03 5 -6 Current Phase L3
Line IN AI 04 7 -8 Neutral Current
AI 05 9 -10
AI 06 11 -12
Line UL1 AI 07 13- 14 Line Voltage L1-N
Line UL2 AI 08 15- 16 Line Voltage L2-N
Line UL3 AI 09 17- 18 Line Voltage L3-N
BB I UL2 AI 10 19- 20 Busbar Section I Voltage L1-N
BB II UL2 AI 11 21- 22 Busbar Section II Voltage L1-N
AI 12 23 -24

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The related setting of the basic general settings for the ANALOGIN6I6U (TD40-) function of TRM1 is:
Parameter Range Setting Unit Description Remarks
ToObject= towards pro-
FromObject To be set
CTStarPoint1 - tected object, FromOb-ject=
ToObject at site
the opposite
CTsec1 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
CTprim1 1 - 99999 1600 A Rated CT primary current Phase L1
ToObject= towards pro-
FromObject To be set
CTStarPoint2 - tected object, FromOb-ject=
ToObject at site
the opposite
CTsec2 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
CTprim2 1 - 99999 1600 A Rated CT primary current Phase L2
ToObject= towards pro-
FromObject To be set
CTStarPoint3 - tected object, FromOb-ject=
ToObject at site
the opposite
CTsec3 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
CTprim3 1 - 99999 1600 A Rated CT primary current Phase L3
ToObject= towards pro-
FromObject To be set
CTStarPoint4 - tected object, FromOb-ject=
ToObject at site
the opposite
CTsec4 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
CTprim4 1 - 99999 1600 A Rated CT primary current Neutral
FromObject
CTStarPoint5 - -
ToObject
CTsec5 1 - 10 - A Rated CT secondary current
CTprim5 1 - 99999 - A Rated CT primary current Not used
FromObject
CTStarPoint6 - -
ToObject
CTsec6 1 - 10 - A Rated CT secondary current
CTprim6 1 - 99999 - A Rated CT primary current Not used
0.001 -
VTsec7 100 V Rated VT secondary voltage
999.999
VTprim7 0.05 - 2000.00 132 kV Rated VT primary voltage Line Voltage L1-N
0.001 -
VTsec8 100 V Rated VT secondary voltage
999.999
VTprim8 0.05 - 2000.00 132 kV Rated VT primary voltage Line Voltage L2-N
0.001 -
VTsec9 100 V Rated VT secondary voltage
999.999
VTprim9 0.05 - 2000.00 132 kV Rated VT primary voltage Line Voltage L3-N
0.001 -
VTsec10 100 V Rated VT secondary voltage
999.999
Busbar Section I
VTprim10 0.05 - 2000.00 132 kV Rated VT primary voltage
Voltage L1-N
0.001 -
VTsec11 100 V Rated VT secondary voltage
999.999
Busbar Section II
VTprim11 0.05 - 2000.00 132 kV Rated VT primary voltage
Voltage L1-N
0.001 -
VTsec12 . V Rated VT secondary voltage
999.999
VTprim12 0.05 - 2000.00 - kV Rated VT primary voltage Not used
Note: The VT phase-to-phase value can be used even if each channel is connected to a phase-to-earth
voltage from the VT.

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

• Setting of CTStarPoint
The direction of a current to the IED is depending on the connection of the CT. unless indicated. Other-
wise the main CTs are supposed to be star connected and can be connected with the star point to the
object or from the object. This information must be set to the IED. The convention of the directionality is
defined as follows: A positive value of current, power etc. means that the quantity has the direction into
the object and a negative value means direction out from the object. For directional functions the direction
into the object is defined as Forward and the direction out from the object is defined as Reverse. With
correct setting of the primary CT direction, CTStarPoint set to FromObject or ToObject, a positive quantity
always flowing towards the object and a direction defined as Forward always is looking towards the ob-
ject. The following example illustrates setting of CTStarPoint.

2.3 REL670 - Signal Matrix for Analogue Inputs (SMAI)

Every SMAI function block can receive four analogue signals (three phases and one neutral value), either
voltage or current. The outputs of the SMAI are giving information about every aspect of the 3ph ana-
logue signals acquired (phase angle, RMS value, frequency and frequency derivable).
Note: Settings DFTRefExtOut and DFTReference shall be set to default value InternalDFTRef if no VT
inputs are available. The parameter settings should be done at site, following parameter require setting:
• DFTRefExtOut: Parameter valid for function block PR01, PR13, PR25 only. Reference DFT block
for external output (SPFCOUT function output).
• DFTReference: Reference DFT block for that specific instance of the SMAI. These DFT reference
block settings decide which DFT block will be used as reference in the calculation of frequency
and other values (Internal DFTRef will use set system frequency. GrpnAdDFTRef will use calcu-
lated frequency from the selected group block, ExternalDFTRef will use input DFTSPFC as fre-
quency reference.)
• ConnectionType: Connection type for that specific instance (n) of the SMAI (if it is Ph-N or Ph-
Ph). Depending on connection type setting the not connected Ph-N or Ph-Ph outputs will be cal-
culated.
• Negation: If the user wants to negate the 3ph signal, it is possible to choose to negate only the
phase signals Negate3Ph, only the neutral signal NegateN or both Negate3Ph+N; negation
means rotation with 180° of the vectors.
• UBase: Base voltage setting (for each instance n)
• MinValFreqMeas: The minimum value of the voltage for which the frequency is calculated, ex-
pressed as percent of UBase (for each instance n).

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.4 REL670 - Setting Methodology - Zone reach and timer settings

The distance zone reach is determined according to the following principles:


- Zone 1 is set to 120% of the protected line and trips only in conjunction with POTT scheme.
- Zone 2 is set to 120% of the protected line and trips independently with 0.4 s delay.
- Back-up zone 3 is set to 200% of the line length and provides delayed trip with 0.8 s
- Zone 4 is used for local acceleration logic and set to 120% of the line. Zone 4 trips almost instanta-
neously, but only in case of PLC Failure. Zone is blocked by AR close command.
- Zone 5 setting is optionally provided for blocking schemes, 50% of line in reverse direction.

Zone settings
X1 = 1.2 * a forward -> in 0 s, but only in POTT scheme
X2 = 1.2* a forward -> in 0.4 s
X3 = 2.0 * a forward -> in 0.8 s
X4 = 1.2 * a forward -> in 0 s, but only when PLC fails
X5 = 0.5 * a <- reverse blocked, optionally for blocking schemes.
Carrier scheme: Zone 1 is overreaching zone in POTT scheme
With:
X1, X2, X3, X4, X5 Reactance settings of distance zone
a is line to remote station
Interfacing are the phase-overcurrent protection functions:
67 directional forward -> in 3.0 s (final def. OC backup)

Note:
• The settings for the distance protection function are done in primary values. The instrument trans-
former ratio that has been set for the analogue input card is used to convert automatically the
measured secondary input signals to primary values used in the distance protection function.
• For very short line applications the underreaching zone 1 can not be used as voltage distribution
throughout the line will be too low causing risk for overreaching.
• Load encroachment is normally no problem for short line applications, this feature is disabled.
• Final backup OC protection is proposed as directional function for better selectivity. If activated
non-directional, any traversing fault current along the incoming and outgoing OHL will trip both
lines. Non-dirctional coordination with bus-coupler is impossible.

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.5 REL670 - Current and Voltage Transformer Data, Impedance Ratio

The distance relay is connected to following CTs and VTs.


CT-Ratio: 1600 -800 / 1 A Note: 1600 A tap is chosen
VT-Ratio: (132 kV /√3) / (100 V / √3)

Calculation of secondary values TRatio = CTRatio/VTRatio


= (1600 A / 1 A) / (132 kV / 100 V)
= 1.212
Zsecondary = TRatio x Zprim
The secondary setting values are only given for relay testing purposes during commissioning.

2.6 REL670 – Relay Parameter

• REL670 - Maximum Arc Resistance


An approximation for the necessary resistive reach can be derived by calculation of the arc resistance
using the formula by A.R. van Warrington:
RB = 28710 x d / (I^1.4)
RB = 0.7 Ω
With: d length of the arc in m, is assumed approx. 3.66 m.
I min. s/c current, taken is 5 kA.
RB arc resistance in
Additional, the tower footing resistance for ground faults needs consideration. Overall the required resis-
tive coverage is several times the reactive reach setting.
However, the relay limits the maximum permissible resistive coverage as per the instructions in the relay
manual to ensure adequate relay operation. The given maximum limits for resistive coverage as function
of the reactive reach setting as per the manual are applied.
• Phase-phase arc coverage
The resistive reach RFPP as fault resistance for phase-phase measurement should be less or equal
3 times the set value of pos.-seqence reactance X1, this rule is adopted for all zones (n).
RFPP(n) is set to 3 * X1(n).
• Phase-earth arc coverage
The resistive reach RFPE for phase-earth measurement should be less or equal 4.5 times the set value
of pos.-seqeunce reactance X1 for underreaching zone 1 phase-earth settings, this rule is adopted for all
zones n:
RFPE(n) is set to 4.5 * X1(n).

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

• REL670 - Minimum Load Impedance & load encroachment function


The minimum load impedance can be calculated on the basis of the maximum permitted power flow over
the protected line. The maximum power flow is calculated from the ampacity of the OHL line of 708 A at
nominal system voltage of 132 kV, the maximum power flow is 161 MVA. It is assumed, that the maxi-
mum power is now transferred under worst-conditions at a minimum system voltage of 80 %.
The minimum load impedance is:
ZLoad(min) = (0.8 x 132 kV)² / 161 MVA = 69 Ω
From the minimum load impedance it can be seen, that load encroachment is no problem for distance
protection as protection is a “very short line” applications. Load encroachment is disabled.
To deactivate the load encroachment function the setting of the load resistance RLdFw and RLdRv for the
Phase selector should be set to max value (3000).

• REL670 - Relay Measuring Principles


The REL670 works internally in any fault case with a fault loop reach.

The measurement of phase-earth faults is based on loop-basis: Zm = Z1 + ZN + RFPE


The measurement of phase-phase faults is based on loop-basis: Zm = 2* Z1 + RFPP

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The resistance Rm and reactance Xm is compared with the set reach in the resistive and reactive direc-
tion.

The characteristic for the phase-to-earth measuring loops, ohm/loop domain is:

The characteristic for the phase-to-phase measuring loops is:

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

• REL670 - Setting Principle of Phase Selection Unit


The operation of transmission networks today is in many cases close to the stability limit. The ability to
accurate and reliable classifying the different types of fault so that single pole tripping and auto-reclosing
can be used plays an important roll in this matter. The PHS function is designed to select accurate the
proper fault loop in the distance protection function dependent on the fault type.
The phase selector must at least cover the overreaching zone 2 in order to achieve correct phase selec-
tion for utilizing single phase auto-reclosing for faults on the entire line. It is not necessary to cover all
distance protection zones. However, the relay is applied for short line protection, therefore the PHS
function is set to cover zone 3.
In order to get operation from distance zones, the phase selection outputs STCNDZ or STCNDI must be
connected to input STCND on distance zones.

The following guidelines for setting are adopted from relay manual:

Phase-to-earth fault in forward direction


• Reactive reach X1PHS and X0PHS
The reactive reach in forward direction must as minimum be set to cover the measuring zone as desired.
The minimum recommended reactive reach is
X1PHS 1.44*X1(ZONE3), used is factor 1.5
X0PHS 1.44*X0(ZONE3), used is factor 1.5
• Fault resistance reach RFPE
The resistive reach must cover RFPE for the overreaching zone to be covered. Consider the longest
overreaching zone if correct fault selection is important in the application.

RFFwPE 1.2 RFPE(ZONE3), used is factor 1.3

Phase-to-phase fault in forward direction


• Reactive reach
The reach in reactive direction is determined by the setting of X1 parameter of phase-to-earth reach. No
extra setting is required.
• Resistive reach
In the same way as for phase-to-earth fault, the reach is automatically calculated based on the setting of
X1. The reach will be X1/tan(60°) =X1/SQR(3).
• Fault resistance reach
The fault resistance reaches in forward direction RFFwPP, must cover RFPP(Zone) with at least 25%
margin. RFPPZm is the setting of fault resistance for phase-to-phase fault for the longest overreaching
zone to be covered by PHS. The minimum recommended reach can be calculated according to following
equation.
RFFwPP 1.25 RFPP(Zone3), used is factor 1.3

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

Phase-to-earth fault in reverse direction


• Reactive reach
The reactive reach in reverse direction is the same as for forward so no additional setting is required.
• Resistive reach
The resistive reach in reverse direction must be set longer than the longest reverse zones. In blocking
schemes it must be set longer than the overreaching zone at remote end that is used in the communica-
tion scheme. In following equation gives the coordination:
RFRvPEmin 1.2* RFPE(Zone3), used is factor 1.3

RFltREvPG 1.2 RFPG (remote side), used is factor 1.3

The PHS settings are given in the section following the zone 3 distance relay settings.

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 16


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.7 REL670 - Distance protection zone 1

a= line PRL - KTPS St. Z1 = 0.148+ j 0.709 Ω prim.


Z0 = 0.632+ j 1.643 Ω prim.

Zone reach: 120% of line in forward direction


Timer: Off (active only in POTT scheme)
Parameter Setting Value Secondary
Unit Calculation/Remarks
ZMQPDIS_21 (Primary Value) Value

Operation On Operation Off / On


Base current, i.e. rated current.
IBase 1600.0 A IBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the CT
Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage.
UBase 132.0 kV UBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the VT
Operation mode of directionality
OperationDir Forward
NonDir / Forw / Rev
Positive sequence reactance
X1 0.85 1,03 /ph
reach
Positive seq. resistance for
R1 0.18 0,21 /ph
zone characteristic angle

X0 1.97 2,39 /ph Zero sequence reactance reach

Zero seq. resistance for


R0 0.76 0,92 /ph
zone characteristic angle
Fault resistance reach in
RFPP 2.55 3,09 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-Ph. Set to 3*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Fault resistance reach in
RFPE 3.83 4,64 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-E. Set to 4.5*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PP On
Phase-Phase loops
Operation mode Off / On
timer t1PP Off
of Zone timer, Ph-Ph

t1PP 0.0 s sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph

Operation mode Off / On of


Operation PE On
Phase-Earth loops
Operation mode Off / On of
timer t1PE Off
Zone timer, Ph-E

t1PE 0.0 s sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-E

Minimum operate delta current


IMinOpPP 20 %IB
for Phase-Phase loops
Minimum operate phase current
IMinOpPE 20 %IB
for Phase-Earth loops
Minimum operate residual current
IMinOpIN 5 %IB
for Phase-Earth loops

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 17


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.8 REL670 - Distance protection zone 2

a= line PRL - KTPS St. Z1 = 0.148+ j 0.709 Ω prim.


Z0 = 0.632+ j 1.643 Ω prim.

Zone reach: 120% of line in forward direction


Timer: 0.4 s

Parameter Setting Value Secondary


Unit Calculation/Remarks
ZMQPDIS_21 (Primary Value) Value
Operation On Operation Off / On
Base current, i.e. rated current.
IBase 1600.0 A IBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the CT
Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage.
UBase 132.0 kV UBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the VT
Operation mode of directionality
OperationDir Forward
NonDir / Forw / Rev
Positive sequence reactance
X1 0.85 1,03 /ph
reach
Positive seq. resistance for
R1 0.18 0,21 /ph
zone characteristic angle
X0 1.97 2,39 /ph
Zero sequence reactance reach
Zero seq. resistance for
R0 0.76 0,92 /ph
zone characteristic angle
Fault resistance reach in
RFPP 2.55 3,09 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-Ph. Set to 3*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Fault resistance reach in
RFPE 3.83 4,64 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-E. Set to 4.5*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PP On
Phase-Phase loops
Operation mode Off / On
timer t2PP On
of Zone timer, Ph-Ph
t2PP 0.4 s sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PE On
Phase-Earth loops
Operation mode Off / On of
timer t2PE On
Zone timer, Ph-E
t2PE 0.4 s sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-E
Minimum operate delta current
IMinOpPP 20 %IB
for Phase-Phase loops
Minimum operate phase current
IMinOpPE 20 %IB
for Phase-Earth loops

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 18


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.9 REL670 - Distance protection zone 3

a= line PRL - KTPS St. Z1 = 0.148+ j 0.709 Ω prim.


Z0 = 0.632+ j 1.643 Ω prim.

Zone reach: 200% of line in forward direction


Timer: 0.8 s

Parameter Setting Value Secondary


Unit Calculation/Remarks
ZMQPDIS_21 (Primary Value) Value
Operation On Operation Off / On
Base current, i.e. rated current.
IBase 1600.0 A IBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the CT
Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage.
UBase 132.0 kV UBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the VT
Operation mode of directionality
OperationDir Forward
NonDir / Forw / Rev
Positive sequence reactance
X1 1.42 1,72 /ph
reach
Positive seq. resistance for
R1 0.30 0,36 /ph
zone characteristic angle
X0 3.29 3,98 /ph
Zero sequence reactance reach
Zero seq. resistance for
R0 1.26 1,53 /ph
zone characteristic angle
Fault resistance reach in
RFPP 4.26 5,16 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-Ph. Set to 3*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Fault resistance reach in
RFPE 6.38 7,74 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-E. Set to 4.5*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PP On
Phase-Phase loops
Operation mode Off / On
timer t3PP On
of Zone timer, Ph-Ph
t3PP 0.8 s sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PE On
Phase-Earth loops
Operation mode Off / On of
timer t3PE On
Zone timer, Ph-E
t3PE 0.8 s sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-E
Minimum operate delta current
IMinOpPP 20 %IB
for Phase-Phase loops
Minimum operate phase current
IMinOpPE 20 %IB
for Phase-Earth loops

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 19


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.10 REL670 – Settting of Phase Selection Function

Generally, the phase selection elements need not to cover all distance-protection zones within the
terminal. The main goal should be reliable phase selection for faults on the entire protected line. This
way, a single-phase auto-reclosing function has the best possible effect. As in this application a very
short line is protected, the phase selection is set to overreach distance protection zone 3 with the rec-
ommended margins as per REL670 manual.

a= line PRL - KTPS St. Z1 = 0.148+ j 0.709 Ω prim.


Z0 = 0.632+ j 1.643 Ω prim.

Parameter
Setting Value Secondary
FDPSPDIS_21 Unit Calculation/Remarks
(Primary Value) Value
(PHS--) function
IBase 1600.0 A Base current for current settings
3I0 limit for blocking phase-
INBlockPP 40 %IPh
to-phase measuring loops
3I0 limit for releasing phase-
INReleasePE 20 %IPh
to-earth measuring loops
Forward resistive reach
RLdFw 3000 ohm/p within the load impedance area
not used, max. setting
Reverse resistive reach
RLdRv 3000 ohm/p within the load impedance area
not used, max. setting
Load angle determining
ArgLd 30 36,36 Deg
the load impedance area
Positive sequence
X1 2.13 2,58 ohm/p reactance reach,
set to 1.5*Zone 3
Zero sequence
X0 4.93 5,98 ohm/p reactance reach,
set to 1,5*Zone 3
Fault resistance reach,
RFFwPP 5.53 6,71 ohm/l Ph-Ph, forward,
set to 1,3*RFPP(Zone 3)
Fault resistance reach,
RFRvPP 5.53 6,71 ohm/l Ph-Ph, reverse
set to 1,3*RFPP(Zone 3)
Fault resistance reach,
RFFwPE 8.30 10,06 ohm/l Ph-E, forward
set to 1,3*RFPE(Zone 3)
Fault resistance reach,
RFRvPE 8.30 10,06 ohm/l Ph-E, reverse
set to 1,3*RFPP(Zone 3)
Minimum operate delta
IMinOpPP 10 %IB
current for Phase-Phase loops
Minimum operate phase
IMinOpPE 5 %IB
current for Phase-Earth loops

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 20


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.11 REL670 - Distance protection zone 4

a= line PRL - KTPS St. Z1 = 0.148+ j 0.709 Ω prim.


Z0 = 0.632+ j 1.643 Ω prim.

Zone reach: 120% of line in forward direction


Timer: Off (trips only with Local Acceleration Logic)
NOTE: This stage is used only in conjunction with the Local Acceleration Logic. The Local Acceleration
Logic (ZCLC) is used in those applications where conventional teleprotection scheme is not available (no
communication channel), but the user still requires fast clearance for faults on the whole line.

Parameter Setting Value Secondary


Unit Calculation/Remarks
ZMQPDIS_21 (Primary Value) Value
Operation On Operation Off / On
Base current, i.e. rated current.
IBase 1600.0 A IBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the CT
Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage.
UBase 132.0 kV UBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the VT
Operation mode of directionality
OperationDir Forward
NonDir / Forw / Rev
Positive sequence reactance
X1 0.85 1,03 /ph
reach
Positive seq. resistance for
R1 0.18 0,21 /ph
zone characteristic angle
X0 1.97 2,39 /ph Zero sequence reactance reach
Zero seq. resistance for
R0 0.76 0,92 /ph
zone characteristic angle
Fault resistance reach in
RFPP 2.55 3,09 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-Ph. Set to 3*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Fault resistance reach in
RFPE 3.83 4,64 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-E. Set to 4.5*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PP On
Phase-Phase loops
Operation mode Off / On
timer t4PP Off
of Zone timer, Ph-Ph
t4PP 0.0 s sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PE On
Phase-Earth loops
Operation mode Off / On of
timer t4PE Off
Zone timer, Ph-E
t4PE 0.0 s sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-E
Minimum operate delta current
IMinOpPP 20 %IB
for Phase-Phase loops
Minimum operate phase current
IMinOpPE 20 %IB
for Phase-Earth loops

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 21


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.12 REL670 – Setting of Local acceleration logic (PLAL)

The setting parameter of the Local acceleration logic are given in following table. The logic is enabled
only in case of PLC failure. After the auto-recloser initiates the close command and remains in the re-
claim state, there will be no ARREADY signal, and the logic will be blocked. Following trips are according
to regular zone settings.
The logic can be controlled either by the auto-recloser (zone extension) (is selected logic) or by the loss
of load current (loss-of-load acceleration).
With parameter Set ZoneExtension set to On then the first trip from selected overreaching zone shall
be instantaneous and the definitive trip after auto-reclosure is a normal time-delayed trip.

Parameter Range Step Setting Unit Description


Operation Off On - ON - Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 1 1600 A Base setting for current values
LoadCurr 1 - 100 1 10 %IB Load current before disturbance in % of IBase
LossOfLoad Off On - OFF - Enable/Disable operation of Loss of load.
ZoneExtension Off On - ON - Enable/Disable operation of Zone extension
Lev taken as curr loss due to remote CB trip in
MinCurr 1 - 100 1 5 %IB
% of IBase
0.000 -
tLowCurr 0.001 0.200 s Time delay on pick-up for MINCURR value
60.000
0.000 -
tLoadOn 0.001 0.000 s Time delay on pick-up for load current release
60.000
0.000 -
tLoadOff 0.001 0.300 s Time delay on drop off for load current release
60.000

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 22


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.13 REL670 - Setting of two step undervoltage protection (PTUV, 27)

This function is switched off.

Parameter Range Step Default Unit Description


Operation Off On - Off - Operation Off / On
Base voltage
0.05 - Set value in % is related to
UBase 0.05 132 kV
2000.00 132 kV/sqrt(3) as Ph-Earth is selected
at ConnType
OperationStep1 Off On - On - Enable execution of step 1
Definite time
Inverse
curve A In- Definite Selection of time delay curve type for
Characterist1 - -
verse curve time step 1
B Prog. inv.
curve
Number of phases required for op (1
1 out of 3 2
of 3, 2 of 3, 3 of 3) from step 1
OpMode1 out of 3 3 out - 3 out of 3 -
All three phases must show „dead
of 3
line“ condition
Voltage setting/start val (DT & IDMT)
in % of UBase, step 1
U1< 1 - 100 1 20 %UB Phase-earth voltage below 20% nomi-
nal value is taken as „dead line“ condi-
tion
0.00 - Definitive time delay of step 1
t1 0.01 0 s
6000.00 No time delay is set
Minimum operate time for inverse
0.000 -
t1Min 0.001 5.000 s curves for step 1
60.000
not used
Time multiplier for the inverse time
k1 0.05 - 1.10 0.01 0.05 - delay for step 1
not used
Off Block of Internal (low level) blocking mode,
IntBlkSel1 - Off -
trip Block all step 1
Voltage setting for internal blocking in
IntBlkStVal1 1 - 100 1 20 %UB % of UBase, step 1
not used
Time delay of internal (low level)
0.000 -
tBlkUV1 0.001 0.000 s blocking for step 1
60.000
not used
Absolute hysteresis in % of UBase,
HystAbs1 0.0 - 100.0 0.1 0.5 %UB
step 1
OperationStep2 Off On - OFF - Enable execution of step 2

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 23


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.14 REL670 - Distance protection zone 5

a= line PRL - KTPS St. Z1 = 0.148+ j 0.709 Ω prim.


Z0 = 0.632+ j 1.643 Ω prim.

Zone reach: 80% of line in reverse direction


Timer: timer blocked
NOTE: This stage is set in reserve direction to be used in blocking schemes or with current reversal logic.

Parameter Setting Value Secondary


Unit Calculation/Remarks
ZMQPDIS_21 (Primary Value) Value
Operation OFF Operation Off / On
Base current, i.e. rated current.
IBase 1600.0 A IBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the CT
Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage.
UBase 132.0 kV UBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the VT
Operation mode of directionality
OperationDir Reverse
NonDir / Forw / Rev
Positive sequence reactance
X1 0.57 0,69 /ph
reach
Positive seq. resistance for
R1 0.12 0,15 /ph
zone characteristic angle
X0 1.31 1,59 /ph Zero sequence reactance reach
Zero seq. resistance for
R0 0.5 0,61 /ph
zone characteristic angle
Fault resistance reach in
RFPP 1.71 2.07 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-Ph. Set to 3*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Fault resistance reach in
RFPE 2.56 3.10 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-E. Set to 4.5*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PP Off
Phase-Phase loops
Operation mode Off / On
timer t5PP Off
of Zone timer, Ph-Ph
t5PP 0 sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PE Off
Phase-Earth loops
Operation mode Off / On of
timer t5PE Off
Zone timer, Ph-E
t5PE 0 sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-E
Minimum operate delta current
IMinOpPP 20 %IB
for Phase-Phase loops
Minimum operate phase current
IMinOpPE 20 %IB
for Phase-Earth loops

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 24


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.15 REL670 – Setting of Directionality (ZDRDIR)

The evaluation of the directionality takes place in the function block ZD.

