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REPUBLIC OF ZAMBIA

MINISTRY OF WORKS AND SUPPLY

CULVERT MANUAL
AN INTRODUCTION TO HYDRAULICS,
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Lusaka, May 2000

Prepared by: Carl-Eric Hedström


and edited by
Norconsult A.S. Nairobi, Kenya

© MWS, Lusaka, Zambia


REPUBLIC OF ZAMBIA

MINISTRY OF WORKS AND SUPPLY

CULVERT MANUAL
AN INTRODUCTION TO HYDRAULICS,
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION

Lusaka, May 2000

Prepared by: Carl-Eric Hedström


and edited by
Norconsult A.S. Nairobi, Kenya

© MWS, Lusaka, Zambia


CULVERT MANUAL SUMMARY OF CONTENTS

MODULE SUBJECT

PREFACE
A INTRODUCTION
B NON-REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES
C OTHER TYPES OF CULVERTS
D STRESS FUNCTION OF PIPES
E HYDROLOGY
F LOCATION AND ALIGNMENT
G CULVERT FOUNDATION
H EROSION PROTECTION
I MASONRY
J RING FABRICATION
K AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENTS
L ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
APPENDICES
CULVERT MANUAL ABBREVIATIONS AND GLOSSARY

PAGE NOS

PREFACE i

A INTRODUCTION
A-1 DEFINITION............................................................................................................................A 1
A-2 SELECTION OF CULVERT TYPE .........................................................................................A 2

B NON-REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES


B-1 GENERAL. ..............................................................................................................................B 1

C OTHER TYPES OF CULVERT


C-1 STEEL CULVERTS................................................................................................................ C 1
C-2 REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE CULVERTS .................................................................... C 2
C-3 MASONRY CONSTRUCTED CULVERTS ............................................................................ C 4
C-4 REINFORCED CONCRETE BOX CULVERTS ..................................................................... C 5

D STRESS FUNCTION OF PIPES


D-1 LOAD DISTRIBUTION ........................................................................................................... D 1

E HYDROLOGY
E-1 CATCHMENT AND FLOOD LEVELS.....................................................................................E 1
E-2 SIZING OF STRUCTURES ...................................................................................................E 3

F LOCATION AND ALIGNMENT


F-1 GENERAL ...............................................................................................................................F 1
F-2 PRINCIPLES OF CULVERT LOCATION ...............................................................................F 3
F-3 DEPOSITIONS IN CULVERTS...............................................................................................F 7
F-4 RAMPS ...................................................................................................................................F 8
F-5 CULVERT LENGTH................................................................................................................F 9
F-6 CROSSOVER CULVERTS...................................................................................................F 11

G CULVERT FOUNDATION
G-1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................................. G 1
G-2 BEDDING............................................................................................................................... G 3
G-3 LAYING OF CONCRETE PIPES ........................................................................................... G 4
G-4 HAUNCHING OF PIPES........................................................................................................ G 6
G-5 BACKFILLING........................................................................................................................ G 8

H EROSION PROTECTION
H-1 HEADWALLS AND WINGWALLS ........................................................................................ H 1
H-2 APRONS AND CURTAIN WALLS ........................................................................................ H 5
H-3 ENERGY DISSIPATORS ………........................................................................................... H 7
H-4 OTHER STRUCTURES ………….. ....................................................................................... H 8

I MASONRY
I-1 GENERAL….. .......................................................................................................................... I 1
CULVERT MANUAL ABBREVIATIONS AND GLOSSARY

J RING FABRICATION
J-1 GENERAL …………................................................................................................................ J 1
J-2 SELECTION OF MANUFACTURING SITE……….. ............................................................... J 2
J-3 CASTING……………………. .................................................................................................. J 3
J-4 LOADING AND TRANSPORTATION……………………. ....................................................... J 6
J-5 PRODUCTION PLANNING AND MONITORING ................................................................... J 7
J-6 KEY NOTES …………………. ................................................................................................ J 8

K AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENTS
K-1 CORROSIVE ACTION ……………........................................................................................K 1

L ROUTINE MAINTENANCE
L-1 GENERAL …. ......................................................................................................................... L 1

M GLOSSARY

N REFERENCES

APPENDICES
1-A EXAMPLE OF A FLOOD CALCULATION…. ........................................................................ 1 A
1-B EXAMPLE OF SIZING A STRUCTURE …............................................................................ 1 B
2 TYPICAL WORK PROGRAMME FOR A SINGLE LINE CULVERT ….................................... 2
3 EXCAVATION DEPTH OF CULVERT TRENCHES …. ........................................................... 3
A
INTRODUCTION

This module introduces definitions used in the Manual and


provides some guidance on the selection of culvert type.

CONTENTS

DEFINITION…….……………………………………………… A-1

SELECTION OF CULVERT TYPE…….……………………. A-2


B
NON-REINFORCED
CONCRETE PIPES

This module describes the advantages and disadvantages


of using non-reinforced concrete pipes on Unpaved Rural
Roads.

CONTENTS

GENERAL……………………………………...……………… B-1
C
OTHER TYPES OF
CULVERTS

This module describes the advantages and disadvantages


of using culverts other than non-reinforced concrete pipes
on Unpaved Rural Roads.

CONTENTS

STEEL CULVERTS…..……………………………………… C-1

REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE CULVERTS.………….. C-2

MASONRY CONSTRUCTED CULVERTS.…...………….. C-3

REINFORCED CONCRETE BOX CULVERTS.………….. C-4


D
STRESS FUNCTION OF PIPES

This module provides an introduction to the principles of


stress functions and explains the difference between
flexible and rigid pipes.

CONTENTS
LOAD DISTRIBUTION..………………………….………….. D-1
E
HYDROLOGY

This module describes the theory of assessing flood levels


and sizing of small structures on Unpaved Rural Roads.

CONTENTS

CATCHMENT AND FLOOD LEVELS...……….………….. E-1

SIZING OF STRUCTURES……………...……...………….. E-2


F
LOCATION AND ALIGNMENT

This module describes procedures for locating and setting


out of culverts.

CONTENTS

GENERAL……...………………………………….………….. F-1

PRINCIPLES OF CULVERT LOCATION..……….……….. F-2

DEPOSITION IN CULVERTS………………………………. F-3

RAMPS……….…………………………………...………….. F-4

CULVERT LENGTH…...………………………...………….. F-5

CROSSOVER CULVERTS…………………....………….. F-6


G
CULVERT FOUNDATION

This module describes the principles of pipe foundation in


natural soils and provides guidance on any improvement
measures required.

CONTENTS

GENERAL……..……………………………………………… G-1

BEDDING…………………………….……..………………… G-2

LAYING OF CONCRETE PIPES...………………………… G-3

HAUNCHING OF PIPES……………………….…………… G-4

BACKFILLING………………..……………………………… G-5
H
EROSION PROTECTION

This module describes measures required to prevent or


control erosion at culverts, drifts and other small
structures.

CONTENTS

HEADWALLS AND WINGWALLS….……………………… H-1

APRONS AND CURTAIN WALLS..………...……………… H-2

ENERGY DISSIPATORS…………………..…………...…… H-3

OTHER STRUCTURES…………………....……...………… H-4


I
MASONRY

This module describes methods and required quality


standards for masonry works on Unpaved Rural Roads.

CONTENTS

GEN

ERAL……...……………………………………………… I-1
J
RING FABRICATION

This module describes methods and required quality


standards for the fabrication of non-reinforced concrete
culvert rings.

CONTENTS

GENERAL………...…………...…………….…………...…… J-1

SELECTION OF MANUFACTURING SITE….……………. J-2

CASTING……………………………………….………...…… J-3

LOADING AND TRANSPORTATION……….………...…… J-4

PRODUCTION PLANNING AND MONITORING….….…… J-5


K
AGGRESSIVE
ENVIRONMENTS

This module describes factors to be considered in


designing culverts and small structures on Unpaved Rural
Roads in aggressive environments.

CONTENTS

CORROSIVE ACTION...……………………………………… K-1


L
ROUTINE MAINTENANCE

This module provides guidance on the routine maintenance


of culverts and small structures on Unpaved Rural Roads.

CONTENTS

GENERAL……...…………………………………………….… L-1
GLOSSARY AND
REFERENCES

This section contains a glossary of frequently used terms


and a list of relevant reference literature.

CONTENTS
GLOSSARY……………………………………………………. M

REFERENCES...………………………………………………. N
APPENDICES

This section contains additional information and examples


relevant to the modules presented under A to L.

CONTENTS

EXAMPLE OF A FLOOD CALCULATION …………….… 1-A

EXAMPLE OF SIZING A STRUCTURE ….…………….… 1-B

TYPICAL WORK PROGRAMME FOR THE


INSTALLATION OF A SINGLE LINE CULVERT………… 2

EXCAVATION DEPTH OF CULVERT TRENCHES……… 3


CULVERT MANUAL PREFACE

This Manual is intended as an introduction to culvert hydraulics. It


places greater emphasis on the principles involved and less emphasis
on the practicalities of construction. For this reason the Manual
should be used in conjunction with the culvert construction and
concrete technology training notes contained in the Technical Manual
for Labour-Based Road Works.

This Manual has been prepared with cognisance of the needs of the
Roads Department Training School in Lusaka, and caters for different
categories of trainees ranging from gang leaders to engineers.

As hydraulic factors are closely related to the environmental,


ecological and economic aspects of the location and alignment of a
road (or bridge), critical evaluations must be made in the planning
process with regard to research for alternative solutions. Some
drainage/flood problems are easily recognised and resolved, while
others may require extensive investigation before an adequate and
satisfactory solution can be developed.

Special studies and investigations should include the analysis of


environmental impacts. Topographic maps, aerial photographs and
stream flow records provide helpful preliminary drainage data, but
historical high-water levels and flood discharges are of particular
interest in establishing waterway requirements. For this purpose, local
residents should be consulted as they are often very knowledgeable
about their environment.

Many serious construction problems arise because important drainage


and water related factors were overlooked or neglected in the location
and planning phases of a project. Planning and location studies
should consider potential erosion and sedimentation problems upon
completion of the structure.

If a particular location will require frequent and expensive


maintenance, alternative locations should be considered, unless the
potentially high maintenance cost can be reduced by special design.
Reference to maintenance reports, flood reports, damage surveys
and, not least, interviews with local residents are helpful in evaluating
potential maintenance problems.

It is hoped that the principles outlined in this Manual will help to avoid
some of the pitfalls that are frequently repeated in respect of
watercourses, siltation and erosion, and the consequent high costs
incurred during maintenance and rectification.

Page i February 06
CULVERT MANUAL PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This Manual has been produced for the Roads Department Training
School in Lusaka.

I would like to acknowledge the generous help given by Mr. J. de


Blaquiere (Project Co-ordinator), Mr. S. Elvsveen (Bridge Training
Engineer) and Mr. Patrick Chinyama (Road Superintendent), who
kindly reviewed the pre-publication draft and offered constructive
comments and additions.

Carl-Eric Hedström
Technical Adviser (CTA)
Roads Department Training School / Roads Department
Lusaka, Zambia.
May 2000.

February 06 Page ii
CULVERT MANUAL INTRODUCTION A

DEFINITION A-1

A culvert can be defined as a structure provided to convey water from


the upstream side (or upper catchment) of the road to the downstream
side (or lower catchment). A culvert may be built on the line of an
existing watercourse, or constructed to carry runoff resulting from the
road.

Culverts and bridges perform similar tasks; the difference lies mainly
in their size. However bridges usually accommodate longer spans.
They consist of free-standing abutments and separate articulated
superstructures which carry the traffic.

Culverts are often made of prefabricated pipes or boxes, and are


usually set low in an embankment. They do not normally bear the
direct weight of traffic.

Culverts may be constructed using a variety of materials. The most


common types of materials used in Zambia are:

- Pre-cast concrete pipes (reinforced or non-reinforced) with butt


joints (when the ends are finished square) or rebated joints (an
interlocking joint flush with the external and internal faces of the
pipes);

- Corrugated steel pipes of prefabricated panels e.g. ARMCO


culverts;

- Single or multi-barrel reinforced concrete boxes,


prefabricated or built in situ (on site);

- Masonry constructed culverts (cement bound or dry) in the


form of a box or an arch.

Engineers working on labour-based projects must aim to design


structures based on the following criteria:

- low cost;

- simple to construct;

- high durability, and;

- maximum usage of locally available material/resources (this


being the most important factor).

Page A 1 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL INTRODUCTION A

SELECTION OF CULVERT TYPE A-2

The type of culvert selected for use in a given location is dependent


upon the hydraulic requirements as well as the strength required to
sustain the weight of fill and traffic load. Once these factors have
been established, selection is largely a matter of availability of
material, construction time and economics.

