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Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Composite Structures
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruct

Efficient strengthening of opened-joint for reinforced concrete broken


slabs
Hamdy M. Afefy ⇑, Nesreen M. Kassem, Mohamed H. Mahmoud, Salah El-Din F. Taher
Structural Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta 31511, Egypt

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Reinforced concrete broken slab presents a crucial element that exists in all multi-story buildings.
Available online 6 November 2015 Normally, it can be used as the flight of the stair. In many cases such element is in urgent need for
strengthening or upgrading due to change of the usage or any construction errors. The current paper
Keywords: presents three different strengthening strategies for opened-joint broken slabs in the aim of doubling
Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) their flexural resistance. The adopted strategies were the application of Externally Bonded Carbon
Ultra High-Performance Strain-Hardening Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-CFRP) sheets, adding thin layer of Ultra High-Performance Strain-
Cementitious material (UHP-SHCC)
Hardening Cementitious Composites (UHP-SHCC), and the application of hybrid system integrated both
Strengthening
Opened-joint
former techniques. The studied parameters were the anchorage system of the CFRP sheets at the opened-
Broken slab joint as well as the connection between the substrate slab and the UHP-SHCC layer. Based on the overall
Precast slab structural performance and exhibited ductility, the application of properly anchored EB-CFRP sheets on a
well-connected UHP-SHCC layer enabled the substrate broken slab to exhibit the most favorable behav-
ior. Finally, a new stitching procedure was proposed in order to construct a precast slab similar to a
monolithic one and then strengthened using the same strengthening strategies. Its performance showed
comparable results against the results of the monolithic broken slab.
Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction using either steel plates or fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) plates/


sheets, and external post-tensioning. External plate bonding incor-
Broken slab is considered as the most important structural ele- porating steel plates can be accomplished using either adhesive
ment that exists in all multistory reinforced concrete structures. bonding or bolting. Unfortunately, a large equipment is required
The obvious example of the broken slab is the stair’s flight. Also, to install the heavy steel plates. As a result, the installation costs
it can be used as a transit between levels inside the structure. are significantly high [1]. In addition, external steel plate bonding
These slabs include two different joints; namely, closed-joint and and external post-tensioning strands are susceptible to corrosion
opened-joint. Incorrect detailing of closed-joint hardly happens, damage that may lead to durability problems and accelerate the
however, incorrect detailing of opened-joint could happen leading failure of the strengthened system. Accordingly, implementation
to falling of the concrete cover associated with the formation of of new non-corrosive material as a substitute to conventional steel
major cracks at the defected joint as depicted in Fig. 1. Thus, cau- reinforcement was presented [2,3]. Strengthening of RC slabs by
tion should be paid to the configuration of the internal reinforce- adding a new layer of concrete is another strengthening technique.
ment detailing. As a consequence, proper strengthening/ However, this layer can result in durability problems due to differ-
retrofitting of the opened-joint for broken slabs could be a chal- ential movements between the substrate slab and the overlay
lenging issue. caused by shrinkage, temperature variations or both and poor
Different strengthening/retrofitting techniques have been workmanship [4,5]. Thus, cracking and de-lamination along the
developed in order to upgrade/restore the strength of an assigned transition zone between the two materials could be experienced.
structure or a part of it so that the serviceability or durability prob- Therefore, good surface preparation and/or using proper connec-
lems could be eliminated. These techniques include traditional tors between the two layers are essential [6,7].
concrete patching, section enlargement, external plate bonding Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) materials have been rapidly
widespread as strengthening/retrofitting material in recent years
⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +20 106 177 3174. due to their favorable characteristics such as high tensile strength,
E-mail address: hamdyafefy@hotmail.com (H.M. Afefy). lightweight, corrosion resistance and ease of application. These

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2015.11.007
0263-8223/Ó 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
H.M. Afefy et al. / Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615 603

M M
M M
Development length

Dev Developed major cracks


elop
men T
t len
gth
Concrete cover falling T
M = bending moment
T = tension force

(a) Correct detailing (b) Wrong detailing


Fig. 1. Detailing of the opened-joint for broken slab.

characteristics are not available in other traditional strengthening un-strengthened group No. 1 and two strengthened groups using
materials. Among different types of the FRP materials, Carbon Fiber either EB-CFRP sheets or thin layer of UHP-SHCC, (groups Nos. 2
Reinforced Polymers (CFRPs) are used frequently in different civil and 3). Besides one additional group (group No. 4) represented a
engineering strengthening applications. The Externally Bonded developed stitching system to construct precast slab similar to
Reinforcement (EBR) technique has been used due to its simple the monolithic one. Group No. 4 consisted of three stitched precast
and fast installation procedure, durable and robust strengthening specimens strengthened using the same techniques applied to the
and significant enhancement in the flexural capacity of reinforced monolithic slabs.
concrete (RC) prismatic and non-prismatic members [6,8–14]. In All slabs had the same concrete dimensions and internal steel
addition, due to the linear stress–strain behavior of the CFRP mate- reinforcement. Each slab had 400 mm width  80 mm thickness
rial up to failure, premature failure of the CFRP sheets along with and a total span of 1800 mm divided into two equal parts; horizon-
end peeling and debonding of their ends are most likely to happen. tal part and inclined one with slope 1 (vertical):2 (horizontal) as
Therefore, several studies were conducted in order to identify the the slope of regular flight of RC stair. The center to center span
appropriate methods of preventing premature failure with the was 1700 mm. The flexural reinforcement of the slabs consisted
aim of improving the load carrying capacity and ductility of RC of six smooth mild steel bars of 8 mm diameter in the main direc-
members [15–19]. tion and nine bars of 6 mm diameter as distributed steel in the
Ultra High-Performance-Strain Hardening Cementitious Com- transverse direction as shown in Fig. 2. The flexural reinforcement
posites (UHP-SHCC) is one form of fiber reinforced composites that ratio was 1.16% and it was below the maximum reinforcement
was developed by Kunieda et al. [20]. It has high strength in both ratio allowed under the current Egyptian Code of practice, ECP
compression and tension as well as high strain capacity in tension 203-2007 [28] and the ACI 318-11 [29] codes, in order to ensure
with strain hardening behavior [20–22]. Previous studies showed tension failure of the slabs. Fig. 2 shows the typical cross-section
the efficiency of the strain hardening cementitious composites in and the reinforcement detailing for typical un-strengthened slabs
restoring and increasing the ultimate capacity of reinforced con- and the substrate slab for the strengthened groups.
crete members [21–26]. In addition, it was found that providing The strengthening technique for the tension side was based on
a small amount of internal reinforcing steel enhanced the crack the application of either Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Rein-
distribution and the strain capacity of the UHP-SHCC repair tension forced Polymer (EB-CFRP) sheets or adding 15 mm thickness layer
layer [7,27]. of Ultra High-Performance Strain-Hardening Cementitious Com-
Each method of strengthening/retrofitting comes with a series of posites (UHP-SHCC). Group No. 2 that was based on the first tech-
benefits and shortcomings. For instance, section enlargement or nique (EB-CFRP) included four specimens. The first two specimens
concrete overlaying or patching add considerable dead load to the (SII-1 and SII-2) were used in order to study the effect of both end
strengthened/retrofitted structure. The EB-CFRP sheets are expen- anchorage and the CFRP transverse anchorage sheets at the broken
sive, need more care to anchor their ends and cannot sustain higher joint. The concrete tension cover of the third specimen (SII-3) was
temperature. Externally bonded steel plate technique and external replaced by UHP-SHCC material before the application of the prop-
post-tensioning steel strands are susceptible to corrosion damage erly anchored EB-CFRP sheets. The fourth specimen (SII-4) was
which may lead to reversal effect on the strengthened system. similar to specimen SII-3 except that the UHP-SHCC layer was
The main target of the current research work is to verify differ- added to the substrate control slab, i.e., the total thicknesses of
ent strengthening techniques for the opened-joint of broken slabs, specimens SII-3 and SII-4 were 80 mm and 95 mm, respectively.
in order to develop the most efficient strengthening system for Fig. 3 shows details of the strengthening schemes for Group No. 2.
doubling their flexural resistance. Strengthening techniques based Group No. 3 included two slabs strengthened in tension side by
on the application of EB-CFRP sheets and adding thin layer of UHP- adding 15 mm thickness UHP-SHCC layer. For both specimens, the
SHCC at tension side are considered individually. In addition, UHP-SHCC layer was reinforced by welded wire mesh of
hybrid system of both techniques is also studied. Finally, the same 100 mm  100 mm with a wire diameter of 4 mm in order to
previous strengthening techniques are implemented on newly reduce the volumetric changes. The first specimen SIII-1 did not
developed stitched precast slab specimens identical to the mono- have shear dowels however, the surface of the RC substrate slab
lithic slabs. was prepared more properly than that of the second specimen
(SIII-2). The second specimen (SIII-2) as well as specimen SII-4
2. Experimental work program had been provided with six shear connectors of 6 mm diameter
at each fold of the slab in the form of shear dowels to hold the
2.1. Test slabs welded wire mesh to the reinforced concrete substrate slab.
Fig. 4 shows details of the strengthening schemes for Group No. 3.
The experimental work program consisted of eight half-scale Group No. 4 represented a developed stitching system in order
monolithic one-way broken slabs divided into three groups: to construct precast slabs similar to the monolithic slabs, and then
604 H.M. Afefy et al. / Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615

