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Viorel Ungureneanu

Lecture: 19/02/2014

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Sustainable Constructions

under Natural Hazards and Catastrophic Events

520121-1-2011-1-CZ-ERA MUNDUS-EMMC

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

L10 – B.2 – Mechanical properties of cast iron, mild iron and steel at historical structures

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

shear centre of the cross-section.

L10 – B.2 – Mechanical properties of cast iron, mild iron and steel at historical structures

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

shear centre of the cross-section.

structures (compared to bending moment, shear or axial

force), the analysis and design of steel members under

torsion is covered by EN 1993-1-1.

L10 – B.2 – Mechanical properties of cast iron, mild iron and steel at historical structures

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

shear centre of the cross-section.

structures (compared to bending moment, shear or axial

force), the analysis and design of steel members under

torsion is covered by EN 1993-1-1.

may occur in steel members (particularly lateral-torsional

buckling of beams and flexural-torsional buckling of columns)

depend on the behaviour in torsion.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

TORSION FUNDAMENTALS

The shear center is the point through which the applied loads

must pass to produce bending without twisting.

always lie on that line. For cross-sections with two lines of

symmetry, the shear center is at the intersection of those lines

(as is the centroid).

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

TORSION FUNDAMENTALS

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

TORSION FUNDAMENTALS

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

cross-sections rotate around the longitudinal axis of the

member (axis that is defined by the shear centre of the cross-

sections) and warp, i.e. they undergo differential longitudinal

displacements, and plane sections no longer remain plane.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

cross-sections rotate around the longitudinal axis of the

member (axis that is defined by the shear centre of the cross-

sections) and warp, i.e. they undergo differential longitudinal

displacements, and plane sections no longer remain plane.

prevent it and the torsional moment is constant, the member is

said to be under uniform torsion or St. Venant torsion.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

cross-sections rotate around the longitudinal axis of the

member (axis that is defined by the shear centre of the cross-

sections) and warp, i.e. they undergo differential longitudinal

displacements, and plane sections no longer remain plane.

prevent it and the torsional moment is constant, the member is

said to be under uniform torsion or St. Venant torsion.

any cross section (usually at the supports), the member is

under non-uniform torsion.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

cross-sections around the longitudinal axis.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

cross-sections around the longitudinal axis.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

cross-sections around the longitudinal axis.

the resistance to the torsional moment T exclusively results from

St. Venant’s torsion, Tt.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

cross-sections around the longitudinal axis.

the resistance to the torsional moment T exclusively results from

St. Venant’s torsion, Tt.

although longitudinal warping displacements may exist, they do not

introduce stresses.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

cross-sections around the longitudinal axis.

the resistance to the torsional moment T exclusively results from

St. Venant’s torsion, Tt.

although longitudinal warping displacements may exist, they do not

introduce stresses.

T Tt

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

strains also exist (because warping varies along the member).

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

strains also exist (because warping varies along the member).

the cross-sectional level that, depending on the level of restriction to

warping, vary along the member.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

strains also exist (because warping varies along the member).

the cross-sectional level that, depending on the level of restriction to

warping, vary along the member.

longitudinal direction) the existence of additional shear stresses that also

resist to torsional moments, leading to:

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

strains also exist (because warping varies along the member).

the cross-sectional level that, depending on the level of restriction to

warping, vary along the member.

longitudinal direction) the existence of additional shear stresses that also

resist to torsional moments, leading to:

T Tt Tw

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

-one due to the torsional rotation of the cross-section (Tt) and;

-the other caused by the restraint to warping, designated by warping

torsion (Tw).

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

with respect to the shear centre C (that coincides with the centroid G), only

uniform torsion exists.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

with respect to the shear centre C (that coincides with the centroid G), only

uniform torsion exists.

=G

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

=G

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

=G

torsion), uniform torsion is predominant.

subjected to torsion, the warping torsion (Tw) is normally neglected.

L10 – B.2 – Mechanical properties of cast iron, mild iron and steel at historical structures

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

sections), where only the uniform torsion component appears, it is

necessary that the supports do not prevent warping and than the torsional

moment is constant.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

sections), where only the uniform torsion component appears, it is

necessary that the supports do not prevent warping and than the torsional

moment is constant.

at some cross-sections (usual situation), the member is under non-uniform

torsion.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

sections), where only the uniform torsion component appears, it is

necessary that the supports do not prevent warping and than the torsional

moment is constant.

at some cross-sections (usual situation), the member is under non-uniform

torsion.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

In conclusion:

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

In conclusion:

•torsional moments cause twisting and warping of the cross-

sections.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

In conclusion:

•torsional moments cause twisting and warping of the cross-

sections.

