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This paper presents a reliable control design technique for linear, time-invariant, multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems with degraded actuators and sensors. The degradation defined in this paper ranges from normal operational conditions to complete failure of actuators and sensors. We derive linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions ensuring robust stability of the system using static state feedback. The potential of the proposed technique has been demonstrated by an example of three coupled inverted pendulums. Chieh-Chuan Feng"MIMO Systems with Degraded Actuators and Sensors" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-1 | Issue-5 , August 2017, URL: http://www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd2247.pdf
http://www.ijtsrd.com/engineering/electrical-engineering/2247/mimo-systems-with-degraded-actuators-and-sensors/chieh-chuan-feng

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific

Research and Development (IJTSRD)

UGC Approved International Open Access Journal

ISSN No: 2456‐6470 | www.ijtsrd.com |Volume ‐ 1 |Issue ‐ 5

Chieh-Chuan Feng

Department of Electrical Engineering

I-Shou University

Kaohsiung City 84001, Taiwan

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a reliable control design technique only within a prespecified subset of the control

for linear, time-invariant, multi-input multi-output components. In addition, the actuators and sensors are

(MIMO) systems with degraded actuators and sensors. subject to either failure or normal operation which

The degradation defined in this paper ranges from neglects the possibility of partial degradation. Fujita

normal operational conditions to complete failure of and Shimemura [2] provide necessary and sufficient

actuators and sensors. We derive linear matrix inequa- conditions by introducing a class of U-matrices for

lity (LMI) conditions ensuring robust stability of the examining system stability against arbitrary feedback-

system using static state feedback. The potential of the loop failures in multivariable control systems with a

proposed technique has been demonstrated by an ex- stable plant and controller. This condition requires an

ample of three coupled inverted pendulums. exponential growth in computation as a function of

plant dimension. Partial failures are not considered.

Keywords—linear matrix inequality; static state For a given stabilizing controller of a plant,

feedback; MIMO; degradation. Vidyasagar and Viswanadham [3] studied the problem

of designing the second controller such that either

I. Introduction controller acting alone stabilizes the plant and both

Conventional feedback control designs for a MIMO acting together also stabilize the plant. A computing

system may result in instability in the event of the method for the second stabilizing controller which

degradation of actuators and sensors, even though it involves stable coprime factorizations using the plant

may be possible to control the system using only the and the first controller data are established and may

surviving functions of actuator and sensor. It is worth result in the second controller of high order. Cho et al

noting that this condition can occur even if the open [4] used the same methodology as [3] except that the

loop system is stable. It is therefore of interest to second stabilizing controller is of adaptive controller

develop feedback control designs which guarantee which again ends up with high order.

robust stability despite degradation of actuators and In this paper, we design a static state feedback control

sensors. system to tolerate the degradation ranging from

There are relatively few methods for design of reliable normal operational condition to complete failure of

control. Veillette et al [1] develop observer-based actuator and sensor. The degradation is modeled as a

reliable centralized and decentralized control systems multiplicative uncertainty at the plant input or output.

provided the failure of actuators and sensors occur We accomplish this via diagonal weighting and norm

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com | Volume – 1 | Issue – 5 Page:90

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

bounded matrices. To simplify the derivation we will (3) 0 < ur < 1 indicates the rth actuator may fail

first develop and prove LMI conditions which tolerate partially.

sensor or actuator degradation independently. Our

u uk

approach is extended to the simultaneous degradation x Ax Bu +

on which our approach of reliable control systems is Figure 1 Closed Loop System for Actuator Case

based. The degradation for actuators and sensors will

B. Sensor case:

be considered separately to simplify the derivation.