It is inevitable that some culverts will become silted or obstructed by


debris, despite the best efforts of the design engineer. For this reason
pipes of internal diameter of less than 600 mm are not recommended,
as they are difficult to clean.

Labour-based techniques use only non-reinforced concrete pipes for


culvert construction. The sizes commonly used are 600 and 900 mm
for internal diameter (D=60 or 90cm) by 900 mm length, with a wall
thickness of 75 mm.

February 06 Page A 2
CULVERT MANUAL NON-REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPES B

GENERAL B-1

As mentioned earlier, labour-based techniques use only non-


reinforced concrete pipes for culvert construction. The advantages and
disadvantages of these culverts are described below. Section C of
this manual gives a brief description of other types of culverts.

ADVANTAGES

- Non-reinforced concrete pipes are easy to fabricate, and require


readily available local material (cement included).

- They do not require expensive reinforced steel, which is also


expensive to transport.

- They do not require steel cutting and steel bending equipment,


nor do they need very skilled labour.

- Performance is very good, provided backfilling and compaction


as well as cover have been carried out to satisfaction as per
culvert specifications.

DISADVANTAGES

- Non-reinforced concrete pipes require greater concrete


thickness than reinforced pipes, and are therefore heavier and
more costly to transport.

- They are not suitable for diameters larger than 900 mm as they
become very heavy and difficult to handle without a crane.

- They require careful handling when loading, off-loading,


transporting and lowering into the pipe trench.

- They require very good foundation/bedding, backfilling, earth


cover and compaction.

Figure B.1 – Ensuring Sufficient Pipe Cover during Ramp Construction

Fill
Existing Road Level

Page B 1 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL OTHER TYPES OF CULVERTS C

STEEL CULVERTS C-1

In difficult ground conditions a flexible steel pipe has an advantage


over a rigid concrete pipe because of its ability to accommodate a
certain amount of differential settlement over the length of the culvert
without overstressing the material. Other advantages and
disadvantages are listed below.

ADVANTAGES

- Flexible steel pipes are able to withstand the massive dead load
of high embankments or the live load forces from highway,
railway and airport traffic under shallow covers.

- They are easy to handle and install. Corrugated steel culverts


are quickly assembled with a minimum of plant, using unskilled
labour. Again backfilling and loading by construction traffic can
follow immediately.

- Corrugated steel culverts are supplied in a vast range of shapes,


sizes and thickness and can be used for different types of site
conditions.

DISADVANTAGES

- Usually steel culverts have to be imported and are therefore


expensive and difficult to obtain.

- They do not have as long a service life with regard to material


durability as the manufacturers normally advertise – they tend to
corrode when exposed to aggressive environments.

Page C 1 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL OTHER TYPES OF CULVERTS C

REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE CULVERTS C-2

If properly constructed, and in non-aggressive environments, a


reinforced concrete pipe culvert is likely to have a service life in
excess of 60 years. It will almost certainly be more durable and
require less maintenance than a steel pipe. Other advantages and
disadvantages are described below.

ADVANTAGES

- Reinforced concrete pipe culverts require less earth cover,


which is very important in flat areas in order to avoid the
construction of long and costly ramps. Refer to Figure C.1.

- They are easier to load and off-load from lorries, and


consequently there is less breakage. Transportation is also
easier.

- They are easier to lower into trenches without breaking, and are
less sensitive to construction traffic load before proper backfilling
has been carried out.

- They can accommodate higher dead and live load forces, such
as those under high embankments, than non-reinforced
concrete pipe culverts.

Figure C.1 – Circular Reinforcement

Ø 12 A - 1
2

Ø 12 A - 1
1
6Ø8
1 Ø8A-1
3

Smaller Sizes-single Larger Sizes-double


Circular Reinforcements Circular Reinforcements

February 06 Page C 2
CULVERT MANUAL OTHER TYPES OF CULVERTS C

REINFORCED CONCRETE PIPE CULVERTS C-2

DISADVANTAGES

- Reinforced steel is expensive to procure (as it often has to be


imported) and costly to transport.

- Fabrication of reinforced concrete rings requires skilled labour


such as steel fixers. It is quite difficult to bend reinforced steel
bars into a perfect circular shape, and set them in the mould in a
perfect position in order to secure the correct concrete cover. If
the steel is not positioned properly, the resulting cover is
inadequate, and corrosion will commence immediately. The
ring will eventually collapse.

Figure C.2 – Photo of Tested Concrete Pipe Showing Cracks

Page C 3 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL OTHER TYPES OF CULVERTS C

MASONRY CONSTRUCTED CULVERTS C-3

Masonry culverts have the following advantages and disadvantages.

ADVANTAGES

- Masonry culverts make maximum use of locally available


materials, such as sand and stones, etc.

DISADVANTAGES

- They take a comparatively long time to install.

- They require well trained (masons) bricklayers.

- They require professionally dressed stones or a must be


constructed as an arch.

Figure C.3 – Masonry Arch Culvert

Figure C.4 – Masonry Box Culvert

- Bottom and side walls


made of stone masonry;

- Cover made of water


resistant hardwood or
reinforced concrete.

February 06 Page C 4
CULVERT MANUAL OTHER TYPES OF CULVERTS C

REINFORCED CONCRETE BOX CULVERTS C-4

Box culverts are suitable for waterway openings from 2 sq m to 15 sq


m per barrel. Box culverts are constructed as single, twin (double) or
multiple barrel. They can be prefabricated or built in situ. Their
advantages and disadvantages are listed below.

ADVANTAGES

- They have a very long service life.

- They are more durable than any other type of culvert in non-
aggressive environments.

DISADVANTAGES

- They are more difficult to construct than other culverts.

- They require very skilled labour, who are conversant with steel
bending/fixing, shuttering work and concrete mixing, i.e. having
knowledge of concrete technology.

- Prefabricated concrete boxes require very large trucks for


transport and mobile cranes to lift the sections into position on
site.

- They are costly to construct for short design periods (life).

- The construction time for box culverts built in situ is fairly long.

Figure C.5 – Single and Double Barrel Box Culverts

Road Road

Overfill H Overfill H
A
A

Key Key
D
D

Constr. Constr.
Constr.
Joint Joint
Joint
B
B

Blinding Blinding
Concrete Concrete

C W C
C W C W C

Single Barrel Box Culvert Double Barrel Box Culvert

Page C 5 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL STRESS FUNCTION OF PIPES D

LOAD DISTRIBUTION D-1

FLEXIBLE PIPES VS RIGID PIPES

A buried corrugated steel pipe is essentially a flexible conduit, which


relies only partly on its inherent strength to resist external loads. In
deflecting under load, the horizontal diameter tends to increase,
bringing into play the passive resistance of the side fill, which in turn
acts to restrain further deflection and helps to support the vertically
applied load. Pressures are uniformly distributed around the pipe and
utilise the compressive strength of the steel to carry the loads.

Rigid concrete pipes do not act in this way as deflection due to the
vertical load is negligible. Thus the horizontal earth pressure is very
small resulting in unfavourable pressure distribution around the pipe.
Consequently rigid pipes rely mostly on their inherent strength to resist
external loads.

Figure D.1 – Difference in Stress Function between Rigid and Flexible


Pipes

Rigid Pipe Flexible Pipe

Figure D.2 – Behaviour of Rigid Concrete Pipe under Loading to Rupture

Rupture

Page D 1 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL STRESS FUNCTION OF PIPES D

LOAD DISTRIBUTION D-1

Figure D.3 – Earth Pressure around Rigid Pipe under an Embankment

Figure D.4 – Pressure Cell Readings from Actual Load Tests

283kN/m2 97kN/m2

121 Flexible 121


83 Rigid 83

97
283

Figure D.4 illustrates pressure cell readings from actual load tests
under 10.7 metres of fill, carried out by the Roadway Committee of the
American Railway Engineering Association (AREA).

The tests illustrate clearly that flexible pipes in compacted backfill have
less load transmitted to them than the weight of the column of earth
over the pipe.

Rigid pipes have a load greater than the earth column transmitted to
them.

February 06 Page D 2
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

CATCHMENT AND FLOOD LEVELS E-1

INTRODUCTION

Drainage structures and associated works, such as scour protection,


account for a considerable part of the total cost of a road works
project. Consequently the factors associated with drainage design
must receive careful and detailed attention.

The design of a drainage structure is based on the worst flood


situation expected at the site location. The area of land draining to the
structure site is the catchment and the drainage structure is at the
catchment exit (Figure E.1).

When rain falls on a drainage catchment, some of the water may be


prevented from reaching the catchment exit, while some may be
delayed en route. Losses from precipitation arise from infiltration,
evaporation, storage in surface depressions and interception by
vegetation cover.

The excess precipitation travels by the shortest hydraulic route to the


catchment exit. The determination of the volume of this runoff and the
rate at which it arrives at the catchment exit should be the prime
objective of the design engineer.

The factors affecting flood peaks and volumes may be conveniently


grouped as those affecting rainfall and runoff. The principal factor used
to link rainfall and runoff is the time taken for the catchment to respond
to the rainfall input. Time of concentration (Tc) should be adopted as
the measure of the catchment response time. This is the time for the
surface runoff from the most hydraulically remote part of the
catchment area to reach the point being considered. This remotest
point is not necessarily the most distant point in the drainage area.

The design flow is established by selecting the appropriate


combinations of rainfall and runoff characteristics that can reasonably
be expected to occur. This is calculated in consideration of a selected
design return period. The design criterion is usually the maximum flow
carried by the drainage structure with no flooding or a limited amount
of flooding to be exceeded on the average of once during the design
return period. However, selection of a proper design storm does not
preclude the possibility of a larger storm destroying the drainage
structure immediately after it is built, since the selection is based on
statistical probabilities.

Page E 1 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

CATCHMENT AND FLOOD LEVELS E-1

The accuracy with which flood estimates can be made depends on the
amount and quality of relevant information available. Practical
experience under local conditions and the application of sound
judgement are particularly important in determining the data needed
for the estimation of design storm.

Figure E.1 – Example of a Catchment Area Scale 1:50,000

SIZE OF CATCHMENT AT VARIOUS POTENTIAL CROSSING SITES:


- SITE 1: CATCHMENT AREA RIVER A
- SITE 2: CATCHMENT AREAS RIVER A + RIVER B
- SITE 3: CATCHMENT AREAS RIVER A + RIVER B + RIVER C
2
THE SIZE OF THE CATCHMENT AREA FOR RIVER A IN THE EXAMPLE IS APPROX. 16.5 km . THE AREA IS BEST
2
MEASURED BY COUNTING SQUARES OF CO-ORDINATES. (1 SQUARE IN EXAMPLE = 1 km ).

February 06 Page E 2
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

CATCHMENT AND FLOOD LEVELS E-1

RAINFALL

In the design process two important characteristics of the “design”


storm are considered:

I) the duration

and

II) intensity of rainfall.

Zambia has a very distinct rainy season, with the heaviest rainfall
normally recorded during the months of November to March.

The country receives most of its rainfall from convection processes.


Showers and thunderstorms result from the convective rising of warm
moist air caused by local overheating of the land surface and
subsequent condensation and precipitation. Most floods from small
catchments in Zambia are the result of convective thunderstorms,
which generally yield high intensity short duration rainfall.

Mean monthly and annual rainfall for a representative selection of


meteorological stations in the different parts of the country is
summarised in Figure E.2.

The variation in monthly and annual rainfall from year to year is


considerable and there appears to be no pattern in the occurrence of
“wet” and “dry” years in Zambia.

The following characteristics are noteworthy:

a) The annual rainfall, in extreme cases, may be about twice the


normal annual rainfall or as low as, or less than half, the normal
annual rainfall;

b) The variability of monthly rainfall is much higher than the variability


of annual rainfall, especially in the “dry” season;

c) The maximum daily rainfall may considerably exceed the mean


monthly rainfall in all months of the dry season.

Because of the variability of rainfall in Zambia it is important that the


design engineer is aware of this and exercises the appropriate degree
of caution in estimating floods and runoff.