80 mm
6 8 6 8
400 mm

Cross-section of the slab

400 mm
6 8

Distributed steel of diameter 6 mm

ST-1 ST-2

400 mm
900 mm 800 mm 100 mm

Plan of steel reinforcement

Fig. 2. Concrete dimensions and reinforcement detailing for typical control un-strengthened and base strengthened specimens.

strengthened them with the same procedure. The precast slab was imen SII-3 and group No. 3 as well as the individual parts of the
cast into two parts then connected through the extended steel specimens of group No. 4 were poured totally with concrete at
dowels with the same number as those of the main internal steel. the same time, while specimen SII-3 was cast partially leaving
Since the developed precast slabs were connected at the maximum the top 15 mm depth without concrete. Two days after casting,
stressed section, i.e., moment-transferred connection, the lengths the standard cubes (150 mm side length), standard cylinders
of the extended steel bars were chosen to follow to the develop- (150 mm diameter by 300 mm height), the concrete prism of
ment length stipulated by the Egyptian Code of practice (ECP 150 mm  150 mm  700 mm and the sides of the specimens were
203-2007) [28] as given by Eq. (1). stripped from the molds and covered by plastic sheets. The upper
  surface of all specimens was cured by water until the tenth day,
abg fy
cs and then allowed air-drying. After about four weeks, the concrete
Ld ¼ / ð1Þ
4f bu surface was prepared for pouring the UHP-SHCC material. The
replaced cover of specimen SII-3, the UHP-SHCC layer of specimen
where Ld = development length (mm); a = correction factor for the SII4, specimens of group No. 3, the shear keys of all specimens of
end bar condition = 0.75 for hooked-ended bar; b = correction factor group No. 4 as well as the UHP-SHCC layers of specimens SIV-2
for the surface condition of the steel bar = 1, for smooth surface; and SIV-3, the standard cubes, cylinders, prisms and tension spec-
g = top bar factor = 1.3 for reinforcement placed so that more than imens for UHP-SHCC were cast at the same day. The upper surface
300 mm of fresh concrete is cast below the considered bar; fy = steel of the UHP-SHCC layers was cured by water for seven days, and
yield strength (MPa); cs = strength reduction factor for steel then allowed air-drying until the testing day.
bar = 1.15; / = bar diameter (mm); and fbu = ultimate bond stress
(MPa) according to Eq. (2).
sffiffiffiffiffiffi 2.2. Strengthening scheme
f cu
f bu ¼ 0:3 ð2Þ
cc The EB-CFRP strengthening sheets consisted of two 100 mm
width by 0.125 mm thickness CFRP sheets extended by 1400 mm
where, fcu = concrete cube strength (MPa); and cc = the strength length in the longitudinal direction in the tension side of the slabs.
reduction factor = 1.5. Based on the material properties of the used These sheets were centered in both horizontal and inclined parts as
materials, the required development length was about 230 mm. shown in Figs. 3 and 6. Since the adopted strengthened technique
Hence, the precast joint was proportioned as illustrated in Fig. 5, is considered as a bond-critical application, surface preparation
where the joint was filled with UHP-SHCC material. The three requirements in accordance with ACI-440 recommendations [30]
specimens of group No. 4 are illustrated in Fig. 6 showing the should be based on the intended application of the CFRP system.
strengthening configuration of the precast slabs. Table 1 shows The substrate slabs were cleaned and prepared by grinding to
nomenclature and characteristics of all slabs. The end conditions remove all contamination such as dust, oil, grease, etc., and provide
of all specimens, except specimen SI-C2, were considered hinged- a mechanical key. The prepared surface was checked for variation
roller supports. The effect of restraining the horizontal movement in levels using a 300 mm straight edge as recommended by the
of both supports was studied by specimen SI-C2 through adopting CFRP supplier [31], where the maximum permissible deviation
hinged-hinged supports. being 1 mm over a distance of 300 mm in any direction.
All test slabs were cast in wooden forms upside down where the The presence of curvature in the soffit of the broken slab may
tension sides were at the top in order to facilitate strengthening lead to the development of tensile stresses normal to the adhesive
procedure. All specimens of groups No. 1, group No. 2 except spec- and surface to which the CFRP sheet is bonded. Such tensile
H.M. Afefy et al. / Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615 605