•then torsional rigidity (GIt) is very large compared with its

warping rigidity (EIw), the section would effectively be in

uniform torsion and warping moment would be unlikely to be

significant.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

In conclusion:

•torsional moments cause twisting and warping of the cross-

sections.

•then torsional rigidity (GIt) is very large compared with its

warping rigidity (EIw), the section would effectively be in

uniform torsion and warping moment would be unlikely to be

significant.

•the warping moment is developed only if warping

deformation is restrained.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

for four different shapes of equal area.

It

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

for four different shapes of equal area.

stiffness in case of closed cross-

sections.

It

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Uniform torsion

For a member under uniform torsion, the angle of rotation per unit length

is related to the torsional moment through the following equation:

Tt d

GI t dx

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Uniform torsion

For a member under uniform torsion, the angle of rotation per unit length

is related to the torsional moment through the following equation:

Tt d

GI t dx

where

Tt = is the torsional moment;

It = is the torsion constant;

G = is the shear modulus;

= is the twist of the section;

x = is a variable with the direction of the longitudinal axis of the member.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Uniform torsion

different methodologies (some are exact and others approximate),

depending on the shape of the cross-section.

•for cross-sections with circular shape, the shear stresses vary linearly

with the distance to the shear centre.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Uniform torsion

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Uniform torsion

hollow sections), Bredt’s theory is used, the shear stresses varying

along the cross-section such that the shear flow (q) is constant.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Uniform torsion

hollow sections), Bredt’s theory is used, the shear stresses varying

along the cross-section such that the shear flow (q) is constant.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Uniform torsion

hollow sections), Bredt’s theory is used, the shear stresses varying

along the cross-section such that the shear flow (q) is constant.

with hi/ti > 10, where hi and ti are the height and the thickness of the

rectangles that constitute the section) approximate expressions are

used for the evaluation of the maximum stress.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Uniform torsion

hollow sections), Bredt’s theory is used, the shear stresses varying

along the cross-section such that the shear flow (q) is constant.

with hi/ti > 10, where hi and ti are the height and the thickness of the

rectangles that constitute the section) approximate expressions are

used for the evaluation of the maximum stress.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Uniform torsion

Shear stresses and torsion constant for typical steel cross-section shapes:

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Uniform torsion

Shear stresses and torsion constant for typical steel cross-section shapes:

4 A2 t

It

l

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

flanges are forced to bend in the horizontal direction.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

flanges are forced to bend in the horizontal direction.

This in-plane bending of the flanges is clockwise for one flange and anti-

clockwise for the other so that the effect is that of two equal and opposite

moments.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

flanges are forced to bend in the horizontal direction.

This in-plane bending of the flanges is clockwise for one flange and anti-

clockwise for the other so that the effect is that of two equal and opposite

moments.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

flanges are forced to bend in the horizontal direction.

This in-plane bending of the flanges is clockwise for one flange and anti-

clockwise for the other so that the effect is that of two equal and opposite

moments.

Vlaslov who termed this force system induced in the flanges by warping

restraint a bi-moment.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

following deformations:

• (x) rotations around the axis of the member, due to uniform torsion Tt;

• transverse displacements of the upper flange (vsup(x)) and lower flange

(vinf(x)) due to bending in its own plane (around z), due to the additional

component Tw.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

tt also appear due to (x) rotations, which are obtained according to the

uniform torsion theory.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

tt also appear due to (x) rotations, which are obtained according to the

uniform torsion theory.

and additional shear stresses tw.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

tt also appear due to (x) rotations, which are obtained according to the

uniform torsion theory.

and additional shear stresses tw.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

The normal stresses σw are calculated from the pair of moments Msup or

Minf, based on the so-called bi-moment, i.e.