Page E 3 February 06
MEAN MONTHLY, MAX/MIN ANNUAL AND HIGHEST DAILY RAINFALL

February 06
MONTHLY MEAN (mm) ANNUAL (mm) DAILY (mm)
STATION
Jan Feb March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Mean Max Min Max
CULVERT MANUAL

1. Choma 206 157 102 11 5 1 0 1 4 29 101 110 727 1,286 254 134

2. Kasama 316 335 254 71 7 0 0 1 6 24 95 208 1,317 1,975 712 143

3. Lusaka 213 141 44 34 2 0 0 0 1 14 73 92 614 1,033 233 76

4. Livingstone 203 114 65 4 3 0 0 0 8 11 106 81 595 1,005 231 82

5. Mbala 310 220 232 72 4 0 0 0 3 6 86 207 1,140 1,612 638 66

6. Mongu 245 215 84 5 1 0 0 0 2 16 91 120 779 1,186 372 77

7. Mumbwa 210 148 61 23 5 0 0 0 2 12 64 144 669 1,286 210 69


Figure E.2 - Rainfall Parameters for Selected Stations

8. Mwinilunga 196 333 232 24 0 0 0 1 19 47 197 296 1,345 1,578 900 80

9. Sesheke 152 111 24 1 3 0 0 0 2 13 91 82 479 851 184 68


HYDROLOGY

CATCHMENT AND FLOOD LEVELS

10. Zambezi 171 215 120 4 1 0 0 0 7 41 173 155 887 1,324 526 72

THIS TABLE HAS BEEN PREPARED BASED ON DATA FOR PERIOD FROM 1993 TO 1998, PROVIDED BY THE METEOROLOGICAL DEPARTMENT
E

E-1

Page E 4
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

CATCHMENT AND FLOOD LEVELS E-1

Storms in Zambia vary: some cover an area of a few square kilometres


while others spread over hundreds of square kilometres. They are
seldom uniform over a catchment area, resulting in an uneven
distribution of precipitation. Generally the larger the catchment area,
the greater the variation in depth of precipitation over the catchment.

As mentioned earlier, duration and intensity of rainfall are the main


parameters to be considered in estimating a worst possible flood
situation. Most commonly accepted assessment procedures entail the
following tasks:

Step 1 Statistical data on the rainfall pattern of the project area is


collected, preferably in the form of an intensity/duration
diagram as schematically depicted in Figure E.3;

Step 2 An appropriate design storm duration (time of


concentration) is calculated depending on the prevailing
local characteristics of a particular site. The factors to be
considered will be discussed in detail later;

Step 3 The occurrence period (in years) is selected for the worst
possible flood situation;

Step 4 - Intensity is obtained from the intensity/duration diagram.

Figure E.3 – Schematic Rainfall Intensity / Duration Diagram


Intensity STEP 1
(mm/hour) (Obtain diagram)
STEP 3
(Select curve)

STEP 4
STEP 2

Time of Concentration (Minutes)

Page E 5 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

CATCHMENT AND FLOOD LEVELS E-1

For major structures the assessment is based on specific data from the particular
project area. However, for small numbers of minor crossings, it may be sufficiently
accurate to use the diagram in Figure E.4, which should largely reflect typical
average Zambian rainfall intensities.

Figure E.4 – Typical Rainfall Intensity / Duration Diagram

90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200
TIME OF CONCENTRATION (IN MINUTES)
10 YEAR

PERIOD
FLOOD

80
70
60
50
2 YEAR
1
0

PERIOD
FLOOD

40
30
20
10
0
160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

RAINFALL INTENSITY IN MM / HOUR

February 06 Page E 6
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

CATCHMENT AND FLOOD LEVELS E-1

RUNOFF

The numerous factors affecting runoff may vary considerably within


the same catchment over a period of time as a result of changing land
use. In addition, a catchment may display different runoff
characteristics when responding to storms of different types. The
relationship of rainfall to runoff should therefore be established
considering the probable average hydrological condition of the
catchment consistent with the design return period.

Runoff is affected by the following factors:

a) Time of concentration (see previous definition)

Time of concentration Tc is used to define the design storm


duration. It is a parameter primarily related to the physiographic
features of a catchment.

Where a basin, such as a lake, swamp or dam, lies on the longest


collector, it will have the effect of attenuating the flood peak even if
the basin happened to be full at the commencement of the storm.

b) Climatic factors

The type of precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, wind,


humidity and antecedent moisture condition can all influence the
hydrological response of a catchment.

Engineering experience and judgement should be relied upon to


assess the possible effects of some of these factors.

c) Area of catchment

Runoff is directly related to the area of catchment, although not


linearly. A small catchment of less than 10 km2 is, because of
overland flow, generally sensitive to high intensity, short duration
rainfall and to land use. However, on larger catchments the effects
of channel flow become pronounced and the sensitivities tend to
diminish.

d) Shape and orientation of catchment

The shape and orientation of a catchment play an important part in


catchment response. Catchments with irregular shapes, such as
those with two or more main collectors meeting upstream of a
culvert, should be analysed using applicable methods.

Page E 7 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

CATCHMENT AND FLOOD LEVELS E-1

e) Slope of catchment

Average catchment slope is important in establishing the velocity of


overland flow in a catchment and in determining rainfall-runoff
coefficients.

f) Permeability/Infiltration

Soil permeability is one of the most important factors which


influences storm precipitation losses.

Changes in soil permeability within a large catchment should be


taken into account when determining runoff.

g) Land cover, use and treatment

Cover is taken to mean any material or plants covering the soil and
providing protection from the impact of rainfall.

The design engineer should attempt to establish the average


conditions, for example, interception in the form of retention,
detention and infiltration, which are likely to prevail in the catchment
during the design return period.

DESIGN FLOOD DETERMINATION

Various methods for the determination of the design flood can be


used. But since very few of the catchments are gauged, the number
of suitable methods is limited.

As rainfall - runoff data are seldom available for small catchments, the
use of the Rational Method is recommended.

This method has been one of the most widely used methods for
predicting peak discharges on ungauged catchments. The principle
risk in the use of this method is the subjectiveness in selecting a
representative runoff coefficient C. It is recommended that direct
application of the Rational Formula be limited to catchments of minor
importance and less than about 10 km2 in area.

The basic form of the equation is:

Q = CxIxA
3.6

February 06 Page E 8
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

CATCHMENT AND FLOOD LEVELS E-1

Where

Q = flood peak at catchment exit (m3/s)


C = the Rational runoff coefficient
I = the average rainfall intensity over the whole catchment (mm/h)
A = catchment area (km2)

The main assumptions inherent to the method are:

a) The design storm produces a uniform rainfall intensity over the


entire catchment.

b) The relationship between rainfall intensity and rate of runoff is


constant for a particular catchment.

c) Time of concentration Tc is the time taken for rainwater to flow


from the most hydraulically remote point to the catchment exit.

d) The flood peak at the catchment exit occurs at the time of


concentration (Tc ).

e) The design storm duration is equal to the time of concentration


(Tc ).

f) The runoff coefficient C is constant and independent of rainfall


intensity.

Small catchments adjacent to the road without a defined watercourse


can be assumed to have a time of concentration of 10 minutes.

For larger catchments with a defined watercourse the time of


concentration can be calculated by the widely accepted Kirpich
formula, which relates time of concentration to the length and slope of
the catchment main stream as follows:

0.87 x L2 0.385

Tc = ( 1000 x S )
Where

L = length of main stream (km)


S = average slope of main stream (m/m)

Page E 9 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

CATCHMENT AND FLOOD LEVELS E-1

Once the time of concentration has been determined, the


corresponding rainfall can then be obtained from an intensity -
duration curve for the selected frequency period (return period).

The runoff coefficient is an integrated value representing many factors


influencing the rainfall relationship, i.e. topography, soil permeability,
vegetation cover and land use. The runoff coefficient can be estimated
from the table below:

Table E.1 - Runoff Coefficient Guidelines

RUNOFF COEFFICIENT C = CS + CK + CV
CS (TOPOGRAPHY) CK (SOILS) CV (VEGETATION)

VERY FLAT <1 % 0.03 SAND & GRAVEL 0.04 FOREST 0.04

UNDULATING1 - 10 % 0.08 SANDY CLAYS 0.08 FARMLAND 0.11

HILLY 10 - 20 % 0.16 CLAY & LOAM 0.16 GRASSLAND 0.21

MOUNTAINOUS>20% 0.26 SHEET ROCK 0.26 NO VEGETATION 0.28

The size of the catchment area can usually be determined from


1:50,000 topographical maps by delineating the watershed line, this
being the limit from which surface water can flow to the catchment exit
(also see example in Figure E.1). The length and slope of
watercourses can also be determined from the topographical maps.

It must be emphasised that results of flood design calculations should


always be compared with field observations on river banks and water
course cross section profiles. Interviews with local farmers and other
road users can also provide good indications of expected flood levels.

The design flow derived from the Rational Method is checked against
the highest flood levels determined from experience or local advice,
the calculation of the cross sectional area of the channel in flood
conditions and the estimated storm water flow velocity at the site.

February 06 Page E 10
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

SIZING OF STRUCTURES E-2

FLOW VELOCITY AND WATERWAY AREA

Having determined the quantity of water which will pass through the
culvert, the next step is to design a structure of sufficient capacity to
discharge the expected flood volume. The required waterway area is
calculated by dividing the discharge over the velocity according to
following formula:

Q
A=
V

Where

A= Waterway area of culvert in m2 (cross section area of


culvert pipes in square metres);

Q= Peak flood discharge from catchment area in m3/s (cubic


metres per second);

V= Velocity of water passing the culvert in m/s (metres per


second)

Because of its hydraulic characteristics, a culvert generally increases


the velocity of flow above that in the natural channel. High velocities
are critical immediately downstream of the culvert outlet and the scour
potential from the resulting energy is a factor to be considered in
culvert design. In addition abrasion of the concrete structure may take
place if the velocity is higher than 4m/sec. As a lower limit, a velocity
of at least 0.5m/sec should be observed, which normally will be
sufficient for self-cleaning of the pipe.

Figure E.4 illustrates the complexity of the flow characteristics in a


culvert.

Figure E.4 – Culvert Flow Characteristics

Page E 11 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

SIZING OF STRUCTURES E-2

In cases where the waterway area of the culvert is substantially less


than the cross section area of the upstream channel, the water will
submerge the inlet and might reach levels higher than the road,
resulting in an overtopping of the structure.

Figure E.5 depicts the difference between an unsubmerged inlet of


sufficient waterway area and a submerged culvert of insufficient
waterway area.

Figure E.5 – Unsubmerged and Submerged Culvert Inlets

Unsubmerged Culvert Inlet: Hw / D ≤ 1 (The Headwater / Culvert Depth


ratio is less or equals to one.)
Headwater Depth (Hw)
Culvert Depth (D)

Submerged Culvert Inlet: Hw / D > 1 (The Headwater / Culvert Depth


ratio is bigger than one.)
Headwater Depth (Hw)

Culvert Depth (D)

The ratio between water depth in the upstream channel and the inlet
height is normally defined as Headwater / Culvert Depth Ratio.

All culverts should be designed to carry the design frequency flood


with a headwater depth that does not materially increase the size of
the flooded upstream area. This is particularly critical in urban areas.
In rural areas allowable headwater depths should be determined by
field conditions which may vary considerably depending on
circumstances. However, the design engineer has to balance the cost
of repair and inconvenience to traffic against the additional cost of the
structure. A headwater culvert depth ratio (Hw/D) equal to 1.2 is
recommended for cases where insufficient data is available to predict
the flooding effect from headwater depth.

February 06 Page E 12
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

SIZING OF STRUCTURES E-2

The water velocity in a culvert basically depends on the following main


parameters:

- Velocity in the upstream channel;

- Geometric design of inlet and outlet structures;

- Gradient of the culvert;

- Size and shape of the culvert cross section area;

- Roughness of the pipe material surface;

- Headwater / culvert depth ratio;

- Velocity in the downstream channel.

Culverts should be laid at gradients that render a non-silting and a


non-erosive velocity, ideally between 1 and 3.5 m/s. This is
particularly important in sandy semi-arid regions which experience
sporadic high intensity cloud bursts.

Scour velocity is defined as the critical speed of flow (or runoff) at


which erosion of the earth surface occurs. Suggested scour velocities
for different streambed materials are shown in Figure E.6.

On the basis of the peak flow discharge for the selected return period
and the headwater - culvert depth ratio, the required number and size
of pipes can is determined using a nomograph as shown in Figure E.7.

EXAMPLE USING DATA FROM FIGURES E.6 AND E.7:

CONDITIONS: - Culvert to be installed in stream bed of fine gravel material;


- One single culvert line ø 0.90m planned;
- Headwater height of 1.10m above stream bed allowed;
- Dense vegetation.

QUESTIONS: - What is the discharge capacity of the planned structure ?


- Are special erosion protection measures required?

ANSWER: - Hw/D ratio = 1.10m/0.90m = 1.2


- Discharge capacity Q = 1.2m3/sec
- Velocity in full pipe V = 1.9m/sec
- Guidance value for scour protection velocity for this material
type is V < 2.4m/sec; special erosion protection measures are
therefore not required.