CFRP anchors

50
80
50
mm

50
700 100
mm mm
EB-CFRP sheet

50 mm

ST-3 ST-4
400 mm

SII-1
ST-5 ST-6

700 mm
850 mm 850 mm

100 100

50
50 mm

ST-3 ST-4

100
400 mm

SII-2

100
ST-5 ST-6

100
700 mm

50
850 mm 850 mm
15 mm thick UHP-SHCC layer 50

ST-3 ST-4
100
400 mm

SII-3
100

ST-5 ST-6 SII-4


100

700 mm
50

850 mm 850 mm

For specimen SII-3, 15 mm thick UHP-SHCC was included into the slab thickness
For specimen SII-4, 15 mm thick UHP-SHCC was added to the slab thickness
Fig. 3. Details of the strengthening schemes for group No. 2.

stresses result when the CFRP sheet tends to straighten under load, the predrilled holes for the anchors were filled with adhesive,
and can promote the initiation of CFRP sheet separation failure that and the longitudinal CFRP sheet was aligned in their positions. Sec-
reduces the effectiveness of the strengthened system [32,33]. Fig. 7 ond, the anchors penetrated the CFRP sheets and were accommo-
(a) shows the developed forces at the broken joint when the CFRP dated in their holes and fanned along either the longitudinal
sheets tend to strengthen as well as the developed tensile forces in sheets at the ends or along both longitudinal and transverse sheets
the proposed CFRP anchors. Hence, it was found that providing two at the joints. Finally, an additional layer of adhesive was applied on
anchors at the broken joint with the same cross-sectional area of both sheets and anchors. This process ensures that the anchors and
the longitudinal CFRP sheet could resist the developed tensile sheet form a continuous composite unit. In addition, for all CFRP-
forces properly. Consequently, the CFRP anchors were propor- strengthened slabs except specimen SII-2, two CFRP end anchors
tioned and detailed as illustrated in Fig. 7(b). The carbon fiber identical to those used at the broken joint were used for each sheet
anchors were made by cutting a strip of the CFRP sheet, inserting and located at 100 mm away from the free edge of the sheets.
it into a predrilled hole of 15 mm diameter and 55 mm depth, Inserting anchors into the core of the concrete slab ensures that
and then fanning the ends of the anchor over the CFRP sheet as stresses are transferred to the concrete, as well as ensuring that
shown in Figs. 3 and 6. All edges of the predrilled concrete holes failure does not occur by separation of the concrete cover or de-
were rounded to limit stress concentrations at the anchor bend. bonding of the CFRP sheets [15–19,34].
The anchors and the CFRP sheets were applied at the same time. For the 15 mm thickness UHP-SHCC layers and the shear keys of
First, an appropriate amount of the adhesive was mixed up, then the precast slabs, the contact surfaces of the RC substrates slabs
606 H.M. Afefy et al. / Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615

80
700 mm

700
mm
15 mm thick UHP-SHCC layer

Steel dowels of 6 mm diameter


100 mm x 100 mm Welded wire fabric 100 mm x 100 mm Welded wire fabric
of 4 mm diameter of 4 mm diameter

850 mm 850 mm 850 mm 850 mm

SIII-1 SIII-2
Fig. 4. Details of the strengthening schemes for group No. 3.

60 mm UHP-SHCC patching ture proportions as reported in Table 2. The actual compressive


300 mm 60
mm strength and tensile strength of the used concrete were deter-
mined at the testing day using the standard cubes, cylinders and
300
mm prisms cast with the concrete slabs. It is worth mentioning that
40 mm
40
mm
the testing of all specimens was done in two consecutive days.
Sec. A - A The average compressive strength was 31.52 MPa, while the ten-
sile strength was obtained from two tests, namely; cylinder split-
8 mm bar diameter (total length = 650 mm) ting test and the modulus of rupture test. The average split
top and bottom cylinder strength and the modulus of rupture strength were 3.44
and 6.68 MPa, respectively.
Ultra High-Performance-Strain Hardening Cementitious Com-
80

posites (UHP-SHCC), was made with ingredients typically found


80

in concrete, silica fume and superplasticizer based on poly-


400 mm

A A carboxylic ether. However, no coarse aggregate was employed.


80

Instead, high performance crack control micro-fibers were added.


The mix proportions of the UHP-SHCC used as a strengthening
80

material are listed in Table 2. 15% of the design cement content


80

80 mm
was replaced by silica fume. High strength polypropylene fiber
(PP) was selectively chosen and its volume in the mix was 1.5%.
300 mm 300 mm
The diameter and length of the PP fibers were 0.01 mm and
UHP-SHCC patching 12 mm, respectively. In addition, expansion agent was added in
Plan of the proposed precast joint order to compensate the plastic shrinkage of the material.
The target compressive strength of the used UHP-SHCC was
Fig. 5. Details of the precast stitched joint. designed to be 60 MPa, while the average actual strength of the
standard cubes of 150 mm side was 53.5 MPa. Since the main prop-
erty of the used UHP-SHCC material was its tensile strength, the
were roughened using chisel to remove slurry cement from exter- tensile strength was measured using three different tests; namely,
nal surfaces of coarse aggregates. The estimated roughness ampli- split cylinder test, modulus of rupture test and direct tension test.
tude was about 8 mm for specimen SII-3, and about 3 mm for other The average split cylinder strength of three cylinders and the mod-
specimens. Before casting the UHP-SHCC layers, the contact sur- ulus of rupture strength based on an average value of three stan-
faces of concrete substrates were re-cleaned with brush and dard prims were 4.76 and 12.87 MPa, respectively. Fig. 8
high-pressure air to ensure a clean bonding surface, and then they (a) and (b) shows the failure shape of the concrete cylinder and
were adequately damped by covering the concrete surface by the prism, respectively. Fig. 8(c) shows the test setup for the direct
water [25]. Just before casting the UHP-SHCC layers, a bonding tension test. The tension specimens were chosen as prisms of
agent (Addibond 65, provided by CMB company – Egypt) was 50 mm width  150 mm length in cross-section and 450 mm
applied to the concrete surfaces in order to enhance the bonding height, while the measuring length was 200 mm. the tension force
between the added UHP-SHCC materials and the substrate con- was applied to the UHP-SHCC specimen through three high tensile
crete slabs. steel bars of 12 mm diameter at each end embedded into the spec-
imen by 100 mm length. The developed longitudinal strain was
2.3. Material properties measured as the average value of four Pi-gauges mounted onto
both sides of the specimen as shown in Fig. 8(c). The typical failure
The used concrete was normal strength concrete with target of the specimen is illustrated in Fig. 8(d), while typical stress–
cube strength of 30 MPa. It was made from ordinary Portland strain curves are shown in Fig. 8(e).
cement (Type I), natural sand, and crushed pink limestone type In order to determine the mechanical properties of the used
1, as the coarse aggregate of maximum size of 10 mm, with mix- 8 mm diameter plain smooth tensile steel bars, tensile tests were
H.M. Afefy et al. / Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615 607