The setting of ArgDir and ArgNegRes is by default set to 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees respectively and it
should not be changed unless system studies have shown the necessity.
The settings are:
Parameter
ZDRDIR
(ZD01-) Range Step Setting Unit Description
Angle to blinder in second quadrant for
ArgNegRes 90 - 175 1 115 Deg forward direction
Angle to blinder in fourth quadrant for for-
ArgDir 5 - 45 1 15 Deg ward direction
IMinOp 1 - 99999 1 10 %IB Minimum operate current in % of IBase
IBase 1 - 99999 1 1600 A Base Current
0.05 -
132,0
UBase 2000.00 0.05 kV Base Voltage

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 25


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.16 REL670 - Power Swing Detection (PSD)

Power swings are multi-phase power-flows due to exchange of synchronizing power between power
plants after faults. Therefore the PSD function should be set to the "2-of-3" operating mode, which is
based on the detection of power swing in at least two of three phases.
The characteristic is given in following diagram:

The PSD function setting is calculated from the distance zone 3 settings. The parameters are provided
for information. It is proposed to disable PSD logic as the relay operating area is small (very short line
application); it appears practical impossible that the measured impedance at power swings will trav-
erse the relay operating area.
Parameter
Range Setting Unit Description
PSD1
Operation Off On OFF - Operation Mode On / Off
Inner reactive boundary, forward:
X1InFw 0.10 - 3000.00 1.70 ohm
Set to 1,2*X1(Zone3)
Line resistance for inner characteristic angle:
R1LIn 0.10 - 1000.00 0.35 ohm
Set to 1,2 * R1(Zone3)
Fault resistance coverage to inner resistive line, for-
R1FInFw 0.10 - 1000.00 5.11 ohm
ward. Set to 1,2*RFPP(Zone3)
Inner reactive boundary, reverse:
X1InRv 0.10 - 3000.00 1.70 ohm
Set to X1lnFw
Fault resistance line to inner resistive boundary,
R1FInRv 0.10 - 1000.00 5.11 ohm
reverse. Set to R1FlnFw
OperationLdCh Off On Off - Operation of load discrimination characteristic
Outer resistive load boundary, forward:
RLdOutFw 0.10 - 3000.00 5.11 ohm
Set to R1FlnFw
Load angle determining load impedance area:
ArgLd 5 - 70 25 Deg
not used
Outer resistive load boundary, reverse :
RLdOutRv 0.10 - 3000.00 5.11 ohm
Set to RLdOutFw

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 26


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

Parameter
Range Setting Unit Description
PSD1
Multiplication factor for inner resistive load boundary,
kLdRFw 0.50 - 0.90 0.8 Mult
forward.
Multiplication factor for inner resistive load boundary,
kLdRRv 0.50 - 0.90 0.8 Mult
reverse.
tEF 0.000 - 60.000 2 s Timer for overcoming single-pole reclosing dead time
IMinOpPE 5 - 30 10 %IB Minimum operate current in % of IBase
IBase 1 - 99999 1600.0 A Base setting for current level settings

The timer parameter are (default settings adopted):


Parameter Range Setting Unit Description
0.000 -
tP1 0.045 s Timer for detection of initial power swing
60.000
0.000 -
tP2 0.015 s Timer for detection of subsequent power swings
60.000
0.000 -
tW 0.250 s Waiting timer for activa-tion of tP2 timer
60.000
0.000 -
tH 0.500 s Timer for holding power swing START output
60.000
0.000 -
tR1 0.300 s Timer giving delay to inhibit by the residual cur-rent
60.000
0.000 -
tR2 2.000 s Timer giving delay to inhibit at very slow swing
60.000

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 27


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.17 REL670 - Switch-onto-fault Function (SOFT)

The switch-onto-fault function is a complementary function to the distance protection function. With the
switch-onto-fault function, a fast trip is achieved for a fault on the whole line, when the line is being ener-
gized. The SOTF tripping is generally non-directional in order to secure a trip at a nearby three phase
fault when a line potential transformer is used. The non-directional trip will also give a fast fault clearing
when the bus is energized from the line, with a fault on the bus.
The switch-onto-fault function can be activated either externally or automatically, internally, by using
the information from dead-line-detection. The distance protection zone used together with the switch-
onto-fault function shall be set to cover the entire protected line. Overreaching zone 2 is proposed.
The internal signal DeadLine from the detector is activated if the phase currents and voltages are below
the setting IPh< and UPh<.
In this application SOTF is activated by Both criteria (external binary input BC and/or deadline detec-
tion)

The proposed settings are:


Setting of the Switch OnTo Fault (SOTF) function.
Setting of the zone to be activated during switch onto fault:
Operation = On
Non directional operation:
Zone = Zone2 (The used zone is selected in CAP config.)
Set the Base current for the SOTF function in primary Ampere:
Ibase = 1600 A
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the Dead line voltage is based:
UBase = 132 kV
BC input and/or deadline detection will activate SOTF
Setting of the U< voltage:
UP< = 70% *UBase
Setting of under current:
IP< = 20% *Ibase

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 28


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.18 REL670 - Tripping logic (PTRC, 94)

All trip signals from the different protection functions shall be routed through the trip logic. In its simplest
alternative the logic will only link the trip signal and make sure that it is long enough. The tripping logic in
IED 670 protection, control and monitoring IEDs offers three different operating modes:
1. Three-phase tripping for all fault types (3ph operating mode)
2. Single-phase tripping for single-phase faults and three-phase tripping for multi-phase and evolv-
ing faults (1ph/3ph operating mode). The logic also issues a three-phase tripping command when
phase selection within the operating protection functions is not possible, or when external condi-
tions request three-phase tripping.
3. Phase phase for two phase faults.
The three phase trip for all faults offers a simple solution and is often sufficient in well meshed transmis-
sion systems and in sub-transmission systems. According to the protection specification this is required
and set.
Proposed settings:
Setting of the tripping logic (TRP01)
Operation = On
Program = 3p
Set the trip pulse length tTripMin = 0.150 s
Set the latching of the trip signal TripLockout = Off (normal selection)
Set the internal activation of Lock-out output, else only activation of Lock-out input will create
Lock-out AutoLock = Off (normal selection)

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 29


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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.19 REL670 - Fuse Failure Supervision (zero sequence) (RFUF)

Different protection functions within the protection IED, operates on the basis of the measured voltage in
the relay point. Examples are:
• distance protection function
• under/over-voltage function
• synchrocheck function and voltage check for the weak infeed logic.
These functions can operate unnecessarily if a fault occurs in the secondary circuits between the voltage
instrument transformers and the IED. In normal applications the OpMode is set to UZsIZs for zero se-
quence based algorithm. The zero sequence detection algorithm, based on the zero sequence measuring
quantities, a high value of voltage 3 U0 without the presence of the residual current 3 I0, is recommended
for use in directly or low impedance earthed networks.
It is recommended to set always SealIn to On since this will secure that no unwanted operation of fuse
failure will occur at closing command of breaker when the line is already energized from the other end.
The operation mode selector OperationDUDI is set to OFF, the delta function di and du are not required.
The proposed settings are (relay default settings are selected):
Setting of Fuse Failure supervision function based on U0-I0, U2-I2 and dU-dI (FSD)
Setting of the operation for the Fuse failure supervision:
Operation = On
Setting of the operating mode for the Fuse failure supervision:
OpMode = UZsIZs
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the voltage setting is based.
UBase = 132 kV
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based:
Ibase = 1600 A
Setting of the 3U0 (UZs) voltage required to give operation:
3U0> = 30% *UBase
Setting of the 3I0 (IZs) current which will block the fuse failure function:
3I0< = 10% *Ibase
Setting of the U2 (UNs) voltage required to give operation:
3U2> = 30% *UBase
Setting of the I2 (INs) current which will block the fuse failure function:
3I2< = 10% *Ibase
Setting of the operation for the DU> and DI< measuring function:
Operation DUDI = Off
Setting of the DU> voltage required to give operation:
DU> = 60% *UBase
Setting of the operate value for phase currents:
DI< = 15% *Ibase
Setting of the operate voltage for phase voltages:
UPH> = 70% *UBase
Setting of the DI< current which will block the fuse failure function:
IPH> = 10% *Ibase
Setting of the seal-in function On-Off giving seal-in of alarm until voltages are symmetrical and
high: SEALIN = On
Set the voltage level for the seal-in of the function:
USealIn< = 60% *UBase
Note: At operation symmetrical voltages (reset of DLD) is required to reset the FUSE function.
Setting of under current:
IDLD< = 5% *Ibase
Setting of the U< voltage:
UDLD< = 60% *UBase

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 30


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.20 REL670 - Scheme communication logic for distance protection (ZCOM)

A permissive overreach scheme is proposed for the “very short line” protection application. In permissive
overreach scheme there is an overreaching zone that issue the carrier send signal (is Zone 1). At remote
end the received signal together with activating of an overreaching zone gives instantaneous trip of the
protected object. The overreaching zone used in the teleprotection scheme must be activated at the same
time as the received signal is present. The scheme can be used for all type line lengths.

In permissive overreach schemes, the communication channel plays an essential roll to obtaining fast
tripping at both ends. Failure of the communication channel may affect the selectivity and delay tripping at
one end at least, for faults anywhere along the protected circuit.
Teleprotection operating in permissive overreach scheme must beside the general requirement of fast
and secure operation also requirement on dependability must be considered. Inadequate security can
cause unwanted tripping for external faults. Inadequate speed or dependability can cause delayed trip-
ping for internal faults or even unwanted operations.
To secure correct operations of current reversal logic in case of parallel lines, when applied, the carrier
send signal CS shall not be prolonged. So set the tSendMin to zero in this case (not required as no paral-
lel line application). There is no need to delay the trip at receive of the carrier signal, so set the timer tCo-
ord to zero.

The proposed settings are:


Scheme communication logic for Distance protection (ZCOM)
Operation = On
Setting of the Communication scheme:
Scheme Type = PermOR
Setting of the coordination timer:
tCoord = 0.0 s
Setting of the carrier send minimum time:
tSendmin = 0.1 s
Setting of the unblocking logic:
Unblock = Off
Setting of the unblocking security time:
tSecurity = 0.035 s

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 31


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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.21 REL670 - Setting of current reversal and WEI logic for distance protection (ZCAL)

To achieve fast fault clearing for a fault on the part of the line not covered by the zone 1, the stepped
distance protection function can be supported with logic, which uses communication channels. Different
system conditions, in many cases, require additional special logic circuits, like current reversal logic and
WEI, weak end infeed logic. Both functions are available within the additional communication logic for the
distance protection function (ZCAL).
• Current reversal logic
If parallel lines are connected to common buses at both terminals, overreaching permissive communica-
tion schemes can trip unselectable due to current reversal. The unwanted tripping affects the healthy line
when a fault is cleared on the other line. This lack of security results in a total loss of inter-connection
between the two buses. To avoid this kind of disturbances, a fault current reversal logic (transient block-
ing logic) can be used. In this application no parallel lines are protected, current reversal can be set OFF.
The proposed settings are:
Setting of the current reversal logic for distance protection (used in overreaching schemes)
(ZCAL)
Activation of the current reversal logic:
CurrRev = Off
Setting of the pick-up timer:
tPickUpRev = 0.020 s
Setting of the delay timer:
tDelayRev = 0.100 s
Timer setting require adjustment during commissioning tests. Parameter should be set according results
of measurements.

• Weak end infeed (WEI) logic


Permissive communication schemes can operate basically only when the protection in the remote termi-
nal can detect the fault. The detection requires a sufficient minimum fault current, normally >20% of Ir.
The fault current can be too low due to an open breaker or low short-circuit power of the source. To over-
come these conditions, weak end infeed echo logic is used. The fault current can also be initially too low
due to the fault current distribution. Here, the fault current increases when the breaker opens in the strong
terminal, and a sequential tripping is achieved. This requires a detection of the fault by an independent-
tripping zone 1. To avoid sequential tripping as described and if zone 1 is not available, weak end infeed
tripping logic is used.
The WEI function sends back (echoes) the received carrier signal under the condition that no fault has
been detected on the weak end by different fault detection elements (distance protection in forward and
reverse direction).
Avoid using WEI function at both line ends. It shall only be activated at the weak end. In this application
no weak-infeed-condition is expected, therefore the function is OFF (meshed network with multiple in-
feeds).
Proposed settings:
Setting of the Weak End Infeed (WEI) logic
Activation of the current reversal logic WEI = Off
Setting of the U< voltage UPP< = 70% *UBase
UPN< = 70% *UBase
Setting of the delay timer tPickUpWEI = 0.100 s
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the WEI voltage is based:
UBase = 132 kV
Timer setting require adjustment during commissioning tests. Parameter should be set according results
of measurements.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.22 REL670 – Sensitive Directional Earthfault Protection in Carrier Scheme

• REL670 - Residual Overcurrent Protection (TEF)


The function can have different types of time-current characteristics; definite time delay or different types
of inverse time delay. By using the inverse time delay characteristics some degrees of selectivity between
non-directional residual protections can be achieved. Directional earth-fault protection is obtained by
measuring the residual current and the angle between this current and the zero-sequence voltage (3U0)
The angle is internally set to a characteristic angle of 65°.

Characteristic Setting
The directional earth fault protection unit is activated with an independent time-delay function by setting
Characteristic= “IEC DEF time”.

IN>-Setting (3I0 Start current for TEF function)


To detect high resistive earth faults, a low operating current is required on the one hand. On the other
hand, a low setting will increase the risk for unwanted operation due to unbalance in the network and the
current transformer circuits. The unbalance in the network that causes false earth-fault currents is caused
mainly by untransposed or not fully transposed parallel lines with strong zero-sequence mutual coupling.
In a well transposed system, the false earth-fault current is normally lower than 5% of the line current. In
this protection application a setting of the minimum operating current of the DEF protection scheme of 0.1
x ICT = 0.1 x 1600 A = 160 A is proposed. This setting should be sensitive enough to detect high-resistive
earth-fault and provides a safety margin toward zero-sequence error currents.
Proposed setting is IN> = 0.1 x ICT = 160 A

t1 timer Setting (Independent time delay)


The t1-timer starts when both, the definite time characteristic and the tMin-timer operates. The tMin-timer
starts when the 3I0 current to the relay is equal or higher than the set operate value for IMin and the con-
tent of the second harmonic in 3I0 is less than 20%. The t1-timer is normally set to zero, it can be used to
add a constant time to the inverse time delay.
The DEF has to be delayed in order to act selective against the distance relay and not disturbing zone 1
respectively – depending on philosophy - zone 2 operation. If the earth fault is not detected within zone 1
or the set transfer trip scheme, the DEF with its comparison logic has to provide 3 phase-tripping of the
faulted line.
Proposed setting is tMin = 0 s and t1 = 0.2 s, thus 0.2 s time delay is set for SDEF.

The parameter are given in following table.


Parameter Range Step Setting Unit Description
Operation Off On - On - Operation Off / On
IBase 1 - 99999 1 1600 A Base value for current settings
UBase 0.05 - 2000.00 0.05 132 kV Base value for voltage settings
Minimum fundamental frequency
IMinOpFund 2 - 100 1 5 %IB
current level in % of IBase
AngleRCA -180 - 180 1 65 Deg Relay characteristic angle (RCA)
Minimum polarizing quantity in % of
3Uo>Dir 1 - 100 1 1 %UB
UBase

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

Parameter Range Step Setting Unit Description


Operate residual current level for
IN>DirCmp 1 - 100 1 5 %IB
DirComp in % of IBase
Time delay for DirComp
Check during commissioning: no
tDirCmp 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 60 s
trip required, trip output to be
blocked
Second harmonic restrain operation
2ndHarmStab 5 - 100 1 20 %
in % of IN amplitude
Enable blocking at parallel trans-
BlkParTransf Off On - Off -
formers
IN1> IN2> IN3> Current level blk at parallel transf
UseStartValue - IN1> -
IN4> (step1, 2, 3 or 4)
Off SOTF Under- SOTF operation mode
SOTF Time - Off - (Off/SOTF/Under-
SOTF+UnderTime time/SOTF+undertime)
Open Closed Select signal that shall activate
ActivationSOTF - Open -
CloseCommand SOTF
Enable harmonic restrain function in
HarmResSOTF Disable Enable - Disable -
SOTF
tSOTF 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 0.200 s Time delay for SOTF
t4U 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 1.000 s Switch-onto-fault active time
Off Non-
Directional mode of step 1 (off, nodir,
DirMode1 directional For- - Forward -
forward, reverse)
ward Reverse
IEC Def.
Characterist1 … - - Time delay curve type for step 1
Time
Operate residual current level for
IN1> 1 - 2500 1 10 %IB
step 1 in % of IBase
Independent (definite) time delay of
t1 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 0.2 s
step 1
Time multiplier for the dependent
k1 0.05 - 999.00 0.01 0.05 -
time delay for step 1
Multiplier for scaling the current set-
IN1Mult 1.0 - 10.0 0.1 1.0 -
ting value for step 1
Minimum operate time for inverse
t1Min 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 0 s
curve
Enable block of step 1 from harmonic
HarmRestrain1 Disable Enable - Disable -
restrain
Select the reset curve type for the inverse delay:
ResetTypeCrv1 = IEC Reset
Set the Reset time delay for definite time delayed function:
tReset1 = 0.02 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

• REL670 - Scheme communication logic for residual overcurrent protection (PSCH, 85)
To achieve fast fault clearance of earth faults on the part of the line not covered by the instantaneous step
of the residual overcurrent protection, the directional residual overcurrent protection can be supported
with a logic that uses communication channels.
The sensitive directional earth fault protection is operated in permissive scheme.
In the permissive scheme, the forward direction measuring element in TEF function, connected to the
EFC--CSPRM input, sends a permissive signal to the other line end if a fault is detected in the forward
direction. The directional element at the other line end must wait for a permissive signal before giving a
trip signal.
tCoord: Delay time for trip from the EFC function. For Permissive under- and overreach schemes this
timer can be set to 0 s. (For Blocking scheme the setting should be minimum: the maximum signal trans-
mission time + 10 ms)

In the permissive communication scheme, the security against unwanted operation caused by spurious
carrier receive signals can be increased by delaying the tripping output with the tCoord timer. Set the
timer in the range of 0.000 to 60.000 s. In most cases, a time delay of 35 ms is sufficient.

Parameter Range Setting Unit Description

Operation Off, On On - Operating mode for EFC function


Off
Intertrip
Permissive
SchemeType UR PermissiveOR - Scheme type, mode of operation
Permissive
OR
Blocking
0.000-60.000
tCoord 0.0 s Communication scheme coordination time
Step: 0.001
tSendMin 0.000 - 60.000 0.1 s Minimum duration of a carrier send signal
Setting of the unblocking logic:
Unblock = Off
Setting of the unblocking security time:
tSecurity = 0.035 s

Timer setting require adjustment during commissioning tests. Parameter should be set according results
of measurements.

• REL670 - Current Reversal and Weak Infeed Logic EFCA


As no parallel lines are to be protected, the logic is not needed. Also, weak infeed condition is not ex-
pected in this application (meshed network with multiple infeeds)

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.23 REL670 - Autoreclosure settings

Autoreclosing is a well established method to restore the service of a power line after a transient line fault.
The majority of line faults are flashover arcs, which are transient by nature. When the line is switched off
by operation of line protection and line breakers, the arc de-ionizes and recovers voltage withstand at a
somewhat variable rate. A certain line “dead time” is thus necessary, but line service can then be re-
sumed by autoreclosing of the line breakers. The length of the “dead time” is so selected in order to give
a good probability to fault arc de-ionization and successful reclosing.

According to the protection specification first-shot three-phase AR is required.

The settings with explanations are as follows:


• Dead time
Three-phase shot 1 delay: For three-phase high-speed auto-reclosing a typical open time is 400 ms. Dif-
ferent local phenomena, such as moisture, salt, pollution etc. can influence the required dead time.
It is proposed to set a slightly higher value of t1 3Ph = 500ms.

• Extended t1 and tExtended t1


The communication link in a permissive (not strict) line protection scheme, for instance a power line car-
rier (PLC) link, may not always be available. If lost, it can result in delayed tripping at one end of a line.
There is a possibility to extend the auto-reclosing open time in such a case by use of an input to
PLCLOST, and the setting parameters.
Proposed settings: Extended t1 = OFF; no time extention in case of PLC failure

• tSync, Maximum wait time for synchronization check


The time window should be coordinated with the operating time and other settings of the synchronization
check function. Attention should also be paid to the possibility of a power swing when reclosing after a
line fault. Too short a time may prevent a potentially successful reclosing.
A typical setting of 2.0 s is proposed.

• tInhibit, Inhibit resetting delay


A typical setting is tInhibit = 5.0 s to ensure reliable interruption and temporary blocking of the function.
Function will be blocked during this time after the tinhibit has been activated.
The typical setting of 5 s is proposed.

• tReclaim, Reclaim time


The reclaim time sets the time for resetting the function to its original state, after which a line fault and
tripping will be treated as an independent new case with a new reclosing cycle. One may consider a
nominal CB duty cycle of for instance, 0- 3sec CO- 3 min. – CO. However the 3 minute (180 s) recovery
time is usually not critical as fault levels are mostly lower than rated value and the risk of a new fault
within a short time is negligible.
A time setting of tReclaim = 180 s is proposed

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

• StartByCBOpen = Off, On
The normal setting is Off, this is proposed.
It is used when the function is started by protection trip signals Follow CB = Off, On The usual setting is
Follow CB = Off. The setting “ON” can be used for delayed reclosing with long delay, to cover the case
when a CB is being manually closed during the “auto-reclosing open time” before the auto-reclosing func-
tion has issued its CB closing command.

• tCBClosedMin
A typical setting is 5.0 s. If the CB has not been closed for at least this minimum time, a reclosing start will
not be accepted.
To be on the safe side a higher setting of 60 s is proposed.

• tPulse, Breaker closing command pulse duration


The pulse should be long enough to ensure reliable operation of the CB. A typical setting is Pulse=200
ms, this is proposed.

• BlockUnsuc
Setting whether an Unsuccessful Auto-Reclose attempt shall set the Auto-Reclose in Block. If used the
inputs BLOCKOFF must be configured to unblock the function after an unsuccessful Reclosing attempt.
Normal setting is Off.

• UnsucClByCBCheck
The normal setting is NoCBCheck.
The “auto-reclosing unsuccessful” event is then decided by a new trip within the reclaim time after the last
reclosing shot.

• Priority and time tWaitForMaster (bitte vergl.mit Tabelle)


In single CB applications, one sets Priority = None.

• AutoCont and tAutoContWait


The normal setting is AutoCont = OFF. The tAutoContWait is the length of time the AR waits to see if the
breaker is closed when AutoCont is set to On.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The settings are summarized in following table.


Setting of single and/or three phase Auto reclose device (AR1)
Setting of the operating mode Operation = External ctrl
Setting of the number of Auto reclose shots:
NoOfShots = 1
Setting of the Auto reclose first shot types allowed:
FirstShot = 3ph
Set if you want the AR to be started from CB Open instead of from Start inputs:
StartByCBOpen = Off
Select the type of contact used for the CB Position input:
CBAuxContType = NomOpen
Setting of the type of CB Ready condition:
CBReadyType = CO
Shot 1, Single phase reclosure dead-time:
t1 1Ph = 60.00 s
Shot 1, Two phase reclosure dead-time:
t1 2Ph = 60.00 s
Shot 1, Three phase reclosure dead-time:
t1 3Ph = 0.5 s
Shot 1, Three phase reclosure dead-time for High speed shot without Synchrocheck.
Note: Start by StartHS i t13PhHS = 60.0 s (not activated and connected to FALSE)
Shot 2, Three phase reclosure dead-time:
t2 3Ph = 60.00 s
Shot 3, Three phase reclosure dead-time:
t3 3Ph = 60.00 s
Shot 4, Three phase reclosure dead-time:
t4 3Ph = 60.00 s
Shot 5, Three phase reclosure dead-time:
t5 3Ph = 60.00 s
Set the reclaim time:
tReclaim = 180.00 s
Maximum time for Synchro check condition to be fulfilled:
tSync = 2.0 s
Extended t1S and t1 at PLC failure activated or not:
Extended t1 = OFF
Set the 3Ph shot 1 timer extension when the PLC is not operative and connected to input PLCFAIL:
tExtended t1 = 0.5 s
Set the inhibit reset time:
tInhibit = 5.0 s
Max duration of trip or start signal:
tTrip = 0.20 s
Setting of the operating mode:
CutPulse = Off
Reclose pulse duration:
tPulse = 0.20 s
Select if you want the multi-shot cycle to advance to next shot at a new fault if CB has been closed during
dead time:
Follow CB = Off
Setting of the time CB shall be closed before a fault to get an AR Attempt:
tCBClosedMin = 60.0 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

Setting of the operating mode for next AR attempt (continue if CB does not close):
AutoCont = Off
Wait time after reclose attempt before proceeding to next shots (for multi-shots only):
tAutoCondWait = 4.00 s
Setting of the signal mode at Unsuccessful reclosing:
UnsucClBYCBChk = No CB check
Blocking of the Auto reclose program at unsuccessful auto reclosing:
BlockByUnsucCl = Off
CB check time before unsuccessful alarm:
tUnsucCl = 20.00 s
Setting of the Priority between AR terminals in multi breaker schemes:
Priority = None
Setting of the maximum wait time for Master to be ready:
tWaitMaster = 15.00 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.24 REL670 - Synchronism check settings

The logic offers three operation modes:

Synchrocheck = On
The main purpose of the synchrocheck function is to provide control over the closing of circuit breakers in
power networks in order to prevent closing if conditions for synchronism are not detected.

Energizing check = On
The main purpose of the energizing check function is to facilitate the controlled re-connection of discon-
nected lines and buses to energized lines and buses.

Relevant parameters are:

UHighBus… and UHighLine..


The voltage level settings shall be chosen in relation to the bus/line network voltage. The threshold volt-
ages UHighBusSynch and UHighLineSynch have to be set smaller than the value where the network is
expected to be synchronized. A typical value is 80 % of the rated voltage, this is proposed.

UDiff
Setting of the voltage difference between the line voltage and the bus voltage. The difference is set de-
pending on the network configuration and expected voltages in the two networks running asynchronous.
A normal setting is 10-15% of the rated voltage, proposed is 15%.

FreqDiffM and FreqDiffA


The frequency difference level settings, FreqDiffM and FreqDiffA, shall be chosen depending on the con-
dition in the network. At steady conditions a low frequency difference setting is needed, where the
FreqDiffM setting is used. For auto-reclosing a bigger frequency difference setting is preferable, where
the FreqDiffA setting is used. A typical value for the FreqDiffM can 10 mHz and a typical value for the
FreqDiffA can be 100-200 mHz.
Proposed is 20 mHz for manual closing and 200 mHz for auto-reclosing after faults.