B M sup hm ( M inf hm )

Shear stresses tw, which develop in the flanges, are due to the pair of

shear forces Vsup and Vinf, statically equivalent to the warping torsion, Tw,

Tw Vsup hm ( Vinf hm )

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Ifz is the second moment of the flange area with respect to the z axis.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

hm 2 d 3 ( x) d 3 ( x)

Tw Vsup hm EI fz 3

EI w

2 dx dx3

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

hm 2 d 3 ( x) d 3 ( x)

Tw Vsup hm EI fz 3

EI w

2 dx dx3

I fz hm 2 I z hm 2

where, for a thin-walled I-section I fz I z 2 and I w

2 4

is the warping constant and EI w is the warping stiffness of the section.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

hm 2 d 3 ( x) d 3 ( x)

Tw Vsup hm EI fz 3

EI w

2 dx dx3

I fz hm 2 I z hm 2

where, for a thin-walled I-section I fz I z 2 and I w

2 4

is the warping constant and EI w is the warping stiffness of the section.

d ( x) d 3 ( x)

T Tt ( x) Tw ( x) GI t EI w

dx dx 3

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

hm 2 d 3 ( x) d 3 ( x)

Tw Vsup hm EI fz 3

EI w

2 dx dx3

I fz hm 2 I z hm 2

where, for a thin-walled I-section I fz I z 2 and I w

2 4

is the warping constant and EI w is the warping stiffness of the section.

d ( x) d 3 ( x)

T Tt ( x) Tw ( x) GI t EI w

dx dx 3

the general equation for the torsion

of a non-circular section

L10 – B.2 – Mechanical properties of cast iron, mild iron and steel at historical structures

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

applied torque requires the solution of this equation with appropriate

boundary conditions.

dT ( x) d 4 ( x) d 2 ( x)

By differentiation EI w 4

GI t 2

m( x )

dx dx dx

d 4 ( x) 2

2 d ( x) m( x )

or 4

k 2

dx dx EI w

where

GI t

k

EI w

m is the intensity of a distributed torsional moment (m = 0 for a

concentrated torsional moment).

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

arising from restrained warping, it is necessary to obtain solutions of the

equation for torsion!

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

arising from restrained warping, it is necessary to obtain solutions of the

equation for torsion!

C1 cosh kx C2 sinh kx C3 x C4 0

where

C1 to C4 are constants;

0 is the particular solution.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

arising from restrained warping, it is necessary to obtain solutions of the

equation for torsion!

C1 cosh kx C2 sinh kx C3 x C4 0

where

C1 to C4 are constants;

0 is the particular solution.

0 0 for m 0

mx 2

0 for uniform m

2GI t

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

arising from restrained warping, it is necessary to obtain solutions of the

equation for torsion!

C1 cosh kx C2 sinh kx C3 x C4 0

where

C1 to C4 are constants;

0 is the particular solution.

0 0 for m 0

2

The particular solution is

mx connected with load distribution

0 for uniform m

2GI t

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

boundary conditions, i.e.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

boundary conditions, i.e.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

boundary conditions, i.e.

(1) Fixed end – one which is built-in and can neither twist nor warp, i.e.

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

boundary conditions, i.e.

(1) Fixed end – one which is built-in and can neither twist nor warp, i.e.

0

d

0

dx

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

boundary conditions, i.e.

(1) Fixed end – one which is built-in and can neither twist nor warp, i.e.

0

d

0

dx

(2) Simply supported end – one which cannot twist but is free to warp and

is therefore free of longitudinal stresses due to torsion

0

d 2

2

0 i.e. B 0

dx

L10 – B.2 – Mechanical properties of cast iron, mild iron and steel at historical structures

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Bi-moment variation for common

Sustainable Constructions under Natural

Hazards and Catastrophic Events boundary conditions

Load condition Bimoment equation Maximum values

M

sinh k (l x )

B Ml x0 B Mlb

kl cosh kl

m

B [kl sinh k l x

2

k cosh kl x0 B ml 2 c

cosh kl cosh kx]

m

l

cosh k x

m 2 l

B 2 1 x B ml 2 p

k kl 2

cosh

2

M

M sinh kx

B l Ml

2k cosh kl x B f

2 2

2

m

l x 0 2

kl cosh k x B ml g

m 2 xl

B 2 1

k kl l

2 sinh x B ml 2 j

2 2

L10 – B.2 – Mechanical properties of cast iron, mild iron and steel at historical structures

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Bi-moment variation for common