300 mm
UHP-SHCC patching
300 mm UHP-SHCC patching
300 300
mm

55
mm
50
80

50
CFRP anchors

55
7 00 10 0 15 mm thick UHP-SHCC layer 700
mm mm
mm
EB-CFRP sheet

50 mm x 50 mm Welded wire fabric


of 4 mm diameter

50
50 mm

100
400 mm

100
100
50
150 mm 150 mm
700 mm 700 mm
850 mm 850 mm 850 mm 850 mm

SIV-1 SIV-2
300 mm UHP-SHCC patching
300
mm
70
80

70
15 mm thick UHP-SHCC layer 70 0
mm

50 mm x 50 mm Welded wire fabric


of 4 mm diameter

SIV-3
400 mm

Fig. 6. Details of the strengthening schemes for group No. 4.

performed on three specimens. The mean value of tensile yield yield strength and ultimate strength as 274 MPa and 396 MPa,
strength, ultimate strength and Young’s modulus was 285 MPa, respectively.
410 MPa and 202 GPa, respectively. The tensile yield strength Regarding the used CFRP sheets, high strength carbon fiber fab-
and the ultimate strength of the 4 mm bar used for the welded ric X-Wrap C230 along with its compatible X-Wrap lamination
wire mesh were 413 MPa, and 597 MPa, respectively. The welded adhesive was used. Table 3 shows the mechanical properties for
wire mesh was held in position through 12 steel dowels of 6 mm the CFRP fabric sheet along with the adhesive as provided by the
diameter extruded from the base RC slab. These dowels had tensile manufacturer [31].

Table 1
Test matrix.

Group Specimen Characteristics Objectives


No.
1 SI-C1 Hinged-roller supports of slab (control specimen) Un-strengthened group
SI-C2 Hinged-hinged supports of slab
2 SII-1 Application of CFRP sheets with anchorages at ends as well as at the joint Strengthening using EB-CFRP sheets
SII-2 Application of CFRP sheets with anchorages at the joint only along with transversal CFRP sheet
SII-3 Application of 15 mm UHP-SHCC transition layer in the cover zone before bonding the CFRP
sheets as SII-2
SII-4 Adding of 15 mm thick UHP-SHCC layer before bonding the CFRP sheets as SII-2
3 SIII-1 Adding of 15 mm thick UHP-SHCC layer provided by welded wire steel mesh Strengthening using a thin layer of UHP-
SIII-2 Adding of 15 mm thick UHP-SHCC layer provided by anchored welded wire steel mesh SHCC
4 SIV-1 Stitching two precast slab units then strengthening as SII-2 Strengthening using proposed stitching
SIV-2 Stitching two precast slab units then strengthening as SIII-2 technique for precast units
SIV-3 Stitching two precast slab units then added 15 mm thick UHP-SHCC as SIII-2. Finally, application
of CFRP sheet as SII-2
608 H.M. Afefy et al. / Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615

2.4. Test setup and instrumentation width increased and other cracks spread on the tension side till
steel strain exceeded the yield strain and concrete was crushed
One bay of three-dimensional steel frame as presented in Fig. 9 at the compression side. Due to the horizontal movement of the
was equipped and then used in order to carry out the testing. A end support of the inclined part, longitudinal cracks appeared
100 mm LVDT was used in order to measure the vertical deflection due to the developed pullout force at the joint leading to slippage
at mid-span point of the slab at the broken joint while, 6 mm strain of the upper parts of the x-bars reinforcement as shown in Fig. 10
gauges were used in order to measure the developed normal (a). Preventing the horizontal movement of both supports, as for
strains in the internal reinforcement at the tension side (ST-1 slab SI-C2, led to regular flexural failure of the slab at the horizon-
and ST-2, Fig. 2) and the CFRP sheets at positions shown in Fig. 3 tal part as shown in Fig. 10(b). This can be attributed to the devel-
(ST-3, ST-4, ST-5 and ST-6). In addition, a 100 mm gauge length oped membrane action in the inclined part due to the developed
Pi-gauge was used in order to measure the deformation at the bro- normal force that prevented the development of the flexural cracks
ken joint as shown in Fig. 9. The slab was loaded at the joint by line at the inclined part.
load through a loading steel plate of 100 mm side and 30 mm Fig. 11 showed the failure modes of all specimens of group No.
thickness. Therefore, in several steps the slab was loaded up to fail- 2. Failure of slab SII-1 was typical flexural failure till the CFRP sheet
ure. The load on the slab was measured by a load cell of 200 kN began to debond at the broken joint at a vertical load of about
capacity. 34.7 kN. With further loading, major flexural cracks were devel-
After each loading step, the vertical mid-span deflection, the Pi- oped till complete failure was triggered by complete debonding
gauge readings, the developed normal strains in the longitudinal of all longitudinal edges of the CFRP sheets at the broken joint as
steel bars in addition to the developed tensile strain in the CFRP depicted in Fig. 11(a). It is worth mentioning that the properly
sheets were recorded. An automatic data logger unit (TDS-150) designed CFRP anchors did not cut/rupture, while the longitudinal
had been used in order to record and store the readings during CFRP sheets debonded at the longitudinal free edges outside the
the test for the load cell, steel strain gauges, CFRP strain gauges, effective zone of the anchors. The observed mode of failure high-
Pi-gauges, and LVDT. lighted the importance of the transverse CFRP anchorage sheets.
Providing transverse CFRP anchorage sheets as depicted in Fig. 11
3. Results and discussion (b), enabled the slab to sustain higher load compared to the previ-
ous slab (SII-1). In addition, it delayed the debonding of the CFRP
The test results of the un-strengthened and strengthened slabs sheet, however the failure happened due to end debonding of the
with different techniques are presented and analyzed in order to CFRP sheets at the horizontal part due to the absence of the end
verify the efficiency of the adopted strengthening techniques in anchorage. In spite of replacing the concrete cover by UHP-SHCC
upgrading the flexural resistance of the strengthened slabs. In gen- material in order to enhance the cracking behavior of slab SII-3,
eral, all strengthened slabs achieved higher strength and stiffness the manifested behavior was deficient. This happened due to the
than that of the control un-strengthened slab. A summary of the absence of shear dowels between the UHP-SHCC cover and the
test results is presented in Table 4 and further discussions are con- substrate slab, which resulted in premature separation of the
ducted including modes of failures, ultimate capacity, developed UHP-SHCC cover at the broken joint as depicted in Fig. 11(c). It
normal strains on both longitudinal steel bars and the CFRP sheets can be observed that the CFRP sheet ruptured at complete failure
as well as the ductility. and if the UHP-SHCC material was properly anchored to the sub-
strate slab, the specimen could sustain more load. Slab SII-4
3.1. Modes of failure showed the most favorable performance among all specimens of
the group. Adding thin layer of the UHP-SHCC material delayed
Due to the discrepancy of the structural behavior of both CFRP the crack appearance, exhausted the tensile strength of the added
sheet and the UHP-SHCC material, especially at the inelastic region UHP-SHCC material till its failure. In addition, the CFRP sheets did
as well as the variation in the behavior of both strengthening mate- not show any sign of rupture along the sheets or at the anchors as
rials and the substrate reinforced concrete slab, diverse modes of shown in Fig. 11(d).
failures were manifested by each slab. In spite of good surface preparation between the UHP-SHCC
The failure of control slab, SI-C1, was typical flexural failure. layer and the substrate slab of specimen SIII-1, the absence of shear
Cracks began to appear at the tension side of the horizontal part dowels resulted in detachment of the UHP-SHCC layer at the bro-
of slab at a vertical load of about 8.5 kN. With further loading, crack ken joint as depicted in Fig. 12(a). The gap between the substrate

