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EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Fundamental Parameters I
•Pressure
•Temperature (Dry Bulb Temperature), Tdb
•Humidity Ratio, W
mw
W ( Kg / Kg drryair )
ma

•Relative Humidity RH
pw
RH  100%
ps
pw = partial pressure of the water vapor in the air
ps = partial pressure of the water vapor in a saturated mixture under the same
temperature
EXAMPLE:
Dry air: RH=0% Saturated air: RH=100%
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Difference between W and RH: W : water content RH: saturation degree
Harvard School of Public Health
EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Fundamental Parameters II
•Dewpoint Temperature, Tdp
Temperature that “air saturation” occurs
(Condensation on window and wall
surfaces will occur) cloth wick

•Wet Bulb Temperature, Twb water


The temperature measure of moisture
content in the air
Sling psychrometer
•Enthalpy, h
Enthalpy=enthalpy of the dry air + enthalpy of the water vapor
(Enthalpy is energy per unit mass KJ/Kgda) 2

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EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Moist air properties- Graphical representation

•For a given atmospheric pressure,


two air properties define ALL
“thermodynamic properties” of
moist air.

•Graphical representation:
Psychrometric Chart, Mollier
diagram
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EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Psycrometric Chart
On the P. Chart:
•STATE is a point,
•PROCESS (sequence
of states) is a line on
the Chart.

From: Lechner N. Heating, Cooling, Lighting, 3rd Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
Harvard School of Public Health
EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Psycrometric Chart

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EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Properties of Air on Psycrometric chart


TDB W, TDP

TWB
RH v

Harvard School of Public Health


EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Example I:

From: Lechner N. Heating, Cooling, Lighting, 3rd Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
Harvard School of Public Health
EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Example II:

From: Lechner N. Heating, Cooling, Lighting, 3rd Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
Harvard School of Public Health
EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Example III:
QUESTION:
• In a room:
(condition A)
Tdp=12 C
• The windows have
temperature of T=
9C
• Water
Condensation on
the window?

Harvard School of Public Health


EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

HEATING, VENTILATION, & AIR-CONDITIONING


(HVAC) SYSTEMS

Harvard School of Public Health


EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

OBJECTIVES OF HVAC SYSTEMS


• Temperature Control
• Humidity Control
• Air Distribution
• Air Motion
• Building Pressurization (0.05 in. w.)
• Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
• Dilution ventilation
• Air cleaning (e.g., filtration)
• GENERATE/DISTRIBUTE contaminants???
Harvard School of Public Health
EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Basic Air Conditioning Processes


•Sensible Heating / Cooling
•Cooling and dehumidification
•Heating and humidification
•Humidification
•Adiabatic Mixing of Air
On the P. Chart:
•STATE is a point,
•PROCESS (sequence of states) is a line on the Chart.

EXAMPLES:
•Sensible Heat (change TDB, constant W)
•Latent Heat (constant TDB, change W)
Harvard School of Public Health
EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Air Processes

DQ(Heat)=Dh (Energy balance)

W1 W2
T1 T2
h1 h2

Water vapor (Humidity)


HEAT & MASS
BALANCE
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Harvard School of Public Health
EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Example 1: Sensible heating and cooling

DH

heating W 1 = W2
1 2

2 1
cooling

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EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Example 2:Latent Heat- Humidification

DH

heating
W2
2

1 W1

Tdb1 = Tdb2

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EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Example 3: Heating- Cooling

DH

2 W2
1
W1
1 2

Tdb1 Tdb2

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EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Example 4: Adiabatic Mixing


The heat balance for the mixture can be
expressed as
mA hA + mC hC = (mA + mC)hB (1)
B
where WA WC
m = mass flow of the air TA WB TC
h = enthalpy of the air TB
hA hC
mC
mA hB
The moisture balance for the mixture can A C
be expressed as:
mA wA + mC wC = (mA + mC) wB (1)

where
w = humidity ratio in the air
Harvard School of Public Health
EH:522 : Indoor Environmental Quality and Health

Example 4: Adiabatic Mixing (P. Chart)


hc
When mixing air of
hB condition A and air of
condition C, then
hA C
DH Wc
B
•mixing point will be
WB on the straight line
between the two
WA
A conditions in point B.

•The position of point


TdbA TdbB TdbC B depends on the
volume of air A to the
volume of air C.
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Thank you for your attention