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You are on page 1of 591

S. TIMOSHENKO

Professor Emeritus of Engineering Mechanics

Stanford University

S. WOINOWSKY-KRIEGER

Professor of Engineering Mechanics CATA(OGOEfJ

Laval University

LIBRARY

SECOND EDITION

24 JUll 1989

.a~A~~·

McGRA\V-HILL6-_c_A_NA_o_A_1R__L_1M~t~rE_o__

CLASSIC

TEXTB®K

REISSUE

~

New York St. Louis San Francisco Auckland Bogota Hamburg London

Madrid Mexico Milan Montreal New Delhi Panama Paris

Sao Paulo Singapore Sydney Tokyo Toronto

ENGiNEERING SOCIETIES MONOGRAPHS

Bleich: Buckling Strength of Metal Structures

Crandall: Engineering Analysis

'Elevatorski: Hydraulic Energy Dissipators

Leontovich: Frames and Arches

Nadai: Theory of Flow and Fracture of Solids

Timoshenko and Gere: Theory of Elastic Stability

Timoshenko and Goodier: Theory of Elasticity

Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger: Theory of Plates and Shells

Five national engineering societies, the American Society of Civil Engineers, the

American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, the American

Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Institute of Electrical Engineers,

and the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, have an arrangement with the

McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., for the production of a series of selected books

adjudged to possess usefulness for engineers and industry.

The purposes of this arrangement are: to provide monographs of high technical

quality within the field of engineering; to rescue from obscurity important technical

manuscripts which might not be published commercially because of too limited sale

without special introduction; to develop manuscripts to fill gaps in existing literature;

to collect into one volume scattered information of especial timeliness on a given

subject.

The societies assume no responsibility for any statements made in these books.

Each book before publication has, however, been examined by one or more representa-

tives of the societies competent to express an opinion on the merits of the manuscript.

Ralph H. Phelps, CHAIRMAN

Engineering Societies Library

New York

A.S.C.E.

Howard T. Critchlow

H. Alden Foster

A. I. M. E.

Nathaniel Arbiter

John F. Elliott

A.S. M.E.

Calvin S. Cronan

Raymond D. Mindlin

A. I.E. E.

F. Malcolm Farmer

Royal W. Sorensen

A. I. Ch. E.

Joseph F. Skelly

Charles E. Reed

McGRAW-HILL CLASSIC TEXTBOOK REISSUE SERIES

Applied Scientists and Engineers

Papoulis: The Fourier Integral and its Applications

Schlichting: Boundary Layer Theory

Timoshenko: Theory of Plates and Shells

Treybal: Mass Transfer Operations

THEORY OF PLATES AND SHELLS

Copyright © 1959 by the McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. Reissued 1987 by the McGraw-

Hill Book Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this pub-

lication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data

base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

ISBN 0-07-064779-8

30 31 32 33 34 35 VBA VBA 8 9 2 1 0 9 8

PREFACE

Since the publication of the first edition of this book, the application of

the theory of plates and shells in practice has widened considerably, and

some new methods have been introduced into the theory. To take these

facts into consideration, we have had to make many changes and addi-

tions. The principal additions are (1) an article on deflection of plates due

to transverse shear, (2) an article on stress concentrations around a cir-

cular hole in a bent plate, (3) a chapter on bending of plates resting on

an elastic foundation, (4) a chapter on bending of anisotropic plates, and

(5) a chapter reviewing certain special and approximate methods used in

plate analysis. We have also expanded the chapter on large deflections

of plates, adding several new cases of plates of variable thickness and

some numerical tables facilitating plate analysis.

In the part of the book dealing with the theory of shells, we limited

ourselves to the addition of the stress-function method in the membrane

theory of shells and some minor additions in the flexural theory of shells.

The theory of shells has been developing rapidly in recent years, and

several new books have appeared in this field. Since it was not feasible

for us to discuss these new developments in detail, we have merely re-

ferred to the new bibliography, in which persons specially interested in

this field will find the necessary information.