PhaseDiffM and PhaseDiffA


The phase angle difference level settings, PhaseDiffM and PhaseDiffA, shall also be chosen depending
on conditions in the network. The phase angle setting must be chosen to allow closing under maximum
load condition. A typical maximum value in heavy loaded networks can be 45 degrees whereas in most
networks the maximum occurring angle is below 25 degrees. A setting of 20° is proposed.

tSCM and tSCA


The purpose of the timer delay settings, tSCM and tSCA is to ensure that the synchrocheck conditions
remains constant and that the situation is not due to a temporary interference. Should the conditions not
persist for the specified time, the delay timer is reset and the procedure is restarted when the conditions

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

are fulfilled again. Circuit breaker closing is thus not permitted until the synchrocheck situation has re-
mained constant throughout the set delay setting time. Under stable conditions a longer operation time
delay setting is needed, where the tSCM setting is used. During auto-reclosing a shorter operation time
delay setting is preferable, where the tSCA setting is used. A typical value for the tSCM may be 1 second
and a typical value for the tSCA may be 0.1 second.
Proposed is tSCA = 0.2 s at auto-reclosing and tSCM = 1 s at manual reclosing.

tAutoEnerg and tManEnerg


The purpose of the timer delay settings, tAutoEnerg and tManEnerg, is to ensure that the dead side re-
mains de-energized and that the condition is not due to a temporary interference. Should the conditions
not persist for the specified time, the delay timer is reset and the procedure is restarted when the condi-
tions are fulfilled again. Circuit breaker closing is thus not permitted until the energizing condition has
remained constant throughout the set delay setting time.
Proposed is tAutoEnerg = 0.1 s at auto-reclosing and tManEnerg = 1 s at manual reclosing.

AutoEnerg and ManEnerg


Two different settings can be used for automatic and manual closing of the circuit breaker. The settings
for each of them are:
• Off, the energizing function is disabled.
• DLLB, Dead Line Live Bus, the line voltage is below set value of ULowLineEnerg and the bus
voltage is above set value of UHighBusEnerg.
• DBLL, Dead Bus Live Line, the bus voltage is below set value of ULowBusEnerg and the line
voltage is above set value of UHighLineEnerg.
• Both, energizing can be done in both directions, DLLB or DBLL.
Proposed is ManEnerg = Both and AutoEnerg = DLLB

UHighBusEnerg and UHighLineEnerg


The voltage level settings shall be chosen in relation to the bus/line network voltage. The threshold volt-
ages UHighBusEnerg and UHighLineEnerg, have to be set lower than the value at which the network is
considered to be energized. A typical value may be 80 % of the base voltage.
Setting of 80% is proposed.

ULowBusEnerg and ULowLineEnerg


In the same way, the threshold voltages ULowBusEnerg and ULowLineEnerg, have to be set greater than
the value of the network which is considered not to be energized. A typical value may be 30% of the base
voltage. Note that a disconnected line can have a considerable potential due to, for instance, induction
from a line running in parallel, or by being fed via the extinguishing capacitors in the circuit breakers. This
voltage can be as high as 30% or more of the base line voltage.
Setting of 20% is proposed.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The settings are summarized in following table.


Setting of Synchrocheck function (SYN1)
Setting of the operating mode for the function:
Operation = On
Setting of the input phase for Bus 1 voltage reference:
SelPhaseBus1 = L1
Setting of the input phase for bus 2 voltage reference (used in multi breaker schemes only):
SelPhaseBus2 = L1
Setting of the phase or line 1 voltage measurement:
SelPhaseLine1 = L1
Setting of the phase or line 2 voltage measurement (used in multi-breaker schemes only):
SelPhaseLine2 = L1
Setting of the busbar arrangement for Bus VT selection:
CBConfig = Double bus
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the voltage settings are based:
UBase= 132.0 kV
Setting of the phase shift for phases involved in checking:
Phase shift = 0°
Setting of the voltage ratio between Line VT and Bus VT (Line/Bus):
Uratio = 1.00
Set general settings for the Synchronism check function
Setting of the operating mode for the synchonism check (paralleling) function:
OperationSync = On
Set the operating level for the Bus high voltage at Line synchronism check:
UHighBusSync = 80% *UBase
Set the operating level for the Line high voltage at Line synchronism check:
UHighLineSync = 80% *UBase
Setting of the allowed voltage difference for Manual and Auto synchronism check
UDiff = 15%
Set the values for the Manual Synchronism (paralleling) check
Setting of the frequency difference for Manual synchronism check:
FreqDiffM = 0.02 Hz
Setting of the phase angle difference for Manual synchronism check:
PhaseDiffM = 20 °
Setting of the time delay for Manual synchronism check:
tSyncM = 1.0 s
Set the values for the Auto Synchronism (paralleling) check
Setting of the frequency difference for Auto synchronism check:
FreqDiffA = 0.2 Hz
Setting of the phase angle difference for Auto synchronism check:
PhaseDiffA = 20 °
Setting of the time delay for Auto synchronism check :
tSyncA = 0.2 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

Set the values for the Energizing check


Set the operating level for the Bus high voltage at Line energizing:
UHighBusEnerg = 80% *UBase
Set the operating level for the Line high voltage at Bus energizing:
UHighLineEnerg = 80% *UBase
Setting of the operating voltage level for the low line voltage level at line energizing:
ULowLineEnerg = 20% *UBase
Setting of the operating voltage level for the low Bus voltage level at Bus energizing:
ULowBusEnerg = 20% *UBase
Setting of the energizing check directions to be activated
AutoEnerg = DLLB
(the line voltage is below set value of ULowLineEnerg and the bus voltage is above set value of
UHighBusEnerg.)
Set the time delay for the Auto Energizing:
tAutoEnerg = 0.10 s
Setting of the manual Dead line/bus and Dead/Dead switching conditions to be allowed:
ManEnerg = Both
ManEnergDLDB = Off
Set the time delay for the Manual Energizing:
tManEnerg = 1.0 s
Setting of the maximum live voltage level at which energizing is allowed:
UMaxEnerg = 115%

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.25 REL670 - Fault locator (RFLO)

Settings of the line references is done in primary values. The local and remote side source impedance is
calculated from the given maximum 3p-short-circuit current at PRL of 29 kA, assumed is 50% fault contri-
bution from local side grid at PRL and 50% fault contribution from remote side grid at KTPS St. Set is a
typical ratio R/X = 0.1 for grid infeeds.
a= line PRL - KTPS St. Z1 = 0.148+ j 0.709 Ω prim.
Z0 = 0.632+ j 1.643 Ω prim.

Parameter Unit Setting Parameter description


(Primary values)
R1A Ohm/p 0,578 Positive sequence source resistance, near end
X1A Ohm/p 5,781 Positive sequence source reactance, near end
R1B Ohm/p 0,578 Positive sequence source resistance, far end
X1B Ohm/p 5,781 Positive sequence source reactance, far end
R1L Ohm/p 0,148 Positive sequence line resistance.
X1L Ohm/p 0,709 Positive sequence line reactance.
R0L Ohm/p 0,632 Zero sequence line resistance.
X0L Ohm/p 1,643 Zero sequence line reactance.
Rm0 Ohm/p 0,000 Mutual resistance from parallel line.
Xm0 Ohm/p 0,000 Mutual reactance from parallel line.
Line length km 2 Line length value in present length unit

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

2.26 REL670 - Final Back-up Directional Overcurrent Protection (TOC)

Settings for non-directional backup OC protection are presently not provided, as co-ordination of such
non-directional functions along the overhead line incoming and outgoing via the bus coupler is technical
not possible. Any through-fault current will trip at both lines the non-directional final back-up stage. There-
fore, a directional back-up stage is proposed.
The directional time delayed overcurrent protection serves as backup protection and is delayed against
the distance zone timers. The function is set as final back-up to 1600 A, this is twice the cable/OHL am-
pacity at a time delay of 3 s with definite time characteristic in forward direction.
The proposed directional OC settings are.
132 kV-Directional Line Overcurrent Protection (TOC)
Function block name: TOCx-
General Settings
Operation = On
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based:
Ibase = 1600 A
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the directional polarizing voltage is based:
UBase= 132 kV
Set the Directional angle Directional overcurrent protection:
AngleRCA = -65 deg
Set the angles from the RCA angle Max and Min limiting the operating area:
MaxFwdAng = 50 deg
MinFwdAng = 80 deg
Minimum current for phase selection in % of IBase
IMinOpPhSel = 1280 A (gives IMinOpPhSelk = 80% *Ibase)
Set the number of phases required to get the Phase selection (phase start) outputs:
StartPhSel = 1 out of 3
FIRST STAGE 1 (I>)
Setting of the operating direction for the stage:
DirMode1 = Forward
Setting of the operating characteristic:
Characteristic1 = IEC Definite time
Setting of the operating current level in primary values:
I1> = 1600 A (gives I1> = 100% *Ibase)
Set the multiplier for start value which is activated when the multiplier input is activated, normally at CB
closing: I1Mult = 1.00
Set the definite time delay, when definite time characteristic has been selected:
t1 = 3.0 s
Set the back-up trip time delay multiplier for inverse characteristic:
k1 = 0.1
Set the Minimum operating time for inverse characteristic:
t1Min = 0.1 s
Select the reset curve type for the inverse delay:
ResetTypeCrv1 = IEC Reset
Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 1
tReset1 = 0.02 s
STAGE 2, 3 AND 4 BLOCKED (binary input BLOCK)

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The following diagram displays the OC coordination between the 132 kV-directional back-up of the dis-
tance relay and the proposed settings of the bus coupler protection non-dir. OC (REC670) and the direc-
tional OC protection of the OHL in REC670.
Over the full current scale the directional line protection (in distance relay REL670 definite time and line
relay REC670 inverse time) acts before the bus coupler if fault is in forward direction. Herewith, selective
grading is ensured. Also towards the station transformer protection selectivity is given. The settings of the
bus coupler OC and EF protection and the line OC and EF protection are provided in the following sec-
tions 4 and 5 (the curves are enabled with tmin-setting of 1.5 s resp. 1.5 s).

1000 s
132 kV-distance relay final dir. OC
I>>=1600A t=3,0s
132 kV-directional line prot.
I>>=850A t=0,500pu
IEC255-3 normal inverse
I>>=9629A t=1,2s
100 s 132 kV-bus coupler prot.
I>>=2500A t=0,380pu
IEC255-3 normal inverse
I>>=13025A t=1,5s
132 kV-transf. prot.
I>>=210A t=0,340pu
IEC255-3 normal inverse
I>>=1505A t=0,100s
10,0 s

1,0 s
Max. 3p-SWG through-fault 14,5 kA

0,100 s
Rated tx current

0,010 s
132 kV: 0,100 kA 1,0 kA 10,0 kA 100 kA 1000 kA

Fig.No.: OC 132kV-1-

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3 REL670 - Main Line Protection Feeder =Q02 - PRL –> K.West


The main line protection terminal is of the ABB type REL670. In this protection device the following pro-
tection and monitoring functions are implemented:
21 Distance protection with signal transmission via PLC / MUX
67N Directional earth fault with signal transmission via PLC / MUX
79 3-Phase autoreclosing
25 Synchrocheck

The CT data are presented in following diagram.

3.1 Data of 132 kV Overhead Line PRL –> K.West

The provided line data are given in following table.


From
To node Type R1' X1' R0' X0' Length Ampacity
node
Ohm/km Ohm/km Ohm/km Ohm/km km A
OHL T02-LAT
PRL K.West. 500 MCM 0.0818 0.3857 0.359 0.8879 5.6 708
Cu 3x1x 500

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 47


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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The total length impedance data in positive- and zero-sequence system are:
From node To node R1 X1 Z1 phi Z1 R1/X1 R0 X0 Z0 phi Z0

Ohm Ohm Ohm Deg. Ohm Ohm Ohm Deg.

PRL K.West. 0.458 2.160 2.208 78.026 0.212 2.010 4.972 5.363 67.985

3.2 REL670 - Setting of Analogue and Digital Channels

Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

• Setting of CTStarPoint
Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

• REL670 - Signal Matrix for Analogue Inputs (SMAI)


Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3.3 REL670 - Setting Methodology - Zone reach and timer settings

The distance zone reach is determined according to the following principles:


- Zone 1 is set to 85% of the protected line and trips independently with 0 s delay.
- Zone 2 is set to 120% of the protected line and trips independently with 0.4 s delay.
- Back-up zone 3 is set to 200% of the line length and provides delayed trip with 0.8 s
- Zone 4 is used for local acceleration logic and set to 120% of the line. Zone 4 trips almost instanta-
neously, but only in case of PLC Failure. Zone is blocked by AR close command.
- Zone 5 setting is optionally provided for blocking schemes, 50% of line in reverse direction.

Zone settings
X1 = 0.85 * a forward -> in 0 s
X2 = 1.2* a forward -> in 0.4 s
X3 = 2.0 * a forward -> in 0.8 s
X4 = 1.2 * a forward -> in 0 s, but only when PLC fails
X5 = 0.5 * a <- reverse blocked, optionally for blocking schemes.
Carrier scheme: Zone 1 is underreaching and sending zone in PUTT scheme. Zone 2 is receiving
zone to give instantaneous trip if opposite side permission signal is received and
fault in within zone 2 in forward direction.
With:
X1, X2, X3, X4, X5 Reactance settings of distance zone
a is line to remote station
Interfacing are the phase-overcurrent protection functions:
67 directional forward -> in 3.0 s (final def. OC backup)
Note:
• The settings for the distance protection function are done in primary values. The instrument trans-
former ratio that has been set for the analogue input card is used to automatically convert the
measured secondary input signals to primary values used in the distance protection function.
• Load encroachment is normally no problems for short line applications, this feature is disabled.
• Final backup OC protection is proposed as directional function for better selectivity. If activated
non-directional, any traversing fault current along the incoming and outgoing OHL will trip both
lines. Non-dirctional coordination with bus-coupler is impossible.

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3.4 REL670 - Current and Voltage Transformer Data, Impedance Ratio

The distance relay is connected to following CTs and VTs.


CT-Ratio: 1600 -800 / 1 A Note: 1600 A tap is chosen
VT-Ratio: (132 kV /√3) / (100 V / √3)

Calculation of secondary values TRatio = CTRatio/VTRatio


= (1600 A / 1 A) / (132 kV / 100 V)
= 1.212
Zsecondary = TRatio x Zprim
The secondary setting values are only given for relay testing purposes during commissioning.

3.5 REL670 – Relay Parameter

• REL670 - Maximum Arc Resistance


Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

• REL670 - Minimum Load Impedance & load encroachment function


Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

• REL670 - Relay Measuring Principles


Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

• REL670 - Setting Principle of Phase Selection Unit


Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

© Copyright 2006 ABB. All rights reserved. Page 50


ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3.6 REL670 - Distance protection zone 1

a= line PRL - K.West. Z1 = 0.458+ j 2.160 Ω prim.


Z0 = 2.010+ j 4.972 Ω prim.

Zone reach: 85% of line in forward direction


Timer: 0 s (is also sending zone in PUTT scheme)

Parameter Setting Value Secondary


Unit Calculation/Remarks
ZMQPDIS_21 (Primary Value) Value
Operation On Operation Off / On
Base current. i.e. rated current.
IBase 1600.0 A IBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the CT
Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage.
UBase 132.0 kV UBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the VT
Operation mode of directionality
OperationDir Forward
NonDir / Forw / Rev
Positive sequence reactance
X1 1.84 2.23 /ph
reach
Positive seq. resistance for
R1 0.39 0.47 /ph
zone characteristic angle
X0 4.23 5.12 /ph Zero sequence reactance reach
Zero seq. resistance for
R0 1.71 2.07 /ph
zone characteristic angle
Fault resistance reach in
RFPP 5.51 6.68 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-Ph. Set to 3*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Fault resistance reach in
RFPE 8.26 10.01 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-E. Set to 4.5*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PP On
Phase-Phase loops
Operation mode Off / On
timer t1PP On
of Zone timer, Ph-Ph
t1PP 0 sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PE On
Phase-Earth loops
Operation mode Off / On of
timer t1PE On
Zone timer, Ph-E
t1PE 0 sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-E
Minimum operate delta current
IMinOpPP 20 %IB
for Phase-Phase loops
Minimum operate phase current
IMinOpPE 20 %IB
for Phase-Earth loops
Minimum operate residual cur-
IMinOpIN 5 %IB rent
for Phase-Earth loops

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3.7 REL670 - Distance protection zone 2

a= line PRL - K.West. Z1 = 0.458+ j 2.160 Ω prim.


Z0 = 2.010+ j 4.972 Ω prim.

Zone reach: 120% of line in forward direction


Timer: 0.4 s (is also receiving zone in PUTT scheme)

Parameter Setting Value Secondary


Unit Calculation/Remarks
ZMQPDIS_21 (Primary Value) Value
Operation On Operation Off / On
Base current, i.e. rated current.
IBase 1600.0 A IBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the CT
Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage.
UBase 132.0 kV UBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the VT
Operation mode of directionality
OperationDir Forward
NonDir / Forw / Rev
Positive sequence reactance
X1 2.59 3.14 /ph
reach
Positive seq. resistance for
R1 0.55 0.67 /ph
zone characteristic angle
X0 5.97 7.23 /ph Zero sequence reactance reach
Zero seq. resistance for
R0 2.41 2.92 /ph
zone characteristic angle
Fault resistance reach in
RFPP 7.78 9.43 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-Ph. Set to 3*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Fault resistance reach in
RFPE 11.66 14.14 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-E. Set to 4.5*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PP On
Phase-Phase loops
Operation mode Off / On
timer t2PP On
of Zone timer, Ph-Ph
t2PP 0.4 sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PE On
Phase-Earth loops
Operation mode Off / On of
timer t2PE On
Zone timer, Ph-E
t2PE 0.4 sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-E
Minimum operate delta current
IMinOpPP 20 %IB
for Phase-Phase loops
Minimum operate phase current
IMinOpPE 20 %IB
for Phase-Earth loops

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3.8 REL670 - Distance protection zone 3

a= line PRL - K.West. Z1 = 0.458+ j 2.160 Ω prim.


Z0 = 2.010+ j 4.972 Ω prim.

Zone reach: 200% of line in forward direction


Timer: 0.8 s

Parameter Setting Value Secondary


Unit Calculation/Remarks
ZMQPDIS_21 (Primary Value) Value
Operation On Operation Off / On
Base current, i.e. rated current.
IBase 1600.0 A IBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the CT
Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage.
UBase 132.0 kV UBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the VT
Operation mode of directionality
OperationDir Forward
NonDir / Forw / Rev
Positive sequence reactance
X1 4.32 5.24 /ph
reach
Positive seq. resistance for
R1 0.92 1.11 /ph
zone characteristic angle
X0 9.94 12.05 /ph Zero sequence reactance reach
Zero seq. resistance for
R0 4.02 4.87 /ph
zone characteristic angle
Fault resistance reach in
RFPP 12.96 15.71 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-Ph. Set to 3*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Fault resistance reach in
RFPE 19.44 23.56 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-E. Set to 4.5*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PP On
Phase-Phase loops
Operation mode Off / On
timer t3PP On
of Zone timer, Ph-Ph
t3PP 0.8 sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PE On
Phase-Earth loops
Operation mode Off / On of
timer t3PE On
Zone timer, Ph-E
t3PE 0.8 sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-E
Minimum operate delta current
IMinOpPP 20 %IB
for Phase-Phase loops
Minimum operate phase current
IMinOpPE 20 %IB
for Phase-Earth loops

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3.9 REL670 – Settting of Phase Selection Function

Generally, the phase selection elements need not to cover all distance-protection zones within the
terminal. The main goal should be reliable phase selection for faults on the entire protected line. This
way, a single-phase auto-reclosing function has the best possible effect. As in this application a very
short line is protected, the phase selection is set to overreach distance protection zone 3 with the rec-
ommended margins as per REL670 manual.

a= line PRL - K.West. Z1 = 0.458+ j 2.160 Ω prim.


Z0 = 2.010+ j 4.972 Ω prim.

Parameter
Setting Value Secondary
FDPSPDIS_21 (PHS-- Unit Calculation/Remarks
(Primary Value) Value
) function
IBase 1600.0 A Base current for current settings
3I0 limit for blocking phase-
INBlockPP 40 %IPh
to-phase measuring loops
3I0 limit for releasing phase-
INReleasePE 20 %IPh
to-earth measuring loops
Forward resistive reach
RLdFw 3000 ohm/p within the load impedance area
not used, max. setting
Reverse resistive reach
RLdRv 3000 ohm/p within the load impedance area
not used, max. setting
Load angle determining
ArgLd 30 36.36 Deg
the load impedance area
Positive sequence
X1 6.48 7.85 ohm/p reactance reach,
set to 1.5*Zone 3
Zero sequence
X0 14.92 18.08 ohm/p reactance reach,
set to 1,5*Zone 3
Fault resistance reach,
RFFwPP 16.85 20.42 ohm/l Ph-Ph, forward,
set to 1,3*RFPP(Zone 3)
Fault resistance reach,
RFRvPP 16.85 20.42 ohm/l Ph-Ph, reverse
set to 1,3*RFPP(Zone 3)
Fault resistance reach,
RFFwPE 25.27 30.63 ohm/l Ph-E, forward
set to 1,3*RFPE(Zone 3)
Fault resistance reach,
RFRvPE 25.27 30.63 ohm/l Ph-E, reverse
set to 1,3*RFPP(Zone 3)
Minimum operate delta
IMinOpPP 10 %IB
current for Phase-Phase loops
Minimum operate phase
IMinOpPE 5 %IB
current for Phase-Earth loops

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3.10 REL670 - Distance protection zone 4

a= line PRL - K.West. Z1 = 0.458+ j 2.160 Ω prim.


Z0 = 2.010+ j 4.972 Ω prim.

Zone reach: 120% of line in forward direction


Timer: off (trips only with Local Acceleration Logic)
NOTE: This stage is used in only conjunction with the Local Acceleration Logic. The Local Acceleration
Logic (ZCLC) is used in those applications where conventional teleprotection scheme is not available (no
communication channel), but the user still require fast clearance for faults on the whole line.

Parameter Setting Value Secondary


Unit Calculation/Remarks
ZMQPDIS_21 (Primary Value) Value
Operation On Operation Off / On
Base current, i.e. rated current.
IBase 1600.0 A IBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the CT
Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage.
UBase 132.0 kV UBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the VT
Operation mode of directionality
OperationDir Forward
NonDir / Forw / Rev
Positive sequence reactance
X1 2.59 3.14 /ph
reach
Positive seq. resistance for
R1 0.55 0.67 /ph
zone characteristic angle
X0 5.97 7.23 /ph Zero sequence reactance reach
Zero seq. resistance for
R0 2.41 2.92 /ph
zone characteristic angle
Fault resistance reach in
RFPP 7.78 9.43 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-Ph. Set to 3*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Fault resistance reach in
RFPE 11.66 14.14 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-E. Set to 4.5*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PP On
Phase-Phase loops
Operation mode Off / On
timer t4PP Off
of Zone timer, Ph-Ph
t4PP 0 sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PE On
Phase-Earth loops
Operation mode Off / On of
timer t4PE Off
Zone timer, Ph-E
t4PE 0 sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-E
Minimum operate delta current
IMinOpPP 20 %IB
for Phase-Phase loops
Minimum operate phase current
IMinOpPE 20 %IB
for Phase-Earth loops

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3.11 REL670 – Setting of Local acceleration logic (PLAL)

Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

3.12 REL670 - Setting of two step undervoltage protection (PTUV, 27)

Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted. (Undervoltage protection is switched off)

3.13 REL670 - Distance protection zone 5

a= line PRL - K.West. Z1 = 0.458+ j 2.160 Ω prim.


Z0 = 2.010+ j 4.972 Ω prim.

Zone reach: 50% of line in reverse direction


Timer: timer blocked
NOTE: This stage is set in reserve direction to be used in blocking schemes or with current reversal logic.
Parameter Setting Value Secondary
Unit Calculation/Remarks
ZMQPDIS_21 (Primary Value) Value
Operation On Operation Off / On
Base current, i.e. rated current.
IBase 1600.0 A IBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the CT
Base voltage, i.e. rated voltage.
UBase 132.0 kV UBase is set to the value of the
primary winding of the VT
Operation mode of directionality
OperationDir Reverse
NonDir / Forw / Rev
Positive sequence reactance
X1 1.08 1.31 /ph
reach
Positive seq. resistance for
R1 0.23 0.28 /ph
zone characteristic angle
X0 2.49 3.01 /ph Zero sequence reactance reach
Zero seq. resistance for
R0 1.01 1.22 /ph
zone characteristic angle
Fault resistance reach in
RFPP 3.24 3.93 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-Ph. Set to 3*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Fault resistance reach in
RFPE 4.86 5.89 /Loop ohm/loop, Ph-E. Set to 4.5*X1
as max. value (REL670 manual)
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PP On
Phase-Phase loops
Operation mode Off / On
timer t5PP Off
of Zone timer, Ph-Ph
t5PP 0 sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph
Operation mode Off / On of
Operation PE On
Phase-Earth loops
Operation mode Off / On of
timer t5PE Off
Zone timer, Ph-E

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

t5PE 0 sec. Time delay of trip, Ph-E


Minimum operate delta current
IMinOpPP 20 %IB
for Phase-Phase loops
Minimum operate phase current
IMinOpPE 20 %IB
for Phase-Earth loops
Minimum operate residual cur-
IMinOpIN 5 %IB rent
for Phase-Earth loops

3.14 REL670 – Setting of Directionality (ZDRDIR)

Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

3.15 REL670 - Power Swing Detection (PSD)

Power swings are multi-phase power-flows due to exchange of synchronizing power between power
plants after faults. Therefore the PSD function should be set to the "2-of-3" operating mode, which is
based on the detection of power swing in at least two of three phases.
The characteristic is given in following diagram:

The PSD function setting is calculated from the distance zone 3 settings. The parameters are provided
for information. It is proposed to disable PSD logic as the relay operate area is small (very short line
application); it appears practical impossible that the measured impedance at power swings will trav-
erse the relay operate area.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

Parameter
Range Setting Unit Description
PSD1
Operation Off On On - Operation Mode On / Off
Inner reactive boundary, forward
X1InFw 0.10 - 3000.00 5.18 ohm
Set to 1,2*X1(Zone3)
Line resistance for inner characteristic angle
R1LIn 0.10 - 1000.00 1.10 ohm
Set to 1,2 * R1(Zone3)
Fault resistance coverage to inner resistive line, for-
R1FInFw 0.10 - 1000.00 15.55 ohm ward
Set to 1,2*RFPP(Zone3)
Inner reactive boundary, reverse
X1InRv 0.10 - 3000.00 5.18 ohm
Set to X1lnFw
Fault resistance line to inner resistive boundary, re-
R1FInRv 0.10 - 1000.00 15.55 ohm verse
Set to R1FlnFw
Parameter
Range Setting Unit Description
PSD1
OperationLdCh Off On Off - Operation of load discrimination characteristic
Outer resistive load boundary, forward
RLdOutFw 0.10 - 3000.00 15.55 ohm
Set to R1FlnFw
Load angle determining load impedance area
ArgLd 5 - 70 25 Deg
not used
Outer resistive load boundary, reverse
RLdOutRv 0.10 - 3000.00 15.55 ohm
Set to RLdOutFw
Multiplication factor for inner resistive load boundary,
kLdRFw 0.50 - 0.90 0.8 Mult forward
not used
Multiplication factor for inner resistive load boundary,
kLdRRv 0.50 - 0.90 0.8 Mult reverse
not used
tEF 0.000 - 60.000 2 s Timer for overcoming single-pole reclosing dead time
IMinOpPE 5 - 30 10 %IB Minimum operate current in % of IBase
IBase 1 - 99999 1600.0 A Base setting for current level settings

The timer parameter are (default settings adopted):


Parameter Range Setting Unit Description
0.000 -
tP1 0.045 s Timer for detection of ini-tial power swing
60.000
0.000 -
tP2 0.015 s Timer for detection of subsequent power swings
60.000
0.000 -
tW 0.250 s Waiting timer for activa-tion of tP2 timer
60.000
0.000 -
tH 0.500 s Timer for holding power swing START output
60.000
0.000 -
tR1 0.300 s Timer giving delay to inhibit by the residual cur-rent
60.000
0.000 -
tR2 2.000 s Timer giving delay to inhibit at very slow swing
60.000

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3.16 REL670 - Switch-onto-fault Function (SOFT)

Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

3.17 REL670 - Tripping logic (PTRC, 94)

Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

3.18 REL670 - Fuse Failure Supervision (zero sequence) (RFUF)

Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3.19 REL670 - Scheme communication logic for distance protection (ZCOM)

In permissive scheme permission to trip is sent from local end to remote end(s) i.e. protection at local end
have detected a fault on the protected object. The received signal(s) is combined with an overreaching
zone and gives an instantaneous trip if the received signal is present during the time the chosen zone has
detected a fault in forward direction.
The carrier received signal (CR) must be received when the overreaching zone is still activated to achieve
an instantaneous trip. In some cases, due to the fault current distribution, the overreaching zone can op-
erate only after the fault has been cleared at the terminal nearest to the fault. There is a certain risk that in
case of a trip from an independent tripping zone, the zone issuing the carrier send signal (CS) resets
before the overreaching zone has operated at the remote terminal.
To assure a sufficient duration of the received signal (CR), the send signal (CS), can be prolonged by a
tSendMin reset timer. The recommended setting of tSendMin is 100 ms.
Since the received communication signal is combined with the output from an overreaching zone, there is
less concern about false signal causing an incorrect trip. Therefore set the timer tCoord to zero.

