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INDEX

1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................. 2
2. DEFINITION .................................................................................................................................... 3
3. CRITERIA TO CONSIDER IN A PROJECT ............................................................................... 3
3.1 geological and geotechnical study:............................................................................................. 3
3.2 Prospecciones field ...................................................................................................................... 4
3.3 Laboratory tests .......................................................................................................................... 4
3.4 geophysicists Trials ..................................................................................................................... 5
4. TESTS BY TYPE OF ACTION ...................................................................................................... 5
4.1 Explanada and firm .................................................................................................................... 5
4.2 Slope stabilization ....................................................................................................................... 6
5. GEOTECNIA IN MINING .............................................................................................................. 6
5.1 Monitoring Geotechnical ............................................................................................................ 7
5.2 Other technologies ...................................................................................................................... 7
6. CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................... 8
7. Bibliography ...................................................................................................................................... 8
GEOTECNIA

1. INTRODUCTION
Geotechnics deals with the study of the interaction of buildings with the ground. It is
therefore not only a discipline of civil engineering, but also from other activities, such
as architecture, mining engineering, geological engineering, among others; which relate
directly to the ground.

The basic geotechnical problems are:

 The land as a foundation.


 Field as a producer of loads.
 The land as its own structure.
 The ground as material.

The land on which the works are constructed are of varied nature, from a healthy granite
massif up mud mudflat where it is not possible to walk. Behavioral differences are due
to several causes:

 Differences in mineralogical nature of the components.


 Differences particle size.
 Differences contact form and bonding between grains.
 Differences deposition process and stresses to which it is subjected.
2. DEFINITION
The term "geotechnics" refers to the set of survey and testing or testing the field and
interpretation of the data obtained therein, which can characterize the various soils
present in the study area and its properties, depending on the objectives and
characteristics of the project.

The geological and geotechnical study must contain all relevant data for the proper
execution of the project and is developed based on field trials and appropriate laboratory
the type of project, including own recommendations depending on the nature of the
proceedings (esplanades, structures, slopes, etc.).

3. CRITERIA TO CONSIDER IN A PROJECT

3.1 geological and geotechnical study: All construction projects must contain a
geological and geotechnical study including the following:

a) Introduction: This section leaves and quadrants of the National Topographic Map in
each case study are indicated as well as the methodology and the author or authors.
b) Main Features: This section contains a number of aspects from which a frame of the
area within the territory in which (weather, topography, geomorphology and overall
stratigraphy, tectonics and seismicity and) is located.
c) Study areas: Based on the geomorphology characterization performed in the
previous point, the work area is divided into relatively homogeneous zones, for
which a detailed study including, inter alia, geological sections, stratigraphic, is
effected and determining lithological groups, for which lithology, structure and
fundamental geotechnical characteristics defined. These aspects should be reflected
in turn in the corresponding mapping to be included in the study.
d) General conclusions: In the conclusions relevant paragraph, highlight the main
aspects and problems relating to topography, hydrology, lithology, geomorphology
and geotechnics.
e) Information on deposits: They give a brief overview of the main quarries, rocky sites
and granular active in the project area, accompanied by a map or outline summary.
f) Drawings: Geological 1 / 200,000, Geomorphology 1 / 200,000, Soils 1 / 200,000,
Geotechnical 1 / 200,000, lithologic-structural 1 / 50,000: planes with the
corresponding minimum scale display is attached.
g) Photo report: The study should include a photo story and the location of the pictures.

3.2 Prospecciones field

the most commonly used in geotechnical characterization analysis, taking into account
its reliability, speed of execution and timely implementation depending on the type of
land are detailed. Each of the tests will receive an identification consisting of a letter,
indicating platform, clearing, embankment or structure, and an order number within
each type.
Calicatas: Una calicata es una excavación del terreno para la observación directa del
mismo. En el momento de la excavación debe estar presente un técnico cualificado, quien
realizará la descripción de los suelos y estimará la consistencia de los materiales cohesivos,
encargándose también de la toma de, al menos, dos muestras para la realización de
ensayos.

Penetraciones dinámicas: Este tipo de ensayos consiste en hincar un utensilio metálico de


dimensiones normalizadas en el suelo por golpeo o empuje. Los terrenos más adecuados
para este tipo de ensayos son arenas y limos arenosos, siendo de ninguna utilidad en
terrenos rocosos, con presencia de bolos y gravas compactas, con niveles cementados o
pre-consolidados y en rellenos antrópicos de bloques y fragmentos gruesos.

Resistencia en terrenos blandos: En terrenos blandos, como arcillas no consolidadas,


puede aplicarse el CPT (Cone Penetration Test) o cono holandés, que analiza la resistencia
en punta y en el fuste del terreno según el avance, o el ensayo del molinete (Vane Test),
utilizado para registrar la resistencia al corte “in situ” del terreno aplicando una torsión en
punta.