Sensor case represents the degradation of sensors

A. Actuator case: and is written as follows,

Actuator case represents the degradation of

x A x B u

actuators and is shown as follows, (2.2)

xs x ps

x A x B u qs sx

u uk pu

p sl sl q sl , sl ( t ) 1.

qu uuk (2.1)

where s is the uncertainty weighting of the sensor and

p ur ur q ur , ur ( t ) 1.

xs denotes sensor output. The definition for ps, qs, s,

where xRn denotes the state of the system, uk Rm is and s are defined in (2.3) in a similar way as in the

the output of the control gain shown in Figure 1. u actuator case and can be seen clearly from Figure 2

Rm is the input to the plant. u is the uncertainty where it shows the closed-loop system for sensor

weighting of the control input to the plant. Note that degradation.

pu and qu represent the output and input vectors of

ps = [ ps1 .... psl ... psn ]T, ps l R

plant input perturbations. pur and qur correspond to the

rth element of vector pu and qu respectively. qs = [ qs1 .... qsl ... qsn ]T, qsl R (2.3)

pu = [ pu1 .... pur ... pum ]T, pur R s = diag (s1 .... sl ... sn ), sl R

qu = [ qu1 .... qur ... qum ]T, qur R s = diag ( s1 .... sl ... sn), sl R

u = diag ( u1 .... ur ... um), ur R The degraded sensor signal xs(t) can be readily

ur(t) is the real valued unknown bounded uncertainty represented as

and it is assumed to be time-varying scalar quantity.

xs(t) = ( I + s(t)s)x(t)

The control signal u(t) can be readily computed as

where the possibility of full or partial failure of sensors

u(t) = ( I + u(t)u)uk(t)

is defined in the similar way as in the actuator case

where the I is identity matrix and u = diag (u1 .... ur ... using variables s and s in place of u and u,

um ), ur R. Since |ur(t)| 1, i.e. -1 ur(t) 1, respectively.

x u

the degradation is modeled by a priori weighting u as + x Ax Bu

follows. ps s qs s

xs

(1) u = 1 indicates the rth actuator may fail fully.

r

actuator fails partially or fully. Figure 2 Closed Loop System for Sensor Case

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

C. Actuator and sensor case Theorem 1. Consider the closed-loop system

Actuator and sensor case is the case where actuator x ( A B K ) x B p u

and sensor are simultaneously degraded shown as qu u Kx (3.1)

follows,

p ur ur q ur , ur ( t ) 1.

x A x B u

u uk pu If there exist matrices Q, Y, and M satisfying

xs x ps

Q = QT > 0

qu uuk (2.3)

QAT AQ BY YT BT BMBT Y TuT

qs sx 0 (3.2)

uY M

p ur ur q ur , ur ( t ) 1

p sl sl q sl , sl ( t ) 1. for a given weighting matrix u, then the following

statements are equivalent,

(1) The closed-loop system (3.1) is asymptotically

x x Ax Bu u uk

+ + stable.

ps s q s

s pu u q u (2)(A + BK) is Hurwitz for K = YQ-1.

xs u

K

Figure 3 Closed-loop System for

variables Q, Y, and M. Thus, (3.2) can be readily

Actuator and Sensor Case

solved by convex optimization techniques. We write a

The matrices A and B shown in (2.1), (2.2), and (2.3) feasibility problem

are assumed to be real constant matrices with

Find Q, Y, and M

appropriate dimensions. u and s are given a priori

and represent the uncertainty weighting used to model Subject to Q = QT > 0, M > 0, and (3.2).

the degradation for actuators and sensors. We define

Theorem 2. Consider the closed-loop system

u := diag (u (t))r=1,...,m,

r

u (t) R

r

x ( A B K ) x B K p s

qs (3.3)

s := diag (sl(t))l=1,...,n, sl(t) R s x

p sl ls q sl , ls ( t ) 1.

where ||u|| 1 and ||s|| 1.

The control problem is to find, if it exists, static state If there exist matrices P, W, S and satisfying

feedback that stabilizes the system described in (2.1),

P = PT > 0, S = ST > 0, > 0,

(2.2), or (2.3).

