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Macau Wind code

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Wind Action – Articles

(Shape Configuration,

Structures Wind permeability ) Article 19°

(Dynamic sensibility,

Dynamic effect Applicability condition ) Article 20°

Wind Flows on Buildings

Shielding Effect

(www.iitg.ernet.in/iccms06/cd/pdf/b024)

Streamlines of wind flows

(http://www.arigreenenergy.com/ )

CIVL426 by W.M.Quach, 2008

Shielding Effect and Interfacial Layer for

Low-rise Building Groups (height < 10m)

Shielding Effect for High-rise Building

Groups

Building

considered

(Van

CIVL426 by W.M.Quach, Uffelen 2009)

2008

Shielding Effect for High-rise Building

Groups

Mean forces

IF =

Fluctuating

Wind load (buildings in

forces

Group) / Wind load

(Solitary building)

(Van Uffelen 2009)

CIVL426 by W.M.Quach, 2008

Article 17° – Wind Action & its effect on

Structures

The scope of the code specifications includes the

following types of ordinary structures:

1. Regular buildings with height up to 200m;

2. Bridge structures (excluding cable-supported

bridges) having span up to 200m.

3. Dynamic Non-sensitive Building Structures

with na > 1 Hz.

4. Dynamic Sensitive Building Structures with

0.2 Hz < na < 1 Hz.

Note: na = the first mode fundamental frequency of

the structure

CIVL426 by W.M.Quach, 2008

Article 17° – Wind Action & its effect on

Structures

Out of the scope of this code:

1. Flexible structures with na < 0.2 Hz;

2. Special flexible structures (e.g., cable structures,

chimneys, lattice towers);

3. Irregular building structures (Significant eccentricities

and torsional vibration effects);

4. Structures with “shielding effects”;

5. Structures with significant “crosswind response”, in

addition to alongwind response;

6. Structures where vibration modes other than the

fundamental mode need to be considered.

Note: na = the first mode fundamental frequency of the

structure

CIVL426 by W.M.Quach, 2008

Article 17° – Wind Action & its effect on

Structures

The Basis of the Statistical analysis:

1. Wind data base of Macau (the year 1952 ~ 2005);

2. Wind blowing over the sea surface at a height of

250m;

3. All directions were considered in the statistical

analysis;

4. Confidence level of 99.5%;

5. Terrain roughness (only one type of roughness –

wind blowing over the sea surface);

6. Return period of 50 years (equivalent to an annual

probability of exceedance of 2%);

Article 17° – Wind Action & its effect on

Structures

The Basis of the Statistical analysis:

Currently Considered

Article 17° – Wind Action & its effect on

Structures

Characteristic Gust Wind Pressure Profile:

Mean Wind

Pressure

Gust Wind

Pressure

Article 17° – Wind Action & its effect on

Structures

The Safe Verification on Structures exposed to

Wind action:

1. Serviceability Limit State – corresponds to a return

period of 50 years for a partial safety factor of γq = 1.0.

1000 years, if a partial safety factor of γq = 1.5 .

cofficients ( ψ0 =0.4, ψ1 = 0.2, ψ2 =0), when the wind

action is not the basic variable.

Article 17° – Wind Action & its effect on

Structures

Characteristic

wind pressure

Characteristic

wind force

Wind Structures

Topography Dynamic

Article 17° – Wind Action & its effect on

Structures

Characteristic

wind-induced

Friction force

Wind Structures

Topography Dynamic

Article 18° and Appendix A of Annex 3 –

Topographic effect (Speed-up effect)

(speed-up effect);

• Wind speed up depends on (1) shape of hill, (2) location of

building, and (3) height above ground.

1. Significant, Æ take Ct > 1.0 (Appendix A of Annex 3)

2. Not significant, Æ take Ct =1.0.

CIVL426 by W.M.Quach, 2008

Appendix A of Annex 3 – Topographic

Coefficient

Appendix A of Annex 3 – Figure IIIA.2

(The value of S)

Appendix A of Annex 3 – Figure IIIA.2

(The value of S)

Appendix A of Annex 3 – Figure IIIA.3

(The value of S)

Appendix A of Annex 3 – Figure III.A.3

(The value of S)

External and Internal Wind Pressures

Internal wind

pressures CIVL426 by W.M.Quach, 2008

Article 19° and Appendix B of Annex 3 –

Shape Configuration

where δpe = external coeff., and δpi =

internal coeff.): +ve = pressure effect,

–ve = suction effect.