S. Timoshenko

S. Woinowsky-Krieger

CONTENTS

Preface v

Notation xiii

Introduction . 1

Chapter 1. Bending of Long Rectangular Plates to a Cylindrical Surface 4

1. Differential Equation for Cylindrical Bending of Plates ~

2. Cylindrical Bending of Uniformly Loaded Rectangular Plates with Simply

Supported Edges . 6

3. Cylindrical Bending of Uniformly Loaded Rectangular Plates with Built-in

Edges . 13

4. Cylindrical Bending of Uniformly Loaded Rectangular Plates with Elasti-

cally Built-in Edges . 17

5. The Effect on Stresses and Deflections of Small Displacements of Longi-

tudinal Edges in the Plane of the Plate 20

6. An Approximate Method of Calculating the Parameter u . 24

7. Long Uniformly Loaded Rectangular Plates Having a Small Initial Cylin-

drical Curvature . 27

8. Cylindrical Bending of a Plate on an Elastic Foundation 30

Chapter 2. Pure Bending of Plates . 33

9. Slope and Curvature of Slightly Bent Plates 33

10. Relations between Bending Moments and Curvature in Pure Bending of

Plates . 37

11. Particular Cases of Pure Bending . 42

12. Strain Energy in Pure Bending of Plates 46

13. Limitations on the Application of the Derived Formulas 47

14. Thermal Stresses in Plates with Clamped Edges 49

15. Differential Equation for Symmetrical Bending of Laterally Loaded Cir-

cular Plates 51

16. Uniformly Loaded Circular Plates . 54

17. Circular Plate with a Circular Hole at the Center 58

18. Circular Plate Concentrically Loaded . 63

19. Circular Plate Loaded at the Center 67

20. Corrections to the Elementary Theory of Symmetrical Bending of Ci,:-

cular Plates 72

Chapter 4. Small Deflections of Laterally Loaded Plates 79

21. The Differential Equation of the Deflection Surface . 7!l

Vil

viii CONTJ<.::;;Ts

23. Alternate Method of Derivation of the Boundary Conditions 88

24. Reduction of the Problem of Bending of a Plate to That of Deflection of a

Membrane 92

25. Effect of Elastic Constants on the Magnitude of Bending Moments 97

26. Exact Theory of Plates . 98

Chapter 6. Simply Supported Rectangular Plates 105

27. Simply Supported Rectangular Plates under Sinusoidal Load 105

28. Navier Solution for Simply Supported Rectangular Plates . 108

29. Further Applications of the Navier Solution . 111

30. Alternate Solution for Simply Supported and Uniformly Loaded Rectangu-

lar Plates . 113

31. Simply Supported Rectangular Plates under Hydrostatic Pressure 124

32. Simply Supported Rectangular Plate under a Load in the Form of a Tri-

angular Prism . 130

33. Partially Loaded Simply Supported Rectangular Plate . 135

34. Concentrated Load on a Simply Supported Rectangular Plate . 141

35. Bending Moments in a Simply Supported Rectangular Plate with a Con-

centrated Load 143

36. Rectangular Plates of Infinite Length with Simply Supported Edges . 149

37. Bending Moments in Simply Supported Rectangular Plates under a Load

Uniformly Distributed over the Arca of a Rectangle. 158

38. Thermal Stresses in Simply Supported Rectangular Plates . 162

39. The Effect of Transverse Shear Deformation on the Bending of Thin Plates 165

40. Rectangular Plates of Variable Thickness . 173

Chapter 6. Rectangular Plates with Various Edge Conditions 180

41. Bending of Rectangular Plates by Moments Distributed along the Edges . 180

42. Rectangular Plates with Two Opposite Edges Simply Supported and the

Other Two Edges Clamped . 185

43. Rectangular Plates with Three Edges Simply Supported and One Edge

Built In 192

44. Rectangular Plates with All Edges Built In . 197

45. Rectangular Plates with One Edge or Two Adjacent Edges Simply Sup-

ported and the Other Edges Built In . 205

46. Rectangular Plates with Two Opposite Edges Simply Supported, the Third

Edge Free, and the Fourth Edge Built In or Simply Supported 208

47. Rectangular Plates with Three Edges Built In and the Fourth Edge Free. 211

48. Rectangular Plates with Two Opposite Edges Simply Supported and the

Other Two Edges Free or Supported Elastically . 214

49. Rectangular Plates Having Four Edges Supported Elastically or Resting

on Corner Points with All Edges Free . 218

50. Semi-infinite Rectangular Plates under Uniform Pressure 221

51. Semi-infinite Rectangular Plates under Concentrated Loads 225

Chapter 7. Continuous Rectangular Plates. 22!)