Sustainable Constructions under Natural

Hazards and Catastrophic Events boundary conditions

Load condition Bimoment equation Maximum values

M

l x0

cosh kx cosh k x

M 2 l Ml

B x B n

2k kl 2 2

sinh

2 xl

m

B [1 cosh kx

k2

ml

k 2l 2 xl B w

1 kl sinh kl cosh kl 2

2 sinh kx

kl cosh kl sin h kl

m M 1

B1

k kl sinh kl sinh kl Ml

kl kl kl l B v

kl cosh sinh sinh kx x 2

2 2 2 2

B

M sh kx

B 2

k kl ch kl sh kl Ml

xl B u

kl kl kl l 2

B 1

kl ch 2 sh 2 2 sh k x 2

kl

cosh 1

tanhkl kl sinhkl coshkl 1 2 coshkl 1

b ; c ; p ; f

kl k 2l 2 coshkl 2 2

k l cosh

kl klsinhkl

2

kl kl kl

(coshkl 1) sinhkl sinhkl klcosh sinhkl 2sinh

g 2 ; j 2 ; n 2

2 2 2 2

k l sinhkl k l sinhkl kl (cosh kl 1)

kl kl

klsinhkl coshkl 1 klsinh sinhkl 2sinh

2 ; w kl sinh kl 2coshkl 2 2

v ; u

L10 – B.2 – Mechanical properties of castkliron,

( klcosh

mildkliron andklsteel

sinh kl (structures

) at historical klcoshkl sinhkl ) klcoshkl sinhkl

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Torsion in simply supported beam

Sustainable Constructions under Natural

Hazards and Catastrophic Events with free end warping

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Torsion in Cantilevers

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

For members subject to torsion for which distortional deformations

may be disregarded the design value of the torsional moment TEd

at each cross-section should satisfy:

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

For members subject to torsion for which distortional deformations

may be disregarded the design value of the torsional moment TEd

at each cross-section should satisfy:

TEd

1.0 TRd is the design torsional resistance

TRd of the cross section

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Hazards and Catastrophic Events

For members subject to torsion for which distortional deformations

may be disregarded the design value of the torsional moment TEd

at each cross-section should satisfy:

TEd

1.0 TRd is the design torsional resistance

TRd of the cross section

considered as the sum of two internal effects:

TEd Tt , Ed Tw, Ed

Tt,Ed is the internal St. Venant torsion;

Tw,Ed is the internal warping torsion.

L10 – B.2 – Mechanical properties of cast iron, mild iron and steel at historical structures

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Design according to EN 1993-1-1

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

determined from TEd by elastic analysis, taking account of the

section properties of the cross-section of the member, the

conditions of restraint at the supports and the distribution of

the actions along the member.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Design according to EN 1993-1-1

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

determined from TEd by elastic analysis, taking account of the

section properties of the cross-section of the member, the

conditions of restraint at the supports and the distribution of

the actions along the member.

account:

– the shear stresses tt,Ed due to St. Venant torsion Tt,Ed

– the direct stresses σw,Ed due to the bi-moment BEd and shear

stresses tw,Ed due to warping torsion Tw,Ed .

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Design according to EN 1993-1-1

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

should be satisfied:

fy / 3

tot ,Ed f y / M 0 t tot ,Ed

M0

2 2 fy

tot , Ed 3 t tot , Ed 1.1

M0

relevant cross-section;

ttot,Ed is the total shear stress, calculated on the gross

cross-section.

L10 – B.2 – Mechanical properties of cast iron, mild iron and steel at historical structures

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Design according to EN 1993-1-1

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

The total longitudinal stress tot,Ed and the total shear stress ttot,Ed should by

obtained from:

tot,Ed = N,Ed + My,Ed + Mz,Ed + w,Ed

where:

My,Ed is the direct stress due to the bending moment My,Sd;

Mz,Ed is the direct stress due to the bending moment Mz,Sd;

N,Ed is the direct stress due to the axial force NSd;

w,Ed is the direct stress due to warping;

tVy,Ed is the shear stress due to the transverse shear force Vy,Sd;

tVz,Ed is the shear stress due to the transverse shear force Vz,Sd;

tt,Ed is the shear stress due to uniform (St. Venant) torsion;

tw,Ed is the shear stress due to warping.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

occur in steel members depending

on the behaviour in torsion

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Af y

0.5

A = 1 for class 1-3 sections

A

N cr A = Aeff/A for class 4 sections

2

0.5[1 ( 0.2) ]

1

2 0.5

1

2

[ ]

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Lateral-Torsional Buckling

loaded in a stiff plane tend to

fail by buckling in a more

flexible plane.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Lateral-Torsional Buckling

loaded in a stiff plane tend to

fail by buckling in a more

flexible plane.

about its major axis, failure

may occur by a form of

buckling which involves both

lateral deflection and twisting.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

root

loaded in a stiff plane tend to

fail by buckling in a more

flexible plane.

about its major axis, failure

may occur by a form of Buckled position

buckling which involves both position

lateral deflection and twisting.

