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1.1 Vector Algebra: 1.1.1 Vector Operations (I)

Vectors: Quantities have both magnitude and direction, (i) Addition of two vectors:

denoted by boldface (A, B, and so on). Place the tail of B at the head of A.

Scalars: Quantities have magnitude but no direction denoted Commutative: A+B=B+A

by ordinary type. Associative: (A+B)+C=A+(B+C)

the arrow is proportional to the magnitude of the vector, B -B

and the arrowhead indicates its direction.

Minus A (-A) is a vector with the same magnitude as A but A B+A A

A+B A A-B

of opposite direction.

Vectors have magnitude and direction but not location.

B

1 2

(ii) Multiplication by a scalar: (iv) Cross product of two vector (vector product):

Multiplies the magnitude but leaves the direction unchanged. The cross product of two vectors is defined by

Distributive: a(A+B)= aA+ aB A×B≡AB sinθ n̂ , where n̂ is a unit vector pointing

perpendicular to the plane of A and B.

(iii) Dot product of two vector (scalar product):

A hat is used to designate the unit vector and its direction is

The dot product of two vectors is defined by A·B≡AB cosθ,

determined by the right-hand rule.

where θ is the angle they form when placed tail-to-tail.

A

not commutative: A×B=-B×A θ

Distributive: A·(B+C)=A·B+A·C θ B

B

3 4

1.1.2 Vector Algebra: Component form (I) 1.1.2 Vector Algebra: Component form (II)

Let x̂, ŷ and ẑ be unit vectors parallel to the x, y, and z Reformulate the four vector operations as a rule for

axes, respectively. An arbitrary vector A can be expressed in manipulating components:

terms of these basis vectors.

(i) To add vectors, add like components.

A = Ax x̂ + Ay ŷ + Az ẑ

The numbers Ax, Ay, and Az are called components. A + B = ( Ax x̂ + Ay ŷ + Az ẑ) + ( Bx x̂ + B y ŷ + Bz ẑ)

= ( Ax + Bx )x̂ + ( Ay + B y )ŷ + ( Az + Bz )ẑ

(ii) To multiply by a scalar, multiply each component.

aA = a ( Ax x̂ + Ay ŷ + Az ẑ)

= aAx x̂ + aAy ŷ + aAz ẑ

5 6

1.1.2 Vector Algebra: Component form (III) 1.1.3 Triple Products (I)

(iii) To calculate the dot product, multiply like components, Since the cross product of two vectors is itself a vector, it

and add. can be dotted or crossed with a third vector to form a

A ⋅ B = ( Ax x̂ + Ay ŷ + Az ẑ) ⋅ ( Bx x̂ + B y ŷ + Bz ẑ) triple product.

|A·(B×C)| is the volume of a parallelepiped generated by

(iv) To calculate the cross product, form the determinant these three vectors as shown below.

whose first row is x̂, ŷ and ẑ , whose second row is A

(in component form), and whose third row is B. A ⋅ (B × C) = B ⋅ (C × A ) = C ⋅ ( A × B)

x̂ ŷ ẑ ( Ay Bz − Az B y ) x̂ In component form Ax Ay Az

A × B = Ax Ay Az = + ( Az Bx − Ax Bz ) ŷ A ⋅ ( B × C) = B x By Bz

Bx By Bz + ( Ax B y − Ay Bx )ẑ Cx Cy Cz

7 8

1.1.4 Position, Displacement, and Separation

1.1.3 Triple Products (II)

Vectors (I)

(ii) Vector triple product: A×(B×C). The vector triple Position vector: The vector to that point from the origin.

product can be simplified by the so-called BAC-CAB

rule. r ≡ xxˆ + yyˆ + zzˆ

A × (B × C) = B( A ⋅ C) − C( A ⋅ B)

Its magnitude (the distance from the origin)

Notice that ( A × B) × C ≠ A × (B × C) r = r ⋅ r ≡ x2 + y2 + z 2

( A × B) × C = −C × ( A × B) = − A (B ⋅ C) + B( A ⋅ C) Its direction unit vector (pointing radially outward)

r xxˆ + yyˆ + zzˆ

rˆ = =

Problem 1.6 Under what conditions does r x2 + y2 + z 2

( A × B) × C = A × (B × C) ? The infinitesimal displacement vector, from (x, y, z)

Ans: Either A is parallel to C, to (x+dx, y+dy, z+dz), is

or B is perpendicular to A and C 9

dl = dxxˆ + dyyˆ + dzzˆ 10

Vectors (II) 1.2.1 “Ordinary” Derivatives

In electrodynamics one frequently encounters problems Suppose we have a function of

involving two points: one variable, f(x). What does the

A source point, r′, where an electric field is located derivative, df/dx, do for us?