Page E 13 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

SIZING OF STRUCTURES E-2

Figure E.6 - Guidance Values For Scour Velocities

February 06 Page E 14
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

SIZING OF STRUCTURES E-2

Figure E.7 - Nomograph For Pipe Culverts

Example page E 13:

Q = 1.2m3/sec
V = 1.9m/sec

Page E 15 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

SIZING OF STRUCTURES E-2

Using nomographs will provide sufficiently accurate results for pipe


diameters of approximately 2.0 metres. For larger structures a more
comprehensive investigation may be necessary.

INLET AND OUTLET CONTROLS

The principal approach in analysing the flow characteristics in a culvert


is based on a detailed computation of energy potentials at various
points along the watercourse. Calculation results are then best
depicted in energy line diagrams.

For a simplified assessment of the energy required to pass a given


quantity of water through a culvert the following formula can be
applied:

H = Hu - Hd

Where

H = Culvert Operating Head


Hu = Upstream Head
Hd = Downstream Head

The diagram in Figure E.8 depicts a typical energy line and operating
head for a culvert. It should be noted that the gradient of the energy
line for a culvert is always falling and located above the water surface.

Figure E.8 – Culvert Operating Head


Upstream
Downstream

Energy Line

H
Hu
Hd

February 06 Page E 16
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

SIZING OF STRUCTURES E-2

It can further be said that the Culvert Operating Head (H) also equals
to the sum of main energy losses as follow:

H = He + Hf + Ho

Where

H = Culvert Operating Head


He = Entry Loss
Hf = Friction Loss
Ho = Loss at Outlet

These losses are dependent on the water velocity and are to be


calculated for each individual case using the following formulae (note
that the higher the velocity the greater the losses):

He = (V2/2g) x Ke

Hf = (V2/2g) x (f x L/D)

Ho = (V2/2g) x Ko

Where

V = flow velocity (m/s)


g = acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/s2)
L = culvert length (m)
D = culvert internal diameter (m)

The coefficients Ke and f depend on the entry size and shape. For a
typical concrete culvert the following values can be used:

Ke can be taken as 0.15


f can be taken as 0.016
Ko is assumed to be 1.0 for all pipes.

Therefore

H = (V2/2g) x [(f x L/D) + (Ke + Ko)]

Hence for concrete culverts:

H = (V2/19.6) x [(0.016 x L/D) + 1.15]

Figure E.9 illustrates the head and water surface for various depths of
headwater, while Figure E.10 provides a typical example for
calculating the required Culvert Operating Head.

Page E 17 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL HYDROLOGY E

SIZING OF STRUCTURES E-2

Figure E.9 – Head (H) and Water Surface for Various Depths of Headwater

Example A

H
Hu

Example B

H
Hu

Example C

Hu H

Example D

Hu H

Figure E.10 – Typical Calculation for Culvert Operating Head:

QUESTION: A concrete pipe culvert of Ø 1.0m and 20.0m in length is to be


designed for a discharge capacity of 2.0m3. What is the
required head to produce the specified discharge?

ANSWER: First, the velocity is calculated by dividing the discharge


capacity over the pipe cross section area:
V=Q /A = Q / π x (Ø/2) 2
V = 2.0 m3/sec / 3.14 x (0.5m) 2 = 2.55 m3/sec
Next, the following formula is applied:

H = (V2/19.6) x [(0.016 x L/D) + 1.15]

H = (2.552/19.6) x [(0.016 x 20/1) + 1.15] = 0.49 m

February 06 Page E 18
CULVERT MANUAL LOCATION AND ALIGNMENT F

GENERAL F-1

Culvert location deals with the horizontal and vertical alignment of the
culvert with respect to both the stream and the road. It is important for
the hydraulic performance of the culvert, stream stability, construction
and maintenance costs, as well as for prevention of damage by
erosion.

Four points are worth listing here:

- Where a road crosses a valley, the lowest point requires a vent,


whether there is an established stream or not.

- Where there is an established stream, the culvert should follow


the existing alignment unless the alignment can be improved.

- The gradient of the culvert should be the same as the gradient


of the stream.

- Measures may be necessary to ensure that the watercourse


does not move, as this could cause severe damage, and the
consequent change of location of the culvert would be
expensive.

In addition to venting at the lowest point, it is good practise to install


culverts for cross drainage at regular intervals down a long grade.
This avoids the necessity of building a large culvert at the bottom of
the grade, and may also provide the opportunity for safer dispersal of
water in smaller mitre drains on the lower slope.

The appropriate frequency of these cross drains is best decided on the


basis of local experience, and depends on gradient, soil
characteristics, intensity of rainfall and related factors. As a general
rule, there should be at least one culvert every 300m, unless the
road follows a ridge.

Table F.1 – Recommended Culvert Intervals for Different Gradients

Road Gradient Culvert Interval In addition, scour checks are required as


% (m) follows:
(Good Soil) (Poor Soil)
2 240 Not required Not required
4 200 Not required 15m
6 160 15m 7.5m
8 120 7.5m 4m
10 100 5m 2.5m
12 80 4m Lining with masonry
15 80 Lining with masonry Lining with masonry

Page F 1 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL LOCATION AND ALIGNMENT F

GENERAL F-1

The gradient of a culvert is important because it affects future


maintenance. If it is too steep, it will encourage erosion of the stream
bed and the outlet.

If it is less steep than the stream, there is likely to be sedimentation or


siltation.

A gradient of 2 to 3% (percent) is advisable in areas where silt is


carried in the flow. A minimum of 0.5 % is recommended for clear
water.

Figure F.1 – Reducing Water Velocity using Check Dams and Drop Inlets

a) Steep Culvert Gradient Resulting in Erosion

b) Installing Scour Checks to Reduce Velocity

c) Building Drop-inlet to Reduce Culvert Gradient

February 06 Page F 2
CULVERT MANUAL LOCATION AND ALIGNMENT F

GENERAL F-1

It is also important that the culvert invert is set at the same level as the
natural streambed.

Culverts are frequently set low to avoid humps on the road above.
This results in silting and consequent reduction in the waterway area.

Figure F.2 – Impact of Invert Level on Effective Area

EFFECTIVE HEIGHT

H1

EFFECTIVE AREA H2

If the road embankment is not high enough to provide adequate cover


above the pipe, the ditch has to be lowered on both sides of the road
or the embankment must be raised. This may necessitate widening
the side slopes, and demonstrates the importance of detailing
drainage structures early in the design of a road.

Figure F.3 – Ditch Layout (with Lowered Ditches and Widened Side Slopes)

min. 15.0 m min. 15.0 m


4.10m
min.

min. 15.0 m min. 15.0 m

Page F 3 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL LOCATION AND ALIGNMENT F

GENERAL F-1

If an established stream crosses the road alignment at a skewed


angle, it is usually better to follow the line of the stream with a skewed
culvert, even though construction costs will increase because of the
greater length.

Figure F.4 – A Skewed Culvert

Road Centre Line

Culvert Centre Line

An abrupt change in direction of flow at the inlet and outlet can result
in severe erosion or wash out when heavy rains cause maximum flow
to occur.

Where a stream and road interact, it may also be necessary to


stabilise a shifting channel or even move it to improve the geometry.

The principal objectives here are:

- To avoid a bend at either end of the culvert if possible.

- If a bend is unavoidable, to place it at the outlet.

- Any change of stream channel must be constructed so that


there is no possibility of the stream regaining its original course.

- The ideal grade line for a culvert is one that produces neither
silting nor excessive scour.

February 06 Page F 4
CULVERT MANUAL CULVERT LOCATION F

PRINCIPLES OF CULVERT LOCATION F-2

In general the flowline of a culvert should conform as nearly as


practicable to the gradient and direction of the streambed or channel,
as illustrated below.

Figure F.5 – Recommended Culvert Flowline


Poor Alignment Good Alignment

Examples of Steam Re-alignments:


Dam
Old channel
Old channel
New channel New channel

(Stream bends eliminated) (Channel length reduced)

Old channel

New channel

(Bend after structure)

The above figure clearly illustrates that a stream should have as direct
as possible an entrance and exit to a culvert. Abrupt changes in
direction will cause turbulence and the likelihood of scouring in some
parts of the stream and silting in others.

Page F 5 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL LOCATION AND ALIGNMENT F

PRINCIPLES OF CULVERT LOCATION F-2

For assessment of size and proper location of a culvert, it is usually


helpful to interview people who have been living in the area for a long
time about their recollections, particularly with regard to the following:

- the highest known flood level


- the ordinary flood level
- the lowest water level
- eventual occurrence of flash floods

However, this type of information is variable in its reliability and it is


better to make such inquiries by talking to people individually rather
than in groups. It is also useful to look for natural indicators, such as
high flood level marks.

February 06 Page F 6
CULVERT MANUAL LOCATION AND ALIGNMENT F

DEPOSITION IN CULVERTS F-3

Deposition occurs in culverts because the capacity of flow within the


culvert to transport sediment is less than in the stream.

FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO DEPOSITION IN CULVERTS

- At moderate flow rates, the culvert cross-section is larger than


that of the stream. Thus the flow depth and the capacity to
transport sediment is reduced.

- Point bars form on the inside of stream bends, and culvert inlets
placed at bends in streams will be subjected to deposition in the
same manner. This effect is most pronounced in multiple-barrel
culverts with the barrel on the inside of the curve often
becoming almost totally clogged with sediment deposits.

- Abrupt changes to a flatter grade in the culvert or in the channel


adjacent to the culvert will induce deposition. Gravel and cobble
deposits are common downstream from the break in grade
because of the reduced transport capacity in the flatter section.

- Deposition usually occurs at flow rates smaller than the design


flow. The deposits may be removed during larger floods,
depending upon the relative transport capacity of flow in the
stream and in the culvert. Compaction and composition of the
deposits, flow duration and ponding depth above the culvert are
other factors contributing to the self-cleansing capacity of the
culvert.

- The gradient downstream of a culvert should be studied for as


long a distance as is necessary to be certain that ponding in the
stream does not affect outflow through the culvert.

A culvert should have a gradient such that the water velocity is


sufficient to prevent solid particles sinking to the bottom and being
deposited in the culvert.

The culvert must be self-cleansing, and in order to achieve this, the


water velocity should be at least 0.5 to 0.6 m/sec.

The outlet velocity of a culvert is the velocity measured at the


downstream end of the culvert and is usually higher than the
maximum natural stream velocity. This higher velocity can cause
streambed scour and bank erosion for a limited distance downstream
from the culvert outlet. Therefore in some cases it may be necessary
to use some type of energy dissipation device or outlet protection (see
SectionH).

Page F 7 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL LOCATION AND ALIGNMENT F

RAMPS F-4

For culverts in flat terrain, the vertical alignment of the road usually
needs to be adjusted to achieve adequate cover of the culvert barrel.
The road may need to be ramped over the culvert. The ramp should
have a gradient of less than 5%, and extend at least 20 metres either
side of the culvert (refer to Figure F.6 below) to achieve a smooth and
acceptable vertical alignment.

When determining the invert level of a culvert, it could be an


advantage to consider raising the level of the road, at least in some
locations, i.e. ramping of the road as mentioned above.

This method should be used in flat areas and for watercourses with
shallow gradients, because in these circumstances a culvert set too
low simply silts up, while a culvert set too high would cause silting
upstream and possibly erosion at the outfall.

Raising the vertical alignment (road profile) in some locations will also
allow/improve drainage discharge to the adjoining land (the gradient
should be carefully studied at the discharge side).

Figure F.6 – Typical Raised Road Profile over Culvert

Figure F.6 above shows a typical example of raised road profile over a
culvert (ramping) in order to allow the culvert to be installed at the
correct invert level.

As a general principle on Unpaved Rural Roads, the alignment of the


culvert should take precedence over the vertical alignment of the road,
i.e. the level of the road should be adjusted if necessary to
accommodate a satisfactory vertical watercourse alignment. If this is
not done, the drainage system will not function properly and will
require frequent maintenance.

February 06 Page F 8
CULVERT MANUAL LOCATION AND ALIGNMENT F

CULVERT LENGTH F-5

The length of a culvert in an embankment can be determined


graphically or mathematically as shown in Figure F.7 below.

Figure F.7 – Example of Calculating Culvert Length

W = 5.50 m
C/L

H(c/L) = 2.00m
S = 1:2 S = 1:2
(50%) (50%)

G=3%

A B
L (outlet) = ?? L(inlet) = ??

The figure above illustrates a culvert in an embankment with the


following specifications:

carriageway = 5.50 m
height of embankment (at centre line) = 2.00 m
side slope ratio = 1:2 (50%).