C F R P an ch o rs
TF = R esistin g te n sile fo rce
b y C F R P sh eet
R = R esu ltan t o u tw ard fo rce d ev elo p ed
E B -C F R P sh e et b y C F R P sh eet
TA = T e n sile fo rc e carried b y
C F R P an ch o r
TA D = 15 m m
TA
TF TA
55

55

R
153° TF TA 50 m m
mm

50
mm
80

R = 0 .7 7 T F TA = 0 .4 0 T F
F ree b o d y d iag ram fo r C F R P fo rces E q u ilib riu m trian g le o f fo rces

(a) Developed forces at the broken joint (b) Details of the CFRP anchors at the joint
Fig. 7. Developed forces and details of the CFRP anchors at the broken joint.
H.M. Afefy et al. / Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615 609

Table 2
Mix proportions of RC slabs and UHP-SHCC material for one cubic meter (kg/m3).

Concrete mix W/Ba Cement Sand Crushed pink limestone Water Silica fume Expansion agent Super-plasticizer PP fiber (12 mm)
RC 0.45 400 650 1300 180 – – – –
UHP-SHCC 0.23 1243 149 – 338 223 20 16.2 14.6
a
W/B is the water/binder ratio, B = cement + silica fume.

(a) Split cylinder, UHP-SHCC (left) Normal strength (right)

(b) Bridging effect of the fiber (Modulus of rupture test) (c) Set-up for direct tension test of UHP-SHCC

5
Stress (MPa)

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Strain x10-6

(d) Failure due to direct tension test of UHP-SHCC (e) Typical stress-strain test of the UHP-SHCC

Fig. 8. Tension test results for UHP-SHCC material.

Table 3 better crack distribution. The measured crack width for the major
Mechanical properties of used CFRP sheets along with the adhesive. crack of slab SIII-1 near failure at a vertical load of about 51 kN was
Criteria CFRP sheets Adhesive 0.56 mm, while the major crack width for slab SIII-2 at a vertical
load of about 54 kN was 0.2 mm. The average crack spacing near
Tensile strength (MPa) 4000 45a
Modulus of elasticity (GPa) 240 1.67a failure for slab SIII-1 was about 35 mm, while it was about
Failure strain (%) 2 – 28 mm for slab SIII-2. Furthermore, the UHP-SHCC layer of slab
Thickness (mm) 0.125 – SIII-2 did not show wide separation at the free longitudinal edges
Glass transition temperature – 65 °C as exhibited by slab SIII-1, refer to Fig. 12(b).
a
These values were obtained after 7 d/20 °C. The most obvious observation for all specimens of group No. 4
was that the failure loads of all specimens were higher than those
of the opponent monolithic specimens. Specimen SII-2 failed at a
slab and the UHP-SHCC reached up to 20 mm near failure. On the vertical load of about 49.8 kN, while specimen SIV-1 failed at a ver-
other hand, properly connected UHP-SHCC layer enabled the slab tical load of about 54.5 kN. Specimen SIII-2 failed at a vertical load
to perform better as exhibited by slab SIII-2. It resulted in delayed of about 64.9 kN, while specimen SIV-2 failed at a vertical load of
crack appearance, reduced crack width near failure and showed about 94 kN. The failure loads of specimen SIII-4 and its opponent
610 H.M. Afefy et al. / Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615

Load cell

80 mm
50 m m Pi-gauges

mm
80
LV D T

400 mm

80 mm
100 m m

C onnecting bolts

850 m m 800 m m

Strong girder of the m ain fram e

Fig. 9. Test setup.

Table 4
Experimental results.

Group No. Specimen Loads (kN) Deflection (mm) Maximum measured Dominant mode of failure
normal strain near
failure, micro-strain
Pcr Py Pu Du Steel bars CFRP sheet
1 SI-C1 8.5 10.5 13.3 37.6 5618 – Flexural failure
SI-C2 9.4 12.6 15.3 45.4 3043 — Flexural failure
2 SII-1 20 30.1 40.4 10.3 2770 6593 CFRP debonding at the joint
SII-2 22.5 40.4 49.8 21.2 5219 5334 End debonding of the CFRP sheets at straight part
SII-3 20 33.8 44.2 46.3 1175 2200 Detachment of the UHP-SHCC layer at the central part
SII-4 25 48.9 67.7 33.9 3704 4503 Flexural failure accompanied by separation of the UHP-SHCC layer
3 SIII-1 10.4 36.7 51.7 19.1 1760 – Detachment of the UHP-SHCC layer
SIII-2 13.9 51.7 64.9 35.5 5540 – Flexural failure along with failure of the UHP-SHCC layer
4 SIV-1 32.8 45.3 54.5 43.3 2618 5130 Rupture of CFRP sheet
SIV-2 30 75.3 94.0 33.3 5210 – Flexural failure at the UHP-SHCC joint
SIV-3 27 72.5 89.3 49.8 4130 5129 Rupture of the CFRP sheet at the joint

Pcr = cracking load; Py = yielding load; Pu = ultimate load; Dy = central deflection corresponding to the yielding load; Du = central deflection corresponding to the ultimate load.