A field point, r, at which you are calculating the electric field

A short-hand notation for the Ans: It tells us how rapidly the function f(x) varies when we

separation vector from the source change the argument x by a tiny amount, dx.

point to the field point is df

df = dx

r ≡ r − r′, magnitude r = r − r′ dx

In words, if we change x by an amount dx, then, f changes

r r − r′

unit vector in the direction form r′ to r is rˆ = = by an amount df.

r r − r′ The derivative df/dx is the slope of the graph of f versus x.

11 12

1.2.2 Gradient (I) 1.2.2 Gradient (II)

Suppose we have a function of three A mountain hill Geometrical interpretation: Like any vector, the gradient

variables. What does the derivative H ( x, y , z ) has magnitude and direction.

mean in this case? A dot product in abstract form is: dH = ∇H ⋅ dl = ∇H dl cos θ

A theorem on partial derivatives states that where θ is the angle between ∇H and dl.

∂H ∂H ∂H

dH = dx + dy + dz

∂x ∂y ∂z The gradient ∇H points in the direction of maximum

∂H ∂H ∂H increase of the function H.

=( xˆ + yˆ + zˆ ) ⋅ (dxxˆ + dyyˆ + dzzˆ )

∂x ∂y ∂z

= (∇H ) ⋅ (dl )

Analogous to the derivative of one variable, a vanishing

The gradient of H is a vector quantity, with three components. derivative signals a maximum, a minimum, or an inflection.

∂H ∂H ∂H

∇H = xˆ + yˆ + zˆ

∂x ∂y ∂z 13 14

Example 1.3 Find the gradient of r = x2 + y2 + z 2 The gradient has the formal appearance of a vector, ∇,

“multiplying”, a scalar H.

∂r ∂r ∂r xxˆ + yyˆ + zzˆ r

Ans : ∇r = xˆ + yˆ + zˆ = = = rˆ ∂ ∂ ∂

∂x ∂y ∂z x2 + y2 + z 2 r ∇H = (xˆ + yˆ + zˆ ) H

∂x ∂y ∂z

Problem 1.13 Let r ≡ ( x − x ' ) xˆ + ( y − y ' ) yˆ + ( z − z ' )zˆ

del

Show that ∇ is a vector operator that acts upon H, not a vector that

multiplies H.

(a) ∇r 2 = ? ∇r 2 = ∇[( x − x' ) 2 + ( y − y ' ) 2 + ( z − z ' ) 2 ] ∂ ∂ ∂

∇ = xˆ + yˆ + zˆ

∂x ∂y ∂z

= 2( x − x' )xˆ + 2( y − y ' )yˆ + 2( z − z ' )zˆ = 2r

− ∇r − ∇ ( x − x ' ) 2 + ( y − y ' ) 2 + ( z − z ' ) 2 ∇ mimics the behavior of an ordinary vector in virtually

(b) ∇(1 r ) == ? = every way, if we translate “multiply” by “act upon”.

r2 ( x − x' ) 2 + ( y − y ' ) 2 + ( z − z ' ) 2

rˆ It is a marvelous piece of notational simplification.

= − [2( x − x' )xˆ + 2( y − y ' )yˆ + 2( z − z ' )zˆ ] / r = − 2 15

1

2

3

16

r

1.2.3 The Operator ∇ (II) 1.2.4 The Divergence

An ordinary vector A can be multiply in three ways: Divergence of a vector v is:

∂ ∂ ∂

1. Multiply a scalar a : aA ∇ ⋅ v = (xˆ + yˆ + zˆ ) ⋅ (v x xˆ + v y yˆ + v z zˆ )

∂x ∂y ∂z

2. Multiply another vector (dot product): A·B

∂v ∂v y ∂v z

3. Multiply another vector (cross product): A×B = x+ +

∂x ∂y ∂z

∇·v is a measure of how much the vector v spread out

Correspondingly, there are three ways the operator ∇ can act: from the point in question.