PP W T S 1W 0 (3.4)

III. Controller Synthesis

PA T AP W T B T BW BSB T P Ts

In this section we present the main results. Lyapunov 0 (3.5)

sP 1

stability theory is used to establish stability criteria.

Although there is no trivial method to establish a for a given weighting matrix s, then the following

Lyapunov function, by experience, quadratic statements are equivalent.

Lyapunov functions, i.e. V() = TL, have been

(1) The closed-loop system (3.3) is asymptotically

proven to be efficient and easily implemented [7]. We

stable.

consider static state feedback, i.e. uk(t) = Kx(t) for the

actuator case, u(t) = Kxs(t) for sensor case and uk(t) = (2)(A + BK) is Hurwitz for K = WP-1.

Kxs(t) for combination of actuator and sensor case. Proof. See proof for Theorem 3.

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

Remark 2. The matrix inequalities (3.4) and (3.5) are IV. Numerical Example

inversely coupled through the matrices S and .

Consider the system in Figure 3 consisting of three

Moreover the inequality (3.4) is not an LMI. Thus, to

coupled inverted pendulums of point masses mi, and

solve theorem 2 simultaneously through the use of

length li. The pendulums interact via three springs and

convex optimization is difficult. However, we may

three dampers of stiffness kij and damping bij; i, j =

still solve the problem using of sequential method that

1,2,3, and ij. The distances from attached point of

we solve for (3.5) first and then verify (3.4).

springs and dampers to the platform baseline are ai.

Theorem 3. Consider the following closed-loop The system data are shown in Table 1. Using this

system system, we will demonstrate several examples for

actuator and sensor degradation. The system dynamics

x ( A B K ) x B K p s B p u

qu u K ( x ps ) for pendulums are written in the general form,

(3.6)

qs sx 3

1 ai2 l j ai a j mi g 1 (4.1)

p q ,

r r r

(t ) 1

r i bij i 2 kij i bij j 2 kij j

mi j 1, j i li li li l i

i ui

l i

u u u u

p sl sl q sl , sl ( t ) 1. u1

u3

m1

u2 m3

m2

k13,b13

l1

If there exist matrices P, W, Su, Sx, Ss, , and l2 l3

satisfying k12,b12

k23,b23

P P 0 , Su S 0 , S x S 0 , S s S sT 0 ,

T T T

a2

u x

1 2 3 a3

a1

> 0, > 0

Table 1

PP W T ( S x1 S s1 )W 0 (3.7)

m1 m2 m3 b12 b13 b23 k12 k13 k23

PA T AP W T B T BW 1 1 1 1 .51 1 1 .51 1

WT P Ts

BS x B S u

T

(3.8) a1=a2=a3=0.5, g=10, l1=1, l2=1.2, l3=1.1.

T S s

1

W 0 0

sP 0

1

Initial conditions:

. , 1 011

1 01 . , 2 0.34, 2 0.23, 3 0.29, 3 133

. .

where Tu u , for a given weighting matrix u We will first demonstrate actuator degradation. The

and s, then the following statements are equivalent, weighting is chosen u=diag(1, 0.1, 0.28) which

represents the possibility of degradation for each

(1) The closed-loop system (3.6) is asymptotically actuator. For instance, actuator for m1 may fail during

stable. its operation, actuators for m2 and m3 are subject to

(2) (A + BK) is Hurwitz for K = WP-1. 10% and 28% variation of its nominal operation signal.

We will demonstrate nominal operation of actuators,

Proof. See Appendix B for proof. i.e. u = 0, at time t 0.5. Then, we will show the case

Remark 3. Normally speaking, the matrix inequalities where the actuator for m1 is subject to fail and the

(3.6)-(3.8) should be solved simultaneously. However, actuator for m2 and m3 are partial failure. Detail

it is not possible to solve using convex programming conditions are shown in Table 2.