(a) Specimen SI-C1 (b) Specimen SI-C2

Fig. 10. Failure modes for all slabs of group No. 1.

specimen, SIV-3, were about 67.7 and 89.3 kN, respectively. In ing load to ultimate load was for control specimen SI-C1. It was
addition, the specimens of group No. 4 began to crack at higher about 0.64, which can be attributed to the accelerated failure due
loads. That can be attributed to the higher concrete strength at to the moved end on the broken part. On the other hand, when
the shear key joint owing to the UHP-SHCC material where the the horizontal movement was prevented as for specimen SI-C2,
maximum moment occurred. Failure of all specimens of group this percentage was decreased to about 0.42. For group No. 2, the
No. 4 was flexural failure governed by CFRP rupture for both spec- percentages of cracking loads to the ultimate loads ranged from
imens SIV-1 and SIV-3 as depicted in Fig. 13(a)–(c). 0.37 (specimen SII-4) to 0.49 (SII-1), while specimens SII-2 and
SII-3 showed the same percentage of about 0.45. The relatively
3.2. Cracking and ultimate loads higher percentage could be attributed to the effect of the CFRP
sheets which prevented the appearance of the hair cracks and con-
Table 4 shows the results of the major flexural cracking load for trolled the crack propagation. As for specimens SIII-1 and SIII-2,
all specimens after the tensile resistance of the concrete was hair cracks began to appear on the substrate slabs at lower loads,
exhausted. It can be noted that the highest percentage of the crack- which were about 0.20 of the ultimate load. The specimens of
H.M. Afefy et al. / Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615 611

(a
(a) Sp
Speci
ecimen
en SI
SII-11 (b
(b) Sp
Speci
ecimen
en SI
SII-2

(c
(c) Sp
Speci
ecimen
en SI
SII-33 (d
(d)) S
Spec
ecime
men SI
SII-44
Fig. 11. Failure modes for all slabs of group No. 2.

(a) Specimen SIII-1 (b) Specimen SIII-2

Fig. 12. Failure modes for all slabs of group No. 3.

(a) Specimen SIV-1 (b) Specimen SIV-2 (c) SpecimenSIV-3

Fig. 13. Failure modes for all slabs of group No. 4.

group No. 4 showed higher cracking loads among all specimens specimens have 95 mm in total depth. In addition, the concrete
due to higher sustained load. The percentage of cracking loads to compressive strength of precast specimens for group No. 4 at max-
the ultimate loads was 0.6, 0.32, and 0.3, respectively, for speci- imum stresses section was 53 MPa, while the compressive strength
mens SIV-1, SIV-2 and SIV-3. The highest ratio showed by speci- of the remaining specimens was 32.52 MPa. In order to make the
men SIV-1 was due to the lower ultimate load owing to the comparison more practical, all the ultimate capacities are normal-
rupture failure of the CFRP sheets. ized to the relevant concrete dimensions and strength. The ratio
Table 4 shows the results of the ultimate load carrying capaci- between the corrected normalized ultimate loads to that of the
ties for all specimens. These values cannot be used for rational control specimen SC-1 are 1.15, 3.04, 3.74, 3.32, 4.29, 3.28, 4.1,
comparison due to differences in the total depth and concrete com- 2.48, 3.59, and 3.41, respectively for specimens SI-C2, SII-1, SII-2,
pressive strength, especially between the monolithic specimens SII-3, SII-4, SIII-1, SIII-2, SIV-1, SIV-2 and SIV-3. It can be concluded
and the precast specimens. The total depth of specimens SI-CI, that all strengthening systems enabled the substrate slabs to out-
SI-C2, SII-1, SII-2, SII-3 and SIV-1 was 80 mm, while the remaining perform their ultimate capacities by more than 100% even if the
612 H.M. Afefy et al. / Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615

strengthened system lack proper anchorage. Restraining the hori- 100


zontal movement of the supports resulted in increased capacity 90
by about 15%. The application of EB-CFRP sheets enabled the slabs SI-C1
to increase their ultimate capacities by about 204%, 274%, 232% 80
SII-1
and 329%, respectively, for specimens SII-1, SII-2, SII-3, and SII-4. 70

Vertical load, kN
SII-2
Consequently, specimens SII-4 exhibited the highest capacity 60 SII-3
among all specimens of group No. 2. Providing thin layer of UHP- SII-4
50
SHCC material to the tension side of slabs showed increases in
the ultimate capacities by 228% and 310%, respectively for speci- 40
mens SIII-1 and SIII-2. Properly anchored UHP-SHCC layer exhib- 30
ited a close increase in the ultimate capacity as that provided by 20
the same thin layer in addition to the CFRP sheet. Precast slabs
10
showed comparable increases in the ultimate capacity. These
increases are 148%, 259% and 241%, respectively, for specimens 0
SIV-1, SIV-2, and SIV-3. 0 10 20 30 40 50
From the structural point of view, providing 15 mm thick layer Mid-span deflection, mm
of UHP-SHCC material enabled the slab (SIII-2) to exhibit 310%
increase in the ultimate capacity, while the application of the EB- Fig. 15. Comparison among load–deflection relationships for all slabs of group No.
CFRP sheet on the same layer showed 329% increase in the slab 2.

capacity (SII-4). That means the contribution of the CFRP sheets


over the UHP-SHCC is about 19%, which is very small compared
to their expenses. 100
90
3.3. Load–deflection relationships 80
Vertical load, kN 70
Figs. 14–17 show the load–deflection relationships for all
groups. Each slab exhibited linear behavior up to the cracking load. 60
Beyond that, a fast change in the slope of the load–deflection curve 50
was observed. With further loading, the yielding of the internal SI-C1
40
steel reinforcement occurred in all specimens, while the mani- SIII-1
fested load–deflection plateaus after yielding were varied accord- 30
SIII-2
ing to the relevant strengthening techniques. 20
For un-strengthened specimens, both specimens SI-C1 and SI-
10
C2 showed approximately identical behavior up to cracking load
of the specimen SI-C1, then the behavior showed a different trend 0
up to failure. Near failure, the stiffness of specimen SI-C2 showed 0 10 20 30 40 50
higher value due to restrained movement of both supports. As Mid-span deflection, mm
for group No. 2, all specimens showed higher stiffness compared Fig. 16. Comparison among load–deflection relationships for all slabs of group No.
to that of control specimen SI-C1 as shown in Fig. 15. With further 3.
loading, the instantaneous stiffness of specimen SII-4 showed the
highest value compared to the remaining specimens of this group.
This can be attributed to the higher total depth of specimen SII-4 100
compared to the others. Both specimen SII-1 and SII-2 showed 90
abrupt drop in the resisting load due to the debonding failure of
80
70
Vertical load, kN

20
60
18 50
16 40
14 30
Vertical load, kN

SI-C1
12 20 SIV-1
10 10 SIV-2
SIV-3
8 0
6 0 10 20 30 40 50
Mid-span deflection, mm
4 SI-C1
Fig. 17. Comparison among load–deflection relationships for all slabs of group No.
2 SI-C2 4.