1. On a scalar function H: ∇H (Gradient 梯度)

2. On a vector function (dot product): ∇·v (divergence 散度)

3. On a vector function (cross product): ∇× v (curl 旋度)

Curl of a vector v is:

xˆ yˆ zˆ

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂v ∂v y ∂v ∂v ∂v y ∂v x

∇× v = = xˆ ( z − ) + yˆ ( x − z ) + zˆ ( − )

∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y

Example 1.4 Suppose the functions in above three figures vx vy vz

are v a = xxˆ + yyˆ + zzˆ , v b = zˆ , v c = zzˆ . Calculate their

divergences. ∇×v is a measure of how much the vector v curl around

∂x ∂y ∂z the point in question.

Ans : ∇ ⋅ v a = + + = 3,

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ 0 ∂ 0 ∂1

∇ ⋅ vb = + + = 0,

∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ 0 ∂ 0 ∂z

∇ ⋅ vc = + + = 1.

∂x ∂y ∂z 19 20

Example 1.5 1.2.6 Product Rules (I)

The sum rule:

d df dg

( f + g) = + ∇ ( f + g ) = ∇f + ∇g

dx dx dx

Example 1.5 Suppose the functions in above two figures ∇ ⋅ ( A + B) = ∇ ⋅ A + ∇ ⋅ B ∇ × ( A + B) = ∇ × A + ∇ × B

are v a = − yxˆ + xyˆ , v b = xyˆ Calculate their curls.

Ans : ∇ × v a = xˆ ( − ) + yˆ ( − ) + zˆ ( − ) = 2zˆ

∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y

d df

∂0 ∂0 ∂0 ∂0 ∂x ∂ 0 (kf ) = k ∇(kf ) = k∇f

∇ × v b = xˆ ( − ) + yˆ ( − ) + zˆ ( − ) = zˆ dx dx

∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y

∇ ⋅ (kA ) = k∇ ⋅ A ∇ × (kA ) = k∇ × A

21 22

scalar : fg

The product rule: The quotient rule:

vector : fA f A

d df dg g

df

−f

dg scalar : vector :

( fg ) = g +f ∇( fg ) = g∇f + f∇g d f g g

dx dx dx ( ) = dx 2 dx

dx g g

∇ ⋅ ( fA ) = ∇f ⋅ A + f (∇ ⋅ A ) ∇ × ( fA ) = ∇f × A + f (∇ × A)

f g∇f − f∇g

scalar : A ⋅ B ∇( ) =

g g2

vector : A × B

∇( A ⋅ B) = A × (∇ × B) + B × (∇ × A ) + ( A ⋅ ∇)B + (B ⋅ ∇) A A g (∇ ⋅ A) − A ⋅ ∇g

∇⋅( ) =

Chaps. g g2

∇ ⋅ ( A × B) = B ⋅ (∇ × A) − A ⋅ (∇ × B)

8 and 10

A g (∇ × A ) − (∇g × A) g (∇ × A) + A × ∇g

∇ × ( A × B) = (B ⋅ ∇) A − ( A ⋅ ∇)B + A(∇ ⋅ B) − B(∇ ⋅ A ) ∇×( ) = =

g g2 g2

23 24

1.2.7 Second Derivatives (I) 1.2.7 Second Derivatives (II)

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂T ∂T ∂T

By applying ∇ twice, we can construct five species of (1) ∇ ⋅ (∇T ) = (xˆ + yˆ + zˆ ) ⋅ (xˆ + yˆ + zˆ )

second derivatives. ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z

Three first derivatives ∇T , ∇ ⋅ v, ∇ × v ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T

=

+ 2 + 2 = ∇ 2T the Laplacian of T

∂x 2

∂y ∂z

(1) Divergence of gradient : ∇ ⋅ (∇T ) very important The Laplacian of a vector is similar:

(2) Curl of gradient : ∇ × (∇T ) always zero (∇ ⋅ ∇) v ≡ ∇ 2 (xˆ v x + yˆ v y + zˆ v z ) = xˆ ∇ 2 v x + yˆ ∇ 2 v y + zˆ ∇ 2 v z

(3) Gradient of divergence : ∇(∇ ⋅ v ) Chaps. 8 and 10

(2) ∇ × (∇T ) ≠ (∇ × ∇)T

(4) Divergence of curl : ∇ ⋅ (∇ × v ) always zero The proof hinges on the equality of cross derivatives:

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂T ∂T ∂T

(5) Curl of curl : ∇ × (∇ × v ) ∇ × (∇T ) = (xˆ + yˆ + zˆ ) × (xˆ + yˆ + zˆ )=0

reduce to others ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z

∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T ∂ ∂T

( ) = ( ), ( ) = ( ), ( )= ( )

25 ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂z 26

1.2.7 Second Derivatives (III)

1.3.1 Line, Surface, and Volume (I)

∂ ∂v ∂v y ∂ ∂v ∂v ∂ ∂v y ∂v x

(4) ∇ ⋅ (∇ × v ) = xˆ (xˆ ( z − )) + yˆ (yˆ ( x − z )) + zˆ (zˆ ( − )) In electrodynamics, the line (or path) integrals, surface

∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂y

integrals (or flux), and volume integrals are the most

∂ ∂v ∂v y ∂ ∂v ∂v ∂ ∂v y ∂v x important integrals.

= ( z− )+ ( x − z )+ ( − )

∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂y

(a) Line integrals: a line integral is an expression of the

=0 always zero b

∫

form

v ⋅ dl ,

(5) ∇ × (∇ × v ) Can we use the following vector identity? aP

displacement vector, and the integral is to be carried out

∂ ∂ ∂ ∂v ∂v y ∂v ∂v ∂v y ∂v x

∇ × (∇ × v ) = (xˆ + yˆ + zˆ ) × (xˆ ( z − ) + yˆ ( x − z ) + zˆ ( − )) along a prescribed path P from point a to point b.

∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y

= … = ∇(∇ ⋅ v ) − ∇ 2 v Put a circle on the integral, in the path in question

We will encounter this derivative when dealing with forms a closed loop.

the vector potential (magnetism).

27

∫ v ⋅ dl 28

1.3.1 Line, Surface, and Volume (II)

The value of a line integral depends critically on the Example 1.6 Calculate the line integral of the function

particular path taken from a to b, but there is an important v = y 2 xˆ + 2 x( y + 1)yˆ , from the point a=(1,1,0) to the point

special class of vector functions for which the line integral b=(2,2,0), along the paths (1) and (2) in Fig.1.21. What is

is independent of the path, and is determined entirely the loop integral that goes from a to b along (1) and

by the end points, e.g. b

W = ∫ F ⋅ dl returns to a along (2)?

aP

A force that has this property is called conservative. The strategy here is to get everything in

terms of one variable.

29 30

(b) Surface integrals: a line integral is an expression of Example 1.7 Calculate the surface integral of the function

the form v = 2 xzxˆ + (2 + x)yˆ + y ( z 2 − 3)zˆ over five sides of the

∫ v ⋅ d a,

S

cubical box. Let ”upward and outward” be the positive

direction, as indicated by the arrow.

where v is a vector function, and da is

the infinitesimal patch of area, with

Sol : Taking the sides one at a time :

direction perpendicular to the surface. (1) x = 2, da = dydzxˆ , v ⋅ da = 2 xzdydz = 4 zdydz

2 2

0 0

surface chosen, but there is a special class of vector

functions for which it is independent of the surface, and is (5) z = 2, da = dxdyzˆ , v ⋅ da = y ( z 2 − 3)dxdy = ydxdy

determined entirely by the boundary. 2 2

∫ v ⋅ da = ∫ dx ∫ ydy = 4

0 0

31 32

1.3.1 Line, Surface, and Volume (IV)

(c) Volume integrals: a line integral is an expression of Example 1.8 Calculate the volume integral of the function

the form

T = xyz 2 over the prism in Fig. 1.24.