The proposed settings are:


Scheme communication logic for Distance protection (ZCOM)
Operation = On
Setting of the Communication scheme:
Scheme Type = PermUR
Setting of the coordination timer:
tCoord = 0.0 s
Setting of the carrier send minimum time:
tSendmin = 0.1 s
Setting of the unblocking logic:
Unblock = Off
Setting of the unblocking security time:
tSecurity = 0.035 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3.20 REL670 - Setting of current reversal and WEI logic for distance protection (ZCAL)

To achieve fast fault clearing for a fault on the part of the line not covered by the zone 1, the stepped
distance protection function can be supported with logic, which uses communication channels. Different
system conditions, in many cases, require additional special logic circuits, like current reversal logic and
WEI, weak end infeed logic. Both functions are available within the additional communication logic for the
distance protection function (ZCAL).
• Current reversal logic
If parallel lines are connected to common buses at both terminals, overreaching permissive communica-
tion schemes can trip unselectable due to current reversal. The unwanted tripping affects the healthy line
when a fault is cleared on the other line. This lack of security results in a total loss of inter-connection
between the two buses. To avoid this kind of disturbances, a fault current reversal logic (transient block-
ing logic) can be used.
In this application no parallel lines are protected and no overreaching permissive scheme is utilised, cur-
rent reversal can be set OFF.
The proposed settings are:
Setting of the current reversal logic for distance protection (used in overreaching schemes)
(ZCAL)
Activation of the current reversal logic:
CurrRev = Off
Setting of the pick-up timer:
tPickUpRev = 0.020 s
Setting of the delay timer:
tDelayRev = 0.100 s
Timer setting require adjustment during commissioning tests. Parameter should be set according results
of measurements.
• Weak end infeed (WEI) logic
Permissive communication schemes can basically operate only when the protection in the remote termi-
nal can detect the fault. The detection requires a sufficient minimum fault current, normally >20% of Ir.
The fault current can be too low due to an open breaker or low short-circuit power of the source. To over-
come these conditions, weak end infeed echo logic is used. The fault current can also be initially too low
due to the fault current distribution. Here, the fault current increases when the breaker opens in the strong
terminal, and a sequential tripping is achieved. This requires a detection of the fault by an independent-
tripping zone 1. To avoid sequential tripping as described, and when zone 1 is not available, weak end
infeed tripping logic is used.
The WEI function sends back (echoes) the received carrier signal under the condition that no fault has
been detected on the weak end by different fault detection elements (distance protection in forward and
reverse direction).
Avoid using WEI function at both line ends. It shall only be activated at the weak end. In this application
no weak-infeed-condition is expected, therefore the function is OFF.

Proposed settings:
Setting of the Weak End Infeed (WEI) logic
Activation of the current reversal logic WEI = Off
Setting of the U< voltage UPP< = 70% *UBase
UPN< = 70% *UBase
Setting of the delay timer tPickUpWEI = 0.100 s
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the WEI voltage is based:
UBase = 132 kV
Timer setting require adjustment during commissioning tests. Parameter should be set according results
of measurements.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

3.21 REL670 – Sensitive Directional Earthfault Protection in Carrier Scheme

Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.
SchemeType can be set to PermissiveUR instead of Permissive OR.

3.22 REL670 - Autoreclosure settings

Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

3.23 REL670 - Synchronism check settings

Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

3.24 REL670 - Fault locator (RFLO)

Settings of the line references is done in primary values. The local and remote side source impedance is
calculated from the given maximum 3p-short-circuit current at PRL of 29 kA, assumed is 50% fault contri-
bution from local side grid at PRL and 50% fault contribution from remote side grid at K.West. Set is a
typical ratio R/X = 0.1 for grid infeeds.
a= line PRL - K.West. Z1 = 0,458+ j 2,160 Ω prim.
Z0 = 2,010+ j 4,972 Ω prim.
Parameter Range Unit Setting Parameter description
(Primary values)

R1A 0.001-1500.000 Ohm/p 0.578 Positive sequence source resistance, near end
X1A 0.001-1500.000 Ohm/p 5.781 Positive sequence source reactance, near end
R1B 0.001-1500.000 Ohm/p 0.578 Positive sequence source resistance, far end
X1B 0.001-1500.000 Ohm/p 5.781 Positive sequence source reactance, far end
R1L 0.001-1500.000 Ohm/p 0.458 Positive sequence line resistance.
X1L 0.001-1500.000 Ohm/p 2.160 Positive sequence line reactance.
R0L 0.001-1500.000 Ohm/p 2.010 Zero sequence line resistance.
X0L 0.001-1500.000 Ohm/p 4.972 Zero sequence line reactance.
Rm0 0.001-1500.000 Ohm/p 0.000 Mutual resistance from parallel line.
Xm0 0.001-1500.000 Ohm/p 0.000 Mutual reactance from parallel line.
Line length 0.00-10000.00 km 5.6 Line length value in present length unit

3.25 REL670 - Final Back-up Directional Overcurrent Protection (TOC)

Setting methodology and parameters are identical to line protection at OHL feeder to KTPS St, settings
can be adopted.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

4 REC670 - 132 kV-Bus Coupler Protection (51,51N)

• CT Data
CT-Ratio: 2500/1A
• Equipment Data and Fault Currents
Busbar rated current is 2500 A. Short-circuit rating of switchgear is 40 kA (3s).
Maximum 3-p fault current at Station PRL is 29 kA, minimum 3p-fault current is 26.4 kA. Maximum 1p-
fault current is 22.13 kA and minimum 1p-fault current is 19.8 kA.
• Time Grading Methodology
The bus-coupler protection is set to operate with a time delay of 1.5 s at 50% of the maximum 3p-short-
circuit current of 29 kA, giving 14.5 kA for OC grading (switchgear through-fault current).
It is assumed, that total fault is fed by both line feeder each contributing about 50% of the total fault. Ac-
cordingly, the bus coupler will carry either line contribution. The time delay is selected in order to maintain
selectivity towards the direction line OC protection acting at the same fault level of 14.5 kA with a time
delay of 1.2 s. One grading step below acts distance protection zone 3 with 0.8 s, the OC scheme is de-
layed against the distance protection.
Note: The OC grading utilizes the tmin-setting, at bus coupler tmin is set to 1.5 s. Herewith the relay op-
erating time for fault currents beyond the set fault level of 14.5 kA is kept constant to 1.5 s regardless of
the actual fault level. By this, it is ensured that even at higher fault currents the OC grading scheme main-
tains always a selective grading in the fixed time steps of 1.2 s (dir. line OC) to 1.5 s (non.dir. bus coupler
OC).
Identical methodology is applied for earth fault protection, here 50% of the maximum 1p-fault current is
taken, the fault level for earth fault grading is 11 kA. Operating time at this level is set to 1.5 s supported
with tmin-setting to 1.5 s for eventual higher traversing fault currents.

4.1 REC670 - Time delayed phase overcurrent protection 51 (TOC)

The bus-coupler protection is set to a start current of 2500 A (100% Ib) and to operate with a time delay
of 1.5 s the maximum short-circuit current of 14.5 kA. The k factor is 0.38, the relay operation time is:
0.02
tRelay(14.5 kA) = 0.38 x 0.14 / ((14.5 kA/2.5 kA) - 1) = 1.5 s
At the same time the switchgear short-circuit rating is protected (40 kA for 3 s).
The tmin-parameter is set to 1.5 s, herewith the minimum operating time is fixed regardless of the fault
current level.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The proposed settings are.


132 kV-Bus Coupler Overcurrent Protection (TOC)
Function block name: TOCx-
General Settings
Operation = On
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based:
Ibase = 2500 A
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the directional polarizing voltage is based:
UBase= 132 kV
Set the Directional angle Directional overcurrent protection:
AngleRCA = -65 deg
Set the angles from the RCA angle Max and Min limiting the operating area:
MaxFwdAng = 50 deg
MinFwdAng = 80 deg
Minimum current for phase selection in % of IBase
IMinOpPhSel = 2000 A (gives IMinOpPhSelk = 80% *Ibase)
Set the number of phases required to get the Phase selection (phase start) outputs:
StartPhSel = 1 out of 3
FIRST STAGE 1 (I>)
Setting of the operating direction for the stage:
DirMode1 = NonDir
Setting of the operating characteristic:
Characteristic1 = IEC Norm. inv.
Setting of the operating current level in primary values:
I1> = 2500 A (gives I1> = 100% *Ibase)
Set the multiplier for start value which is activated when the multiplier input is activated, normally at CB
closing: I1Mult = 1.00
Set the definite time delay, when definite time characteristic has been selected:
t1 = 0.1 s
Set the back-up trip time delay multiplier for inverse characteristic:
k1 = 0.38
Set the Minimum operating time for inverse characteristic:
t1Min = 1.5 s
Select the reset curve type for the inverse delay:
ResetTypeCrv1 = IEC Reset
Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 1
tReset1 = 0.02 s
STAGE 2, 3 AND 4 BLOCKED (binary input BLOCK)
(If VT inputs are not available or not connected, function parameter DirModex shall be left to default
value, Non-directional).

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

4.2 REC670 - Time delayed residual overcurrent protection 51N (TEF)

An EF relay sensitivity of 500 A is proposed, this is 20% of CT rated primary current. The TMS is set to
k = 0.75 in order to achieve a fault clearing time of 1.5 s at the fault current of 14.5 kA in line with the
phase OC protection. The relay operating time at an s/c-current of 14.5 kA is:
0.02
tRelay(14.5 kA) = 0.75 x 0.14 / ((14.5 kA / 0.5 kA) - 1) = 1.5 s
The tmin-parameter is set to 1.5 s, herewith the minimum operating time is fixed regardless of the fault
current level.
The following table provides an overview on the proposed settings.
132 kV-Bus Coupler Erathfault Protection (TEF)
Function block name: TEFx-
Operation = On
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based:
Ibase = 2500 A
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the directional polarizing voltage is based:
UBase= 132 kV
Parameter Range Step Setting Unit Description
Minimum fundamental frequency
IMinOpFund 2 - 100 1 5 %IB
current level in % of IBase
AngleRCA -180 - 180 1 65 Deg Relay characteristic angle (RCA)
Minimum polarizing quantity in %
3Uo>Dir 1 - 100 1 1 %UB
of UBase
Operate residual current level for
IN>DirCmp 1 - 100 1 5 %IB
DirComp in % of IBase
Time delay for DirComp
Check during commissioning: no
tDirCmp 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 60 s
trip required, trip output to be
blocked
Second harmonic restrain opera-
2ndHarmStab 5 - 100 1 20 %
tion in % of IN amplitude
Enable blocking at parallel trans-
BlkParTransf Off On - Off -
formers
IN1> IN2> IN3> Current level blk at parallel transf
UseStartValue - IN1> -
IN4> (step1, 2, 3 or 4)
Off SOTF Under- SOTF operation mode
SOTF Time - Off - (Off/SOTF/Under-
SOTF+UnderTime time/SOTF+undertime)
Open Closed Select signal that shall activate
ActivationSOTF - Open -
CloseCommand SOTF
Enable harmonic restrain function
HarmResSOTF Disable Enable - Disable -
in SOTF
tSOTF 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 0.200 s Time delay for SOTF
t4U 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 1.000 s Switch-onto-fault active time

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

STAGE 1 (I>)
Setting of the operating direction for the stage:
DirMode1 = NonDir
Setting of the operating characteristic:
Characteristic1 = IEC Norm. inv.
Setting of the operating current level in primary values:
IN1> = 500 A (IN1> = 20% *Ibase)
Set the current multiplier for IN1 valid at activation of input ENMULT:
IN1Mult = 1.00
Set the definite time delay, when definite time characteristic has been selected:
t1 = 0.10 s
Set the back-up trip time delay multiplier for inverse characteristic:
k1 = 0.75
Set the Minimum operating time for inverse characteristic:
t1Min = 1.5 s
Select the reset curve type for the inverse delay:
ResetTypeCrv1 = IEC Reset
Set the Reset time delay for definite time delayed function:
tReset1 = 0.02 s
Set the release of Harmonic restraint blocking for the stage:
HarmRestrain1 = Disable
STAGE 2, 3 AND 4 BLOCKED (binary input BLOCK.)
(If VT inputs are not available or not connected, function parameter DirModex shall be left to default
value, Non-directional).

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

5 REC670 - 132 kV-Line Protection (67,67N, 51,51N)

• CT Data
CT-Ratio: 800/1A
• Equipment Data and Fault Currents
Busbar rated current is 2500 A. Short-circuit rating of switchgear is 40 kA (3s).
Maximum 3-p fault current at Station PRL is 29 kA, minimum 3p-fault current is 26.4 kA. Maximum 1p-
fault current is 22.13 kA and minimum 1p-fault current is 19.8 kA.
The OHL ampacity is 708 A, the ampacity of the short UGC section is 800 A. Overall a steady-state per-
missible loading of 708 A of the route is taken.

• Time Grading Methodology


The grading methodology is explaned in detail in section 4 for the bus coupler protection, the key points
are:
The directional line OC protection is set to operate with a time delay of 1.2 s at 50% of the maximum 3p-
short-circuit current of 29 kA, giving 14.5 kA for OC grading (switchgear through-fault current).
It is assumed, that total fault is fed by both line feeder each contributing about 50% of the total fault. Ac-
cordingly, the line will carry 50% of total fault current, given value at the switchgear.
The time delay is selected in order to maintain selectivity backwards to the bus coupler, the bus coupler
acts with an time delay of 1.5 s, the directional line protection will clear a fault in forward direction in 1.2 s
ahead of the bus coupler. One grading step below acts distance protection zone 3 with 0.8 s, the OC
scheme is delayed against the distance protection.
Note: The OC grading utilizes the tmin-setting, at bus coupler tmin is set to 1.5 s. Herewith the relay op-
erating time for fault currents beyond the set fault level of 14.5 kA is kept constant to 1.5 s regardless of
the actual fault level. By this, it is ensured that even at higher fault currents the OC grading scheme main-
tains always a selective grading in the fixed time steps of 1.2 s (dir. line OC) to 1.5 s (non.dir. bus coupler
OC).
Identical methodology is applied for earth fault protection, here 50% of the maximum 1p-fault current is
taken, the fault level for earth fault grading is 11 kA. Operating time at this level is set to 1.2 s supported
with tmin-setting to 1.2 s for eventual higher traversing fault currents.

5.1 REC670 – Directional time delayed phase overcurrent protection 67 (TOC)

The line protection is set to a start current of 850 A primary (is 120% of route ampacity of 708 A) and set
to operate with a time delay of 1.2 s the maximum short-circuit current of 14.5 kA. The k factor is 0.5, the
relay operation time is:
0.02
tRelay(14.5 kA) = 0.5 x 0.14 / ((14.5 kA/0.85 kA) - 1) = 1.2 s
The tmin-parameter is set to 1.2 s, herewith the minimum operating time is fixed regardless of the fault
current level.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The proposed settings are.


132 kV-Directional Line Overcurrent Protection (TOC)
Function block name: TOCx-
General Settings
Operation = On
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based:
Ibase = 708 A
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the directional polarizing voltage is based:
UBase= 132 kV
Set the Directional angle Directional overcurrent protection:
AngleRCA = -65 deg
Set the angles from the RCA angle Max and Min limiting the operating area:
MaxFwdAng = 50 deg
MinFwdAng = 80 deg
Minimum current for phase selection in % of IBase
IMinOpPhSel = 708 A (gives IMinOpPhSelk = 100% *Ibase)
Set the number of phases required to get the Phase selection (phase start) outputs:
StartPhSel = 1 out of 3
FIRST STAGE 1 (I>)
Setting of the operating direction for the stage:
DirMode1 = Forward
Setting of the operating characteristic:
Characteristic1 = IEC Norm. inv.
Setting of the operating current level in primary values:
I1> = 850 A (gives I1> = 120% *Ibase)
Set the multiplier for start value which is activated when the multiplier input is activated, normally at CB
closing: I1Mult = 1.00
Set the definite time delay, when definite time characteristic has been selected:
t1 = 0.1 s
Set the back-up trip time delay multiplier for inverse characteristic:
k1 = 0.5
Set the Minimum operating time for inverse characteristic:
t1Min = 1.2 s
Select the reset curve type for the inverse delay:
ResetTypeCrv1 = IEC Reset
Reset time delay used in IEC Definite Time curve step 1
tReset1 = 0.02 s
STAGE 2, 3 AND 4 BLOCKED (binary input BLOCK)
(If VT inputs are not available or not connected, function parameter DirModex shall be left to default
value, Non-directional).

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

5.2 REC670 – Directional time delayed residual overcurrent protection (TEF)

An EF relay sensitivity of 160 A is proposed, this is 20% of CT rated primary current. The TMS is set to
k = 0.81 in order to achieve a fault clearing time of 1.2 s at the fault current of 14.5 kA in line with the
phase OC protection. The relay operating time at an s/c-current of 14.5 kA is:
0.02
tRelay(14.5 kA) = 0.81 x 0.14 / ((14.5 kA / 0.16 kA) - 1) = 1.2 s
The tmin-parameter is set to 1.2 s, herewith the minimum operating time is fixed regardless of the fault
current level.

The following table provides an overview on the proposed settings.


132 kV-Directional Earthfault Protection Line (TEF)
Function block name: TEFx-
Operation = On
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based:
Ibase = 800 A
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the directional polarizing voltage is based:
UBase= 132 kV
Parameter Range Step Setting Unit Description
Minimum fundamental frequency
IMinOpFund 2 - 100 1 5 %IB
current level in % of IBase
AngleRCA -180 - 180 1 65 Deg Relay characteristic angle (RCA)
Minimum polarizing quantity in %
3Uo>Dir 1 - 100 1 1 %UB
of UBase
Operate residual current level for
IN>DirCmp 1 - 100 1 5 %IB
DirComp in % of IBase
Time delay for DirComp
Check during commissioning:
tDirCmp 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 60 s
no trip required, trip output to
be blocked
Second harmonic restrain opera-
2ndHarmStab 5 - 100 1 20 %
tion in % of IN amplitude
Enable blocking at parallel trans-
BlkParTransf Off On - Off -
formers
IN1> IN2> IN3> Current level blk at parallel transf
UseStartValue - IN1> -
IN4> (step1, 2, 3 or 4)
Off SOTF Under- SOTF operation mode
SOTF Time - Off - (Off/SOTF/Under-
SOTF+UnderTime time/SOTF+undertime)
Open Closed Select signal that shall activate
ActivationSOTF - Open -
CloseCommand SOTF
Enable harmonic restrain function
HarmResSOTF Disable Enable - Disable -
in SOTF
tSOTF 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 0.200 s Time delay for SOTF
t4U 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 1.000 s Switch-onto-fault active time

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

STAGE 1 (I>)
Setting of the operating direction for the stage:
DirMode1 = Forward
Setting of the operating characteristic:
Characteristic1 = IEC Norm. inv.
Setting of the operating current level in primary values:
IN1> = 160 A (IN1> = 20% *Ibase)
Set the current multiplier for IN1 valid at activation of input ENMULT:
IN1Mult = 1.00
Set the definite time delay, when definite time characteristic has been selected:
t1 = 0.10 s
Set the back-up trip time delay multiplier for inverse characteristic:
k1 = 0.81
Set the Minimum operating time for inverse characteristic:
t1Min = 1.2 s
Select the reset curve type for the inverse delay:
ResetTypeCrv1 = IEC Reset
Set the Reset time delay for definite time delayed function:
tReset1 = 0.02 s
Set the release of Harmonic restraint blocking for the stage:
HarmRestrain1 = Disable
STAGE 2, 3 AND 4 BLOCKED (binary input BLOCK.)

5.3 REC670 – Non-Directional Overcurrent and Earthfault Protection (51,51N)

Settings for non-directional Oc and EF protection are presently not provided, as co-ordination of such
non-directional functions along the overhead line incoming and outgoing via the bus coupler is technical
not possible. In this context, also the final backup overcurrent function of the REL670 is set directional for
better selectivity.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

6 Selectivity diagrams of 132 kV-overcurrent and earthfault coordination


The following diagram displays the OC coordination between the 132 kV-relays down to the 132 kV-
protection of grid transformer. Shown is the directional back-up of the distance relay (black), the direc-
tional OC protection of the OHL in REC670 (green) and settings of the bus coupler protection non-dir. OC
(REC670) (blue).
Over the full current scale the directional line protection (in distance relay REL670 definite time and line
relay REC670 inverse time) acts before the bus coupler if fault is in forward direction. Herewith, selective
grading is ensured. Also towards the power transformer protection (orange) selectivity is given. Shown is
transformer rated current of 175 A and the max. switchgear through-fault current 3p of 10 kA taken as
50% of the total fault current at switchgear.
Note: Also the OC function utilises the t-min setting of 1.5 s resp. 1.2 s, herewith full selectivity over the
full current range is ensured.

1000 s

100 s

10,0 s

1,0 s
Max. 3p-SWG through-fault 10 kA

0,100 s
Rated tx current

0,010 s
132 kV: 0,100 kA 1,0 kA 10,0 kA 100 kA 1000 kA

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The following diagram displays the EF coordination between the 132 kV-relays down to EF protection of
132 kV-grid transformer. Shown is the directional EF protection of the OHL in REC670 (green) and the
settings of the bus coupler protection non-dir. EF (REC670) (blue).
Over the full current scale the directional line EF protection acts before the bus coupler if fault is in for-
ward direction. Herewith, selective grading is ensured. Also towards the power transformer EF protection
(orange) selectivity is given. Shown is transformer rated current of 175 A and the max. switchgear
through-fault current 1p of 7 kA taken as 50% of the total fault current at switchgear.
Note: Also the EF function utilises the t-min setting of 1.5 s resp. 1.2 s, herewith full selectivity over the
full current range is ensured.

1000 s

100 s

10,0 s

1,0 s
Max. 1p-SWG through-fault 7 kA

0,100 s
Rated tx current

0,010 s
132 kV: 0,010 kA 0,100 kA 1,0 kA 10,0 kA 100 kA 1000 kA

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

7 Overview on 132/11 kV-Overcurrent and Earthfault Coordination


The relay coordination is shown in a more comprehensive manner in the following diagrams.
The relay settings were provided in the reference “Minutes of Meetings Held at KESC Office on
28/01/2009, Contract KESC-2480-04” and are applicable for all nine substations.
Further on, the start-current of the 11 kV-outgoing feeder protection was lower from 20% to 10% as per
th
KESC request vide eMail 6 April 2009
• Input is required on the protection of the tertiary winding, the allocation of the CTs in the tertiary
winding is unclear, e.g. whether overcurrent protection is required as coordination is difficult, also
internal reactor data are unknown. We assume the two CTs are to be series-connected and to be
utilized only for earth-fault protection of the single-corner earthed delta winding. However, tertiary
winding overcurrent protection settings are provided, function can be disabled if required or ad-
justed to KESC protection needs.

7.1 Overcurrent protection coordination

The diagram shows the overcurrent co-ordination from 11 kV-feeder of transformer to 11 kV-outgoing
feeders.

1000 s
11 kV-tx incomer prot. REF543
I>>=2300A T=0,200pu
IEC255-3 normal inverse
I>>=7500A T=0,350s
11 kV-bus coupler prot. REF543
I>>=2300A T=0,150pu
IEC255-3 normal inverse
100 s I>>=7500A T=0,200s
11 kV-outgoing feeder prot. REF543
I>>=640A T=0,150pu
IEC255-3 normal inverse
I>>=2400A T=0,050s

10,0 s
Rated transformer current 175 A at 132 kV

Max. 3p-transf. through-fault 10,8 kA

1,0 s

0,100 s

0,010 s
11,0 kV: 0,100 kA 1,0 kA 10,0 kA 100 kA 1000 kA

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

7.2 Earthfault protection coordination

The diagram shows the earthfault co-ordination from 11 kV-side of transformer to 11 kV-outgoing feeders.