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
the CFRP sheets owing to the improper anchorage system. In spite
Mid-span deflection, mm
of that specimen SII-3 showed premature detachment of the
Fig. 14. Comparison among load–deflection relationships for all slabs of group No. replaced UHP-SHCC cover and exhibited sudden drop in the ulti-
1. mate load, it showed ductile behavior up to failure. This can be
H.M. Afefy et al. / Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615 613

attributed to the provided end anchors of the CFRP sheets that con- efu ¼ C E efu ð4Þ
nected the CFRP sheets and the UHP-SHCC concrete cover to the
where CE = environmental reduction factor (0.95 for interior expo-
substrate slab. On the other hand, specimen SII-4 showed smooth
sure); efu = ultimate rupture strain of CFRP reinforcement.
ductile behavior after reaching the ultimate load due to properly
anchored CFRP sheets on appropriately connected UHP-SHCC layer Based on the mechanical properties of the used CFRP sheets as
to the substrate slab. given in Table 3, efd = 11,887 micro-strain. Table 4 shows the max-
Fig. 16 shows comparison between both specimens of group No. imum recorded tensile strains on the CFRP sheets at the measuring
3. It can be noticed that both specimens showed identical behavior points as shown in Fig. 3. It can be noted that none of specimens
till the commencement of the detachment of the UHP-SHCC layer developed debonding strain and in spite of that all specimens
of specimen SIII-1. With further loading, specimen SIII-1 showed failed by rupture of the CFRP sheet except specimens SII-1 and
decreased stiffness till the ultimate load, and then the load SII-3. Specimen SII-1 failed due to debonding of the ends of the
dropped gradually till complete separation of the UHP-SHCC layer. CFRP sheets due to the absence of the end anchorages, while spec-
On the other hand, specimen SIII-2 showed hardening behavior imen SII-3 failed due to premature detachment of the UHP-SHCC
after yielding up to complete collapse of the specimen. As for group holding the CFRP sheets. The discrepancy of the strain results
No. 4, specimen SIV-1 showed the lowest instantaneous stiffness may be attributed to that failure which occurred in all cases away
from the beginning of loading up to complete failure due to the from the measuring points.
smaller thickness of this specimen compared to the other speci-
mens. Both specimens SIV-2 and SIV-3 showed identical behavior 3.6. Ductility measurement
up to the yielding load, and then specimen SIV-2 developed soften-
ing behavior up to failure. Providing EB-CFRP sheets restrained the A ductile material is the one that can undergo inelastic defor-
inelastic deformation of the UHP-SHCC layer leading to sudden mations beyond the initial yielding while resisting loads. For RC
rupture failure of the CFRP sheets. This resulted in manifested duc- members, ductile failure is more favorable because it displays signs
tile behavior of specimen SIV-3 and despite that it developed lower of impending failure while retaining the capacity to carry loads.
ultimate capacity than that of specimen SIV-2, refer to Fig. 17. Conversely, RC members that fail in a brittle mode of failure will
show few signs of distress prior to failure. Reinforced concrete flex-
ural members strengthened with EB-FRP laminates exhibited
3.4. Steel strain
decreased ductility [35,36]. The main reason for the decrease in
ductility is related to the purely elastic behavior of the FRP until
Table 4 shows the maximum recorded tensile strains on the
complete failure. Besides, the decrease in the ductility of strength-
internal steel bars at the broken joint. Based on the measured
ened RC flexural members may be caused by a non-ductile failure
mechanical properties of the used steel bars, the yield strain equals
mode controlled by debonding of the externally bonded FRP lami-
1410 micro-strain. It can be observed that the developed strain on
nates [37,38]. However, properly anchored CFRP sheets were
the internal steel bars of the control specimen SI-C1 was relatively
shown to be effective in delaying the debonding and also were
higher than that of the other un-strengthened specimen SI-C2. That
effective in enhancing the deformability and ductility of RC slabs
can be attributed to the horizontal movement of the end support of
strengthened in flexure with CFRP sheets [6,39]. Another way for
the inclined part, which developed additional pullout tensile force
enhancing bonding between the CFRP sheets and the substrate
on the internal steel bars. It can be noted that all internal steel bars
strengthening member leading to enhanced ductility is using a thin
for all specimens except specimen SII-3 developed normal strains
transition layer of high performance cementitious composites
greater than the yield strain. This observation was matching the
[27,40].
exhibited mode of failure where all specimens developed tension
For the current study, three indices were selectively chosen for
mode of failure. However, the premature detachment of the
ductility calculations, namely; displacement-based ductility,
UHP-SHCC cover of specimen SII-3 could result in failure of the
energy-based ductility and performance factor. The displacement
mentioned specimen prior to reaching the yield point of the inter-
ductility index, lD, is defined by Eq. (5) [41]:
nal steel. The detachment of the UHP-SHCC layer of specimen SIII-1
resulted in lower developed tensile strain on the internal bars com- Du
lD ¼ ð5Þ
pared to the relevant specimen SIII-2. However, the developed Dy
steel strain was greater than the yield strain due to the relatively
higher sustained load. where (Du) is the mid-span deflection at failure and (Dy) is the mid-
span deflection at yielding point based on load–deflection relation-
ship. The energy ductility index (lE) as presented in Eq. (6) [42] is
3.5. CFRP strain
defined as the ratio between the energy of the slab at failure (Eu)
and the energy of the slab at yielding load (Ey).
Away from the section where externally bonded CFRP sheet ter-
minates, a failure controlled by CFRP debonding may be governed Eu
[30]. In order to prevent the intermediate crack-induced debond-
lE ¼ ð6Þ
Ey
ing failure mode, the effective developed strain in the CFRP sheet
should be limited to the strain level at which debonding may occur, The performance factor (PF) [43] equals the deformability factor
efd as defined in Eq. (3) (DF) multiplied by strength factor (SF). The DF is the ratio between
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi the deflection at ultimate state and the deflection corresponding to
0 serviceability limit state, while SF is the ratio of the ultimate load
fc
efd ¼ 0:41 6 0:9efu ð3Þ to the service load. For the current study, the serviceability limit
nEf t f
state is considered as that corresponds to the last point of the
0 straight portion of the load–deflection relationship. It is important
where efd = debonding strain of externally bonded CFRP; f c = speci-
fied compressive strength of concrete (MPa); n = number of plies to highlight that the deformability, strength, and performance fac-
of CFRP sheet; Ef = tensile modulus of elasticity of CFRP (MPa), tf = - tors are not absolute, but comparative to those of the un-
nominal thickness of one ply of CFRP reinforcement (mm); and strengthened control slab.
efu = design rupture strain of CFRP reinforcement and can be calcu- Table 5 shows the ductility indices for all slabs using the three
lated from Eq. (4) schemes. It can be noted that the three ductility indices showed
614 H.M. Afefy et al. / Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615

Table 5
Ductility indices for test slabs.