2. Force coefficient δf (to define resultant

wind force to structures)

3. Friction coefficient δfr

Article 19° and Appendix B of Annex 3 –

Pressure coefficient δp

Pressure coefficient δp = δpe – δpi :

+ve = pressure effect (Inward for δpe ,

Outward for δpi ),

–ve = suction effect (Outward for δpe ,

Inward for δpi ).

1. External pressure coefficient δpe

(depends on shape configuration &

wind direction)

2. Internal pressure coefficient δpi

(depends on air permeability of

building facades)

CIVL426 by W.M.Quach, 2008

Figure III.B.1 – External pressure for

Rectangular Plan Buildings

Windward walls

CIVL426 by W.M.Quach, 2008

Article 17° – Wind Action & its effect on

Structures

Characteristic Gust Wind Pressure Profile:

Mean Wind

Pressure

Gust Wind

Pressure

Figure III.B.1 – External pressure for

Rectangular Plan Buildings

Leeward walls & side walls

taken as the building height h .

Figure III.B.2 – External pressure coefficient

δpe for Rectangular Plan Buildings

Figure III.B.2 – External pressure coefficient

δpe for Rectangular Plan Buildings

Tables III.B.1 & III.B.2 – External pressure

coefficient δpe

The case of

h/d > 5 (highly For a loaded

dynamic) is area of 10 m2

out of the

scope, but can

be referred to

EN1991-1-

4:2005.

Applied to

Local action loaded

only used for

areas other

the design of

small elements

than 10 m2

(i.e., purlins,

roof plate

connection ) CIVL426 by W.M.Quach, 2008

Table III.B.3 – External pressure

coefficient δpe for Duopitch roofs

Table III.B.3 – External pressure

coefficient δpe for Duopitch roofs

Table III.B.4 – External pressure

coefficient δpe for monopitch roofs

Table III.B.5 – External pressure

coefficient δpe for cylindrical roofs

Table III.B.5 – External pressure

coefficient δpe for cylindrical roofs

Table III.B.6 – External pressure coefficient

δpe for multi-span duopitch roofs

Table III.B.6 – External pressure coefficient

δpe for multi-span duopitch roofs

Table III.B.7 – External pressure coefficient

δpe for multi-span monopitch roofs

Table III.B.7 – External pressure coefficient

δpe for multi-span monopitch roofs

Article 19° and Appendix B of Annex 3 –

Internal pressure coefficient δpi

Article 19° and Appendix B of Annex 3 –

Internal pressure coefficient δpi

Article 19° and Appendix B of Annex 3 –

Equivalent Overall Pressure (Wind Direct)

Windward Leeward

pressure pressure

Reduction Factor × Vector Sum of (Windward pressure, Leeward pressure )

Reduction Factor = 0.85, for h/d ≤ 1

Interpolation of Reduction Factor, for 1 ≤ h/d ≤ 5

Table III.B.8 – Net pressure coefficient δp

for canopy roofs

Table III.B.8:

Net pressure

coefficient

δp for

canopy

roofs

Table III.B.9 – Friction coefficient δfr

Figure III.B.3 – Reference Area ( Afr) for

Friction

Article 20° and Appendix C of Annex 3 –

Dynamic response due to wind action

with na > 1 Hz : Æ Cdyn = 1.0 ;

2. Dynamic Sensitive Building Structures with

0.2 Hz < na < 1 Hz.: Æ Cdyn > 1.0 (see

Appendix C of Annex 3).

3. Dynamic Sensitive Building Structures with

na < 0.2 Hz.: Æ (The structure is out of the

scope of this code. Use relevant

investigation or wind tunnel tesing).

Note: na = the first mode fundamental frequency of

the structure

CIVL426 by W.M.Quach, 2008

Dynamic Sensibility – An Alterative

simplified method

Appendix C of Annex 3 – Dynamic

response coefficient Cdyn

According to AS/NZS 1170.2.2002.

For Dynamic Sensitive Building Structures with

0.2 Hz < na < 1 Hz ,

Reserving more

Only for alongwind elaborated analytical

components methodologies for

the other cases

Appendix C of Annex 3 – Dynamic

response coefficient Cdyn

Appendix C of Annex 3 – Dynamic

response coefficient Cdyn

Appendix C of Annex 3 – Dynamic

response coefficient Cdyn

Appendix C of Annex 3 – Dynamic

response coefficient Cdyn

Appendix C of Annex 3 – Dynamic

response coefficient Cdyn

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