52. Simply Supported Continuous Plates . 229

53. Approximate Design of Continuous Plates with Equal Spans 236

54. Bending of Plates Supported hy Rows of Equidistant Columns (Flat Slabs) 245

55. Flat Slah Having Nine Panels and Slab with Two Edges Free . 253

56. Effect of a Rigid Connection with Column on Moments of the Flat Slab. 257

CONTENTS

Chapter 8. Plates on Elastic Foundation 259

57. Bending Symmetrical with Respect to a Center 259

58. Application of Bessel Functions to the Problem of the Circular Plate . 265

59. Rectangular and Continuous Plates on Elastic Foundation 269

60. Plate Carrying Rows of Equidistant Columns - . 276

61. Bending of Plates Resting on a Semi-infinite Elastic Solid 278

Chapter 9. Plates of Various Shapes 282

62. Equations of Bending of Plates in Polar Coordinates 282

63. Circular Plates under a Linearly Varying Load . 285

64. Circular Plates under a Concentrated Load 290

65. Circular Plates Supported at Several Points along the Boundary 293

66. Plates in the Form of a Sector . 295

67. Circular Plates of Nonuniform Thickness . 298

68. Annular Plates with Linearly Varying Thickness 303

69. Circular Plates with Linearly Varying Thickness 305

70. Nonlinear Problems in Bending of Circular Plates 308

71. Elliptical Plates 310

72. Triangular Plates . 313

73. Skewed Plates 318

74. Stress Distribution around Holes 319

Chapter 10. Special and Approximate Methods in Theory of Plates 325

75. Singularities in Bending of Plates . 325

76. The Use of Influence Surfaces in the Design of Plates 328

77. Influence Functions and Characteristic Functions 334

78. The Use of Infinite Integrals and Transforms. 336

79. Complex Variable Method . 340

80. Application of the Strain Energy Method in Calculating Deflections 342

81. Alternative Procedure in Applying the Strain Energy Method. 347

82. Various Approximate Methods . 348

83. Application of Finite Differences Equations to the Bending of Simply Sup-

ported Plates . 351

84. Experimental Methods . 362

Chapter 11. Bending of Anisotropic Plates 364

85. Differential Equation of the Bent Plate 364

86. Determination of Rigidities in Various Specific Cases 366

87. Application of the Theory to the Calculation of Gridworks 369

88. Bending of Rectangular Plates . 371

89. Bending of Circular and Elliptic Plates 376

Chapter 12. Bending of Plates under the Combined Action of Lateral Loads

and Forces in the Middle Plane of the Plate 378

90. Differential Equation of the Deflection Surface . 378

91. Rectangular Plate with Simply Supported Edges under the Combined

Action of Uniform Lateral Load and Uniform Tension . 380

92. Application of the Energy Method 382

93. Simply Supported Rectangular Plates under the Combined Action of

Lateral Loads and of Forces in the Middle Plane of the Plate . 387

94. Circular Plates under Combined Action of Lateral Load and Tension or

Compression . 391

95. Bending of Plates with a Small Initial Curvature 393

X CONTENTS

Chapter 18. Large Deflections of Plates 396

96. Bending of Circular Plates by Moments Uniformly Distributed along the

Edge 396

97. Approximate Formulas for Uniformly Loaded Circular Plates with Large

Deflections 400

98. Exact Solution for a Uniformly Loaded Circular Plate with a Clamped

Edge 404

99. A Simply Supported Circular Plate under T:Jniform Load 408

100. Circular Plates Loaded at the Center . 412

101. General Equations for Large Deflections of Plates 415

102. Large Deflections of Uniformly Loaded Rectangular Plates 421

103. Large Deflections of Rectangular Plates with Simply Supported Edges 425

104. Definitions and Notation 429

105. Shells in the Form of a Surface of Revolution and Loaded Symmetrically

with Respect to Their Axis . 433

106. Particular Cases of Shells in the Form of Surfaces of Revolution . 436

107. Shells of Constant Strength . 442

108. Displacements in Symmetrically Loaded Shells Having the Form of a

Surface of Revolution 445

109. Shells in the Form of a Surface of Revolution under Unsymmetrical

Loading 447

110. Stresses Produced by Wind Pressure 449

111. Spherical Shell Supported at Isolated Points 453

112. Membrane Theory of Cylindrical Shells 457

113. The Use of a Stress Function in Calculating Membrane Forces of Shells 461

114. A Circular Cylindrical Shell Loaded Symmetrically with Respect to Its Axis 466

115. Particular Cases of Symmetrical Deformation of Circular Cylindrical Shells 471

116. Pressure Vessels . 481

117. Cylindrical Tanks with Uniform Wall Thickness 485

118. Cylindrical Tanks with Nonuniform Wall Thickness. 488

119. Thermal Stresses in Cylindrical Shells . 497

120. Inextensional Deformation of a Circular Cylindrical Shell 501

121. General Case of Deformation of a Cylindrical Shell 507

122. Cylindrical Shells with Supported Edges . 514

123. Deflection of a Portion of a Cylindrical Shell . 516

124. An Approximate Investigation of the Bending of Cylindrical Shells 519

125. The Use of a Strain and Stress Function . 522

126. Stress Analysis of Cylindrical Roof Shells . 524

Chapter 16. Shells Having the Form of a Surface of Revolution and Loaded

Symmetrically with Respect to Their A.xis . 533

127. Equations of Equilibrium 533

128. Reduction of the Equations of Equilibrium to Two Differential Equations

of the Second Order . 537

129. Spherical Shell of Constant Thickness . 540

CONTENTS xi

130. Approximate Methods of Analyzing Stresses in Spherical Shells 547

131. Spherical Shells with an Edge Ring 555