Table 2

due to inversely coupled terms, Ss, Su, Sx, and .

time m1 m2 m3

Thus, we suggest for some given we solve (3.8) for

P, W, Sx , Ss, and Su and then verify (3.6) and (3.7). 0 t < 0.5 S1 S2 S3

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

0.5 t < 2.5 failure 0.9*S2 0.72*S3 chosen s = diag(0.4, 0.5, 0.4, 1, 0.5, 1) which

2.5 t 6 2*S1 1.1*S2 1.28*S3 represents the possibility of

20

gain followed by Theorem 1 is 15

10

control signals

K - 362.5824 - 93.3584 - 2.9357 -17.3282 - 4.3807 -10.9399

- 25.4243 7.1539 4.5474 16523

. 35.8191 10.0032

5

(1)

(2)

−5

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

time (sec)

operation and then is close to zero as shown in Figure degradation for each sensor. The velocity sensor of m1

4. Thus, even though the actuator #1 fails at time t is subject ++to 50% variation, while the position

0.5 sec, it has very little effect to the system. Since the sensor has 40% variation. The velocity sensors of m2

actuator signals for m1 varies from twice of its nominal and m3 are subject to the possibility of failure, while

value to zero (which is used to represent the failure of the corresponding position sensors have 40% and 50%

the actuator), one possible way to accommodate such variations. We will demonstrate the extreme case,

a large variation is simply to make the resultant signal which is shown in Table 3. The computed gain

as small as possible such that it has the least effect on followed by Theorem 2 is

the system. The jumps shown in Figure 5 are due to -29.7241 -8.2556 1.0801 -1.0596 1.2811 0.3397

K 0.5669 - 0.9255 - 29.5401 - 8.0746 0.9343 0.9577

the switching at time t = 0.5 sec instantaneously. If

1.2812 0.2544 12151

. 0.9838 29.3428 8.3852

there are two actuators in the system subject to the

possibilities of failure, e.g. u=diag(1, 1, 0), we are not eigenvalues of (A+BK) = [-6.8259 -2.4785 -5.8912 -

able to find feasible solutions for the Theorem 1. In 3.0449 -3.0952 -6.2916]. The simulation results are

other words, it is not possible to maintain stability of shown in Figure 6 and 7. The sudden jumps in Figure

the system when two actuators failures in the system. 7 show the instantaneous switching at time t = 0.5 sec.

The following results are observed from simulation.

0.4 The system will oscillate if we fail three velocity

0.3

sensors. Since the damping control signals given by

0.2

(2) velocity sensor are zero, the occurrence of oscillation

is not unexpected.

outputs − theta1 theta2 theta3

0.1

(1) Table 3

0

time m1 m2 m3

−0.1

(3)

−0.2

−0.3

−0.4

−0.5

0 1 2 3

time (sec)

4 5 6

t 5 S1p S1v S2p S3p

Figure 4 Outputs of Three Pendulums

Pos = position sensor, Vel = velocity sensor, S with all

For the sensor degradation case, the weighting is

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

subscripts = the nominal operational signal associated Proof.

with each sensor (subscript p = position sensor, We consider the quadratic Lyapunov function V(x)=

subscript v = velocity sensor). F = failure. xTLx. The consideration of perturbation will be

incorporated in the derivative of Lyapunov function

0.4

for stabilization of overall system. We have

0.3

. m

V ( x ) r ( q ur q ur pur pur ) 0 (A.1)

T T

0.2

(2) r 1

outputs − theta1 theta2 theta3

0.1

0 (1)

for some r>0. Substituting (2.1) into (A.1) and

rearranging the expression, we obtain

−0.1

(3)

AT L LA LBK ( LBK)T

−0.2

x

T

T T LB x (A.2)

p K u u K p 0

−0.3

u u

−0.4

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 BLT

time (sec)

where the =diag(1, 2, ..., m). (A.2) is equivalent to

35

30 A T L LA LBK ( LBK ) T

LB (A.3)

K u u K 0

T T

25

T

20

B L

control signals

15

Expanding by Schur complement and letting Q = L-1,

10

Y = KQ, and M = -1, we may have

5 (3)

0 0

(1)

(2) uY M

−5

−10

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time (sec)

Appendix B

Figure 7 Control Signals

Proof.