Dead weight

load applied

vertically

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Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

L

Elevation Section

Plan

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Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

M M

L

Perfectly elastic, initially straight,

loaded by equal and opposite end Elevation Section

moments about its major axis.

Plan

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Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

M M

L

Perfectly elastic, initially straight,

loaded by equal and opposite end Elevation Section

moments about its major axis.

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Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

M M

L

Perfectly elastic, initially straight,

loaded by equal and opposite end Elevation Section

moments about its major axis.

u End Supports …

– Twisting and lateral deflection

prevented.

– Free to rotate both in the plane

of the web and on plan.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

L

Perfectly elastic, initially straight,

loaded by equal and opposite end Elevation Section

moments about its major axis.

u End Supports … z

x

– Twisting and lateral deflection

prevented.

y

– Free to rotate both in the plane

of the web and on plan.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

L

Perfectly elastic, initially straight,

loaded by equal and opposite end Elevation Section

moments about its major axis.

u End Supports … z

x

– Twisting and lateral deflection u

prevented.

y

– Free to rotate both in the plane

of the web and on plan.

f

L10 – B.2 – Mechanical properties of cast iron, mild iron and steel at historical structures

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

2 2

EI z I w L GI t

M cr 2 2

L I z EI z

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

2 2

EI z I w L GI t

M cr 2 2

L I z EI z

Includes:

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

2 2

EI z I w L GI t

M cr 2 2

L I z EI z

Includes:

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

2 2

EI z I w L GI t

M cr 2 2

L I z EI z

Includes:

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

2 2

EI z I w L GI t

M cr 2 2

L I z EI z

Includes:

Their relative importance depends on the type of cross-section used.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

moment Mcr for a particular loading

case as

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

moment Mcr for a particular loading

case as

2 EI w

M cr C1 EI z GI t 1 2

L L GI t

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Bending

Mcr= C 1 p

2

1+ p EIw

Loads EI GJ

L M L 2max

C1

moment GJ

M M

EC3 expresses the elastic critical M 1,00

moment Mcr for a particular loading

M

case as M 1,879

2 EI w M -M

M cr C1 EI z GI t 1 2 M 2,752

L L GI t

F

FL/4 1,365

F

FL/8 1,132

F F

FL/4 1,046

= = = =

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Instability phenomena and torsion

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

LT Wy fy / M cr

2

LT 0.5[1 ( LT 0.2) LT ]

1

LT 2 0.5

1

LT [LT 2 LT ]

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Designing for torsion in practice

torsion

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Designing for torsion in practice

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Designing for torsion in practice

resultant passes through the centroid in the case of symmetrical

sections and shear centre in the case of unsymmetrical sections.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Designing for torsion in practice

resultant passes through the centroid in the case of symmetrical

sections and shear centre in the case of unsymmetrical sections.

•Arrange connections suitably.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Designing for torsion in practice

resultant passes through the centroid in the case of symmetrical

sections and shear centre in the case of unsymmetrical sections.

•Arrange connections suitably.

•Where significant eccentricity of loading (which would cause

torsion) is unavoidable, alternative methods of resisting torsion

like design using box, tubular sections or lattice box girders

should be investigated.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Typical connection and support detail

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Typical connection and support detail

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

elements spanning between

floors: the weight of which

would otherwise induce

torsional loading of the

spandrel girder, may be

designed to transfer lateral

forces into the floor

diaphragms and resist the

eccentric effect.

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Otherwise …

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Otherwise …

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course

Hazards and Catastrophic Events

Otherwise …

L10 – B.2 – Mechanical properties of cast iron, mild iron and steel at historical structures

Viorel.ungureanu@upt.ro

http://steel.fsv.cvut.cz/suscos

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