1000 s
11 kV-tx incomer prot. REF543
I0>=500A T=0,400pu
IEC255-3 normal inverse
I0>=7500A T=0,350s
11 kV-bus coupler prot. REF543
I0>=500A T=0,300pu
IEC255-3 normal inverse
100 s I0>=7500A T=0,200s
11 kV-outgoing feeder prot. REF543
I0>=80A T=0,150pu
IEC255-3 normal inverse
I0>=2400A T=0,050s

10,0 s
Rated transformer current = 175 A at 132 kV

1,0 s
Max. 1p-transf. through-fault 6,6 kA

0,100 s

0,010 s
11,0 kV: 0,010 kA 0,100 kA 1,0 kA 10,0 kA 100 kA 1000 kA

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

8 132/11 kV-Network and Short-circuit Data


Data of 132 kV switchgear:
Nominal voltage: [ UN ] 132 kV
Nominal frequency: [ f] 50 Hz
Max. short circuit current value [ ISC ] 40 kA (3 s)
Rated current [A] 2500 A
Data of 11 kV switchgear:
Nominal voltage: [ UN ] 11 kV
Nominal frequency: [ f] 50 Hz
Max. short circuit current value [ ISC ] 25 kA (3 s)
Rated current [A] 3000 A

The short circuit currents at 132 kV-SWG PRL is:


Short cct. Levels
Max. - Ik" (kA) Min.- Ik" (kA)
3 ph 1 ph 3 ph 1 ph
29,01 22,13 26,4 19,82

The short circuit currents at 11 kV-SWG PRL at parallel operation of the 132/11kV-transformer is:
Short cct. Levels
Max. - Ik" (kA) Min.- Ik" (kA)
3 ph 1 ph 3 ph 1 ph
20,84 13,01 18,94 11,82
The short circuit currents at 11 kV-SWG PRL at radial operation of the 132/11kV-transformer is:
Short cct. Levels
Max. - Ik" (kA) Min.- Ik" (kA)
3 ph 1 ph 3 ph 1 ph
10,77 6,59 9,79 6,0

• Transformer Through-Fault Currents


The maximum transformer through-fault current at 11 kV-faults can be calculated in simplified manner as:
I”kmax = 175 A x 100% / uk (ukmin = 17.75%) = 0.99 A, say 1 kA at 132 kV
I”kmax = 1924.5 A x 100% / uk (ukmin = 17.75%) = 10.8 kA at 11 kV
This value is also given in the KESC data questionnaire.
The following fault currents for coordination are considered:
1. Maximum 132 kV-trough-fault current of 1 kA for 3p and 1p-faults (132 kV-earthfaults fed via 132
kV-starpoint).
2. At 11 kV-level the corresponding 3p-through-fault current is 10.8 kA. The maximum 1p-fault is
given in the KESC questionnaire with 6.59 kA, say 6.6 kA and considered for 11 kV-earthfault
grading.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

9 132 kV- and 11 kV-Feeder CT Data


The transformer protection CT data is shown in following diagram.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The 11 kV-side CTs are given in following diagram.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

10 132/11 kV-Transformer Data


The data of the transformer are provided in the FAT report; following extract provides the relevant data:

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

• Summary
Protection object data: Two-Winding Transformer + Stab. Winding d11 (TV)
Vector group: YNyn0 (+d11)
Starpoint treatment: both starpoints solidly earthed
Rated transformer power: ONAN 31.5 MVA, ONAF 40 MVA
Stabilizing Winding 30.7 MVA
Rated transformer voltages HV/LV: 132 kV / 12 kV
Rated voltage TV: 11 kV
Frequency: 50 Hz

Tap changer (on-load type): 132 kV +/- 15% in +/-12 steps

Rated transformer current tap mid HV: 175 A (40 MVA @ 132 kV)
Rated transformer current LV: 1924.5 A (40 MVA @ 12 kV)
Rated transformer current TV: 639.9 A (13.3 MVA = 40 MVA/3 @ 12 kV)

Transformer current tap 1 (+12x1.25%): 152 A (40 MVA @ 151.8 kV)


Transformer current tap 17 (-8x1.25%): 206.1 A (40 MVA @ 112.2 kV)

Short-circuit impedance at 40 MVA: ukr = 20.89 % at tap pos 1


ukr = 19.15% at tap mid (=pos 13)
ukr = 17.75% at tap pos 25

Short-circuit resistance at 92 MVA: uRr = 0.325%

Max. asym. short-circuit current HV,LV, TV: 2.8 kA, 25.8 kA, 38.5 kA

Assumed is short-time short-circuit strength of 2 sec (minimum) at maximum through-fault current.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

11 RET670 - 132/11 kV-Power Transformer Differential Protection Relay (Main 1)


The relay provides following protection functions:
87T
51(TV)
51N(TV)
RET 670 provides a very fast differential protection function, with automatic CT ratio matching and vector
group compensation, makes this IED the ideal solution even for the most demanding applications. RET
670 has very low requirements on the main CTs, no interposing CTs are required. It is suitable for differ-
ential applications with multi-breaker arrangements with up to six restraint CT inputs. The differential pro-
tection function is provided with 2nd harmonic and wave-block restraint features to avoid tripping for
magnetizing inrush, and 5th harmonic restraint to avoid tripping for overexcitation.

11.1 RET670 - Protection Relay CT Data (132/11 kV)

The CT for differential protection (on input card TRM1) data are:
HV 132 kV Transformer Feeder CT 400 A / 800 A / 1 A,
LV 11 kV Transformer Feeder CT 2500 A / 1 A
TV 11 kV-side Transformer Tertiary Winding CT for differential protection not applicable

The CT for tertiary winding (TV) backup OC and EF protection (on input card TRM2) data are:
TV 11 kV OC Protection L1 CT 100 A / 5 A

11.2 RET670 - Setting of Analogue and Digital Channels

In order to get correct measurement results as well as correct protection operations the analogue input
channels must be configured and properly set. For power measuring and all directional and differential
functions the directions of the input currents must be properly defined.

• Input Card 1 Settings (TRM 1)


The following table provides the analogue input channel / CT connections of TRM1 in Slot P 40. The TRM
provides 9I+3U inputs nominal current is 1 A, nominal voltage is 110 V.
Hardware Id Signal Description ABB
Object Signal I/O Designation
-X401
HV 132kV Side I L1 AI 01 1 -2 Current Phase L1
HV 132kV Side I L2 AI 02 3 -4 Current Phase L2
HV 132kV Side I L3 AI 03 5 -6 Current Phase L3
LV 11kV Side I L1 AI 04 7 -8 Current Phase L1
LV 11kV Side I L2 AI 05 9 -10 Current Phase L2
LV 11kV Side I L3 AI 06 11 -12 Current Phase L3
TV not used I L1 AI 07 13- 14 Current Phase L1
TV not used I L2 AI 08 15- 16 Current Phase L2
TV not used I L3 AI 09 17- 18 Current Phase L3
Not used U L1 AI 10 19- 20 -
Not used U L2 AI 11 21- 22 -
Not used U L3 AI 12 23 -24 -

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The related setting of the basic general settings for the ANALOGIN9I3U (TC40-) function of TRM1 is:
Parameter Range Setting Unit Description Remarks
FromObject To be set ToObject= towards protected ob-
CTStarPoint1 -
ToObject at site ject, FromOb-ject= the opposite
CTsec1 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary cur-rent
Phase L1
CTprim1 1 - 99999 400 A Rated CT primary current
HV
FromObject To be set ToObject= towards protected ob-
CTStarPoint2 -
ToObject at site ject, FromOb-ject= the opposite
CTsec2 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary cur-rent
Phase L2
CTprim2 1 - 99999 400 A Rated CT primary current
HV
FromObject To be set ToObject= towards protected ob-
CTStarPoint3 -
ToObject at site ject, FromOb-ject= the opposite
CTsec3 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
Phase L3
CTprim3 1 - 99999 400 A Rated CT primary current
HV
FromObject To be set ToObject= towards protected ob-
CTStarPoint4 -
ToObject at site ject, FromOb-ject= the opposite
CTsec4 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary cur-rent
Phase L1
CTprim4 1 - 99999 2500 A Rated CT primary current
LV
FromObject To be set ToObject= towards protected ob-
CTStarPoint5 -
ToObject at site ject, FromOb-ject= the opposite
CTsec5 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary cur-rent
Phase L2
CTprim5 1 - 99999 2500 A Rated CT primary current
LV
FromObject To be set ToObject= towards protected ob-
CTStarPoint6 -
ToObject at site ject, FromOb-ject= the opposite
CTsec6 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
Phase L3
CTprim6 1 - 99999 2500 A Rated CT primary current
LV
The further CT inputs 7 to 9 and VT inputs 1 – 3 are not wired.

• Input Card 2 Settings (TRM 2)


The following table provides the analogue input channel / CT connections of TRM2 in Slot P 41. The TRM
provides 9I+3U inputs nominal current is 5 A (the 1 A inputs are not used), nominal voltage is 110 V.
Hardware Id Signal Description ABB
Object Signal I/O Designation
-X411
Not used AI 01 1 -2 -
Not used AI 02 3 -4 -
Not used AI 03 5 -6 -
Not used AI 04 7 -8 -
Not used AI 05 9 -10 -
Tertiary Side I L1 (5A) AI 06 11 -12 Tertiary Current Phase L1
Tertiary Side I L2 (5A) AI 07 13- 14 -
Not used AI 08 15- 16 -
Tertiary Side I N (5A) AI 09 17- 18 -
Not used U L1 AI 10 19- 20 -
Not used U L2 AI 11 21- 22 -
Not used U L3 AI 12 23 -24 -

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The related setting of the basic general settings for the ANALOGIN9I3U (TC40-) function of TRM2 is:
Parameter Range Setting Unit Description Remarks
ToObject= towards protected
FromObject To be set
CTStarPoint6 - object, FromOb-ject= the oppo-
ToObject at site
site
CTsec6 1 - 10 5 A Rated CT secondary current
Tertiary Current
CTprim6 1 - 99999 100 A Rated CT primary current
Phase L1
ToObject= towards protected
FromObject To be set
CTStarPoint7 - object, FromOb-ject= the oppo-
ToObject at site
site
CTsec7 1 - 10 5 A Rated CT secondary current
CTprim7 1 - 99999 100 A Rated CT primary current
ToObject= towards protected
FromObject To be set
CTStarPoint9 - object, FromOb-ject= the oppo-
ToObject at site
site
CTsec9 1 - 10 5 A Rated CT secondary current
CTprim9 1 - 99999 100 A Rated CT primary current

The further CT inputs 1 to 5 and 8 as well as VT inputs 1 – 3 are not wired.

• Setting of CTStarPoint
The direction of a current to the IED is depending on the connection of the CT. Unless indicated other-
wise, the main CTs are supposed to be star connected and can be connected with the star point to the
object or from the object. This information must be set to the IED. The convention of the directionality is
defined as follows: A positive value of current, power etc means that the quantity has the direction into the
object and a negative value means direction out from the object. For directional functions the direction
into the object is defined as Forward and the direction out from the object is defined as Reverse. With
correct setting of the primary CT direction, CTStarPoint set to FromObject or ToObject, a positive quanti-
ties always flowing towards the object and a direction defined as Forward always is looking towards the
object. The following examples illustrate setting of CTStarPoint.

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11.3 RET670 - Signal Matrix for Analogue Inputs (SMAI)

Every SMAI function block can receive four analogue signals (three phases and one neutral value), either
voltage or current. The outputs of the SMAI are giving information about every aspect of the 3ph ana-
logue signals acquired (phase angle, RMS value, frequency and frequency derivates).
Note: Settings DFTRefExtOut and DFTReference shall be set to default value InternalDFTRef if no VT
inputs are available. The parameter settings should be done at site, following parameter require setting:
• DFTRefExtOut: Parameter valid for function block PR01, PR13, PR25 only. Reference DFT block
for external output (SPFCOUT function output).
• DFTReference: Reference DFT block for that specific instance of the SMAI. These DFT reference
block settings decide which DFT block will be used as reference in the calculation of frequency
and other values (Internal DFTRef will use set system frequency. GrpnAdDFTRef will use calcu-
lated frequency from the selected group block, ExternalDFTRef will use input DFTSPFC as fre-
quency reference.)
• ConnectionType: Connection type for that specific instance (n) of the SMAI (if it is Ph-N or Ph-
Ph). Depending on connection type setting the not connected Ph-N or Ph-Ph outputs will be cal-
culated.
• Negation: If the user wants to negate the 3ph signal, it is possible to choose to negate only the
phase signals Negate3Ph, only the neutral signal NegateN or both Negate3Ph+N; negation
means rotation with 180° of the vectors.
• UBase: Base voltage setting (for each instance n)
• MinValFreqMeas: The minimum value of the voltage for which the frequency is calculated, ex-
pressed as percent of UBase (for each instance n).

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11.4 RET670 - Transformer Differential Protection Settings (PDIF, 87T)

Function block name: T2Dx-


• Basic General Settings
The data of the protection object need to be set under the basic general settings for T2WPDIF_87T
(T2D1-) function. The following table provides the settings as per the transformer data.

Parameter Range Step Setting Unit Description


RatedVoltageW1 0.05 - 2000.00 0.05 132 kV Rated voltage of trans-
former winding 1 (HV
winding) in kV
RatedVoltageW2 0.05 - 2000.00 0.05 12 kV Rated voltage of trans-
former winding 2 in kV
RatedCurrentW1 1 - 99999 1 175 A Rated current of trans-
former winding 1 (HV
winding) in A
RatedCurrentW2 1 - 99999 1 1924.5 A Rated current of trans-
former winding 2 in A
ConnectTypeW1 WYE (Y) - WYE (Y) - Connection type of wind-
DELTA (D) ing 1: Y-wye or D-delta
ConnectTypeW2 WYE (Y) - WYE (Y) - Connection type of wind-
DELTA (D) ing 2: Y-wye or D-delta
ClockNumberW2 0 [0 deg] - 0 [0 deg] - Phase displacement
1 [30 deg lag] between W2 & W1=HV
2 [60 deg lag] winding, hour notation
3 [90 deg lag]
4 [120 deg lag]
5 [150 deg lag]
6 [180 deg]
7 [150 deg lead]
8 [120 deg lead]
9 [90 deg lead]
10 [60 deg lead]
11 [30 deg lead]
ZSCurrSubtrW1 Off - ON - Enable zer. seq. current
ON subtraction for W1 side,
On / Off
ZSCurrSubtrW2 Off - ON - Enable zer. seq. current
ON subtraction for W2 side,
On / Off
TconfigForW1 No - No - Two CT inputs (T-con-
Yes fig.) for winding 1, YES /
NO

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• Elimination of zero sequence currents


A differential protection may operate unwanted due to external earth faults in cases where the zero se-
quence current can flow only on one side of the power transformer but not on the other side. This is the
situation when the zero sequence current cannot be properly transformed to the other side of the power
transformer. There are only very rare cases, where the zero sequence currents can be properly trans-
formed to other side of the power transformer, (e.g. Yy00 power transformer, directly earthed on both
sides, and with 5-leg iron core). As the details of the transformer design are not reliable known, it is a
general setting rule, to activate the zero sequence elimination regardless of the application in order to
take no risk.
It is generally recommended to set ZSCurrSubtrW= On

The relevant parameters are explained first, the setting proposals are summarized in a comprehensive
table at the end of the section.

• Inrush restraint methods


With a combination of the second harmonic restraint and the waveform restraint methods it is possibly to
get a protection with high security and stability against inrush effects and at the same time maintain high
performance in case of heavy internal faults even if the current transformers are saturated. Both these
restraint methods are used by RET 670. The second harmonic restraint function has a settable level. If
the ratio of the second harmonic to fundamental harmonic in the differential current is above the settable
limit, the operation of the differential protection is restrained. It is recommended to set parameter
I2/I1Ratio = 15% as default value in case no special reasons exist to choose other value.
It is recommended to use the setting 15 % as a default value.

• Overexcitation restraint method


Overexcitation current contains odd harmonics, because the waveform is symmetrical about the time
axis. As the third harmonic currents cannot flow into a delta winding, the fifth harmonic is the lowest har-
monic which can serve as a criterion for overexcitation. The overexcitation on the delta side will produce
exciting currents that contain a large fundamental frequency component with little odd harmonics. In this
application the fifth harmonic limit must be set to a relatively low value. IED 670 differential protection
function is provided with a fifth harmonic restraint to prevent the protection from operation during an over-
excitation condition of a power transformer. If the ratio of the fifth harmonic to fundamental harmonic in
the differential current is above a settable limit the operation is restrained. It is recommended to use
I5/I1Ratio = 25% as default value in case no special reasons exist to choose another setting.
It is recommended to use the setting 25 % as a default value.

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• Cross-blocking between phases


Basic definition of the cross-blocking is that one of the three phases can block operation (i.e. tripping) of
the other two phases due to the properties of the differential current in that phase (i.e. waveform, 2nd or
5th harmonic content). In the algorithm the user can control the cross-blocking between the phases via
the setting parameter OpCrossBlock. When parameter OpCrossBlock is set to On, cross blocking be-
tween phases will be introduced. There is not any time settings involved, but the phase with the operating
point above the set bias characteristic will be able to cross-block other two phases if it is self-blocked by
any of the previously explained restrained criteria. As soon as the operating point for this phase is below
the set bias characteristic cross blocking from that phase will be inhibited. In this way cross-blocking of
the temporary nature is achieved. In should be noted that OpCrossBlock = On is the default (i.e. recom-
mended) setting value for this parameter.
It is recommended to set “CrossBlock” = On

• Restrained and unrestrained differential protection


To make a differential relay as sensitive and stable as possible, restrained differential protections have
been developed and are now adopted as the general practice in the protection of power transformers.
The protection should be provided with a proportional bias, which makes the protection operate for a cer-
tain percentage differential current related to the current through the transformer. This stabilizes the pro-
tection under through fault conditions while still permitting the system to have good basic sensitivity. The
bias current can be defined in many different ways. One classical way of defining the bias current has
been Ibias = (I1 + I2) / 2, where I1 is the magnitude of the power transformer primary current, and I2 the
magnitude of the power transformer secondary current. However, it has been found that if the bias current
is defined as the highest power transformer current this will reflect the difficulties met by the current trans-
formers much better.

• Maximum sensitivity Idmin Setting


The maximum sensitivity defines the pick-up value setting of the differential protection for internal faults,
the setting must not be too low, however, to avoid the danger of false tripping due to CT errors, maximum
off-load transformer currents and the tap changer range:

• The maximum current mismatch due to the 132 kV-tap changer at min. and max. tap position is:
132 kV-current at min tap = 152 A ∆I = 152 A – 175 A = -23 A or -13% rel. to Imhv
132 kV-current at max. tap = 206.1 A ∆I = 206 A – 175 A = -31 A or 18% rel. to Imhv
• The CT error is considered with 5% = 5% (CT accuracy 5P)
• An additional safety margin of 5% is required to cater for additional error currents and increased
magnetizing currents due to over-excitation.
A maximum sensitivity setting of Idmin = 30% of Ir is recommended.

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The built-in characteristic settings of the differential protection (see following diagram) are recommended.

Section 1: This is the most sensitive part on the characteristic. In section 1, normal currents flow through
the protected circuit and its current transformers, and risk for higher false differential currents is relatively
low. Uncompensated on-load tap-changer is a typical reason for existence of the false differential currents
in this section. Slope in section 1 is always zero percent.
Section 2: In section 2, a certain minor slope is introduced which is supposed to cope with false differen-
tial currents proportional to higher than normal currents through the current transformers.
Section 3: The more pronounced slope in section 3 is designed to result in a higher tolerance to substan-
tial current transformer saturation at high through-fault currents, which may be expected in this section.

• Unrestrained limit Idunre in % of Ir


The setting must be higher than any normal inrush current to be expected. However, inrush currents are
never higher in magnitude than the maximum through-fault current. Maximum through-fault current is
approx 5.6 times the rated transformer current (= 100%/ukmin; ukr = 17.75% at tap pos 17, thus = 100% /
17.7% = 5.6).
A safety factor of about 2 is recommended to cater for all transient phenomena, recommended setting is:
Idunre = 10 x Ir (10 times transformer rated current).

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• External/Internal fault discriminator (neg. seq. differential protection)


Existence of relatively high negative-sequence currents is in itself a proof of a disturbance on the power
system, possibly a fault in the protected power transformer. The negative-sequence currents are measur-
able indications of abnormal conditions, similar to the zero-sequence currents. One of the several advan-
tages of the negative-sequence currents compared to the zero-sequence currents is however that they
provide coverage for phase-to-phase and power transformer turn-to-turn faults as well, not only for earth-
faults.
In order to perform directional comparison of the two phasors their magnitudes must be high enough so
that one can be sure that they are due to a fault. On the other hand, in order to guarantee a good sensitiv-
ity of the internal/external fault discriminator, the value of this minimum limit must not be too high. There-
fore this limit value, called IMinNegSeq, is settable in the range from 1% to 20% of the differential protec-
tions base current, which is in our case the power transformer HV side rated current. The default value is
4%. Only if magnitudes of both negative sequence current contributions are above the set limit, the rela-
tive position between these two phasors is checked.
The default value IMinNegSeq = 0.04 should be set.
The internal/external fault discriminator operation is based on the relative position of the two phasors (in
case of two-winding transformer) representing W1 and W2 negative-sequence current contributions. The
setting NegSeqROA represents the so-called Relay Operate Angle, which determines the boundary be-
tween the internal and external fault regions. It can be selected in the range from 30 degrees to 90 de-
grees, with a step of 1 degree. The default value is 60 degrees. The default setting somewhat favours
security in comparison to dependability.
The default value NegSeqROA = 60 should be set.
The operating characteristic is shown in following diagram:

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• Setting Table of Basic Parameter Group Settings


The following parameters required settings, following table provides the proposed parameter, and expla-
nations are given in the following paragraphs of this section.

Parameter Range Step Setting Unit Description

Operation Off ON - ON - Operation Off / On


Sust. dif. cur. alarm; multiple of
IdMin 0.10 - 0.60 0.01 0.30 IB
Winding 1 rated current
End of section 1, multiple of Wind-
EndSection1 0.20 - 1.50 0.01 1.25 IB
ing 1 rated current
End of section 2, multiple of Wind-
EndSection2 1.00 - 10.00 0.01 3.00 IB
ing 1 rated current
Slope in section 2 of operate-
SlopeSection2 10.0 - 50.0 0.1 40.0 %
restrain charac-teristic, in %
Slope in section 3 of operate-
SlopeSection3 30.0 - 100.0 0.1 80.0 %
restrain charac-teristic, in %
Unrestr. prot. limit, multiple of
IdUnre 1.00 - 50.00 0.01 10.00 IB
Winding 1 rated current
Max. ratio of 2nd harm. to funda-
I2/I1Ratio 5.0 - 100.0 1.0 15.0 %
mental harm dif. curr. In %
Max. ratio of 5th harm. to funda-
I5/I1Ratio 5.0 - 100.0 1.0 25.0 %
mental harm dif. curr. in %
Operation Off/On for cross-block
CrossBlockEn Off ON - ON -
logic between phases
Operation Off/On for neg. seq.
NegSeqDiffEn Off ON - ON -
differential protections
Neg. seq. curr. must be higher than
IMinNegSeq 0.02 - 0.20 0.01 0.04 IB
this level to be used
Operate Angle for int. / ext. neg.
NegSeqROA 30.0 - 120.0 0.1 60.0 Deg
seq. fault dis-criminator

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11.5 RET670 – 11 kV-side Transf. Tertiary Winding Overcurrent Protection Phase

For overcurrent protection of the transformer tertiary delta winding, the RET670 four stage phase overcur-
rent protection is foreseen for overcurrent protection of TV phase L1 (input via TRM2 AI06).
NOTE: The CTs in the tertiary winding have a nominal current of 100 A, whereas the delta winding has a
rated current of 639.9 A. It is assumed that the built-in reactor limits the current to about 100 A; however,
details are not known. Setting will be adjusted to the nominal CT current 100 A as start current is se-
lected. Function is set to trip at rated winding current of 639.9 A with delay of 2 sec with tmin = 1 s (here-
with function will never trip below 1 s). Base current of the protection function is the delta winding rated
current of 639.9 A. This function requires adjustment according to KESC protection methodology e.g. may
be blocked (see section 2).
• CT Data
11 kV Transformer Tertiary Winding CT 100 / 5 A

• I>-stage
The start current I> is set to 15.6% of the rated current of the tertiary winding of IrT = 639.9 A, the primary
current setting of I> is 100 A (is CT nominal current). Normal inverse curve is selected, the time multiplier
setting is k = 1.35. The relay operating time at 1x IrT is:
0.02
tRelay(639.9 A) = 1.35 x 0.14 / ((639.9 A/100 A) - 1) = 5 s
The minimum operating time tmin is set to 2 second, the function will, regardless of the actual current, not
act with times below 2 sec and should herewith leave sufficient time for the network earth-fault protection
to actuate. Naturally, no fast short-circuit protection is herewith installed.
The proposed settings are:
11 kV-side Transf. Tertiary Winding Overcurrent Protection Phase (TOC)
Function block name: TOCx-
General Settings
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based:
Ibase = 640 A
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the directional polarizing voltage is based:
UBase= = 11 kV
Set the Directional angle Directional overcurrent protection:
AngleRCA = -65 deg
Set the angles from the RCA angle Max and Min limiting the operating area:
MaxFwdAng = 50 deg
MinFwdAng = 80 deg
Setting of the operating current level for phase selection in primary values
IPh> =64 A (gives IMinOpPhSel = 10% *Ibase)
Set the number of phases required to get the Phase selection (phase start) outputs:
StartPhSel = 1 out of 3

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STAGE 1 (I>)
Setting of the operating direction for the stage:
DirMode1 = NonDir
Setting of the operating characteristic:
Characteristic1 = IEC Norm. inv.
Setting of the operating current level in primary values:
I1> = 100 A (gives I1> = 15.6% *Ibase)
Set the multiplier for start value which is activated when the multiplier input is activated, normally at CB
closing:
I1Mult = 1.00
Set the definite time delay, when definite time characteristic has been selected:
t1 = 0.1 s
Set the back-up trip time delay multiplier for inverse characteristic:
k1 = 1.35
Set the Minimum operating time for inverse characteristic:
t1Min = 2.0 s
Select the reset curve type for the inverse delay:
ResetTypeCrv = IEC Reset
Set the Reset time delay for definite time delayed function:
tReset1 = 0.02 s
Set the release of Harmonic restraint blocking for the stage:
HarmRestraint1 = Disabled
STAGE 2, 3 AND 4 BLOCKED (binary input BLOCK)
(If VT inputs are not available or not connected, function parameter DirModex shall be left to default
value, Non-directional).

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The relay coordination is shown in following diagram.

Ov e rcurre nt Pro te ctio n Characte ristic Curv e

Rated Current Ter.


CT Nominal Current Winding
1000

100

10

0,1

Rated Current Ter.


CT Nominal Current Winding
0,01
10 100 1000 10000 100000
Current (Amps)

Generally in ABB 6-series relays the inverse curve is not cut-off at 20 or 30 times start-current, this can
be done with tmin-setting. Tmin is set to 2s, the relay will not act with times below this delay.

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11.6 RET670 – 11 kV-side Transf. Tertiary Winding Earthfault Protection

One corner of the tertiary delta winding is earthed.