∫ Tdτ ,

v

where T is a scalar function, and dτ is an infinitesimal Sol : Let' s do z first (0 to 3); then y from 0 to 1 - x;

volume element. In Cartesian coordinates, dτ=dxdydz

finally x from 0 to 1.

For example, if T is a density of a substance, then the

volume integral would give the total mass.

2 2

0

3

∫∫∫ xyz dxdydz = ∫ z dz ∫ x(∫ { 1

0

1− x

0

ydy )dx }

The volume integrals of vector functions: 1 1

= 9∫ x( (1 − x) 2 )dx

∫ vdτ = ∫ (v xˆ + v yˆ + v zˆ )dτ

0 2

x y z

1 1 3

= 9( )( ) =

= xˆ ∫ v dτ + yˆ ∫ v dτ + zˆ ∫ v dτ

x y z 2 12 8

33 34

1.3.2 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus 1.3.3 The Fundamental Theorem for Gradients

Fundamental theorem of calculus: A scalar function of three variables T(x, y, z) changes by

b df b a small amount.

∫

a dx

dx = ∫ df = f (b) − f (a )

a

dT = (∇T ) ⋅ dl1

Geometrical Interpretation: two ways to determine the total The total change in T in going from a to b along the path

change in the function: selected is:

1. go step-by-step adding up all the tiny increments as you go b

2. subtract the values at the ends. ∫a

(∇T ) ⋅ dl = T (b) − T (a)

1. Measure the high of each floor and add them all up.

The integral of a derivative over an interval is given by the 2. Place an altimeter at the top and the bottom, subtract the

value of the function at the end points (boundary). readings at the ends.

35 36

1.3.3 The Fundamental Theorem for Gradients (II) Potential Energy and Conservative Forces

b

∫

a

(∇T ) ⋅ dl = T (b) − T (a) the right side of this equation makes

Potential energy defined in terms of work done by the

no reference to the path---only to the end points. associated conservative force.

Thus gradients have special property that their line integrals B

are path independent. U B − U A = − ∫ Fc ⋅ ds

A

b

Corollary 1: ∫

a

(∇T ) ⋅ dl is independent of path taken from *Conservative forces tend to minimize the potential

a to b. energy within any system: It allowed to, an apple falls

Corollary 2: ∫ (∇T ) ⋅ dl = 0 , since the beginning and end to the ground and a spring returns to its natural length.

points are identical, and hence T(b)-T(a)=0.

Non-conservative force does not imply it is dissipative,

for example, magnetic force, and also does not mean it

A conservative force may be associated with a scalar

will decrease the potential energy, such as hand force.

potential energy function, whereas a non-conservative

force cannot.

37 38

Distinction Between

Potential Energy Function

Conservative and Non-conservative Forces

How can we find a conservative force if the associated

The distinction between conservative and non- potential energy function is given?

conservative forces is best stated as follows: A conservative force can be derived from a scalar

A conservative force may be associated with a scalar potential energy function.

potential energy function, whereas a non-conservative Fc = −∇U

force cannot.

The negative sign indicates that the force points in the

B direction of decreasing potential energy.

U B − U A = − ∫ Fc ⋅ ds

A

dU g

Gravity U g = mgy; Fy = − = − mg

Fc = −∇U dy

dU sp

1 2

Spring U sp = kx ; Fx = − = − kx

2 dx

39 40

Supplementary

Gauss’s divergence theorem

1.3.4 The Fundamental Theorem for Divergences (Transformation between volume integrals and surface integrals)

The fundamental theorem for divergences states that:

∫v (∇ ⋅ v)dτ = ∫ v ⋅ nˆ da

∫ (∇ ⋅ v)dτ = ∫ v ⋅ da

v

S

Rough

S

v = vx xˆ + v y yˆ + vz zˆ and nˆ = cos α xˆ + cos β yˆ + cos γ zˆ

proof:

The integration of a derivative (in this case the divergence) where α , β , and γ are the angles between nˆ and x-, y -

over a region (in this case a volume) is equal to the value of

and z - axis, respectively.

the function at the boundary (in this case the surface that

bounds the volume) ∂vx ∂v y ∂vz

∫v (∇ ⋅ v ) dτ = ∫∫∫ ∂x + ∂y + ∂z )dxdydz

(

This theorem has at least three special names: Gauss’s v

theorem, Green’s theorem, or the divergence theorem.