A typical calculation is set out below:

With a side slope ratio of 1:2, and an average embankment height of


2.0m, the approximate horizontal distances of the slopes is 2 x 4.00m.
The approximate total horizontal length of the culvert is therefore:

(2 x 4.00 m) + 5.50 m = 13.50 m

The accurate horizontal and vertical location of points A and B can be


determined by use of following formulae:

L(inlet) = {G x (S x W/2 + H) : (S + G)} : G


L(outlet) = {G x (S x W/2 + H) : (S - G)} : G
An application of the formulae for example in Figure F.7 would give:

L(inlet) = {0.03 x (0.5 x 5.5m/2 + 2m) : (0.5 + 0.03)} :0.03 = 6.37m


L(outlet)= {0.03 x (0.5 x 5.5m/2 + 2m) : (0.5 - 0.03)} :0.03 = 7.18m
Total accurate horizontal length of culvert is therefore 13.54m

Page F 9 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL LOCATION AND ALIGNMENT F

CULVERT LENGTH F-5

Figure F.8 – Example of Actual Pipe Length

3%

4.43 m 5.50 m 3.61 m


13.54 m

The horizontal distance from A to B has now been established, but the
culvert is designed to be laid on a slope of 3%. The actual length is
calculated as follows:

Firstly the following formula is used:

Vertical Rise / Horizontal Distance x 100 = Slope in %

i.e. VR / 13.54 m x 100 % = 3 %


VR = 3 % x 13.54 m / 100 % = 0.406 m.

Then, using Pythagorus’ Theorem, the length of the culvert on a slope


is calculated:

(Hypotenuse)2 = (Vertical Rise)2 + (Horizontal Distance)2

i.e. Hypotenuse = √ (0.4062 + 13.542) = 13.546

Therefore the actual culvert length is 13.546 m.

For most culverts on Unpaved Rural Roads this difference between


horizontal and actual pipe length will be negligible. However for some
specially designed structures in mountainous terrain with pipe
gradients of more than 10%, the differences can be substantial and
may to be taken into account for the number of culvert rings required.

February 06 Page F 10
CULVERT MANUAL LOCATION AND ALIGNMENT F

CROSSOVER CULVERTS F-6

On some minor roads, ditches cross small entrances and are blocked
either deliberately or by the action of traffic.

Where pipe culverts are installed, they are often placed away from the
road to reduce the length. It is better for long term performance of the
road to install pipe culverts at the outset and locate them as shown in
figure below.

Figure F.9 – Recommended Location for Crossover Culverts

Alternative location
Entrance
for culvert

side
Ditch
Preferred location

C
L Road

Where ditches are spaced away from the carriageway, culverts should
be built from ditch to ditch, not just across the width of the pavement,
in order to move the location of possible erosion damage away from
the pavement. Building the culvert long enough to reach the base of
the embankment also reduces the additional cost of building high
headwalls.

Page F 11 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL CULVERT FOUNDATION G

GENERAL G-1

A stable and uniform foundation is necessary for satisfactory


performance of any culvert. The foundation must have sufficient load
bearing capacity to maintain the culvert in proper alignment and
sustain the weight of backfill or fill material placed over the culvert.

The foundation should be checked for hard or soft spots due to rocks
or low load bearing capacity soils. The following measures should be
noted:

- Uneven foundation: when the excavation crosses soft or hard


spots, the foundation should be made as uniform as possible by
excavating rocks, clay pockets, etc., below the proposed
foundation level and replacing them with good selected granular
material.

- Soft foundation: all soft unstable material should be excavated


and backfilled to foundation level with granular material, e.g.
sand/gravel mixture, crushed stone or well graded laterite.

- Swampy foundation: where deep unstable foundations are


encountered which cannot be stabilised with granular material
or timber, fascines can be used to spread the load.

- Rock foundations: rock should be excavated to at least 250


mm below the foundation level. The excavated area should be
wide enough to prevent the pipe resting directly on rock at any
point. It should then be backfilled to provide a cushion for the
pipe.

A culvert made of rigid concrete sections will not tolerate differential


settlement unless it is specially designed for such conditions. Figure
G.1 below illustrates the effect of differential settlement on a house
that is founded partly on clay and partly on rock.

Figure G.1 – Effects of Differential Settlement

Page G 1 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL CULVERT FOUNDATION G

GENERAL G-1

The figure below shows the effect of partial settlement due to an


uneven foundation with a soft spot.

Figure G.2 – Effects of Partial Settlement on Pipe Culverts

February 06 Page G 2
CULVERT MANUAL CULVERT FOUNDATION G

BEDDING G-2

Once a stable and uniform foundation has been provided, it is then


necessary to prepare the bedding in accordance with the requirements
set forth in the plans and specifications. Important functions of the
bedding are to level out any irregularities in the foundation, ensure
uniform support along the barrel of each culvert ring, and provide for
distribution of the load-bearing reaction around the lower periphery of
the culvert.

Details of the bedding requirements are normally given in


specifications and standard drawings. However, a couple of
commonly used methods are described below.

The pipe should be laid on specified bedding material shaped to fit the
lower one-tenth of the external diameter as illustrated below, in order
to give proper support to the barrel (Figure G.3 a). The shape of the
bed should be controlled with a culvert template. Experience has
shown that this is not easy to achieve in in-situ material; therefore the
alternative shown in Figure G.3 b) below is more practical and easier
to carry out.

The width of the trench should be equal to the external diameter plus
0.60m, while the depth of trench should in principle be equivalent to
the diameter plus the cover. For further information with regard to
depth of excavation for different soil types (subgrade) is given in
Appendix 3.

Bedding material should not contain large stones as these could


damage the culvert rings under loading. Sandy material or fine laterite
is suitable.

Figure G.3 – Specifications for Culvert Bedding

0.30m D 0.30m 0.30m D 0.30m

Selected
Material

Min. D/10
0.20m

Page G 3 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL CULVERT FOUNDATION G

LAYING OF CONCRETE PIPES G-3

Laying of pipes and backfilling the trench should take place as soon as
possible after excavating the trench. This minimises problems and
delays due to surface or groundwater which cause instability of the
trench and limits the duration of possible traffic obstruction periods.

When the bed is satisfactorily prepared the individual concrete rings


should be carefully lowered into place and aligned. The space
between the pipes should be about 1 cm. The joints should be
mortared and finished smoothly inside the barrel. The outer joints
should be protected with banana leaves or other material to assist
curing of the mortar and protect it from backfill material.

The figure below shows the use of profiles (grade boards), set at a
fixed height above the invert level of the pipe (e.g. 1.0 m is very
common) and the level controlled by use of a traveller.

Figure G.4 – Use of Profiles in Pipe Laying

Sight Rail

a
b
C/L Rod
c

Legend:

a = Sighting line
b = Centre line
c = Profile height above invert

February 06 Page G 4
CULVERT MANUAL CULVERT FOUNDATION G

LAYING OF CONCRETE PIPES G-3

Where a single pipe line is to be installed, line and level may be


controlled by stretching a string line between dumpy pegs, set well
clear of the work, on the line of the invert or on a constant height
above it. As an alternative to the use of the string line, profiles and
boning rods may be used as illustrated in the figure below.

Figure G.5 – Using Traveller/Boning Rod for Line and Level

Profile height above invert = 1.0m

Traveller/Boning Rod
Invert level

Page G 5 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL CULVERT FOUNDATION G

HAUNCHING OF PIPES G-4

All concrete pipes under fills of more than 3 metres should be


haunched in the manner shown below. A good practice is to surround
the pipe with concrete. The concrete cladding resists the tensile
forces that open the pipe joints, and strengthens the pipe against
bending. If the subgrade is likely to settle under the weight of the
embankment, the concrete surround should be reinforced no matter
what depth the cover between the pipe and road surface.

Figure G.6 below illustrates how pipes are strengthened by concrete


cradles (haunched) up to D/2 and D/4 respectively. For detailed
dimensions refer to the Technical Manual.

Figure G.6 – Examples of Pipes Strengthened by Concrete Cradles


PROFILE D/4 PROFILE D/2

(CONCRETE) (CONCRETE)

f f
D

e
e h
h
b b

a d a a d a

c c

Research has shown that concrete surround (haunching) will increase


permissible load by 75 to 100% for haunching up to D/2 and by 50%
for haunching up to D/4 (refer to Figure G.6 above).

Haunching is not only used for pipes under high embankments, but
can also be used to reduce the cover when it is not feasible to have a
hump on the road.

Labour-based techniques experience problems on roads of higher


standard (classified roads) where humps and construction of costly
ramps are not viable options for a variety of reasons. Haunching of
pipes is done as an alternative, but as aggregate for concrete is a
scarce and costly commodity, trials have been carried out using
cement-stabilised laterite as shown in Figure G.7 below.

February 06 Page G 6
CULVERT MANUAL CULVERT FOUNDATION G

HAUNCHING OF PIPES G-4

It is not always necessary to use cement-stabilised laterite up to


formation level as shown in Figure G.7, but it can also be used up to D
and D/2 depending on the load the pipe is required to accommodate.
Trials undertaken in Zambia in this connection have been very
successful.

The figure below shows a pipe surrounded (haunched) with cement-


stabilised laterite, placed in layers of 150 mm.

Figure G.7 – Pipe Haunched with Cement-Stabilised Laterite

Page G 7 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL CULVERT FOUNDATION G

BACKFILLING G-5

Proper compaction of backfill around a culvert is necessary to give it


structural support, and also to avoid consolidation from occurring later
which would result in depressions appearing in the road surface.

Backfilling may be completed the same day as the pipes have been
laid and sealed. However, the internal joints should be checked after
backfilling and repaired if necessary. Headwalls should preferably be
constructed before backfilling takes place, as this will allow all mortar
joints and work to gain strength before backfilling.

The material used for backfilling should be easy to compact, and


should be coarse-grained granular material so that it is not easily
washed out from around the culvert causing pipe failure. However,
backfill material should not contain large stones (maximum diameter
20 mm) which are likely to damage the pipe.

Backfill should be carried out in layers of 150 mm, and should be well
compacted with hand-rammers. Backfill may require the addition of
water to bring it to the field moisture content necessary for efficient
compaction.

Backfill should be brought up on both sides of the pipe concurrently,


otherwise the pipe may be pushed out of alignment.

The backfill cover requirements shown in Section B must be achieved


i.e. minimum ¾ of the barrel diameter but preferably 1 x D if the road
alignment so allows. However, raising the road alignment is
necessary in many cases (refer to Section F- 4 Ramps).

Heavy equipment must not be allowed to pass over the culvert until an
adequate cushion of compacted backfilling has been placed over it.

When the road has to be kept open to traffic during construction, the
culvert may be constructed in two halves so as to avoid costly
diversions.

Care must be taken to protect both the culvert works and the traffic
during and after working hours.

February 06 Page G 8
CULVERT MANUAL CULVERT FOUNDATION G

BACKFILLING G-5

Figure G.8 – Backfilling in 150 mm Layers

Ground linel
Max. otb15mm layer
after compaction

Max. 3 x pipe Ø Min. Ø +0.60 m

Page G 9 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

HEADWALLS AND WINGWALLS H-1

Headwalls and wingwalls are usually made of masonry or concrete,


and generally built in situ. Their purpose is to:

- Improve hydraulic efficiency;

- Retain the fill material and reduce erosion of embankment


slopes;

- Provide structural stability to the culvert ends and serve as a


counter weight to offset buoyant uplift forces;

- Reduce seepage and prevent eventual piping into the


embankment, provided the headwall incorporates deep curtain
walls (cutoff walls) and side slope protection in the form of hand-
pitched stones.

Figure H.1 – Typical Head and Wingwall Arrangment

Figure H.2 – Types of Headwall and Wingwall Designs

Page H 1 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

HEADWALLS AND WINGWALLS H-1

Figure H.3 – Headwall Detail for Unpaved Rural Road

Large headwalls are expensive to build (refer to Figure H.4 below).


Culverts with projecting ends are therefore becoming increasingly
popular in spite of their inferior hydraulic efficiency.

Figure H.4 – Headwall Size versus Cost

Elevation Cross Section

Cost Diagram
Cost of Headwalls plus Pipe

Headwall
Cost
Pipe Cost

Culvert length

February 06 Page H 2
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

HEADWALLS AND WINGWALLS H-1

Figure H.5 – Typical Detail of Culvert with Projecting Ends

Culverts with projecting ends without head and wingwalls are


economical and rapidly constructed. However, they are not desirable
from a hydraulic standpoint and are vulnerable to displacement at the
culvert ends if they are not adequately supported. When this type of
culvert is used, the ends should be protected as shown below.