V. Conclusions

We need the following lemma used in the proof.

We ensure the stability of a MIMO system by

Lemma B ([8]) For any matrices M and N with

establishing LMI conditions when the system is

appropriate dimensions, we have

subject to degradation of actuators and sensors. The

theory developed in Section 3 is demonstrated by three M T N N T M M T SN N T S 1 M

inverted coupled pendulums, which show the system

for any positive-definite symmetric matrices S.

can be stabilized.

We consider the quadratic Lyapunov function V(x)=

VI. Acknowledgment xTLx. The system perturbation will be incorporated in

the derivative of Lyapunov function for stabilization

This work was supported by the Center for Autom-

of overall system. We have

ation and Intelligent Research and DARPA/ARO

grant. n m

V ( x) r (qsr qsr psr psr ) r (qur qur pur pur ) 0 (B.1)

T T T T

r 1 r 1

Appendix A

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

for some r>0 and r>0. Substituting (3.6) into (B.1) [1] R.J. Veillette, J.V. Medanic, and W.R. Perkins,

and rearranging the expression, we obtain “Design of Reliable Control Systems,” IEEE

Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 37, No.3,

x T ( A kT L LA k K Tu u K Ts s ) x

pp.290-304, March 1992.

x ( LBK K u u K ) p s x LBp u

T T T T (B.2)

0 [2] M. Fujita and E. Shimenura, “Integrity Against

p s ( K B L K u u K ) x p u B Lx

T T T T T T T

p sT ( K T Tu u K ) p s p uT p u

Multivariable Control Systems,” Automatica, vol.

where the =diag(1, 2, ..., m) and =diag(1, 2, ..., 24, No.6, pp. 765-772, 1988.

m). Use of Lemma B we have [3] M. Vidyasagar and N. Viswanadham, “Reliable

Stabilization Using A Multi-controller

x T LBpu puT B T Lx x T LSu Lx puT B T Su1 Bpu

Configuration,” Automatica, vol.21, No.5, pp.

x T LBKps psT K T B T Lx x T LBS x B T Lx psT K T S x1 Kps 599-602, 1985.

[4] Y.J. Cho, Z. Bien, and B.K. Kim, “Reliable control

x T K T T Kps psT K T T Kx x T K T T Ss T Kx psT K T Ss1 Kps

via additive redundant adaptive control,” in Proc.

where Tu u . Thus,

1989 Amer. Contr. Conf., Pittsburgh, PA., pp.

(B.2) 1899-1904, 1989.

[5] C.C. Feng and S. Phillips, “Robust Decentralized

AkT L LAk K T ( T S s ) K Ts s

xT x Control; A Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI)-based

L( S u BS x B ) LT

0

design,” Submitted to the 2017 CDC.

p s K ( S x S s ) K p s p u B S u B pu

T T 1 1 T T 1

Therefore, we require Design - Limit of Performance. Prentice-Hall

International, Inc. 1991.

AkT L LAk K T ( T S s ) K (B.4)

0 [7] S. Boyd, L. El Ghaoui, E. Feron, and V. Bala-

Ts s L( S u BS x B T ) L

krishnan, Linear Matrix Inequalities in System and

Control Theory. SIAM books, Philadelphia, 1994.

K T ( S x1 S s1 ) K 0 (B.5)

[8] K. Zhou and P.P. Khargonekar, “Robust Stab-

ilization of Linear Systems with Norm-Bounded

B T S u1 B 0 (B.6)

Time-Varying Uncertainty,” Systems and Control

Letters, Vol. 10, pp. 17-20.

Multiplying P = L-1 on both side of (B.4) and applying

Schur complement, we obtain

PA T AP W T B T BW

WT P Ts

BS x B S u

T

W T S s

1

0 0

(B.7)

sP 0

1

have

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