= ∫∫ (vx dydz + v y dzdx + vz dxdy )

Geometrical Interpretation: Measure the total amount of S

fluid passing out through the surface, per unit time. = ∫∫ (vx cos α + v y cos β + vz cos γ )da

1. Count up all the faucets, recording how much each put out. S

2. Go around the boundary, measuring the flow at each point, Rigorous proof can be found in: Erwin Kreyszig, Advanced

and add it all up. 41 = ∫∫ v ⋅ nˆ da Engineering Mathematics (John Wiley and Sons, New

York, 1993), 7th ed. Chap. 9, pp. 546-547. 42

S

Example 1.10 Check the divergence theorem using the 1.3.5 The Fundamental Theorem for Curls (I)

function v = y 2 xˆ + (2 xy + z 2 ) yˆ + ( 2 yz )zˆ

The fundamental theorem for curls---Stokes’ theorem---

and the unit cube situated at the origin. states that:

∫ (∇ × v) ⋅ da = ∫ v ⋅ dl

S

Sol : In this case ∇ ⋅ v = 2( x + y ) P

The integration of a derivative (here, the curl) over a region

1 1 1

∫ 2( x + y)dxdydz =2∫ dz ∫

v 0 ∫ ( x + y)dxdy

0 0

(here, a patch of surface) is equal to the value of the

function at the boundary (in this case the perimeter of the

1 1 1

= 2∫ ∫ ( 12 + y )dy = 2 ∫ ( 12 + y )dy = 2 patch).

0 0 0

∴ ∫ ∇ ⋅ v dτ = 2 Geometrical Interpretation:

v

Measure the “twist” of the

To evaluate the surface integral we must consider vectors v; a region of high

separately the six sides of the cube. The total flux is… curl is a whirlpool.

43 44

Supplementary

(Transformation between surface integrals and line integrals)

Ambiguity in Stokes’ theorem: Concerning the boundary

line integral, which way are we supposed to go around

(clockwise or counterclockwise)? The right-hand rule. ∫ (∇ × v) ⋅ da = ∫ v ⋅ dl

S

P

lines, not on the particular surface used.

Corollary 2: ∫ (∇ × v) ⋅ da = 0 for any closed surface, since Rigorous proof can be found in:

the boundary line shrinks down to a point. Erwin Kreyszig, Advanced Engineering Mathematics

(John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1993),

7th ed. Chap. 9, pp. 556-559.

those for the gradient theorem.

45 46

Example 1.11 Suppose v = (2 xz + 3 y 2 )yˆ + (4 yz 2 )zˆ

• Green’s theorems:

Check Stokes’ theorem for the square surface shown below.

Let v = f ∇g ⇒ ∇ ⋅ v = ∇ ⋅ ( f ∇g ) = f ∇ 2 g + ∇f ⋅∇g

v ⋅ nˆ = f (nˆ ⋅∇g )

Sol : ∇ × v = (4 z 2 − 2 x)xˆ + 2 zzˆ ; da = dydzxˆ

∂g

∫v ( f ∇ g + ∇f ⋅∇g )dτ = ∫

2

Green's first formula: f da 1 1 4

∂n

∫ ∇ × v ⋅ a = ∫0 ∫0 =

2

S ( ) d 4 z dydz

3

∂g ∂f

∫v ( f ∇ g − g ∇ 2 f )dτ = ∫(f

2

Green's second formula: − g )da The line integral of the four segments

∂n ∂n

S

• Green’s theorem in the plane as a special case of

Stokes’ theorem

Let v be a vector function in the xy -plane.