132. Symmetrical Bending of Shallow Spherical Shells 558

133. Conical Shells . 562

134. General Case of Shells Having the Form of a Surface of Revolution 566

Name Index. 569

Subject Index 575

NOTATION

r, () Polar coordinatPR

rx, ry Radii of curvature of the midclle surfaee of a plate in xz and yz planes,

respectively

h Thickness of a plate or a shell

q Intensity of a continuously distributed load

p Pressure

p Single load

"( Weight per unit volume

Normal components of stress parallel to x, y, and z axes

Normal component of stress parallel to n direction

Radial stress in polar coordinates

<Tt, U(J Tangential strPss in polar coordinatPs

T Shearing stress

Txy, Txz, Tyz Shearing stress components in rectangular coordinates

11, v, W Components of displacements

Unit elongation

Unit elongations in x, 11, and z directions

Radial unit elongation in polar coordinatPs

ei, EO Tangential unit elongation in polar coonlinatPs

f:q; 1 E(J Unit elongations of a shell in mPridional dirP<'t ion and in the direction

of parallel C'ircle, respeetivcly

'Yxy, 'Yxz, /yz Shearing strain eomponents in reetan1?;11lar eoordinates

"/rO Shearing strain in polar coordinates

E :\Iodulus of elastiPity in tension and compression

G Modulus of p)astic•ity in shear

V Poisson's ratio

V Strain energy

D Flexural rigidity of a plate or shell

M,, Alu Bending moments per unit length of sedions of a plate perpendicular

to x and 11 axes, respectively

Twisting moment per unit len1?;th of sertion of a plate perpendicular

to x axis

Af,,, Af,,, Bending and twisting moments per unit length of a sedion of a plate

perpendicular to n direction

Shearing forc·es parallel to z axis per unit length of sections of a plate

perpendic·ular to x and y axes, respectively

Q,, Shearing force parallel to z axis per unit length of section of a plate

perpendicular to n direction

Normal forces per unit length of sections of a plate perpendicular to

x and y directions, respectively

xiii

xiv NOTATION

Nxu Shearing force in direction of y axis per unit length of section of a plate

perpendicular to x axis

M,, M,, M,, Radial, tangential, and twisting moments when using polar coordinates

Q,, Q, Radial and tangential shearing forces

N,, N, Normal forces per unit length in radial and tangential directions

r1, r2 Radii of curvature of a shell in the form of a surface of revolution in

meridional plane and in the normal plane perpendicular to meridian,

respectively

'X,p, 'X9 Changes of curvature of a shell in meridional plane and in the plane

perpendicular to meridian, respectively

X9,p Twist of a shell

X, Y,Z Components of the intensity of the external load on a shell, parallel to

x, y, and z axes, respectively

Membrane forces per unit length of principal normal sections of a shell

Bending moments in a shell per unit length of meridional section and a

section perpendicular to meridian, respectively

Xx, X,p Changes of curvature of a cylindrical shell in axial plane and in a plane

perpendicular to the axis, respectively

Membrane forces per unit length of axial section and a section perpen-

dicular to the axis of a cylindrical shell

Bending moments per unit length of axial section and a section perpen-

dicular to the axis of a cylindrical shell, respectively

Twisting moment per unit length of an axial section of a cylindrical

shell

Shearing forces parallel to z axis per unit length of an axial section and

a section perpendicular to the axis of a cylindrical shell, respectively

Natural logarithm

Common logarithm

INTRODUCTION

compared with its other dimensions. In the following discussion, we

shall distinguish between three kinds of plates: (I) thin plates with small

deflections, (2) thin plates with large deflections, (3) thick plates.

Thin Plates with Small Deflection. If deflections w of a plate are small

in comparison with its thickness h, a very satisfactory approximate theory

of bending of the plate by lateral loads can be developed by making the

following assumptions:

plane remains neutral during bending.

2. Points of the plate lying initially on a normal-to-the-middle plane

of the plate remain on the normal-to-the-middle surface of the plate after

bending.

3. The normal stresses in the direction transverse to the plate can be

disregarded.

deflection w of the plate, which is a function of the two coordinates in

the plane of the plate. This function has to satisfy a linear partial

differential equation, which, together with the boundary conditions, com-

pletely defines w. Thus the solution of this equation gives all necessary

information for calculating stresses at any point of the plate.

The second assumption is equivalent to the disregard of the effect of

shear forces on the deflection of plates. This assumption is usually satis-

factory, but in some cases (for example, in the case of holes in a plate)

the effect of shear becomes important and some corrections in the theory

of thin plates should be introduced (see Art. 39).

If, in addition to lateral loads, there are external forces acting in the

middle plane of the plate, the first assumption does not hold any more,

and it is necessary to take into consideration the effect on bending of the

plate of the stresses acting in the middle plane of the plate. This can be

done by introducing some additional terms into the above-mentioned

differential equation of plates (see Art. 90).

1

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