NOTE: Since the transformer tertiary delta winding is not earthed over a CT, is it not possible to activate
this protection function. The protection function ist switched off.
The RET670 four stage residual overcurrent protection is foreseen for earthfault protection of TV (input
via TRM2 AI09). As single phase currents are measured the residual overcurrent protection is applied.
Due to the delta winding of the transformer is isolated from the 132 and 11 kV-power system, a sensitive
setting is possible and as no downstream/upstream grading is required.
• CT Data
11 kV Transformer Tertiary Neutral CT(s) 100 / 5 A
• I>-stage
The start current I> is set to 5% of the rated current of the tertiary winding of IrT = 639.9 A , the primary
current setting of I> is 32 A. Normal inverse curve is selected, the time multiplier setting is k = 0.22. The
0.02
relay operating time at 1x IrT is: tRelay(639.9 A) = 0.22 x 0.14 / ((639.9 A/32 A) - 1) = 0.5 s
In case of any spill currents at the delta winding, the function will provide a fast protection trip.
The proposed settings are.
11 kV-side Transf. Tertiary Winding Earthfault Protection (TEF)
Function block name: TEFx-
Operation = Off
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based:
Ibase = 640 A
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the directional polarizing voltage is based:
UBase= 11.0 kV
Parameter Range Step Setting Unit Description
Minimum fundamental frequency
IMinOpFund 2 - 100 1 3 %IB
current level in % of IBase
AngleRCA -180 - 180 1 65 Deg Relay characteristic angle (RCA)
Minimum polarizing quantity in %
3Uo>Dir 1 - 100 1 1 %UB
of UBase
Operate residual current level for
IN>DirCmp 1 - 100 1 3 %IB
DirComp in % of IBase
Time delay for DirComp
Check during commissioning: no
tDirCmp 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 60 s
trip required, trip output to be
blocked
Second harmonic restrain opera-
2ndHarmStab 5 - 100 1 20 %
tion in % of IN amplitude
Enable blocking at parallel trans-
BlkParTransf Off On - Off -
formers
IN1> IN2> IN3> Current level blk at parallel transf
UseStartValue - IN1> -
IN4> (step1, 2, 3 or 4)
Off SOTF Under- SOTF operation mode
SOTF Time - Off - (Off/SOTF/Under-
SOTF+UnderTime time/SOTF+undertime)

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Open Closed Select signal that shall activate


ActivationSOTF - Open -
CloseCommand SOTF
Enable harmonic restrain function
HarmResSOTF Disable Enable - Disable -
in SOTF
tSOTF 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 0.200 s Time delay for SOTF
t4U 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 1.000 s Switch-onto-fault active time
STAGE 1 (I>)
Setting of the operating direction for the stage:
DirMode1 = NonDir
Setting of the operating characteristic:
Characteristic1 = IEC Norm. inv.
Setting of the operating current level in primary values:
IN1> = 32 A (IN1> = 5% *Ibase)
Set the current multiplier for IN1 valid at activation of input ENMULT:
IN1Mult = 1.00
Set the definite time delay, when definite time characteristic has been selected:
t1 = 0.10 s
Set the back-up trip time delay multiplier for inverse characteristic:
k1 = 0.22
Set the Minimum operating time for inverse characteristic:
t1Min = 0.1 s
Select the reset curve type for the inverse delay:
ResetTypeCrv = IEC Reset
Set the Reset time delay for definite time delayed function:
tReset1 = 0.02 s
Set the release of Harmonic restraint blocking for the stage:
HarmRestrain1 = Disable
STAGE 2, 3 AND 4 BLOCKED (binary input BLOCK.)
(If VT inputs are not available or not connected, function parameter DirModex shall be left to default value,
Non-directional).

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The relay coordination is shown in following diagram.

Earthfault Pro te ctio n Characte ristic Curv e

CT Nominal Current Rated Current Ter. Winding


1000

100

10

0,1

CT Nominal Current Rated Current Ter. Winding


0,01
10 100 1000 10000
Current (Amps)

Generally in ABB 6-series relays the inverse curve is not cut-off at 20 or 30 times start-current, this can
be done with tmin-setting. Tmin is set to 0.1s, the relay will not act with times below this and is herewith
stabilized against any transient phenomena.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

12 RET670 - 132/11 kV-Power Transformer Protection Relay (Main 2)


The relay provides following protection functions:
87REF(HV), 87REF(LV),
50/51(HV), 51N(HV), 51N(LV),
49

12.1 RET670 - Protection Relay CT Data (132/11 kV)

The feeder CT for HV and LV REF-protection (on input card TRM1) are:
HV 132 kV Transformer Feeder CT 400 A / 800 A / 1 A at TRM1, AI04-06
LV 11 kV Transformer Feeder CT 2500 A / 1 A at TRM1, AI01-03

The neutral CT for HV and LV REF- and EF protection (on input card TRM2) are:
HV Neutral REF Protection CT 200 A / 1 A at TRM2, AI 01
LV Neutral REF Protection CT 2500 A / 5 A at TRM2, AI 08

12.2 RET670 - Setting of Analogue and Digital Channels

In order to get correct measurement results as well as correct protection operations the analogue input
channels must be configured and properly set. For power measuring and all directional and differential
functions the directions of the input currents must be properly defined.

• Input Card 1 Settings (TRM 1)


The following table provides the analogue input channel / CT connections of TRM1 in Slot P 40. The TRM
provides 9I+3U inputs nominal current is 1 A, nominal voltage is 110 V.
Hardware Id Signal Description ABB
Object Signal I/O Designation
-X401
LV 11kV Side I L1 AI 01 1 -2 Current Phase L1
LV 11kV Side I L2 AI 02 3 -4 Current Phase L2
LV 11kV Side I L3 AI 03 5 -6 Current Phase L3
HV 132kV Side I L1 AI 04 7 -8 Current Phase L1
HV 132kV Side I L2 AI 05 9 -10 Current Phase L2
HV 132kV Side I L3 AI 06 11 -12 Current Phase L3
I L1 AI 07 13- 14 .-
I L2 AI 08 15- 16 -
I L3 AI 09 17- 18 -
U L1 AI 10 19- 20 -
U L2 AI 11 21- 22 -
U L3 AI 12 23 -24 -

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The related setting of the basic general settings for the ANALOGIN9I3U (TC40-) function of TRM1 is:
Parameter Range Setting Unit Description Remarks
FromObject To be set ToObject= towards protected ob-
CTStarPoint1 -
ToObject at site ject, FromOb-ject= the opposite
CTsec1 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
Phase L1
CTprim1 1 - 99999 2500 A Rated CT primary current
LV
FromObject To be set ToObject= towards protected ob-
CTStarPoint2 -
ToObject at site ject, FromOb-ject= the opposite
CTsec2 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
Phase L2
CTprim2 1 - 99999 2500 A Rated CT primary current
LV
FromObject To be set ToObject= towards protected ob-
CTStarPoint3 -
ToObject at site ject, FromOb-ject= the opposite
CTsec3 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
Phase L3
CTprim3 1 - 99999 2500 A Rated CT primary current
LV
FromObject To be set ToObject= towards protected ob-
CTStarPoint4 -
ToObject at site ject, FromOb-ject= the opposite
CTsec4 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
Phase L1
CTprim4 1 - 99999 400 A Rated CT primary current
HV
FromObject To be set ToObject= towards protected ob-
CTStarPoint5 -
ToObject at site ject, FromOb-ject= the opposite
CTsec5 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
Phase L2
CTprim5 1 - 99999 400 A Rated CT primary current
HV
FromObject To be set ToObject= towards protected ob-
CTStarPoint6 -
ToObject at site ject, FromOb-ject= the opposite
CTsec6 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
Phase L3
CTprim6 1 - 99999 400 A Rated CT primary current
HV
The remaining CT and VT inputs are not wired.

• Input Card 2 Settings (TRM 2)


The following table provides the analogue input channel / CT connections of TRM2 in Slot P 41. The TRM
provides 9I+3U inputs nominal current is 5 A (the 1 A inputs are not used), nominal voltage is 110 V.
Hardware Id Signal Description ABB
Object Signal I/O Designation
-X411
HV Tr. Neutral I N (1A) AI 01 1 -2 HV Transformer Neutral Current (REF / EF)
HV Tr. Neutral I N (1A) AI 02 3 -4
AI 03 5 -6
AI 04 7 -8
AI 05 9 -10
AI 06 11 -12
AI 07 13- 14
LV Tr. Neutral I N (5A) AI 08 15- 16 LV Transformer Neutral Current (REF / EF)
LV Tr. Neutral I N (5A) AI 09 17- 18
U L1 AI 10 19- 20
U L2 AI 11 21- 22
U L3 AI 12 23 -24

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The related setting of the basic general settings for the ANALOGIN9I3U (TC40-) function of TRM2 is:
Parameter Range Setting Unit Description Remarks
ToObject= towards protected
FromObject To be set
CTStarPoint1 - object, FromOb-ject= the oppo-
ToObject at site
site
CTsec1 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
HV Trans-
former Neutral
CTprim1 1 - 99999 200 A Rated CT primary current
Current (REF /
EF)
ToObject= towards protected
FromObject To be set
CTStarPoint2 - object, FromOb-ject= the oppo-
ToObject at site
site
CTsec2 1 - 10 1 A Rated CT secondary current
CTprim2 1 - 99999 200 A Rated CT primary current
ToObject= towards protected
FromObject To be set
CTStarPoint8 - object, FromOb-ject= the oppo-
ToObject at site
site
CTsec8 1 - 10 5 A Rated CT secondary current
LV Transformer
CTprim8 1 - 99999 2500 A Rated CT primary current Neutral Current
(REF / EF)
ToObject= towards protected
FromObject To be set
CTStarPoint9 - object, FromOb-ject= the oppo-
ToObject at site
site
CTsec9 1 - 10 5 A Rated CT secondary cur-rent
CTprim9 1 - 99999 2500 A Rated CT primary current
The remaining CT and VT inputs are not wired.

• Setting of CTStarPoint
The direction of a current to the IED is depending on the connection of the CT. Unless indicated other-
wise, the main CTs are supposed to be star connected and can be connected with the star point to the
object or from the object. This information must be set to the IED. The convention of the directionality is
defined as follows: A positive value of current, power etc means that the quantity has the direction into the
object and a negative value means direction out from the object. For directional functions the direction
into the object is defined as Forward and the direction out from the object is defined as Reverse. With
correct setting of the primary CT direction, CTStarPoint set to FromObject or ToObject, a positive quanti-
ties always flowing towards the object and a direction defined as Forward always is looking towards the
object. The following examples illustrate setting of CTStarPoint.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

12.3 RET670 - Signal Matrix for Analogue Inputs (SMAI)

Every SMAI function block can receive four analogue signals (three phases and one neutral value), either
voltage or current. The outputs of the SMAI are giving information about every aspect of the 3ph ana-
logue signals acquired (phase angle, RMS value, frequency and frequency derivates).
Note: Settings DFTRefExtOut and DFTReference shall be set to default value InternalDFTRef if no VT
inputs are available. The parameter settings should be done at site, following parameter require setting:
• DFTRefExtOut: Parameter valid for function block PR01, PR13, PR25 only. Reference DFT block
for external output (SPFCOUT function output).
• DFTReference: Reference DFT block for that specific instance of the SMAI. These DFT reference
block settings decide which DFT block will be used as reference in the calculation of frequency
and other values (Internal DFTRef will use set system frequency. GrpnAdDFTRef will use calcu-
lated frequency from the selected group block, ExternalDFTRef will use input DFTSPFC as fre-
quency reference.)
• ConnectionType: Connection type for that specific instance (n) of the SMAI (if it is Ph-N or Ph-
Ph). Depending on connection type setting the not connected Ph-N or Ph-Ph outputs will be cal-
culated.
• Negation: If the user wants to negate the 3ph signal, it is possible to choose to negate only the
phase signals Negate3Ph, only the neutral signal NegateN or both Negate3Ph+N; negation
means rotation with 180° of the vectors.
• UBase: Base voltage setting (for each instance n)
• MinValFreqMeas: The minimum value of the voltage for which the frequency is calculated, ex-
pressed as percent of UBase (for each instance n).

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

12.4 RET670 – 132 kV-side Transformer Restricted earth fault protection (87N)

Function block name: REF1-


Break-down of the insulation between a phase conductor and earth in an effectively or low impedance
earthed power system results in a large fault current. A breakdown of the insulation between a trans-
former winding and the core or the tank may result in a large fault current which causes severe damage
to the windings and the transformer core. A high gas pressure may develop, damaging the transformer
tank.
The restricted earth fault function is used as a unit protection function. It protects the power transformer
winding against the faults involving earth. However, it should be noted that the earth faults are the most
likely and common type of fault.
The REF protection is a protection of differential type, a unit protection, whose settings are independent
of any other protection. Compared to the transformer differential protection it has some advantages. It is
simpler, as no current phase correction and magnitude correction are needed, not even in the case of an
eventual On-Load-Tap-Changer. REF is not sensitive to inrush and overexcitation currents. The only
danger left is eventual current transformer saturation. Because REF is a differential protection where the
line zero sequence (residual) current is constructed from 3 line (terminal) currents, a bias quantity must
give stability against false operations due to high through fault currents.
An operate - bias characteristic (only one) has been devised to the purpose.

The application is:

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

• Recommendation for analogue inputs:


I3P should be the neutral current.
I3PW1CT1: Phase currents for winding 1 first current transformer set.
The other inputs I3PW1CT2, I3PW2CT1, I3PW2CT2 are not used; as not required configure input to
"REAL ZERO".

• CT data and earthing direction


HV 132 kV Transformer Feeder CT 400 A / 800 A / 1 A at TRM1, AI04-06
HV Neutral REF Protection CT 200 A / 1 A at TRM2, AI 01
To make Restricted Earth Fault protection to work, the main CT's are always supposed to be Wye(star)
connected. The main CT's neutral (star) formation can be done in any way (i.e. either "ToObject" or "Fro-
mObject"). However, internally the restricted earth fault function will always use reference directions to-
wards the protected transformer. Thus the IED will always measure the primary currents on all sides and
in the neutral of the power transformer with the same reference direction towards the power transformer
windings. The earthing can therefore be freely selected for each of the involved current transformers.

• Setting parameters
Operation: The operation of the restricted earth fault function can be switched On-Off.
Set Operation = On

IBase: The Ibase setting is the setting of the base (per unit) current on which all percentage settings are
based. Normally the protected power transformer winding rated current is used (IrT, HV = 175 A).
Set Ibase = 175 A

IdMin: The setting gives the minimum operation value. The setting is in percent of the Ibase value. The
neutral current must always be bigger than or equal to half of this value. Only If current in the Ineutral (IN)
is more than 50% of Idmin, then REF function starts operation procedure analysing fault situation. A nor-
mal setting is 10% of power transformer rated current for the winding it has been connected to.
Set Idmin = 10%

CTFactorPri1, CTFactorPri2, CTFactorPri3, CTFactorPri4: A factor to allow a sensitive function also at


multi-breaker arrangement where the rating in the bay is much higher than the rated current of the trans-
former winding. The stabilizing can then be high so an unnecessary high fault level can be required. The
setting is normally 1.0 and but in multi-breaker arrangement the setting shall be ICRated/Ibase (Ibase is
normally transformer rated current).
Set CTFactorPri1, CTFactorPri2, CTFactorPri3, CTFactorPri4 = 1.0

Relay operate angle for zero sequence directional feature. Typical value in solidly grounded systems is
60°.
Set ROA = 60°

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

12.5 RET670 – 11 kV-side Transformer Restricted earth fault protection (87N)

Function block name: REF2-


Break-down of the insulation between a phase conductor and earth in an effectively or low impedance
earthed power system results in a large fault current. A breakdown of the insulation between a trans-
former winding and the core or the tank may result in a large fault current which causes severe damage
to the windings and the transformer core. A high gas pressure may develop, damaging the transformer
tank.
The restricted earth fault function is used as a unit protection function. It protects the power transformer
winding against the faults involving earth. However, it should be noted that the earth faults are the most
likely and common type of fault.
The REF protection is a protection of differential type, a unit protection, whose settings are independent
of any other protection. Compared to the transformer differential protection it has some advantages. It is
simpler, as no current phase correction and magnitude correction are needed, not even in the case of an
eventual On-Load-Tap-Changer. REF is not sensitive to inrush and overexcitation currents. The only
danger left is eventual current transformer saturation. Because REF is a differential protection where the
line zero sequence (residual) current is constructed from 3 line (terminal) currents, a bias quantity must
give stability against false operations due to high through fault currents.
An operate - bias characteristic (only one) has been devised to the purpose.

The application is:

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

• Recommendation for analogue inputs:


I3P should be the neutral current.
I3PW1CT1: Phase currents for winding 1 first current transformer set.
The other inputs I3PW1CT2, I3PW2CT1, I3PW2CT2 are not used; as not required configure input to
"REAL ZERO".

• CT data and earthing direction


LV 11 kV Transformer Feeder CT 2500 A / 1 A at TRM1, AI01-03
LV Neutral REF Protection CT 2500 A / 5 A at TRM2, AI 08
To make Restricted Earth Fault protection to work, the main CT's are always supposed to be Wye(star)
connected. The main CT's neutral (star) formation can be done in any way (i.e. either "ToObject" or "Fro-
mObject"). However, internally the restricted earth fault function will always use reference directions to-
wards the protected transformer. Thus the IED will always measure the primary currents on all sides and
in the neutral of the power transformer with the same reference direction towards the power transformer
windings. The earthing can therefore be freely selected for each of the involved current transformers.

• Setting parameters
Operation: The operation of the restricted earth fault function can be switched On-Off.
Set Operation = On

IBase: The Ibase setting is the setting of the base (per unit) current on which all percentage settings are
based. Normally the protected power transformer winding rated current is used (IrT, LV = 1924.5 A).
Set Ibase = 1924.5 A

IdMin: The setting gives the minimum operation value. The setting is in percent of the Ibase value. The
neutral current must always be bigger than or equal to half of this value. Only If current in the Ineutral (IN)
is more than 50% of Idmin, then REF function starts operation procedure analysing fault situation. A nor-
mal setting is 10% of power transformer rated current for the winding it has been connected to.
Set Idmin = 10%

CTFactorPri1, CTFactorPri2, CTFactorPri3, CTFactorPri4: A factor to allow a sensitive function also at


multi-breaker arrangement where the rating in the bay is much higher than the rated current of the trans-
former winding. The stabilizing can then be high so an unnecessary high fault level can be required. The
setting is normally 1.0 and but in multi-breaker arrangement the setting shall be ICRated/Ibase (Ibase is
normally transformer rated current).
Set CTFactorPri1, CTFactorPri2, CTFactorPri3, CTFactorPri4 = 1.0

Relay operate angle for zero sequence directional feature. Typical value in solidly grounded systems is
60°.
Set ROA = 60°

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

12.6 RET670 – 132 kV-side Transformer Phase Overcurrent Protection

The following settings were provided in the reference “Minutes of Meetings Held at KESC Office on
28/01/2009, Contract KESC-2480-04” and are applicable for all nine substations.

For backup overcurrent protection of the 132 kV-side transformer winding, the RET670 four stage phase
overcurrent protection is foreseen.
• CT Data
HV 132 kV Transformer Feeder CT 400 A / 800 A / 1 A at TRM1, AI04-06
• Transformer Data
Rated transformer current tap mid HV: 175 A (40 MVA @ 132 kV)
Transformer current tap 1 (+12x1.25%): 152 A (40 MVA @ 151.8 kV)
Transformer current tap 17 (-8x1.25%): 206 A (40 MVA @ 112.2 kV)
The transformer maximum through-fault current at 11 kV-faults is 10.8 kA at 11 kV-level and 1.0 KA at
132 kV-level.

• I>-stage
The start current I> is set to 130% of the rated current of the primary winding of IrT = 175 A , the primary
current setting of I> is 227.5 A. This is above the max. current at end tap position of 206 A.
The 132 kV-OC protection at the transformer is set to operate with a delay of about 1.2 s on the maximum
through-fault current of 1 kA at the 132 kV-feeder on 11 kV-faults. The short-time short-circuit strength of
the transformer as assumed with 2 s is herewith protected.
The time multiplier setting is k = 0.26, normal inverse curve is selected. The relay operating time at max.
through-fault current is:
0.02
tRelay(1 kA) = 0.26 x 0.14 / ((1 kA/ 227.5 A) - 1) = 1.2 s

• I>>-stage
Start current of the I>> is set to 120% of the max. 132 kV-through fault current at 11 kV-faults: I>> = 1.2 x
Isc(11 kV) = 1.2 x 1 kA = 1.2 kA. The set relay time tHigh is 0.05 s. Definite time curve is selected.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The proposed settings are.


132 kV-side Transformer Phase Overcurrent Protection (TOC)
Function block name: TOCx-
General Settings
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based:
Ibase = 175 A
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the directional polarizing voltage is based:
UBase= = 132 kV
Set the Directional angle Directional overcurrent protection:
AngleRCA = -65 deg
Set the angles from the RCA angle Max and Min limiting the operating area:
MaxFwdAng = 50 deg
MinFwdAng = 80 deg
Setting of the operating current level for phase selection in primary values
IMinOpPhSel =175 A (gives IMinOpPhSel = 100% *Ibase)
Set the number of phases required to get the Phase selection (phase start) outputs:
StartPhSel = 1 out of 3
FIRST STAGE 1 (I>)
Setting of the operating direction for the stage:
DirMode1 = NonDir
Setting of the operating characteristic:
Characteristic1 = IEC Norm. inv.
Setting of the operating current level in primary values:
I1> = 227,5 A (gives I1> = 130% *Ibase)
Set the multiplier for start value which is activated when the multiplier input is activated, normally at CB
closing:
I1Mult = 1.00
Set the definite time delay, when definite time characteristic has been selected:
t1 = 0.1 s
Set the back-up trip time delay multiplier for inverse characteristic:
k1 = 0.26
Set the Minimum operating time for inverse characteristic:
t1Min = 0.10 s
Select the reset curve type for the inverse delay:
ResetTypeCrv = IEC Reset
Set the Reset time delay for definite time delayed function:
tReset1 = 0.02 s
Set the release of Harmonic restraint blocking for the stage:
HarmRestraint1 = Disabled

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

SECOND STAGE 2 (I>> )


Setting of the operating direction for the stage:
DirMode2 = NonDir
Setting of the operating characteristic:
Characteristic2 = IEC Def. Time
Setting of the operating current level in primary values:
I1> = 1200 A (gives I1> = 686% *Ibase)
Set the multiplier for start value which is activated when the multiplier input is activated, normally at CB
closing:
I1Mult = 1.00
Set the definite time delay, when definite time characteristic has been selected:
t1 = 0.05 s
Set the back-up trip time delay multiplier for inverse characteristic:
k1 = 0.1
Set the Minimum operating time for inverse characteristic:
t1Min = 0.10 s
Select the reset curve type for the inverse delay:
ResetTypeCrv = IEC Reset
Set the Reset time delay for definite time delayed function:
tReset1 = 0.02 s
Set the release of Harmonic restraint blocking for the stage:
HarmRestraint1 = Disabled
STAGE 3 AND 4 BLOCKED (binary input BLOCK)
(If VT inputs are not available or not connected, function parameter DirModex shall be left to default
value, Non-directional).

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The relay coordination is shown in following diagram.

Overcurrent Protection Characteristic Curve

Transf. rated curr. Max. through-fault curr.


1000

100

10
Time (Seconds)

0,1

Transf. rated curr. Max. through-fault curr.

0,01
100 1000 10000
Current (Amps)

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

12.7 RET670 – 132 kV-side Transformer Neutral Protection

The following settings were provided in the reference “Minutes of Meetings Held at KESC Office on
28/01/2009, Contract KESC-2480-04” and are applicable for all nine substations.

For backup earthfault protection of the 132 kV-side transformer winding and transformer neutral, the
RET670 four stage residual overcurrent protection is foreseen.
• CT Data
The neutral CT for HV and LV EF-protection (on input card TRM2) data are:
HV Neutral EF Protection CT 200 A / 1 A at TRM2, AI 01
• Transformer Data
Rated transformer current tap mid HV: 175 A (40 MVA @ 132 kV)
Transformer current tap 1 (+12x1.25%): 152 A (40 MVA @ 151.8 kV)
Transformer current tap 17 (-8x1.25%): 206.1 A (40 MVA @ 112.2 kV)
The transformer maximum through-fault current at 11 kV-faults is 10.8 kA at 11 kV-level and 1.0 KA at
132 kV-level.

• Io>-stage
The start current of the 132 kV-earthfault stage is set to 40 % of the rated transformer current of 175 A,
which is 70 A primary. The 132 kV-earthfault protection at the transformer neutral is set to operate with a
delay of about 1.3 s on the maximum through-fault current of 1 kA at the 132 kV-feeder. It is hence as-
sumed that maximum phase-phase fault current and phase-ground fault currents are in the same range,
which is typically the case as ratio pos. – impedance / zero – impedance is 1. At this setting, the short-
time short-circuit strength of the transformer as assumed with 2 s is herewith protected.
The relay operating time at maximum through fault current is:
0.02
tRelay(1 kA) = 0.5 * 0.14 / ((1 kA / 70 A) - 1) = 1.28 s, say 1.3 s
The setting of the time multiplier for inverse time function is k = 0.5. Normal inverse curve is selected, the
minimum relay operation time is not less than 0.1 s (tmin-setting).
• Io>>-stage
Start current of the Io>> is disabled.

The proposed settings are.


132 kV-side Transformer Neutral Protection (TEF)
Function block name: TEF1-
Operation = On
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based:
Ibase = 175 A
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the directional polarizing voltage is based:
UBase= 132 kV
Parameter Range Step Setting Unit Description
Minimum fundamental frequency
IMinOpFund 2 - 100 1 5 %IB
current level in % of IBase
AngleRCA -180 - 180 1 65 Deg Relay characteristic angle (RCA)
3Uo>Dir 1 - 100 1 1 %UB Minimum polarizing quantity in %

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

of UBase
Operate residual current level for
IN>DirCmp 1 - 100 1 5 %IB
DirComp in % of IBase
Time delay for DirComp
Check during commissioning: no
tDirCmp 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 60 s
trip required, trip output to be
blocked
Second harmonic restrain opera-
2ndHarmStab 5 - 100 1 20 %
tion in % of IN amplitude
Enable blocking at parallel trans-
BlkParTransf Off On - Off -
formers
IN1> IN2> IN3> Current level blk at parallel transf
UseStartValue - IN1> -
IN4> (step1, 2, 3 or 4)
Off SOTF Under- SOTF operation mode
SOTF Time - Off - (Off/SOTF/Under-
SOTF+UnderTime time/SOTF+undertime)
Open Closed Select signal that shall activate
ActivationSOTF - Open -
CloseCommand SOTF
Enable harmonic restrain function
HarmResSOTF Disable Enable - Disable -
in SOTF
tSOTF 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 0.200 s Time delay for SOTF
t4U 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 1.000 s Switch-onto-fault active time
STAGE 1 (I>)
Setting of the operating direction for the stage:
DirMode1 = NonDir
Setting of the operating characteristic:
Characteristic1 = IEC Norm. inv.
Setting of the operating current level in primary values:
IN1> = 70 A (IN1> = 40% *Ibase)
Set the current multiplier for IN1 valid at activation of input ENMULT:
IN1Mult = 1.00
Set the definite time delay, when definite time characteristic has been selected:
t1 = 0.10 s
Set the back-up trip time delay multiplier for inverse characteristic:
k1 = 0.5
Set the Minimum operating time for inverse characteristic:
t1Min = 0.05 s
Select the reset curve type for the inverse delay:
ResetTypeCrv = IEC Reset
Set the Reset time delay for definite time delayed function:
tReset1 = 0.02 s
Set the release of Harmonic restraint blocking for the stage:
HarmRestrain1 = Disable
STAGE 2, 3 AND 4 BLOCKED (binary input BLOCK.)
(If VT inputs are not available or not connected, function parameter DirModex shall be left to default
value, Non-directional).

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The relay coordination is shown in following diagram.

Earthfault Protection Characteristic Curve

Transf. rated curr. Max. through-fault curr.


1000

100

10
Time (Seconds)

0,1

Transf. rated curr. Max. through-fault curr.