∂v y ∂vx ∂v y ∂vx

(∇ × v ) ⋅ nˆ =

∂x

−

∂y

⇒ ∫∫ ( ∂x −

∂y

)da = ∫ (vx dx + v y dy)

S P 47 48

1.3.6 Integration by Parts

Homework #1

d

( fg ) = g

df

+f

dg ∇ ⋅ ( fA) = ∇f ⋅ A + f (∇ ⋅ A)

dx dx dx Integrate it over a volume and

Integrating both sides and inviking the divergence theorem. Problems: 1.5, 1.7, 1.13, 1.16, 1.32,

invoking the fundamental theorem

Left ∫ ∇ ⋅ ( fA)dτ = ∫ ( fA) ⋅ da

b d

Left ∫ ( fg )dx = fg a

b

a dx Right ∫ (∇f ⋅ A + f (∇ ⋅ A))dτ

dg df = ∫ (∇f ⋅ A)dτ + ∫ f (∇ ⋅ A)dτ

b b

Right ∫ f dx + ∫ g dx

a dx a dx

b df b df = ∫ (∇f ⋅ A)dτ + ∫ ( fA) ⋅ da − ∫ (∇f ⋅ A)dτ

= fg a + ∫ g dx − ∫ g

b

dx

dx dx

∫

= ( f A ) ⋅ da

a a

= fg a

b

49 51

1.4.1 Spherical Polar Coordinates (II)

1.4.1 Spherical Polar Coordinates (I)

The spherical (polar) coordinates (r, θ, φ) of a point P are The direction of the coordinates: the unit vector r̂, θˆ, φˆ

defined below; They constitute an orthogonal (mutually perpendicular)

r: the distance from the origin (the magnitude of the basis set (just like x

ˆ , yˆ , zˆ ).

position vector).

θ: the angle down from the z-axis (called polar angle). So any vector A can be expressed in terms of them:

φ: The angle around from the x-axis (call the azimuthal

angle). A = Ar rˆ + Aθ θˆ + Aφφˆ

In terms of Cartesian unit vector

x = r sin θ cos φ

y = r sin θ sin φ

z = r cos θ

Murray R Spiegel, Vector Analysis

(McFRAW-Hill, New York, 1989), 6th ed. Chap. 7. 52 53

1.4.1 Spherical Polar Coordinates (III) 1.4.1 Spherical Polar Coordinates (IV)

and they change direction as P moves around.

For example, r̂ always points radially outward, but “radially

outward” can be the x direction, the y direction, or any other

direction, depending on where you are.

The general infinitesi mal displacement :

dl = drrˆ + rdθθˆ + r sin θdφφˆ

Notice: Since the unit vectors are function of position, we

The infinitesimal surface element da for the surface

must handle the differential and integral with care.

of a sphere.

1. Differentiate a vector that is expressed in spherical

coordinates. da = (dlθ )(dlφ ) rˆ = r 2 sin θdθdφ rˆ

2. Do not take the unit vectors outside an integral. The infinitesimal volume element dτ

54

dτ = (dlr )(dlθ )(dlφ ) = r 2 sin θdrdθdφ 55

The vector derivatives in spherical coordinates: The cylindrical coordinates (s, φ, z) of a point P are defined

below: x = s cos φ , y = s sin φ , z = z

s: the distance from the z axis.

φ: the same meaning as in spherical coordinates.

z: the same as Cartesian.

The unit vectors are

dl = dssˆ + sdφφˆ + dzzˆ

56 57

1.4.2 Cylindrical Coordinates (II) 1.5 The Dirac Delta Function

1.5.1 The Divergence of rˆ / r

2

Consider a vector function v = rˆ / r 2

The divergence of this vector function is:

1 ∂ 2 1 1 ∂

∇⋅v = (r 2 ) = 2 (1) = 0

r ∂r

2

r r ∂r

The surface integral of this function is:

π 2π 1 2

∫ v ⋅ da = ∫ 0 ∫

0

(

r2

r sin θ )dθdφ

π 2π

= ∫ sin θdθ ∫ dφ = 4π ≠ ∫ (∇ ⋅ v )dτ

0 0 v

58

No Î The Dirac delta function 59

1.5.2 The One-Dimensional Dirac Delta Function 1.5.2 The One-Dimensional Dirac Delta Function (II)

The 1-D Dirac delta function can be pictured as If f(x) is some “ordinary” function (let’s say that it is

an infinitely high, infinitesimally narrow “spike”, with area just 1. continuous), then the product f(x)δ(x) is zero everywhere

except at x=0. It follows that f(x)δ(x)=f(0)δ(x). In particular,

0 if x ≠ 0 +∞

δ ( x) =

∞ if x = 0

with ∫-∞

δ ( x)dx = 1

∫

+∞

-∞

+∞

f ( x)δ ( x)dx = f (0) ∫ δ ( x)dx = f (0)