Figure H.6 – Stone Pitching around Projected End of Steel Culvert

Page H 3 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

HEADWALLS AND WINGWALLS H-1

Figure H.7 – Inlet and Outlet Protection for Culverts with Low Water
Velocity
Seal

H’

Min. H’/3

Figure H.8 – Inlet and Outlet Protection for Culverts with High Water
Velocity

Stone
Stone
Gravel

Min. H’/3

Stone
Curtain wall

February 06 Page H 4
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

APRONS AND CURTAIN WALLS H-2

Aprons should be constructed at inlets and outlets to protect the


culvert bed and the ditch bottom from erosion. They can be made of
hand-packed stones, masonry or concrete. Their lengths should be a
minimum 1.5 (one and a half) times the diameter at the inlet, and 2 to
3 (preferably 3) times the diameter at the outlet.

As mentioned earlier, it is important to control flow velocity at the inlet


to reduce scour. However it is equally important to control the velocity
of flow at the outlet because damage by erosion to the road
embankment or surrounding farmland occurs more frequently at the
point of discharge.

Figure H.9 – Erosion Pattern for Culvert Outlet without Apron or Other
Erosion Protection Measures

Plan

Section

A curtain wall is often necessary at the outlet of a culvert carrying


more than a minimal flow. But it is also required at the inlet in the
event of high floods which may result in ponding at the entrance (i.e.
increased headwater depth).

High headwater depth can result in seepage under the structure and
through the embankment. This seepage can be very dangerous
particularly in soils of poor grading, such as silts and fine sands,
because it can result in piping (refer to Figure H.10 below) which can
cause failure of the structure and the embankment.

Page H 5 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

APRONS AND CURTAIN WALLS H-2

Figure H.10 – Piping Caused by Seepage

Applications for aprons and curtain walls under different


circumstances are illustrated in the Figures H.11 to H.14 below.

Figure H.11 – Apron and Curtain Wall for Inlet with Moderate Water
Velocity

Stone
H

Stone
Min 1.50 m Min H/3

February 06 Page H 6
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

APRONS AND CURTAIN WALLS H-2

Figure H.12 – Apron and Curtain Wall for Inlet with High Water Velocity

Min 2.00 m
Toe Heel

Figure H.13 – Apron and Curtain Wall for Outlet with Moderate Water
Velocity

Min 2.00 m

Figure H.14 – Apron and Curtain Wall for Outlet with High Water Velocity

Min 3.00 m
Heel Toe

Page H 7 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

ENERGY DISSIPATORS H-3

As mentioned earlier it is very important to control the velocity of flow


at the outlet; in other words, the energy of the discharge must be
dissipated or broken.

The figure below shows a casted energy dissipator. It is very important


that the distance from the end of the culvert to the dissipator is
sufficient to allow the hydraulic jump to fall outside the culvert.

Figure H.15 – Casted Energy Dissipator

Plan

Section

The figure below shows different methods used for the dissipation of
energy.

Figure H.16 – Other Methods for Dissipating Energy

Using Large Stones Using Concrete Slabs

February 06 Page H 8
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

OTHER STRUCTURES H-4

The construction of a road and associated drainage structures has the


effect of taking runoff from a slope and channelling it. This
concentration of flow is almost certain to cause erosion of the soil.
This section describes a few methods commonly used for erosion
protection, namely: rip-rap, stone pitching, logs and jute sacks filled
with soil.

RIP-RAP

Rip-rap provides protection to streambeds and slopes. It consists of a


carpet of loose stones which prevents the water current from eroding
the soft material. The stone elements must be heavy enough to resist
being washed away by maximum water velocities during flood.

The main advantages of rip-rap are:

- it is relatively cheap
- it is flexible and often finds its own effective level
- it is easy to install and repair.

Figure H.17 – Application of Grouted Rip-rap

variable 1.00

Grouted Rip-Rap
variable

0.50

1.00

1.00

Grouted Rip-Rap

variable

Page H 9 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

OTHER STRUCTURES H-4

Figure H.18 – Typical Rip-rap Application

Isometric:

Plan:

Side Elevation:

Notes:
1. For multi-barrel reinforced concrete pipe culverts, the top width of the trapezoidal ditch outlet
shall be equal to the sum of spacing between pipes and three times the pipe diameter.
2. Placement of grouted rip-rap shall start at the bottom level first.
3. Mortar shall be placed on prepared slope just prior to the placement of rip-rap stones.
Stones shall be hand-rammed into the mortar with additional mortar placed between stones
as required. The length of trapezoidal ditch shall be determined by the design engineer to
suit actual field conditions.

February 06 Page H 10
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

OTHER STRUCTURES H-4

Figure H.18 (cont) – Typical Rip-rap Application

Isometric:

Plan:

Side Elevation:

Notes:
1. Placement of grouted rip-rap shall start at the bottom level first.
2. Mortar shall be placed on the prepared slope just prior to the placement of rip-rap stones.
Stones shall be hand-rammed into the mortar with additional mortar placed between stones
as required.
3. The length of stepped ditch shall be determined by the design engineer to suit actual field
conditions.

Page H 11 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

OTHER STRUCTURES H-4

ALTERNATIVES TO STONE LINING

Where stones are not readily available, one of the following methods
can be used.

Logs can be used by lining them across the streambed and extending
them into the stream banks for anchorage. This is depicted in Figure
H.19 below. For additional stability steel clamps can be used to tie the
logs to one another.

Figure H.19 – Using Logs as an Alternative to Stone Lining

Jute sacks filled with soil can also be used as an alternative to stone
lining. The soil can be mixed with about 5 % of cement for extra
stability. The sacks should not be overfilled. They should be tied
either with soft galvanized wire or strong string, so that they do not
open, even if handled roughly. The sacks should be laid flat in layers,
one layer covering the joints of the layer below.

Figure H.20 - Jute Sacks as an Alternative to Stone Lining

February 06 Page H 12
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

HEADWALLS AND WINGWALLS H-1

Headwalls and wingwalls are usually made of masonry or concrete,


and generally built in situ. Their purpose is to:

- Improve hydraulic efficiency;

- Retain the fill material and reduce erosion of embankment


slopes;

- Provide structural stability to the culvert ends and serve as a


counter weight to offset buoyant uplift forces;

- Reduce seepage and prevent eventual piping into the


embankment, provided the headwall incorporates deep curtain
walls (cutoff walls) and side slope protection in the form of hand-
pitched stones.

Figure H.1 – Typical Head and Wingwall Arrangment

Figure H.2 – Types of Headwall and Wingwall Designs

Page H 1 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

HEADWALLS AND WINGWALLS H-1

Figure H.3 – Headwall Detail for Unpaved Rural Road

Large headwalls are expensive to build (refer to Figure H.4 below).


Culverts with projecting ends are therefore becoming increasingly
popular in spite of their inferior hydraulic efficiency.

Figure H.4 – Headwall Size versus Cost

Elevation Cross Section

Cost Diagram
Cost of Headwalls plus Pipe

Headwall
Cost
Pipe Cost

Culvert length

February 06 Page H 2
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

HEADWALLS AND WINGWALLS H-1

Figure H.5 – Typical Detail of Culvert with Projecting Ends

Culverts with projecting ends without head and wingwalls are


economical and rapidly constructed. However, they are not desirable
from a hydraulic standpoint and are vulnerable to displacement at the
culvert ends if they are not adequately supported. When this type of
culvert is used, the ends should be protected as shown below.

Figure H.6 – Stone Pitching around Projected End of Steel Culvert

Page H 3 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

HEADWALLS AND WINGWALLS H-1

Figure H.7 – Inlet and Outlet Protection for Culverts with Low Water
Velocity
Seal

H’

Min. H’/3

Figure H.8 – Inlet and Outlet Protection for Culverts with High Water
Velocity

Stone
Stone
Gravel

Min. H’/3

Stone
Curtain wall

February 06 Page H 4
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

APRONS AND CURTAIN WALLS H-2

Aprons should be constructed at inlets and outlets to protect the


culvert bed and the ditch bottom from erosion. They can be made of
hand-packed stones, masonry or concrete. Their lengths should be a
minimum 1.5 (one and a half) times the diameter at the inlet, and 2 to
3 (preferably 3) times the diameter at the outlet.

As mentioned earlier, it is important to control flow velocity at the inlet


to reduce scour. However it is equally important to control the velocity
of flow at the outlet because damage by erosion to the road
embankment or surrounding farmland occurs more frequently at the
point of discharge.

Figure H.9 – Erosion Pattern for Culvert Outlet without Apron or Other
Erosion Protection Measures

Plan

Section

A curtain wall is often necessary at the outlet of a culvert carrying


more than a minimal flow. But it is also required at the inlet in the
event of high floods which may result in ponding at the entrance (i.e.
increased headwater depth).

High headwater depth can result in seepage under the structure and
through the embankment. This seepage can be very dangerous
particularly in soils of poor grading, such as silts and fine sands,
because it can result in piping (refer to Figure H.10 below) which can
cause failure of the structure and the embankment.

Page H 5 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

APRONS AND CURTAIN WALLS H-2

Figure H.10 – Piping Caused by Seepage

Applications for aprons and curtain walls under different


circumstances are illustrated in the Figures H.11 to H.14 below.

Figure H.11 – Apron and Curtain Wall for Inlet with Moderate Water
Velocity

Stone
H

Stone
Min 1.50 m Min H/3

Page H 7 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

APRONS AND CURTAIN WALLS H-2

Figure H.12 – Apron and Curtain Wall for Inlet with High Water Velocity

Min 2.00 m
Toe Heel

Figure H.13 – Apron and Curtain Wall for Outlet with Moderate Water
Velocity

Min 2.00 m

Figure H.14 – Apron and Curtain Wall for Outlet with High Water Velocity

Min 3.00 m
Heel Toe

February 06 Page H 8
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

ENERGY DISSIPATORS H-3

As mentioned earlier it is very important to control the velocity of flow


at the outlet; in other words, the energy of the discharge must be
dissipated or broken.

The figure below shows a casted energy dissipator. It is very important


that the distance from the end of the culvert to the dissipator is
sufficient to allow the hydraulic jump to fall outside the culvert.

Figure H.15 – Casted Energy Dissipator

Plan

Section

The figure below shows different methods used for the dissipation of
energy.

Figure H.16 – Other Methods for Dissipating Energy

Using Large Stones Using Concrete Slabs

Page H 9 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

OTHER STRUCTURES H-4

The construction of a road and associated drainage structures has the


effect of taking runoff from a slope and channelling it. This
concentration of flow is almost certain to cause erosion of the soil.
This section describes a few methods commonly used for erosion
protection, namely: rip-rap, stone pitching, logs and jute sacks filled
with soil.

RIP-RAP

Rip-rap provides protection to streambeds and slopes. It consists of a


carpet of loose stones which prevents the water current from eroding
the soft material. The stone elements must be heavy enough to resist
being washed away by maximum water velocities during flood.

The main advantages of rip-rap are:

- it is relatively cheap
- it is flexible and often finds its own effective level
- it is easy to install and repair.

Figure H.17 – Application of Grouted Rip-rap

variable 1.00

Grouted Rip-Rap
variable

0.50

1.00

1.00

Grouted Rip-Rap

variable

February 06 Page H 10
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

OTHER STRUCTURES H-4

Figure H.18 – Typical Rip-rap Application

Isometric:

Plan:

Side Elevation:

Notes:
1. For multi-barrel reinforced concrete pipe culverts, the top width of the trapezoidal ditch outlet
shall be equal to the sum of spacing between pipes and three times the pipe diameter.
2. Placement of grouted rip-rap shall start at the bottom level first.
3. Mortar shall be placed on prepared slope just prior to the placement of rip-rap stones.
Stones shall be hand-rammed into the mortar with additional mortar placed between stones
as required. The length of trapezoidal ditch shall be determined by the design engineer to
suit actual field conditions.

Page H 11 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

OTHER STRUCTURES H-4

Figure H.18 (cont) – Typical Rip-rap Application

Isometric:

Plan:

Side Elevation:

Notes:
1. Placement of grouted rip-rap shall start at the bottom level first.
2. Mortar shall be placed on the prepared slope just prior to the placement of rip-rap stones.
Stones shall be hand-rammed into the mortar with additional mortar placed between stones
as required.
3. The length of stepped ditch shall be determined by the design engineer to suit actual field
conditions.

February 06 Page H 12
CULVERT MANUAL EROSION PROTECTION H

OTHER STRUCTURES H-4

ALTERNATIVES TO STONE LINING

Where stones are not readily available, one of the following methods
can be used.

Logs can be used by lining them across the streambed and extending
them into the stream banks for anchorage. This is depicted in Figure
H.19 below. For additional stability steel clamps can be used to tie the
logs to one another.