0,01
10 100 1000 10000
Current (Amps)

Generally in ABB 6-series relays the inverse curve is not cut-off at e.g. 20 times start-current, this can be
done with tmin-setting. Any cut-off is not required in this application, tmin is set to 0.05s, the relay will not
acts with times below this and is herewith stabilized against any transient phenomena.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

12.8 RET670 – 11 kV-side Transformer Neutral Protection

The following settings were provided in the reference “Minutes of Meetings Held at KESC Office on
28/01/2009, Contract KESC-2480-04” and are applicable for all nine substations.
For backup earthfault protection of the 11 kV-side transformer winding and transformer neutral, the
RET670 four stage residual overcurrent protection is foreseen.
• CT Data
The neutral CT for HV and LV EF-protection (on input card TRM2) data are:
LV Neutral EF Protection CT 2500 A / 5 A at TRM2, AI 08
• Transformer Data
Rated transformer current LV: 1924.5 A (40 MVA @ 12 kV)
The transformer maximum earth-fault current at 11 kV-level per transformer is 6.6 kA.

• I>-stage
The start current of the 11 kV-earthfault stage is set to 31% of the rated transformer current of 1924.5 A,
say 1925 A, which is 600 A primary. The 11 kV-earthfault protection at the transformer neutral is set to
operate with a delay of about 1.4 s on the maximum earth-fault current of 6.6 kA. At this setting, the short-
time short-circuit strength of the transformer as assumed with 2 s is herewith protected.
The relay operating time at maximum through fault current is:
0.02
tRelay(6.6 kA) = 0.5 * 0.14 / ((6.6 kA / 600 A) - 1) = 1.4 s
The setting of the time multiplier for inverse time function is k = 0.5. Normal inverse curve is selected, the
minimum relay operation time is not less than 0.1 s (tmin-setting).
I
The proposed settings are.
11 kV-side Transformer Neutral Protection (TEF)
Function block name: TEF2-
Operation = On
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based:
Ibase = 1925 A
Setting of the Base voltage level on which the directional polarizing voltage is based:
UBase= 11 kV
Parameter Range Step Setting Unit Description
Minimum fundamental frequency
IMinOpFund 2 - 100 1 5 %IB
current level in % of IBase
AngleRCA -180 - 180 1 65 Deg Relay characteristic angle (RCA)
Minimum polarizing quantity in %
3Uo>Dir 1 - 100 1 1 %UB
of UBase
Operate residual current level for
IN>DirCmp 1 - 100 1 5 %IB
DirComp in % of IBase
Time delay for DirComp
Check during commissioning:
tDirCmp 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 60 s
no trip required, trip output to
be blocked
Second harmonic restrain opera-
2ndHarmStab 5 - 100 1 20 %
tion in % of IN amplitude

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

Enable blocking at parallel trans-


BlkParTransf Off On - Off -
formers
IN1> IN2> IN3> Current level blk at parallel transf
UseStartValue - IN1> -
IN4> (step1, 2, 3 or 4)
Off SOTF Under- SOTF operation mode
SOTF Time - Off - (Off/SOTF/Under-
SOTF+UnderTime time/SOTF+undertime)
Open Closed Select signal that shall activate
ActivationSOTF - Open -
CloseCommand SOTF
Enable harmonic restrain function
HarmResSOTF Disable Enable - Disable -
in SOTF
tSOTF 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 0.200 s Time delay for SOTF
t4U 0.000 - 60.000 0.001 1.000 s Switch-onto-fault active time
STAGE 1 (I>)
Setting of the operating direction for the stage:
DirMode1 = NonDir
Setting of the operating characteristic:
Characteristic1 = IEC Norm. inv.
Setting of the operating current level in primary values:
IN1> = 600 A (IN1> = 31% *Ibase)
Set the current multiplier for IN1 valid at activation of input ENMULT:
IN1Mult = 1.00
Set the definite time delay, when definite time characteristic has been selected:
t1 = 0.10 s
Set the back-up trip time delay multiplier for inverse characteristic:
k1 = 0.5
Set the Minimum operating time for inverse characteristic:
t1Min = 0.1 s
Select the reset curve type for the inverse delay:
ResetTypeCrv = IEC Reset
Set the Reset time delay for definite time delayed function:
tReset1 = 0.02 s
Set the release of Harmonic restraint blocking for the stage:
HarmRestrain1 = Disable
STAGE 2, 3 AND 4 BLOCKED (binary input BLOCK.)
(If VT inputs are not available or not connected, function parameter DirModex shall be left to default value,
Non-directional).

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The relay coordination is shown in following diagram.

Earthfault Pro te ctio n Characte ristic Curv e

Transf. rated curr. Max. through-fault curr.


1000

100

10

0,1

Transf. rated curr. Max. through-fault curr.

0,01
100 1000 10000 100000
Current (Amps)

Generally in ABB 6-series relays the inverse curve is not cut-off at 20 or 30 times start-current, this can
be done with tmin-setting. Any cut-off is not required in this application, tmin is set to 0.1s, the relay will
not acts with times below this and is herewith stabilized against any transient phenomena.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

12.9 RET670 –Transformer Thermal Overload Protection (11 kV-side)

Transformers in the power system are constructed for a certain maximum load current (power) level. If
the current exceeds this level the losses are higher than expected. As a consequence the temperature of
the transformer will increase. If the temperature of the transformer reaches too high values the equipment
might be damaged: For protection against excessive overload the RET670 provides adequate protection.
The protection works with the measured current from the non-regulated 11 kV-side of the transformer.
• CT Data
LV 11 kV Transformer Feeder CT 2500 A / 1 A at TRM1, AI01-03
• Transformer Data
Rated transformer current LV: 1924.5 A (40 MVA @ 12 kV)
• Thermal time constant
The transformer thermal time constant is not available, a typical value is 90 min.

• Setting principle
From the largest of the three phase currents a relative final temperature (heat content) is calculated ac-
cording to the expression:

If this calculated relative temperature is larger than the relative temperature level corresponding to the set
operate (trip) current (ITrip) a start output signal START is activated. By setting ITrip to 105%, at a tem-
perature rise of (1,05)² = 1,1 = 110% a tripping should take place.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The proposed settings are:


Transformer Thermal Overload Protection (11 kV-side) (TTR1)
Operation = On
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based:
Ibase = 1925 A
Setting of the reference current level above which continuous operation gives trip:
IRef = 100% *Ibase
Set the multiplication factor used when the multiplication input is activated:
IRefMult = 1.00
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based with non forced cool-
ing:
Ibase1 = 100% * Ibase
Set the Base current for the function on which the current levels are based with forced cooling:
Ibase2 = 100% * Ibase
Set the time constant without cooling:
Tau1 = 90 min
Set the time constant with cooling:
Tau2 = 90 min
Current setting for rescaling Tau1 with factor Tau1High:
IHighTau1 = 100.0 %Ibase1
Set multiplier to constant Tau1 when current is higher than IHighTau1:
Tau1High = 100 %Tau1
Current setting for rescaling Tau1 with factor Tau1Low :
ILowTau1 = 100.0 %Ibase1
Set multiplier to constant Tau1 when current is lower than ILowTau1:
Tau1Low = 100 %Tau1
Current setting for rescaling Tau2 with factor Tau2High:
IHighTau2 = 100.0 %Ibase2
Set multiplier to constant Tau2 when current is higher than IHighTau2:
Tau2High = 100 %Tau2
Current setting for rescaling Tau2 with factor Tau2Low:
ILowTau2 = 100.0 %Ibase2
Set multiplier to constant Tau2 when current is lower than ILowTau2:
Tau2Low = 100 %Tau2
Set the steady state (continuous) current level giving trip (times IBase 1 or 2 depending of cool-
ing): ITrip = 105 %Ibasex
Set the alarm level current for alarm 1 as a percentage of the trip level:
Alarm1 = 90.0 %ITrip
Set the alarm level current for alarm 2 as a percentage of the trip level:
Alarm2 = 80.0 %ITrip
Set the level at which the lock-out of closing is reset:
ResLo = 60.0 %ITrip
Set the initial thermal content to be used at closing of the bay:
ThetaInit = 50.0 %
Set the time delay :
Warning = 30 min
Set the tripping pulse length. Note: Trip is pulsed and lock-out of closing separate:
tPulse = 0.100 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

13 REF543 - 11 kV-Power Transformer Feeder Protection Relay

The following settings were provided in the reference “Minutes of Meetings Held at KESC Office on
28/01/2009, Contract KESC-2480-04” and are applicable for all nine substations.
• REF543 CT Data
11 kV Transformer Feeder CT 2500 A / 1 A
• Transformer Data
Rated transformer current LV: 1924.5 A (40 MVA @ 12 kV)
The maximum transformer fault current at the 11 kV-busbar is Ik,TX = 10.8 kA @ 11 kV (3p), the maximum
earthfault current per transformer is Ik,TX = 6.6 kA @ 11 kV (1p).

13.1 REF543 – OC Protection (IDMT Phase, non-dir)


This OC relay provides selective protection at the 11 kV-side of the power transformer against phase-
phase faults in the underlying 11 kV-power system.
• I>-stage
The start current of the I> stage is set to 120% of the 11 kV rated transformer current of IT = 1924.5 A.
The current setting is: I>= 1.2 x 1924.4 A x 1 / 2500 A = 2309.5 A / 2500 A = 0.92 x IN.
The relay operating time at the maximum 3p-through fault current of Isc = 10.8 kA at 11 kV is:
0.02
tRelay(10.8 kA) = 0.2 x 0.14 / ((10.8 kA / 2.3 kA) - 1) = 0.9 s

• I>>-stage
The high-set stage is set to 3.0 times the CT current with a time delay of 0.35 s

• Recommended setting
Relay module = NOC3Low (I>-stage)
Operation Mode = Normal inverse
Start Current I> = 0.92 x IN (0.92 * 2500 A = 2300 A prim.)
Time Multiplier k = 0.20

Relay module = NOC3High (I>>-stage)


Operation Mode = Definite time
Start Current I>> = 3.0 x IN (3.0 * 2500 A = 7500 A prim.)
Operate time = 0.35 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

13.2 REF543 - EF Protection (IDMT Earth)


The start current of the 11 kV-earthfault stage is set to 25 % of the rated transformer current of 1924.5 A,
say 1925 A, which is about 500 A primary ; 0.2 A secondary
• Io>-stage
The 11 kV-earthfault protection at the transformer neutral is set to operate with a delay of about 1.1 s on
the maximum 1p-fault current of 6.6 kA at the 11 kV-feeder. At this setting, the short-time short-circuit
strength of the transformer as assumed with 2 s is herewith protected.
The setting of the time multiplier for inverse time function is k = 0.4. Normal inverse curve is selected.
The relay operating time at maximum earth-fault current at 11 kV is:
0.02
tRelay(6.6 kA) = 0.4 * 0.14 / ((6.6 kA / 500 A) - 1) = 1.1 s

• Io>>-stage
The high-set stage is set to 3 times the CT current with a time delay of 0.35 s

• Recommended setting
Relay module = NEF1Low (Io>-stage)
Operation Mode = Normal inverse
Start Current I> = 0.2 x IN (is 500 A prim.)
Time Multiplier k = 0.4

Relay module = NEF1High (Io>>-stage)


Operation Mode = Definite time
Start Current I>> = 3 x IN (3 * 2500 A = 7500 A prim.)
Operate time = 0.35 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

14 REF543 - 11 kV-Bus Coupler Protection Relay

The following settings were provided in the reference “Minutes of Meetings Held at KESC Office on
28/01/2009, Contract KESC-2480-04” and are applicable for all nine substations.
• REF543 CT Data
11 kV Coupler CT 2500 A / 1 A
• Transformer Data
Rated transformer current LV: 1924.5 A (40 MVA @ 12 kV)
The maximum transformer fault current at the 11 kV-busbar is Ik,TX = 10.8 kA @ 11 kV (3p), the maximum
earthfault current per transformer is Ik,TX = 6.6 kA @ 11 kV (1p).
• Busbar data
Rated current 3000 A, short-circuit rating 25 kA (3 s)

14.1 REF543 – OC Protection (IDMT Phase, non-dir)


The start current of the I> stage is set to 92% of the bus coupler rated, this is 2300 A primary.

• Recommended setting
Relay module = IDMT (three-phase operation)
Relay module = NOC3Low (I>-stage)
Operation Mode = Normal inverse
Start Current I> = 0.92 x IN (0.92 * 2500 A = 2300 A prim.)
Time Multiplier k = 0.15

Relay module = NOC3High (I>>-stage)


Operation Mode = Definite time
Start Current I>> = 3.0 x IN (3.0 * 2500 A = 7500 A prim.)
Operate time = 0.20 s

The relay operating time at the maximum 3p-through fault current of Isc = 10.8 kA at 11 kV is:
0.02
tRelay(10.8 kA) = 0.15 x 0.14 / ((10.8 kA/2.3 kA) - 1) = 0.67 s, say 0.7 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

14.2 REF543 - EF Protection (IDMT Earth)


The start current Io> is set to 20% of the CT nominal current of 2500 A.

• Recommended setting
Relay module = NEF1Low (Io>-stage)
Operation Mode = Normal inverse
Start Current I> = 0.2 x IN (is 500 A prim.)
Time Multiplier k = 0.3

Relay module = NEF1High (Io>>-stage)


Operation Mode = Definite time
Start Current I>> = 3 x IN (3 * 2500 A = 7500 A prim.)
Operate time = 0.20 s

The relay operating time at maximum earth-fault current per transformer at 11 kV is:
0.02
tRelay(6.6 kA) = 0.3 * 0.14 / ((6.6 kA / 500 A) - 1) = 0.8 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

15 REF543 - 11 kV- Outgoing Feeder Protection Relay

The following settings were provided in the reference “Minutes of Meetings Held at KESC Office on
28/01/2009, Contract KESC-2480-04” and are applicable for all nine substations. Further on, the start-
current of the 11 kV-outgoing feeder protection was lower from 20% to 10% as per KESC request vide
th
eMail 6 April 2009.

This relay provides selective protection at the outgoing 11 kV-feeder against phase-phase and earth-
faults.
• REF543 CT Data
11 kV Feeder CT 800 - 400 A / 1 A
• 11 kV-Cable Types
No information on the cable type are available, assumed is a current carrying capacity of at least the CT
nominal current. Start current is set to 80% of CT nominal current.
• Fault currents
The maximum transformer fault current at the 11 kV-busbar is Ik,TX = 10.8 kA (3p), the maximum earthfault
current per transformer is Ik,TX = 6.6 kA (1p).

15.1 REF543 – OC Protection (IDMT Phase)


The start current I> is set to 80% of the CT nominal current of 800 A.

• Recommended setting
Relay module = NOC3Low (I>-stage)
Operation Mode = Normal inverse
Start Current I> = 0.8 x IN (640 A prim.)
Time Multiplier k = 0.15

Relay module = NOC3High (I>>-stage)


Operation Mode = Definite time
Start Current I>> = 3.0 x IN (2400 A prim.)
Operate time = 0.05 s

The relay operating time at the maximum 3p-through fault current of Isc = 10.8 kA at 11 KV is:
0.02
tRelay(10.8 kA) = 0.15 x 0.14 / ((10.8 kA/0.64 kA) - 1) = 0.35 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

15.2 REF543 - EF Protection (IDMT Earth)


The start current Io> is set to 10% of the CT nominal current of 800 A.

• Recommended setting
Relay module = NEF1Low (Io>-stage)
Operation Mode = Normal inverse
Start Current I> = 0.1 x IN (is 80 A prim.)
Time Multiplier k = 0.15

Relay module = NEF1High (Io>>-stage)


Operation Mode = Definite time
Start Current I>> = 3 x IN (is 2400 A prim.)
Operate time = 0.05 s

The relay operating time at 100% short-circuit current of 6.6 kA is:


0.02
tRelay(6.6 kA) = 0.15 x 0.14 / ((6.6 kA / 80 A) - 1) = 0.23, say 0.25 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

16 11 kV- Capacitor Bank Protection

• REF543 CT Data
11 kV Feeder CT 800 - 400 A / 1 A
• ESTA sym MD CT Data
11 kV Feeder CT 800 - 400 A / 1 A
Capacitor wye connection CT 10 A / 1 A for Unbalance Protection
• 33 kV-capacitor bank data
Rated voltage: 11 kV
Rated reactive power: 4 MVar
Rated current: 210 A
Double wye connected bank:

16.1 REF543 - Capacitor Bank Over-Current Protection

• I>-stage
As a general protection rule the protection of the capacitor bank should be chosen such as continuous
current capability is equal to or greater current than 130% of rated capacitor current IrC.

The 130% overrating is due to over-currents due to harmonics, capacitor kVar rating tolerance and ab-
normal frequency conditions.
I> = 1.3 x 210 A = 273 A primary = 273 A / 400 = 0.68 A secondary. The proposed IDMT characteristic is
normal inverse with a time multiplier of 0.07.

• I>>-stage
In order to overreach any peak inrush, a setting of 20 times the rated current (= 20 x 210 A = 4.2 kA pri-
mary = 10.5 A secondary) is proposed. The time delay is set to 0.1 s in order to stabilize the relay.
• Recommended setting
CT = 400 / 1 A
I>/IN = 0.68 (is 272 A primary)
TMS = 0.05 (minimum TMS)
I> curve is normal inverse
I>>/IN = 10.5 (is 4.2 kA primary)
t>> = 0.1 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

16.2 REF543 - Capacitor Bank Earthfault Protection

The earth fault protection is set to the lowest possible relay setting in order to detect weak EF between
capacitor units and ground potential. As the capacitor bank itself is ungrounded it does not contribute to
external EF in the power system, which might activate the E/F unit. The proposed setting is 0.1 x In = 0.1
x 400 A = 40 A primary.
The other parameter of the IDMT characteristic are chosen in accordance with the OC characteristic to
establish same tripping times. The high-set stage is set according to the phase OC high-set stage.
• Recommended setting
CT = 400 / 1 A
I0>/IN = 0.1 (is 40 A primary)
TMS = 0.05 (minimum TMS)
I0> curve is normal inverse
Io>>/IN = 10.5 (is 4.2 kA primary)
to>> = 0.1 s

16.3 ESTA sym MD - Capacitor Bank Protection

The capacitor banks are connected as two three-phase units with the star point connected together. This
connection incorporates a low ratio c.t. 10 A / 1 A used to indicate out of balance current flowing between
the two star points. The star point c.t. is connected to the ESTA sym MD input which provides a protection
against failure of individual capacitor units.

• ESTA sym MD CT (Feeder CT) 400 A / 1 A

• ESTA sym MD CT (Capacitor wye connection CT) 10 A / 1 A

Connection diagram:

For the unbalance protection setting calculation is provided by the manufacturer, the following calculation
is provided.

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

Warning threshold
2 A primary
I1 > Alarm setting for the unbalance protection of rated current of
(is 0.2 A secondary)
the unbalance CT (10 A / 1 A)
Tripping threshold
3.7 A primary
I2 > Trip setting of unbalance protection of rated current of the un-
(is 0.37 A secondary)
balance CT (10 A / 1 A)

t I2> Trip time delay I2> 0.3 sec

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

The protection settings as provided in the ESTA sym MD manual “CAPACITOR PROTECTION RELAY,
TYPE ESTA sym MD, Service instructions” are adopted for the relay:
Capacitor Bank 4 MVAr, double wye
Nominal line to line voltage Un =11 kV
Nominal line current In = 210 A
Phase capacity Cn = 105,3 µF
Unit nominal voltage Un = 6,35 kV, (Line to line voltage 11 kV)
Unit capacity Cn = 26,3 µF
NOTE: At the ESTA sym MD relay primary current values are set via the software.

Setting Paramter via Software (CT Primary values or %-values are set):
Type: Double wye
Alarm acknowledgment: Acknowledgment
Nominal current 210 A
Network frequency: 50 Hz
Current transformer ratio: IL1 400/1; Iu 10/1
Setting output relays: Setting the output relays, normally energized or de-energized during the power-up
healthy condition. Relays 1 to 4 = OFF

Unbalance protection:
Warning threshold 2 A, Delay 5s
Tripping threshold 3.7 A, Delay 0.3s
Lower threshold IL1 21 A (10% Irated)
Lower threshold Iu 0.05 A (5mA x 10 A / 1 A ) = 0,05 A

Overvoltage protection:
ANSI
Do not activate box: “Set time” and leave delay input empty.
Overvoltage factor: 1.25
Phase capacitance: 105.3 µF
Line to line Voltage: 11 kV

Line current unbalance protection:


Warning threshold 10 %, Delay 1s
Tripping threshold 30 %, Delay 1s

Ground current:
Warning threshold 10 %, Delay 1s
Tripping threshold 20 %, Delay 1s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

Overcurrent protection:
Tripping threshold 399 A, Delay 1.5 s (only back-up setting, the main overcurrent function is in
REF543 control and protection relay)

Undercurrent protection:
Tripping threshold 105 A, Delay 5s (50% rated current)

Capacitor bank discharge timer:


10 min

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

17 REF543 - 11 kV-Auxiliary Transformer Feeder Protection Relay

This relay provides selective protection at the 11 kV-side of the auxiliary transformer against phase-phase
and phase-ground faults.
• REF543 CT Data
11 kV Transformer Feeder CT 800 - 400 A / 1 A
• Transformer Data
Rated transformer current primary: 30.3 A (630 kVA @ 12 kV)
Rated transformer current secondary: 840 A (630 kVA @ 0.433 kV)
Vector group: Dyn11
Rated short-circuitmpedance 4.6 %
The maximum transformer through fault current at 433 V fault is Ik = 0.659 kA at 11 kV

17.1 REF543 – Overcurrent Protection

• I>-stage
This OC relay provides selective protection at the 11 kV-side of the auxiliary transformer against phase-
phase faults in the auxiliary transformer and in the 0.433 kV auxiliary AC system.
The start current of the I> stage is set to 150% of the 11 kV rated transformer current of IT = 30.3 A. The
current setting is: I>= 1.5 x 30.3 A x 1 / 400 A = 45.5 A / 400 A = 0.11 x IN.
The 11 kV-protection at the transformer is set to operate with a delay of 0,9 s on the maximum through-
fault current.
The setting of the time multiplier for inverse time function is k = 0.9. Very inverse curve is selected.
The relay operating time at the maximum 3p-through fault current of IK = 659 A at 11 kV is:
tRelay(0.659 kA) = 0.9 x 13,5 / ((659 A / 44 A) - 1) = 0.87 s

• I>>-stage
Start current of the I>> is set to about 130% of the max. 11 kV-feeder through fault current at 433 V-
faults: I>> = 1.3 x Isc(11 kV) = 1.3 x 659 kA = 856.7 A.
The current setting is: I>= 1.3 x 659 A x 1 / 400 A = 856.7 A / 400 A = 2.14 x IN. The set relay time t>> is
0.1 s. The time delay of 0.1 s stabilizes the I>>-stage against any kind of transient phenomena. Definite
time curve is selected.

• Recommended setting
Relay module = IDMT (three-phase operation)
IDMT type = Very inverse
Base Current I> = 0.11 x IN (0.11 * 400 A = 44 A prim.)
Time Multiplier k = 0.9

Base Current I>> = 2.2 x IN (2.2 * 400 A = 880 A prim.)


Time t>> = 0.1 s

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

17.2 REF543 - EF Protection (IDMT Earth)


The start current of the I> stage is set to 50% of the 11 kV rated transformer current of IT = 30.3 A. The
current setting is: I>= 0.5 x 30.3 A x 1 / 400 A = 15.15 A / 400 A = 0.039 x IN.
The 11 kV-earthfault protection at the transformer neutral is set to operate with a delay of about 0.9 s on
the 1p-fault current of 20 x start current.
The setting of the time multiplier for inverse time function is k = 0.4. Normal inverse curve is selected.
The relay operating time at maximum earth-fault current at 11 kV is:
0.02
tRelay(320 A) = 0.4 * 0.14 / ((320 A / 16 A) - 1) = 0.9 s

• Recommended setting
Relay module = EF-IDMT
IDMT type = Normal inverse
Base Current I> = 0.04 x IN (is 16 A prim.)
Time Multiplier k = 0.4

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

18 REF543 - 11kV Incomer and Bus Coupler Feeder Synmchronizing

• VT Data
VT-Ratio: (11 kV /√3) / (100 V / √3) (lncomer side and busbar)
Umax
The voltage level settings shall be chosen in relation to the bus/line network voltage. The threshold volt-
age Umax has to be set smaller than the value where the network is expected to be synchronized. A typi-
cal value is 80 % of the rated voltage.
Setting of 80% is proposed.
Umin
In the same way, the threshold voltage Umin, has to be set greater than the value of the network which is
considered not to be energized. A typical value may be 30% of the base voltage. Note that a discon-
nected line can have a considerable potential due to, for instance, induction from a line running in parallel,
or by being fed via the extinguishing capacitors in the circuit breakers. This voltage can be as high as
30% or more of the base line voltage.
Setting of 20% is proposed.
dU
Setting of the voltage difference between the line voltage and the bus voltage. The difference is set de-
pending on the network configuration and expected voltages in the two networks running asynchronous.
A normal setting is 10-15% of the rated voltage..
Setting of 15% is proposed
df
The frequency difference level setting, shall be chosen depending on the condition in the network. At
steady conditions a low frequency difference setting is needed.
Proposed is 20 mHz for manual closing.
dphase
The phase angle difference level setting, shall also be chosen depending on conditions in the network.
The phase angle setting must be chosen to allow closing under maximum load condition. A typical maxi-
mum value in heavy loaded networks can be 45 degrees whereas in most networks the maximum occur-
ring angle is below 25 degrees.
Setting of 20° is proposed.
The settings are summarized in following table.
Control Setting (SCVCSt)
Setting of energizing mode:
1 = U1 U2 or U1 U2 (Live line – dead bus or dead line – live bus)
Setting of operation mode:
0 = Command mode
Setting of synchro mode:
1 = Asynchronous mode
Operate time:
0.1 s = Operate time (dead time)
Setting of check time:
0.05 s = Check time (in command mode operation)
Setting of close pluse:
0.2 s = Closing signal length

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

Setting values
Setting of upper threshold voltage:
Umax = 80 % * Un
Setting of lower threshold voltasge:
Umin = 20% * Un
Setting of voltage difference:
dU = 15% * Un
Setting of phase angle difference:
dphaase = 20 °
Setting of frequency difference:
df = 0.2 Hz

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

19 REB670 – 132 kV Bus Bar and Breaker Failure Protection

The busbar and breaker failure protection terminals are of the ABB type REB670. In this protection device
the following protection functions are implemented:
50BF Breaker Failure Protection,
87B Busbar Differential Protection and Endfault Protection
• CT data

The following CT ratios are given:

132 kV OHL Feeder CT: 1600 - 800 / 1 A tap 800 A chosen


132 kV Tx Feeder CT: 800 - 400 / 1 A tap 400 A chosen
132 kV Bus Coupler CT: 2500 / 1 A

Busbar rated current is 2500 A. Short-circuit rating of switchgear is 40 kA (3s). Maximum 3-p fault current
is 29 kA, minimum 3p-fault current is 26.4 kA. Maximum 1p-fault current is 22.13 kA and minimum 1p-
fault current is 19.8 kA.