-∞

Technically, δ(x) is not a function at all, since its value is We can shift the spike from x=0 to some other point x=a.

not finite at x=0. Such function is called the generalized

0 if x ≠ a +∞

function, or distribution. δ ( x − a) =

∞ if x = a

with ∫

-∞

δ ( x − a )dx = 1

+∞ +∞

60

∫-∞

f ( x)δ ( x − a )dx = f (a ) ∫ δ ( x)dx = f (a )

-∞

61

1.5.2 The One-Dimensional Dirac Delta Function (III) 1

Example 1.15 Show that δ (kx) = δ ( x)

k

Although δ(x) is not a legitimate function, integrals over δ(x) where k is any (nonzero) constant.

are perfectly acceptable.

Sol : Consider the integral for an arbitrary test function f ( x),

It is best to think of the delta function as something that is ∞

always intended for use under an integral sign. ∫−∞

f ( x)δ (kx)dx

In particular, two expressions involving delta function are Let y ≡ kx, so that x ≡ y k , dx ≡ 1 k dy

considered equal if:

positive : the integration runs from - ∞ to ∞

+∞ +∞ k =

∫-∞

f ( x) D1 ( x)dx = ∫

-∞

f ( x) D2 ( x)dx negative : the integration runs from ∞ to - ∞

∞ 1 ∞ 1

for all (" ordinary" ) function of f ( x).

∫−∞

f ( x)δ (kx)dx = ± ∫ f ( y / k )δ ( y )dy =

k −∞ k

f ( 0)

3

∫ x 3δ ( x − 2)dx 1

Example 1.14 Evaluate the integral (a)

3 0

So δ (kx) serves the same purpose as δ ( x) and δ (− x) = δ ( x) .

(b) ∫ x 3δ ( x − 4)dx 62

k

63

0

(a) x (δ ( x)) = −δ ( x)

dx δ 3 (r ) = δ ( x)δ ( y )δ ( z )

where r is the position vector. It is zero everywhere

(b) Let θ ( x) be the step function : except at (0,0,0), where it blows up.

1, if x > 0 Its volume integral is:

θ ( x) =

0, if x < 0 +∞ +∞ +∞

Show that dθ dx = δ ( x)

∫ all space

δ 3 (r )dx = ∫

-∞ ∫ ∫

-∞ -∞

δ ( x)δ ( y )δ ( z )dxdydz = 1

out the value of the function at the location of the spike.

64

∫all space

f (r )δ 3 (r − a)dx = f (a)

65

1.6 The Theory of Vector Fields

1.5.3 The three-Dimensional Dirac Delta Function (II)

1.6.1 The Helmholtz Theorem

We found that the divergence of rˆ / r is zero everywhere

2

To what extent is a vector function F determined by its

except at the origin, and yet its integral over any volume divergence and curl?

containing the origin is a constant of 4π. The Dirac delta The divergence of F is a specified scalar function D,

function can be defined as:

rˆ ∇⋅F = D

∇⋅( 2

) = 4πδ 3 (r )

r and the curl of F is a specified vector function C,

More generally, ∇×F = C with ∇ ⋅ (∇ × F ) = ∇ ⋅ C = 0

rˆ

∇ ⋅ ( 2 ) = 4πδ 3 (r )

r Can you determine the function F?

where r is the separation vector r =r-r′. Note that the

differentiation here is with respect to r, while r′ is held Helmholtz theorem guarantees that the field F is uniquely

constant. determined by the divergence and curl with appropriate

1 1 rˆ boundary conditions.

∇ 2 ( ) = ∇ ⋅ (∇( )) = ∇ ⋅ (− 2 ) = −4πδ 3 (r )

r r r 66 67

Homework #2

If the curl of a vector field (F) vanishes (everywhere), then

F can be written as the gradient of a scalar potential (V):

conventional

then F can be expressed as the curl of a vector potential (A):

∇⋅F = 0 ⇒ F = ∇× A

68 69

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