Sondeos mecánicos: Estos sondeos son normalmente del tipo de extracción continua de
testigo. Según avanza la perforación, se extraen muestras alteradas o inalteradas. Los
suelos más adecuados para la realización de este tipo de ensayo son los suelos granulares;
en los suelos cohesivos los resultados obtenidos solo se pueden tomar como orientativos,
ya que, en este tipo de suelos, las presiones intersticiales y los rozamientos generados en el
momento del golpeo afectan sustancialmente a los valores obtenidos.

3.3 Laboratory tests

As previously seen, depending on the nature of the terrain, it will be possible to execute
one or the other trials, which seek to determine the following properties:
 natural state and identification: The tests that identify the terrain are related to its
density and natural moisture.
 mechanical tests.
 Deformability tests.
 chemical assays.

3.4 geophysicists Trials

For structures of special importance or significance, such as tunnels or bridges, it may


be necessary or useful to use studies and geophysical tests, nonintrusive, which enable
improved subsurface information for the stability of civil works, solving structural
problems with minimal impact and, on many occasions, at lower cost.

4. TESTS BY TYPE OF ACTION


4.1 Explanada and firm

the geotechnical characteristics of the square face to use as the firm foundation is
determined; for this, will be performed on soil samples taken (by the method determined
by the designer) the following assays:

Análisis
granulométrico

Coeficiente de
Límites de
desgaste de Los
Atterberg
Ángeles

Ensayo de
compactación
Contenido en
estándar (Próctor
materia orgánica
Normal y
Modificado)

Ensayo de
capacidad portante
(Índice C.B.R.)
* The number of tests shall be at least one for every 10 km of road and / or one homogeneous
sections, ie, for each section defined in the geomorphological characterization performed at
the Geological Survey, with a minimum of three tests per project .

4.2 Slope stabilization

a visual check of all the trace will be performed, determining those points which will
be the subject of a special study of slope stability in those sections in which any of the
following circumstances exist:

• Height embankment slope or ≥ 10 m.

• Embankments on unsuitable soils.

• Embankments along the hillside with inclination> 45 °.

• Desmontes on unstable slopes or embankments.

5. GEOTECNIA IN MINING
Geotechnics refers to the application of geological and engineering principles in the
behavior of soil, rock and groundwater, in addition to the study of the mechanical,
hydraulic and engineering of materials from land properties to design foundations for
structures such as buildings, bridges, slope stabilization, among others.

Some stages for these studies include the examination, sample analysis,
characterization, design and project through geotechnical monitoring instruments,
which can be carried out during the stages of construction, operation and closure.

"There is no physical work on the surface of the earth or inside of it in the structures to
be built or equipment installed do not apply any kind of stress or load on the soil or
rock in which support and time not cause any interaction between the components of
the land and they "

In mining, these studies are of vital importance considering not only the construction of
projects, but also by the exploitation of mineral. And the geotecnia takes into account
natural forces and induced as a result of development of underground excavations or
open pit, solving the problem of potential instability in the work."In mining projects
and geotechnical engineering are fundamental to analyze foundations of buildings and
equipment, define excavation methods and media tunnels, caverns, shafts and mining
pits. Also they play an important role in the design of tailings dams and reservoirs
especially dams built with sand tailings " geotechnics lately has come to play an
important role in analyzing and solving environmental problems through the study of
groundwater flow of fluids (water or other).

5.1 Monitoring Geotechnical

After the above steps, you can perform monitoring used to check and control the design
made for the project, deliver alerts for a potential collapse, minimizing damage to
nearby structures, revealing uncertainties and improve the state of engineering, among
others. Ie, track the work and correct elements that may have missed."This step is the
measurement and control of various variables, analyzing their evolution over time. For
example, for a tailings dam, the most important include flows from the drainage system,
deformation of the wall, pore pressure, stress state. In turn, it is especially important
seismic monitoring, in order to know the intensity and structure response to these
phenomena and verify the assumptions made in the design stage are met ". The
monitoring can be done during the stages of construction, operation and closure.

5.2 Other technologies

Some of the technologies related to geotechnical instrumentation in mining, correspond


to the implementation of wireless communication systems for transferring readings
obtained by instrumentation, which allows to avoid and reduce damage to electrical
instruments and wiring. In addition, optical fiber distributed in the structure for
measuring temperature changes and early detection of changes in the water table is used,
record displacement in the body of the dam and its crown and SAA sensors are also
used. Meanwhile, monitoring of surface deformation, can be performed by flights of
drones, Aero photogrammetric surveying, satellite (GPS, radar), among others.
6. CONCLUSIONS

 Geotechnics is basically based on the principles and contents of rock mechanics,


soil mechanics and engineering geology.
 Geotechnics in surface mining is used for slope stability parameters to achieve
an acceptable strength safety factor
 In underground mining it is very important for the stability of the walls, control
the water and suggest excavation methods.

7. Bibliography

 http://caminos.udc.es/info/asignaturas/grado_tecic/211/algloki/pdfs/Resumen%
20Suelos.PDF
 https://www.gob.mx/cms/uploads/attachment/file/157802/Que-es-la-
Geotecnia.pdf
 https://ocw.unican.es/pluginfile.php/1555/course/section/2012/capitulo1.pdf
 http://bdigital.unal.edu.co/53560/7/geotecnia.pdf