This part of BBP consists of differential protection algorithm, sensitive differential protection algorithm,
check zone algorithm, open CT algorithm and two supervision algorithms. It is presented to the end user
as three function blocks:
1. Zone A
2. Zone B (functionality wise completely identical to the Zone A)
3. Check Zone

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19.1 REB670 – Bay Function Block Settings (BTHn)

The function parameters are:


CTConnection, this setting determines how the hardware CT input is connected to bay function block in
software. One of the following three alternatives shall be selected for every function block:
• NotConnected, when this mode is selected the hardware CT input is disconnected from the bay
function block in software. This setting shall be used for spare CT inputs in REB 670 or for a CT
inputs where only for example BFP protection is required (i.e. for middle breaker in one and half
breaker configuration)
• Connected, when this mode is selected the hardware CT input is connected to the bay function
block in software. This is normal setting for a CT input which is used for BBP
• Conn Inverted, when this mode is selected the hardware CT input is connected to the bay func-
tion block in software, but the CT current is inverted (i.e. multiplied with –1). This is used only in
special applications.
Setting at all feeders CTConnection = Connected

ZoneSwitching, this setting determines how the bay CT shall behave when zone interconnection is active
(i.e. merging between ZA & ZB). One of the following three alternatives shall be selected for every func-
tion block:
• ForceOut, when this mode is selected the bay CT input is unconditionally disconnected from both
differential zones when zone interconnection feature is active. This setting is typically used for
bus-coupler bay in double busbar stations.
• ForceIn, when this mode is selected the bay CT input is unconditionally connected to both differ-
ential zones when zone interconnection feature is active.
• Conditionally, when this mode is selected the bay CT input is connected to both differential zones
when zone interconnection feature is active if it was previously connected to at least one of them.
This setting is typically used for feeder bays in double busbar-single breaker stations, and for all
spare/future bays.
Settings is:
at OHL/cable feeder and transformer feeder: ZoneSwitching = Conditionally
at bus coupler: ZoneSwitching = ForceOut

Zone selection features


The REB 670 IED offers an extremely effective solution for stations where zone selection (i.e. CT switch-
ing) is required. This is possible due to the software facility, which gives full and easy control over all CT
inputs connected to the IED. The philosophy is to allow every CT input to be individually controlled by a
setting parameter. This parameter called ZoneSel can be individually configured for every CT input, which
is available within REB 670 IED. This parameter, for every bay, can be set to only one of the following five
alternatives:
• FIXEDtoZA: If for a particular CT input setting parameter ZoneSel is set to FIXEDtoZA, then this
CT input will be only included to the differential zone A. This setting is typically used for simple
single zone application such as: single busbar stations, one-and-a-half breaker stations or double
breaker stations.
• FIXEDtoZB: If for a particular CT input setting parameter ZoneSel is set to FIXEDtoZB, then this
CT input will be only included to the differential zone B. This setting is typically used for applica-
tions such as: one-and-a-half breaker stations or double breaker stations.

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• FIXEDtoZA&-ZB: If for a particular CT input setting parameter ZoneSel is set to FIXEDtoZA&-ZB,


then this CT input will be included to the differential zone A, but its inverted current value will be
as well included to the differential zone B. This setting is typically used for bus coupler or bus
section bays when only one current transformer is available.
• CtrlIncludes: If for a particular CT input setting parameter ZoneSel is set to Ctrl_Includes, then
this CT input will be:
Included to the differential zone A when input signal CTRLZA on corresponding bay block is
given logical value one and it will be excluded from the differential zone A when input signal
CTRLZA on corresponding bay block is given logical value zero.
Included to the differential zone B when input signal CTRLZB on corresponding bay block is
given logical value one and it will be excluded from the differential zone B when input signal
CTRLZB on corresponding bay block is given logical value zero.
This setting is typically used for feeder bays in double busbar stations in order to form proper
busbar disconnector replica. It is especially suitable when normally open and normally closed (i.e.
a and b) auxiliary contacts from the busbar disconnectors are available to the IED 670
• CtrlExcludes: If for a particular CT input setting parameter ZoneSel is set to Ctrl_Excludes, then
this CT input will be:
Excluded from the differential zone A when input signal CTRLZA on corresponding bay block
is given logical value one and it will be included to the differential zone A when input signal
CTRLZA on corresponding bay block is given logical value zero.
Excluded from the differential zone B when input signal CTRLZB on corresponding bay block
is given logical value one and it will be included to the differential zone B when input signal
CTRLZB on corresponding bay block is given logical value zero.
This setting is typically used for feeder bays in double busbar single breaker stations in order to
form proper busbar disconnector replica. It is especially suitable when only normally closed (i.e.
b) auxiliary contact from the busbar disconnector(s) is available to the REB 670.

Settings is:
at OHL/cable feeder and transformer feeder: ZoneSel = CtrlExcludes
at bus coupler: ZoneSel = FIXEDtoZA&-ZB (It shall be noted that the CT
staring shall be set with respect to zone A)

CheckZoneSel, this setting determines the bay CT input connection towards the check zone. One of the
following two alternatives shall be selected for every function block:
• NotConnected, when this mode is selected the bay CT input is not connected to the overall check
zone. This setting is typically used for bus-coupler bay in double busbar-single breaker stations.
• Connected, when this mode is selected the bay CT input is connected to the overall check zone.
This setting is typically used for feeder bays in double busbar-single breaker stations.
Settings is:
at OHL/cable feeder and transformer feeder: CheckZoneSel = Connected
at bus coupler: CheckZoneSel = NotConnected

tTripPulse, this pulse timer is used in order to guaranty minimum trip pulse duration from the bay function
block. Pulse time can be set from 0.000s to 60.000s in step of 0.001s. Default value is 0.200s, this setting
value is proposed.

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tZeroCurrent, this delay on pickup timer is used in order to unconditionally force bay current to zero when
ZEROCUR input into the function block has logical value one. Time delay can be set from 0.000s to
60.000s in step of 0.001s.
Default value is 0.200s, this setting value is proposed.

tInvertCurrent, this delay on pickup timer is used in order to invert bay current when INVCUR input into
the function block has logical value one. Time delay can be set from 0.000s to 60.000s in step of 0.001s.
Default value is 0.200s, this setting value is proposed.

19.2 REB670 – Zone function block settings (BTZA & BTZB)

The numerical, low-impedance differential protection function is designed for fast and selective protection
for faults within protected zone. All connected CT inputs are provided with a restraint feature. The mini-
mum pick-up value for the differential current is set to give a suitable sensitivity for all internal faults.
For busbar protection applications typical setting value for the minimum differential operating current is
from 50% to 150% of the biggest CT, set is 100% the biggest CT at buscoupler. This setting is made di-
rectly in primary amperes.
The operating slope for the differential operating characteristic is fixed to 53% in the algorithm. The fast
tripping time of the low-impedance differential protection function is especially advantageous for power
system networks with high fault levels or where fast fault clearance is required for power system stability.
The advanced open CT detection algorithm detects instantly the open CT secondary circuits and prevents
differential protection operation without any need for additional check zone.
Differential protection zones in REB 670 include a sensitive operational level. This sensitive operational
level is designed to be able to detect internal busbar earthground faults in low impedance earthed power
systems (i.e. power systems where the earth-fault current is limited to a certain level, typically between
300A and 2000A primary by a neutral point reactor or resistor).
This feature is not required in this application (solidly grounded system).

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Following parameter require setting:


Operation, this setting determines whether the zone is in operation or out of operation. One of the follow-
ing two alternatives shall be selected for every function block:
• On, when this mode is selected the zone is in operation
• Off, when this mode is selected the zone is out of operation
Setting = On

•DiffOperLevel, this setting determines the minimum pickup level for the differential feature. It shall be
entered directly in primary amperes. Default value 1000 A.
Proposed setting = 2500 A (according to busbar rated current and 100% of bus coupler CT rated current)

DiffTripOut, this setting determines how the trip output from the zone shall behave. One of the following
two alternatives shall be selected for every function block:
• SelfReset, when this mode is selected the zone TRIP output will reset to logical value zero after
the pre-set time determined by the setting parameter tTripHold.
• Latched, when this mode is selected the zone TRIP output will latched and it will require manual
re-set command. This reset command can be given from built-in front HMI or via communication
links.
Proposed setting = SelfReset

tTripHold, defines the drop-off time for the TRIP signal in the SelfReset mode of operation. Time delay
can be set from 0.000s to 60.000s in step of 0.001s. Default value is 0.200s.
Proposed setting = 0.2 s

CheckZoneSup, this setting determines whether the BBP zone differential algorithm is supervised by the
operation of the built-in Check Zone or not. One of the following two alternatives shall be selected for
every function block:
• On, when this mode is selected the zone differential trip is supervised by the operation of the
built-in Check Zone
• Off, when this mode is selected the zone differential trip is not supervised by the operation of the
built-in Check Zone
Proposed setting = On

Slow operating logic Open CT


Slow operating open CT detection logic will detect most abnormalities in the CT secondary circuits or in
the Zone Selection logic, but with the time delay determined by setting parameter tSlowOCT. The logic is
based on the perception that the values of Iin and Iout shall be equal during normal through-load situa-
tion. This logic will operate when:
• there was not any big through-load current change during last five seconds
• value of Iin is much bigger than value of Iout (0.9·Iin > Iout)
• Id>OCTOperLevel
When these conditions are fulfilled for longer than time defined by the tSlowOCT parameter, the open CT
condition is declared.

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SlowOCTOper, this setting determines operation of the slow OCT algorithm. One of the following three
alternatives shall be selected for every function block:
• Off, when this mode is selected the slow OCT feature is completely disabled
• Block, when this mode is selected the operation of the slow OCT feature completely blocks the
operation of the differential protection. It shall be noted that this blocking is selective (i.e. zone
and phase wise)
• Supervise, when this mode is selected the operation of the slow OCT feature only supervises the
operation of the differential protection. As soon as differential current is bigger than the pre-set
level determined by the setting parameter OCTReleaseLev the differential function will be again
allowed to operate.
Proposed setting = Supervise

Fast operating logic Open CT


Fast operating open CT detection logic will instantly detect the moment when a healthy CT secondary
circuit carrying the load current is accidentally opened (i.e. current interrupted to the differential relay).
The logic is based on the perception that the total busbar through-load current is the same before and
after that CT is open circuited.
In order to prevent false operation of this logic in case of a fault or disturbance in the power system, the
total through-load current must not have big changes three seconds before the open CT condition is de-
tected. When one CT secondary circuit is open circuited during normal through-load condition one meas-
uring point is lost and therefore the following should hold true:
• values of Iin and Iout were equal one cycle before
• value of Iin remains constant (i.e. unchanged)
• value of Iout drops for more than pre-set value of OCTOperLev
• value of Id rises for more than pre-set value of OCTOperLev
• value of the sum Iout + Id is equal to value of Iin one cycle before
When all above conditions are simultaneously detected open CT condition is declared, the trip output of
the affected phase is blocked and alarm output is set.
It shall be noted that this logic can only detect an instant of time when an already connected CT with the
secondary load current is open circuited. This logic will not detect for example the situation when a new
bay is connected to the differential zone, but its CT secondary circuits are short circuited or open cir-
cuited.

• FastOCTOper, this setting determines operation of the fast OCT algorithm. One of the following three
alternatives shall be selected for every function block:
• Off, when this mode is selected the fast OCT feature is completely disabled
• Block, when this mode is selected the operation of the fast OCT feature completely blocks the
operation of the differential protection. It shall be noted that this blocking is selective (i.e. zone
and phase wise)
• Supervise, when this mode is selected the operation of the fast OCT feature only supervises the
operation of the differential protection. As soon as differential current is bigger than the pre-set
level determined by the setting parameter OCTReleaseLev the differential function will be again
allowed to operate.
Proposed setting = Supervise

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OCTOperLevel, this setting determines the minimum pickup level for the slow and fast OCT feature. It
shall be entered directly in primary amperes. Default value 200A.
Proposed setting = 250 A, is 10% of differential protection sensitivity

tSlowOCT, this delay on pickup timer is used in order to delay the action of the slow OCT algorithm. Time
delay can be set from 0.00s to 6000.00s in step of 0.01s. Default value is 20.00s.
Proposed setting = 5 s

OCTReleaseLev, this setting determines the differential current level above which the OCT feature will
again allow the differential protection operation, when OCT feature is used in the Supervise mode of the
operation. It shall be entered directly in primary amperes. Default value 2500 A.
Proposed setting = 250 A, is 10% of differential protection sensitivity

IdAlarmLev, this setting determines the differential current level above which the alarm is given after the
pre-set time determined by the parameter setting tIdAlarm. It shall be entered directly in primary amperes.
Default value 200 A.
Proposed setting = 250 A, is 10% of differential protection sensitivity/busbar rated current

tIdAlarm, this delay on pickup timer is used in order to delay the action of the differential alarm feature.
Time delay can be set from 0.00s to 6000.00s in step of 0.01s. Default value is 30.00s.
Proposed setting = 5 s

IinAlarmLev, this setting determines the incoming current level (bus through-going current level) above
which the alarm is given instantaneously. It shall be entered directly in primary amperes. Default value
3000 A.
Proposed setting = 2500 A, is 100% of busbar rated current.

SensDiffOper, this setting determines operation of the sensitive differential algorithm. One of the following
two alternatives shall be selected for every function block:
• On, when this mode is selected the sensitive differential algorithm is in operation. Please note
that the input signal ENSENS as well must have logical value one in order to get operation from
the sensitive differential algorithm
• Off, when this mode is selected the sensitive differential algorithm is out of operation
Proposed setting = Off (system is solidly grounded with high earth-fault currents)

SensOperLevel, this setting determines the minimum pickup level for the sensitive differential algorithm. It
shall be entered directly in primary amperes. Default value 200A.
Proposed setting = default value, function is not active.

SensIinBlock, this setting determines the incoming current level (bus through-going current level) above
which the sensitive differential algorithm is automatically blocked. It shall be entered directly in primary
amperes. Default value 1000A.
Proposed setting = default value, function is not active.

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tSensDiff this delay on pickup timer is used in order to delay the action of the sensitive differential algo-
rithm. Time delay can be set from 0.000s to 60.000s in step of 0.001s. Default value is 0.400s.
Proposed setting = default value, function is not active.

19.3 REB670 – Check Zone settings (BTCZ)

It shall be observed that the check zone has slightly different operating characteristic from the usual dis-
criminating zones. For the check zone the resultant outgoing current is used as stabilizing current instead
of total incoming current in order to guarantee the check zone operation for all possible operating condi-
tions in the station. The check zone operating characteristic is shown in following figure.

It shall be noted that the check zone minimum differential operational level OperLevel shall be set equal
to or less than the corresponding operating level of the usual discriminating zones.

The check zone setting parameter are:


Operation, this setting determines whether the check zone is in operation or out
of operation. One of the following two alternatives shall be selected for every function block:
• On, when this mode is selected the check zone is enabled
• Off, when this mode is selected the check zone is out of operation
Proposed setting = On

OperLevel, this setting determines the minimum pickup level for the check zone. It shall be entered di-
rectly in primary amperes. Default value 1000 A.
Proposed setting = 2500 A, is 100% of differential operating level.

Slope, this setting determines the slope of the check zone operating characteristic. It can be set from 0.00
to 0.90 in step of 0.01. Default value 0.15.
Proposed setting = 0.15 as proposed default value.

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19.4 REB670 - Zone interconnection (Load transfer) (BTZI)

When this feature is activated the two integrated differential protection zones are merged into one com-
mon, overall differential zone. This future is required in double busbar stations when in any of the feeder
bays both busbar disconnectors are closed at the same time (i.e. load transfer).
As explained in above section Bay each CT input will then behave in the pre-set way in order to ensure
proper current balancing during this special condition. This feature can be started automatically (when
Zone Selection logic determines that both busbar disconnectors in one feeder bay are closed at the same
time) or externally via dedicated binary signal. If this feature is active for longer time than the pre-set vale
the alarm signal is given.
Proposed settings:
Operation, this setting is used in order to switch On/Off (i.e. enable/disable) zone interconnection feature.
Proposed setting = On
tAlarm, this delay on pickup timer is used in order to give an alarm output when zone interconnection
feature is active for too long time. Timer can be set from 0.00s to 6000.00s in step of 0.01s. Default value
is 300.00s.
Proposed setting = default value = 300 s (5 min)

19.5 REB670 - Switch status monitoring function block settings

For stations with complex primary layout (i.e. double busbar single breaker station with or without transfer
bus) the information about busbar disconnector position in every bay is crucial information for busbar
protection. The positions of these disconnectors then actually determine which CT input (i.e. bay) is con-
nected to which differential protection zone.
For such applications typically two auxiliary contacts (i.e. normally open and normally closed auxiliary
contacts) from each relevant primary switching object shall be connected to the IED. Then the status for
every individual primary switching object will be determined. In REB 670 dedicated function block for each
primary switching object is available in order to determine the status of the object primary contacts. By a
parameter setting one of the following two logical schemes can be selected for each primary object indi-
vidually by the end user:
• If not open then closed (i.e. as in RADSS schemes)
• Open or closed only when clearly indicated by aux contact status (i.e. as in INX schemes)
Following parameter can be set:
OperMode, this setting determines the operating logic used within the function block. One of the following
five alternatives shall be selected for every function block
• Off, when this mode is selected the entire function block is switched off (i.e. de-activated)
• Scheme1_RADSS: It shall be noted that this logical scheme has the minimal requirements re-
garding the auxiliary contacts timing. It is recommended scheme to be used, especially to deter-
mine the circuit breaker status.
• Scheme2_INX: It shall be noted that this logical scheme has increased requirements regarding
the auxiliary contacts timing, especially for normally open (i.e. a contact).
•ForceOpen, when this mode is selected the internal logic consider the primary object as open re-
gardless the status of the auxiliary contacts. However it shall be noted that ALARM output will still
work as usual and that FORCED binary output will be unconditionally set to one
Proposed setting = Scheme1_RADSS (If not open then closed (i.e. as in RADSS schemes))

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19.6 REB670 - End fault protection settings

When GIS are involved, there is a physical separation between the CT and the CB. End Fault Protection
is related to primary faults between main CT and CB in a feeder bay.

In this application, where one CT is available on the line side of the feeder circuit breaker the primary fault
between CT and CB will cause certain problems. Typically such fault will be detected and tripped by bus-
bar protection. However to clear completely such fault the remote feeder end CB must be tripped as well.
It shall be noted that for the feeder protection such fault will be either a reverse fault (i.e. distance protec-
tion used for feeder protection) or external fault (i.e. line/transformer differential protection used for feeder
protection).
However, the overall busbar protection behaviour can be improved for primary faults within end fault re-
gions, when feeder breaker is open. Under such circumstances the following actions can be taken:
• For feeders with CT on the line side of the circuit breaker, the current measurement can be dis-
connected from the busbar protection zone some time after feeder CB opening (e.g. 400 ms for
transformer and cable feeders or longest autoreclosing dead time + 300 ms for overhead line
feeders).
• At the same time, appropriately set and fast (i.e. typically 40 ms time delayed) overcurrent protec-
tion shall be enabled to detect fault within end fault region. Any operation of this overcurrent pro-
tection shall only issue intertrip command to the remote feeder end CB. It shall be noted that at
the same time busbar protection will remain stable (i.e. selective) for such fault.
However, it shall be noted that in order to utilize end fault protection feeder circuit breaker status and its
closing command must be connected to the binary inputs of busbar protection scheme in order to be
available for Zone Selection logic. Please refer to Zone Selection section for more info.
One stage (the 4th stage) from available overcurrent protection TOC is used as dedicated end fault pro-
tection for feeders with CT on the line side of the CB.

Following parameter require settings:


Timer setting to enable end fault protection (disconnect current measurement from busbar differential
protection):
at transformer feeder: t = 400 ms
at cable feeder: t = 400 ms
at OHL feeder: t = 800 ms (dead time 500 ms + 300 ms)

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An overcurrent detection is required, to detect current flow and to issue intertripping signal to opposite
side protection. The activated function is four step single phase overcurrent protection (POCM, 51), step
4 of the logic is used for current detection and intertripping.

The following setting parameter of TOC logic are proposed:

At 132 kV OHL Feeder CT:


General Settings
Ibase = 800 A Base current of logic is 800 A.
UBase= = 132 kV
AngleRCA = -65 deg
MaxFwdAng = 50 deg
MinFwdAng = 80 deg
IPh> =40 A (gives IMinOpPhSel = 5% *Ibase)
StartPhSel = 1 out of 3
STAGE 4 (I>):
DirMode4 = NonDir
Characteristic4 = IEC Def. time
I4> = 80 A (gives I4> = 10% *Ibase) Endfault intertrip when CT current > 80 A (10% of Ibase)
t4 = 0.04 s Time delay 40 ms
t4min = 0 s

At 132 kV Transformer Feeder CT:


General Settings
Ibase = 400 A Base current of logic is 400 A.
UBase= = 132 kV
AngleRCA = -65 deg
MaxFwdAng = 50 deg
MinFwdAng = 80 deg
IPh> =20 A (gives IMinOpPhSel = 5% *Ibase)
StartPhSel = 1 out of 3
STAGE 4 (I>):
DirMode4 = NonDir
Characteristic4 = IEC Def. time
I4> = 40 A (gives I4> = 10% *Ibase) Endfault intertrip when CT current > 40 A (10% Ibase)
t4 = 0.04 s Time delay 40 ms
t4min = 0 s

At 132 kV Bus Coupler CT: No end fault protection is required.

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19.7 REB670 - Breaker failure protection (RBRF, 50BF)

In the design of the fault clearance system the N-1 criterion is often used. This means that a fault shall be
cleared even if any component in the fault clearance system is faulty. One necessary component in the
fault clearance system is the circuit breaker. It is from practical and economical reason not feasible to
duplicate the circuit breaker for the protected component. Instead a breaker failure protection is used.

The following settings are proposed:


Operation = On

IBase: Base current in primary Amp. This current is used as reference for current setting. It can be suit-
able to set this parameter to the rated primary current of the current transformer where the current meas-
urement is made.
Setting:
at transformer feeder Ibase = 400 A
at overhead line feeder Ibase = 800 A
at bus coupler Ibase = 2500 A

FunctionMode: This parameter can be set Current/Contact. This states the way the detection of failure of
the breaker is performed. In the mode current the current measurement is used for the detection. In the
mode Contact the long duration of start signal (trip) is used as indicator of failure of the breaker. The
mode Current and Contact means that both ways of detections are activated.
Contact mode can be usable in applications where the fault current through the circuit breaker is small.
This can be the case for some generator protection application (for example reverse power protection) or
in case of line ends with weak end infeed.
Setting = Current

BuTripMode: Back-up trip mode is given to state sufficient current criteria to detect failure to break. For
Current operation 2 out of 4 means that at least 2 currents, of the three phase currents and the residual
current, shall be high to indicate breaker failure. 1 out of 3 means that at least 1 current of the three
phase currents shall be high to indicate breaker failure. 1 out of 4 means that at least 1 current of the
three phase currents or the residual current shall be high to indicate breaker failure. In most applications
1 out of 3 is sufficient. For Contact operation means back-up trip is done when circuit breaker is closed
(breaker position is used).
Setting = 1 out of 3

RetripMode: This setting states how the re-trip function shall operate. Retrip Off means that the re-trip
function is not activated. CB Pos Check (circuit breaker position check) and Current means that a phase
current must be larger than the operate level to allow re-trip. CB Pos Check (circuit breaker position
check) and Contact means re-trip is done when circuit breaker is closed (breaker position is used). I>
Check means re-trip is done without check of breaker position.
Setting = I> Check

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IP>: Current level for detection of breaker failure, set in % of IBase. This parameter should be set so that
faults with small fault current can be detected. The setting can be chosen in accordance with the most
sensitive protection function to start the breaker failure protection. Typical setting is 10% of Ibase.
Proposed setting = 10% of IBase

I>BlkCont: If any contact based detection of breaker failure is used this function can be blocked if any
phase current is larger than this setting level. If the FunctionMode is set Current and Contact breaker
failure for high current faults are safely detected by the current measurement function. To increase secu-
rity the contact based function should be disabled for high currents. The setting can be given within the
range 5 – 200% of IBase.
Proposed setting: Not required as Current criteria is used.

IN>: Residual current level for detection of breaker failure set in % of IBase. In high impedance earthed
systems the residual current at phase to earth faults are normally much smaller than the short circuit cur-
rents. In order to detect breaker failure at single-phase earth faults in these systems it is necessary to
measure the residual current separately. Also in effectively earthed systems the setting of the earth fault
current protection can be chosen to relatively low current level.
The BuTripMode is set 1 out of 4. The current setting should be chosen in accordance to the setting of
the sensitive earth fault protection. The setting can be given within he range 2 – 200 % of IBase.
Proposed setting: BuTripMode is set to 1 out of 3, no residual current checking. Setting of IN> to 10% of
IBase, function is not uesd.

t1: Time delay of the re-trip. The setting can be given within the range 0 – 60 s in steps of 0.001s. Typical
setting is 0 – 50 ms.
Proposed setting is t1 = 50 ms (re-trip of circuit-breaker)

t2: Time delay of the back-up trip. The choice of this setting is made as short as possible at the same time
as unwanted operation must be avoided. Typical setting is 90 – 150 ms (also dependent of re-trip timer).
Proposed setting is t2 = 200 ms (trip of bus-section, is t1 + 150 ms)

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Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

Note:
It is often required that the total fault clearance time shall be less than a given critical time. This time is
often dependent of the ability to maintain transient stability in case of a fault close to a power plant. If so
required, critical clearing times should be advised. In case of very low critical clearing times, there might
be the need to disable re-trip function in order to set timer t2 to below the critical clearing time. The two
timers t1 and t2 are working parallel not sequnetiell. However, times setting t2 should be (regarded mini-
mum value for security) 100 ms + timer setting t1.

t2MPh: Time delay of the back-up trip at multi-phase start. The critical fault clearance time is often shorter
in case of multi-phase faults, compared to single phase to earth faults. Therefore there is a possibility to
reduce the back-up trip delay for multi-phase faults. Typical setting is 90 – 150 ms.
Proposed setting is t2MPh = 200 ms

t3: Additional time delay to t2 for a second back-up trip TRBU2. In some applications there might be a
requirement to have separated back-up trip functions, tripping different back-up circuit breakers.
Proposed setting t3 = 0 s

tCBAlarm: Time delay for alarm in case of indication of faulty circuit breaker. There is a binary input
CBFLT from the circuit breaker. This signal is activated when internal supervision in the circuit breaker
detect that the circuit breaker is unable to clear fault. This could be the case when gas pressure is low in
a SF6 circuit breaker, of others. After the set time an alarm is given, so that actions can be done to repair
the circuit breaker. The time delay for back-up trip is bypassed when the CBFLT is active. Typical setting
is 2.0 seconds.
Setting = default value = 2 s

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ABB AG

Doc.No.: 1HDC54 1402

tPulse: Trip pulse duration. This setting must be larger than the critical impulse time of circuit breakers to
be tripped from the breaker failure protection. Typical setting is 200 ms.
Setting = default value = 0.2 s

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