Figure H.19 – Using Logs as an Alternative to Stone Lining

Jute sacks filled with soil can also be used as an alternative to stone
lining. The soil can be mixed with about 5 % of cement for extra
stability. The sacks should not be overfilled. They should be tied
either with soft galvanized wire or strong string, so that they do not
open, even if handled roughly. The sacks should be laid flat in layers,
one layer covering the joints of the layer below.

Figure H.20 - Jute Sacks as an Alternative to Stone Lining

Page H 13 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL MASONRY I

GENERAL I-1

In general, cement bound stone masonry is used for the construction


of:

- Culvert headwalls and wingwalls


- Drifts
- Arch bridges (culverts)
- Small bridges (abutments)
- Retaining walls
- Aprons and curtain walls
- Stone facing.

Stone or brick masonry may be used wherever mass concrete is


specified if the two component materials, i.e. stone or brick units and
cement mortar, are both of good quality and can withstand load and
abrasion.

It is generally recommended that the mortar should be no stronger


than the bricks and blocks so that any cracks that develop will be in
the mortar. Cracking in the blocks is more difficult to repair. However,
the mortar must be able to resist the abrasive action of the stream.

DRY MASONRY

Dry masonry can also be used for construction of the above


mentioned structures but requires a high degree of skill by the
bricklayer, as well as stones of reasonable size and shape, i.e. long
flat stones having a minimum thickness of 15cm thickness. (Soil can
be used instead of mortar in joints).

Culvert inlets and outlets should be given particular attention with


regard to apron arrangements where high flows are expected, as there
is a danger of water seeping under or around the completed culvert,
resulting in a wash out with severe damage to aprons, head and wing
walls. In this situation more substantial head and wingwalls made of
cement bound masonry should be provided, and curtain walls should
be incorporated in the inlet and outlet aprons.

Page I 1 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL MASONRY I

GENERAL I-1

Figure I.1 – Typical Application of Dry Masonry

Stone chip / Spall Stone

MATERIALS

The following guidelines apply for materials used for construction of


minor works:

Sand clean building sand (soft preferred to sharp) free of


organic particles and clay.

Stones clean hard rubble stones of similar size, cracked or


weathered stones should not be used.

Quantities required for one cubic metre of finished masonry are as


follows:

Stones 1.2 to 1.4 cubic metres


Sand 0.4 cubic metres
Cement 3 bags @ 50 kg

MASONRY USING MORTAR

Mortar is used to bind stones together and to increase the masonry


resistance. Mortar is a mixture of cement, sand and water. It can also
simply be a mixture of soil, lime and water. The cost of masonry
varies according to the composition of the mortar.

February 06 Page I 2
CULVERT MANUAL MASONRY I

GENERAL I-1

The mixture of mortar for masonry which is structural or will be


frequently in contact with water, should be 1:3 cement:sand by
volume. A ratio of 1:4 can otherwise be used.

Only a little water should be used for a good quality mixture.

The quantity of mortar to be mixed should not be more than a


bricklayer can use within half to one hour.

JOINTS AND BOND

The mortar should evenly envelope each stone to ensure an equal


distribution of load. The stones should not touch each other, and
spaces should be left between stones where there is no mortar.

- minimum mortar joints = 1 cm;

- maximum mortar joints = 4cm;

- the bond should allow a minimum overlapping of ¼ of the length


of the smaller stone as per figure below;

Figure I.2 – Minimum Overlapping of Bond

Section Elevation
Bond min. ¼ of stone length

Stretcher

Header

Joints 1 to 4 cm

- no one stone should touch another one; instead they should be


fully laid into mortar;

- if possible the available stones should be used as stretcher and


header stones to allow a good bond;

- the minimum width of a masonry wall is 30 cm, but depends on


the height and purpose of the wall.

Page I 3 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL RING FABRICATION J

GENERAL J-1

Although culvert costs may comprise only a small part of the total cost
of the road, culverts are of critical importance to the drainage system.
It is therefore imperative that their demand is met, and that the quality
of culvert rings is high and sustained.

The rings are cast locally using steel moulds. No reinforcement is


used. The common pipe length for each ring is normally between 0.90
and 1.20m. The most commonly used size is the 0.60m Ø (24") pipe,
although 0.90m Ø (36") are applied on some watercourses and
multiple barrel situations. Pipes of 0.45m Ø (18") are of little use
(except for short access crossings) as they are easily blocked and
difficult to maintain. It is recommended that 0.60m Ø (24") is used as
the standard and minimum size. The minimum ring wall thicknesses
are 65mm (0.60m Ø) and 75mm (0.90m Ø).

The productivity for casting of culverts is normally expressed in


number of rings produced per worker-day. An average task rate
including stripping, preparing, mixing, pouring and finishing should be
as follows:

Table J.1 – Task Rates for Culvert Manufacture

RING SIZE TASK RATE

0.60m Ø 1½ RINGS/MANDAY
0.90m Ø 1 RING/MANDAY

A skilled headman or artisan should be in charge of the casting site.


About 16 culvert moulds and some 4 to 6 skilled labourers will be
required for the casting gang.

In order to maintain high quality, the guidelines for concrete


technology provided in the Technical Manual and those provided in the
following pages should be applied.

Page J 1 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL RING FABRICATION J

SELECTION OF MANUFACTURING SITE J-2

The manufacturing site should be chosen after considering the cost on


site (and availability) of the materials (cement, sand, ballast and water)
and the distribution of the roads to be served from that culvert factory.

Concrete culvert rings can be manufactured at the base camp or


directly on site. The advantage of casting culverts at the base camp is
that a team of experienced workers can be formed and high quality
rings can be produced. Such a culvert casting site is easy to control
and the construction materials can be centrally stored and issued. The
disadvantage is the need for transportation of pre-cast culvert rings to
site.

The advantage of casting culvert rings at site is that the culvert rings
are ready where they are wanted. On the other hand, the
disadvantages are that each site would require skilled labourers to
cast the culvert rings and the required materials must be stored at site.
Thus it is more difficult to control the quality of the outputs.

The manufacturing place must contain ample space for storage of


aggregates and culverts, bearing in mind that the fresh culvert rings
must be cured and should not be moved for at least one week after
casting. The casting yards at permanent base camps should have
roofs to protect the fresh culvert rings and the labour force from
sunshine. Reliable water supply and/or storage facilities are essential
for the production of concrete and cleaning of used tools and culvert
moulds.

February 06 Page J 2
CULVERT MANUAL RING FABRICATION J

CASTING J-3

Moulds for the casting of concrete rings must be erected on a clean,


even and horizontal platform. The floor should be made of concrete
and should preferably be covered with an inlaid 2 mm thick plain steel
sheet. For manufacturing pipes on site, casting is best done on
movable heavy duty steel plates of not less than 10 mm thickness.
The available free space per mould should be a square area of not
less than the double size of the ring diameter.

The pouring of the concrete into the moulds must be completed within
30 minutes of mixing. Before concrete is poured, it must be ensured
that the moulds are clean and contact areas properly oiled with a
mixture of 2 parts diesel and 1 part used engine oil. Figure J.1
illustrates the importance of having inner and outer moulds correctly
centred. Rings with uneven wall thickness will be weak and will
probably break during transportation or in situ loading.

Figure J.1 – Placing Of Inner Culvert Mould

CORRECTLY CENTRED POORLY CENTRED


INNER MOULD INNER MOULD

Under ideal circumstances (e.g. availability of well-graded, dust-free,


hard stone, high quality aggregates and clean sand), culvert rings may
be cast in a 1:2:4 (Class 20) concrete mixture. In cases where one or
several of these criteria can not be met to the highest possible
standard, the mix ratio should be changed to 1:1.5:3 (Class 25).
Quality control of concrete materials including sand, coarse
aggregates and water must be carried out at frequent intervals. For the
production of large numbers of culvert rings, laboratory testing
including measuring of concrete cube strength may be necessary.

The theoretical quantities of materials required for casting one ring of


1.0 metre length (according to concrete class used) are:

Page J 3 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL RING FABRICATION J

CASTING J-3

Table J.2 – Culvert Casting Material Quantities

CONCRETE CLASS 20 CONCRETE CLASS 25


RING DIAMETER RING DIAMETER
450mm 600mm 900mm 450mm 600mm 900mm
CONCRETE
VOLUME (m3) 0.08 0.14 0.28 0.08 0.14 0.28

CEMENT
(50kg Bag) 0.48 0.84 1.68 0.58 1.02 2.04

SAND
(m3; loose) 0.034 0.059 0.118 0.030 0.053 0.106

AGGREGATE
(m3; loose) 0.067 0.118 0.235 0.061 0.106 0.213

The size of the aggregates should be 6 mm, 12 mm and 18 mm. For


practical reasons the mixture can consist of three equal proportions.
For concrete mixed by hand, the water content is usually between 23
to 27 litres per bag of cement, depending on the natural moisture
content of sand and aggregates. The headman or artisan in charge of
culvert production will require some practical skills and expertise in
determining the correct amount water to be added for achieving an
optimum concrete consistency.

The concrete can be transported in buckets from the mixed batch to


the moulds. To simplify the pouring and minimise waste, a headpan or
board of suitable size can be placed upside down over the inner
mould. The concrete should then be heaped on to the headpan or
board and evenly distributed into the mould.

The concrete should be compacted in layers of maximum 0.20 m by


tamping with a narrow reinforcement rod and by carefully pounding the
moulds with wooden mallets.

February 06 Page J 4
CULVERT MANUAL RING FABRICATION J

CASTING J-3

STRIPPING AND CURING

The moulds should not be removed until the day after pouring; in
cooler high altitude areas an extra day will be required. Stripping
should be carried out very carefully to avoid damage to the fresh rings.
The moulds should be cleaned immediately and oiled ready for reuse.
Moulds should also be treated with care to avoid damaging or
distorting them.

The concrete rings must not be moved for one week. They must be
cured by being kept wet and protected from direct sunshine during this
first week. This can be achieved by covering the rings with sacks or
banana leaves, which are then sprinkled with water from time to time
to keep the concrete surfaces moist. If the water supply is sufficient,
an effective method of curing is to fill the fresh rings with water. After
curing the rings should be stored for a further 3 weeks before they are
transported to the road site. Rings should always be stored end-on.

Page J 5 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL RING FABRICATION J

LOADING AND TRANSPORTATION J-4

Loading is done by carefully rolling the rings onto the vehicle. If the
casting site is permanent, an earth ramp and retaining wall can be
constructed for this purpose.

The rings should be transported standing end-on in a 10 - 20 cm layer


of sand (or sawdust). Any empty spaces between the rings should be
filled with old car tyres, etc., to prevent the rings from tipping over.

The rings must be carefully unloaded using wooden planks and ropes
to restrain them. They should be unloaded directly at the culvert site if
possible to avoid double handling.

February 06 Page J 6
CULVERT MANUAL RING FABRICATION J

PRODUCTION PLANNING AND MONITORING J-5

The culvert ring production depends on the expected requirements for


road construction and maintenance. The annual technical forward
planning should account for the number of rings to be fabricated per
year. The production of rings must then be organised in a continuous
manner, and the average productivity should be slightly above the
actual required number of culverts so as to produce a buffer stock.
Sometimes there are delays in the supply of cement or aggregate, or
breakages occur during transport. A breakage factor of about 5 - 10%
should therefore be taken into consideration in production planning. It
is useful to use special planning and reporting forms to monitor culvert
production.

The control functions of the engineer or contractor should not only be


limited to monitoring of production figures, but should also include
regular site inspections to ensure that:

- Materials are available on site in sufficient quantity

- Aggregate and sand are of the required quality

- Cement aggregate and sand are stored correctly

- Clean water is being used in concrete production

- Concrete is mixed according to specifications

- Casting and compaction is done correctly

- The quality of the manufactured rings is in accordance with the set


standards

- Curing and storing is carried out correctly

- Accurate planning forms, store ledgers and production records are


kept on site.

Page J 7 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL RING FABRICATION J

KEY NOTES J-6

FOR CONCRETE PIPES MANUFACTURED ON SITE THE CONCRETE


MIXTURE RATIO FOR CEMENT : FINE AGGREGATE : COURSE AGGREGATE
IS 1:1.5:3.
UNDER IDEAL CONDITONS IN A WELL-ESTABLISHED PRODUCTION YARD,
THE MIX RATIO MIGHT BE REDUCED TO 1:2:4.
CULVERT MOULDS SHOULD BE OILED, PLACED ON A HORIZONTAL BASE
AND WELL CENTRED PRIOR TO CASTING OF RINGS.
CULVERT MOULDS SHOULD TO BE STRIPPED WITHOUT CAUSING
DAMAGE TO THE FRESH CONCRETE RINGS AND MUST BE CLEANED
IMMEDIATELY THEREAFTER.
FRESH CONCRETE RINGS SHOULD REMAIN AT THE CASTING PLACE FOR
7 DAYS AND REQUIRE CURING AND PROTECTION FROM SUNSHINE.
RINGS MAY BE TRANSPORTED TO SITE 28 DAYS AFTER MANUFACTURE.