Group No. Specimen Displacement-based ductility Energy-based ductility Performance factor


Dy (mm) Du (mm) l Du
D¼ Dy
W.R.T SI-C1 Ey (kN m) Eu (kN m) l Eu
E¼ Ey
W.R.T SI-C1 DF SF PF W.R.T SI-C1

1 SI-C1 7.7 37.6 4.88 1.00 53.96 408.41 7.57 1.00 4.88 1.27 6.18 1.00
SI-C2 14.4 45.4 3.15 0.65 130.15 586.28 4.50 0.60 3.15 1.21 3.83 0.62
2 SII-1 5.3 10.3 1.94 0.40 100.26 282.25 2.82 0.37 1.94 1.34 2.60 0.42
SII-2 7.8 21.2 2.72 0.56 218.15 799.92 3.67 0.48 2.72 1.23 3.35 0.54
SII-3 5.7 46.3 8.12 1.66 124.56 1703.9 13.68 1.81 8.12 1.31 10.62 1.72
SII-4 7.1 33.9 4.77 0.99 238.37 1904.6 7.99 1.06 4.77 1.38 6.60 1.07
3 SIII-1 7.1 19.1 2.69 0.55 162.25 720.1 4.44 0.59 2.69 1.41 3.79 0.61
SIII-2 10.7 35.5 3.32 0.68 357.6 1803.6 5.04 0.67 3.32 1.26 4.14 0.67
4 SIV-1 12.2 43.3 3.55 0.73 358.2 1886.3 5.27 0.70 3.55 1.20 4.27 0.69
SIV-2 11.7 33.3 2.85 0.58 502.3 2422.7 4.82 0.64 2.85 1.25 3.56 0.58
SIV-3 11.4 49.8 4.37 0.90 474.4 3732.8 7.87 1.04 4.37 1.23 5.38 0.87

Dy = central deflection corresponding to the yielding load; Du = central deflection corresponding to the ultimate load; lD = deflection ductility index; Ey = energy of the
system at yielding load, Eu = energy of the system at failure state, lE = energy ductility index; DF = deformability factor, SF = strength factor, PE = performance factor; W.R.
T = with respect to the relevant value of control specimen SI-C1.

approximately the same trend when compared to the relevant duc- Comparing the ductility indices of the stitched slabs against the
tility of the control slab SI-C1. relevant monolithic slabs showed the adequacy of the proposed
In spite of restraining both supports of the slabs from horizontal stitching system. Comparing specimens SIV-1 and SII-2, showed
movement resulted in increased ultimate capacity, it decreased the enhanced ductility of the stitched slab (SIV-1) by an average per-
corresponding ductility by 35%, 40%, and 38%, respectively, consid- centage of about 18%, considering an average value of the three
ering displacement-based ductility index, energy-based index, and ductility indices. Comparing ductility indices for specimens SIV-2
performance factor. and SIII-2, showed an average increase of about 7% for the mono-
As for group No. 2, anchorage system showed its crucial effect lithic specimen (SIII-2). Specimen SIV-3 showed enhanced ductility
on the exhibited ductility. Improper anchorage system as executed compared to that of specimen SIV-2, where its average ductility
in specimens SII-1 and SII-2 showed decreased ductility compared enhancement was about 34%. Comparing the ductility indices of
to that of control specimen SI-C1. Considering the displacement- specimens SIV-3 and SII-4, showed an average increase of about
based ductility, the percentages of decrease in ductility were 60% 10% for the monolithic specimen (SII-4).
and 44%, respectively, for specimens SII-1 and SII-2. This highlights
that using transverse CFRP sheet with the same width of the longi-
tudinal sheet had a dominant effect than that providing end 4. Conclusion
anchorages at the ends of the CFRP sheets. The performance factor
results showed approximately the same ductility decreases Based on the studied strengthening techniques for reinforced
obtained by the displacement-based index. However, the energy- concrete opened-joint broken slabs, loading scheme, and according
based indices showed higher decreases in the ductility. These to the used concrete dimensions and adopted strengthening con-
decreases were 63% and 52%, respectively, for specimens SII-1 figurations, the following conclusions maybe drawn:
and SII-2. On the other hand, providing end anchorage as well as
transverse anchorage sheets at the joint enabled the slab to outper- 1. For strengthened slabs using EB-CFRP sheets, both intermediate
form its ductility as manifested by specimens SII-3 and SII-4 [6,39]. anchors at the broken joint and the end anchors should be pro-
In spite of that specimen SII-3 exhibited the highest ductility vided in order to sidestep premature debonding failure of the
indices among all tested specimens using different strengthening CFRP sheets. In addition, transverse anchorage sheets at the
techniques, this enhancement is false. That can be attributed to broken joint are also essential to eliminate the debonding of
the manifested mode of failure of this specimen where the UHP- the longitudinal edges of the CFRP sheets near failure.
SHCC replacement layer was noticed to be separated from the sub- 2. The application of properly anchored CFRP sheets on the tensile
strate slab near failure due to the absence of shear dowels. This side of the opened-joint broken slabs enabled them to outper-
resulted in increased deflection considerably leading to increased form their ultimate capacities compared to that of control un-
ductility measurements. On contrary, specimen SII-4 showed strengthened slab by more than 200%.
lower ductility indices compared to those of specimen SII-3. How- 3. When the concrete cover of the opened-joint broken slab
ever, from both ultimate strength and ductility viewpoints, speci- replaced by UHP-SHCC material, it has to be connected to the
men SII-4 showed the outstanding performance when compared substrate slab by any mechanical means in order to avoid pre-
to those of the control specimen SI-C1. These results are in com- mature detachment of the UHP-SHCC material. The application
plete agreement with the results obtained by others [27,40]. of CFRP without transverse anchorage sheets at the broken joint
For group No. 3, both specimens, SIII-1 and SIII-2, showed enabled the slab to increase its ultimate capacity by about 274%
decreased ductility indices compared to that of control specimen, compared to that of un-strengthened slab. On the other hand,
SI-C1. The highest ductility decreases were for displacement- the application of properly anchored CFRP sheet after replace-
based index. These decreases were 45% and 32%, respectively, for ment of the concrete cover by UHP-SHCC material showed
specimens SIII-1 and SIII-2, compared to that of specimen SI-C1. 232% increase.
It can be noticed that providing sufficient shear dowels holding 4. Adding thin layer (15 mm thick) of reinforced UHP-SHCC mate-
the internal mesh of the UHP-SHCC layer to the substrate slab rial by internal welded wire mesh showed an increase in the
resulted in enhanced ductility by about 13%, 8%, and 6%, respec- ultimate capacity by about 228%. When the internal welded
tively, for displacement-based index, energy-based index, and the wire mesh was connected to the substrate slab by shear dowels,
performance factor. this increase reached up to 310%.
H.M. Afefy et al. / Composite Structures 136 (2016) 602–615 615

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