February 06 Page J 8
CULVERT MANUAL AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENTS K

CORROSIVE ACTION K- 1

We have mentioned earlier that a concrete culvert (structure) is likely


to have a very long service life in a non-aggressive environment; but
what is meant by “aggressive environment”?

The ground or groundwater may contain chemicals capable of causing


damage to concrete or steel. These chemicals may emanate from
nearby industrial processing plants or may occur naturally (for
example, the soils in Zambia are generally acidic).

The principal constituents that cause chemical attack, and which


subsequently cause concrete to deteriorate, are sulphates. Sulphate
attack occurs most commonly in clay soils and acidic waters (pH<7).
Total sulphate concentrations of more than 0.2% by weight in soil and
300 ppm (parts per million) in groundwater are potentially aggressive.

Laboratory tests to assess the aggressiveness of the groundwater


against Portland Cement in concrete include determination of pH
value, which may be altered if there is a delay between sampling and
testing. Determination of pH should therefore be made in the field
whenever possible.

Table K.1 – Assessment of Corrosive Action of Natural Waters on Concrete


(according to Bonzel)

Corrosive Action (Aggressiveness)


Weak Strong Very Strong

pH value <7> 6.5-5.5 5.5-4.5 < 4.5

Aggressive
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) mg/l 15-30 30-80 > 80

Ammonium (NH4+) mg/l 15-30 30-60 > 60

Magnesium (Mg2+) mg/l 100-300 300-1500 > 1500

Sulphate (SO42-) mg/l 200-600 600-2500 > 2500

Where there are significant concentrations of sulphates in the ground


(soil) or groundwater, it is prudent to take precautions to prevent
deterioration of the concrete which is in contact with the ground.

Page K 1 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL AGGRESSIVE ENVIRONMENTS K

CORROSIVE ACTION K-1

PREVENTING SULPHATE ATTACK

Sulphate resistant cement is available on the market. However, this


is hardly an economically viable solution for most users of this manual,
but the basic concept of making a dense impermeable concrete is still
the best defence against the penetration of pollutants which attack the
concrete mass or reinforcement steel.

Besides ensuring that the materials are of adequate quality, the single
most important factor influencing both strength and durability of
concrete is the water:cement ratio of the mix. When specifying
concrete the maximum free water/cement ratio by weight should be
limited to 0.5.

In marine situations or near the coast, the free water/cement ratio


should be no more than 0.4 to avoid premature deterioration due to
corrosion of reinforcement or damage to mass concrete by salt scaling
or sulphate attack.

Covering of reinforcement and curing of concrete must also be


carefully specified and supervised on site if the structure is to have a
long and adequate service life. Curing time should be at least 7 days,
but preferably 14 days.

Special measures are necessary for concreting in hot weather, and


when there are drying winds and low humidity. Aggregates should be
kept shaded, cool water should be used for the mix and the time
between mixing and placing of concrete should be kept to a minimum.

Figure K.2 – Comparing Concrete Strength with Water:Cement Ratio


Difficult to compact
strong
Good concrete
Weak concrete –
Strength of

too many voids


concrete

weak

10 12 15 20 25 30 35 40
Water (litres per pocket)

The graph in Figure K.2 illustrates the importance of controlling the


water : cement ratio. Concrete is stronger if it is made with less water,
and gets even stronger for a long time after it is mixed, provided there
is enough water for curing.

February 06 Page K 2
CULVERT MANUAL ROUTINE MAINTENANCE L

GENERAL L-1

In order to function properly, a culvert must retain the full opening over
its complete length. In addition, the upstream approaches and the
downstream area must be free of obstructions.

Floating debris carried by water, like tree branches and bushes, etc, is
a great danger to culverts as the debris can completely block the
culvert inlet.

Sanding or silting of culverts is a problem, especially for culverts with


openings smaller than 90cm. In desert areas culverts can be blocked
by sand. These culverts can be cleaned by pulling through them a
cable or rope which is attached to a suitable object such as a bucket.
This is illustrated in Figure L.1.

Figure L.1 – Cleaning Culverts

Deposits from the culvert must be spread or dumped where they


cannot cause obstruction to water flow, preferably on the downstream
side of the culvert and well away from the stream.

Where light erosion of the streambed has taken place, the eroded
areas should be filled with 30 cm stone blocks, or as available, to
produce a rough energy dissipator. Block pitching or rip-rap should
preferably extend beyond the eroded area. If larger sized stone are
available, these can also be used. In the dry season or when the
water flow is low or non-existent, the blocks can be grouted with lean
concrete of ratio 1:4:8.

If stones are not available, logs can be used. These should be lined
across the streambed and should extend into the stream banks for
anchorage.

Jute sacks filled with soil can also be used as an alternative to stone
lining. The soil can be mixed with about 5% cement for extra stability.

Masonry work in culverts, including headwalls, wingwalls, aprons and


curtain walls, should be repaired as necessary.

Page L 1 February 06
CULVERT MANUAL GLOSSARY M

Abutment End support of bridge.


Approach The earthwork that carries the road up to the bridge.
Embankments
Apron Bed protection at the mouth of a culvert.
Arch Curved bridge or culvert structure.
Barrel The pipe or box part of a culvert, through which water
flows.
Bed The bottom of a stream or the specially prepared
surface culvert rings is laid on.
Catchwater Drain A narrow channel designed to prevent surface runoff
from reaching the road.
Corrosion Damage done to concrete and steel by air, water,
salts, chemicals, etc.
Cover The thickness of backfill over the crest of a culvert.
Cross-Drainage Water flowing either over the road, as a drift or a
splash, or under the road as at a bridge, or through a
culvert or a small pipe.
Culvert A tube or box to carry water under a road.
Debris Rubbish and other unwanted items.
Design Flood Discharge based on a pre-selected recurrence
interval.
Deteriorate To become worse, to get into a bad condition
Downstream Where the stream flows away from a culvert or
bridge.
Drainage System for taking waste or excess water (usually
rain) away.
Drainage, road drainage The control and disposal of surface runoff or
groundwater by artificial or natural means.
Drift A stream or river crossing, where the water flows over
the road and is bigger than a 'splash'.
Embankment Soil bank which supports the road.
Erosion The removal of soil or earth by flowing water, wind or
rain.
Flood, flood water Excessive flow in a stream or drain.
Gradient A slope
Headwall A wall at the end of a culvert to hold the soil fills
above the pipe.
Hump A gentle bump, e.g. above a culvert.
Invert The lowest point in the internal cross section of a
channel, ditch or culvert.
Lead-Off,lead-off drain A drain that leads water from the side drain into the
bush.
Maintain To look after carefully, and repair when necessary.
Masonry Bricks or stones set together with mortar.
Mass Concrete Concrete without any steel in it.
Moisture Some water or dampness.

Page Glos i February 06


CULVERT MANUAL GLOSSARY M

Reinforcement Steel bars in concrete to make it stronger.


Retaining Wall A wall to hold back soil.
Rip-Rap A layer of loose stones to prevent scour.
Run-Out Where a drain discharges water into the bush.
Saddle A low point on a watershed line.
Settlement Small downwards movement of a structure.
Scour, scouring action Erosion of an earth surface or channel bed, by water
in motion producing a deepening or widening effect.
Scour velocity The critical velocity of flow or runoff at which erosion
of the earth surface begins to occur
Side drain The drain excavated along one or both sides of a
road.
Silt Sand and soil carried away by fast moving water, but
deposited by slow-moving or stationary water.
Splash Where road drainage water flows across the surface
of the road.
Storm Refers here to very heavy rain and not to wind etc
(e.g. storm water drain).
Stone-Pitching Stones set in cement mortar to cover a sloping bank
or an invert.
Sub-Soil Drainage Facility of underground drains designed to collect and
carry away water.
Watercourse A natural drainage channel, which may sometimes be
dry.
Watershed The line of high land which water flows away from on
both sides.
Waterway Used here for an artificial watercourse designed to
convey water.
Wingwalls Walls constructed at the side of the headwall or an
abutment and are part of it.

February 06 Page Glos ii


CULVERT MANUAL REFERENCES N

1. ARAMCO SUPERLITE - Construction Products Division.

2. Culvert Standards - Norwegian Public Road Administration.

3. Drainage System - SweRoad, Swedish National Road Consulting AB, Subsidiary


to Swedish National Road Administration.

4. DRIMP Manual- Malawi.

5. Earth Roads, Their Construction and Maintenance - Intermediate Technology


Transport Ltd.

6. International Course for Engineers and Managers of Labour-Based Road


Construction and Maintenance Programmes (Volume 1) - ILO, Geneva.

7. Overseas Road Note 7 - TRRL, Bridge Inspector's Handbook.

8. Overseas Road Note 9 - TRRL, A Design Manual for Small Bridges.

9. Road Maintenance Handbook - United Nations Economic Commission f or Africa.


(Volume 1) Maintenance of Roadside Areas, Drainage Structures and Traffic
Control Devices.

10. Stone Masonry - Special Public Works Programmes, (SPWP) ILO & UNDP.

11. Technical Manual (Volume 1) - Ministry of Public Works Roads Department,


Minor Roads Programme-Kenya.

12. The Pipe Handbook - Gustavsbergs/Orrje & CO - Scandiaconsult, Sweden.

13. Technical Manual for Labour Based Road Rehabilitation Works - Roads
Department Training School, Ministry of Works and Supply, Zambia, in
association with Norconsult A.S., Nairobi, 1999.

Page Ref i February 06


CULVERT MANUAL APPENDIX 1

EXAMPLE OF A FLOOD CALCUATION 1-A

INTRODUCTION

This appendix gives an example for calculating the discharge (Q) from
a given catchment area and the required waterway area (A) of the
culvert the discharge will pass through.

The RATIONAL Method is used to calculate the discharge (see


Section E - 1). For calculation of the required waterway area the
AREA-VELOCITY Method is used (refer to Section E - 2).

ASSESSMENT OF CATCHMENT AREA

First, the size, topography, soil condition and vegetation of the


catchment area are to be determined. For the purpose of this example
the following assumptions have been made:

A- area of catchment = 5 km2

L- length of main stream = 3 km

Alt. - difference in altitude between highest point


of main stream and culvert site = 100 m

S- average slope is therefore = 100m/3000m = 0.033 => 0.03

C- based on assessment of catchment area conditions as follow:

Cs - for slope of 3% as above => 0.08


Ck - for sandy/gravel soil => 0.04
Cv - for forest vegetation => 0.04

therefore total runoff coefficient = Cs + Ck + Cv = 0.16

(For details see Section E – 1, Table E.1, page E 10)

This information can normally be obtained from topographical and


geological maps while aerial photographs, if available are very useful
in assessing the vegetation cover.

Appendix 1 / Page 1 February 06


CULVERT MANUAL APPENDIX 1

EXAMPLE OF A FLOOD CALCUATION 1-A

SELECTION OF FLOOD RECURRENCE INTERVAL

The flood discharge used in culvert design is usually estimated on the


basis of a preselected recurrence interval, and the culvert designed
to operate in a manner that is within acceptable limits of risk at that
flow rate. Refer to typical design standards given below:

Structure Recurrence interval in years

Major Bridges 100

Other Bridges 25 to 50

Culverts 5 to 10

Drifts 5

Irish Bridge 5

For this example we shall assume a recurrence interval of five years


(i.e. a 5 year flood period).

DETERMINATION OF AVERAGE RAINFALL INTENSITY

The determination of the average rainfall intensity is a two stage


process:

a) Establish Time of Concentration (Tc) in minutes by use of


KIRPICH Formula. (Tc) is the time it takes for water (flow) to run
from the most remote point of the catchment to the outlet (exit).

0.87 x L2 0.385

Tc = ( 1000 x S ) (hours)

Where we use the figures of our assumptions as follow:

L = length of main stream = 3 km


S = average slope = 0.03

0.87 x 3.02 0.385

Tc = ( 1000 x 0.03 ) = 0.6 hours = 36 min

b) Now use the Tc to obtain the Rainfall Intensity (I) from the
diagram in Figure E.4, Section E – 1 page E 6, which gives an
intensity of 82 mm/hour (for example see Figure 1A.1 below).

February 06 Appendix 1 / Page 2


CULVERT MANUAL APPENDIX 1

EXAMPLE OF A FLOOD CALCUATION 1-A

Figure 1A.1 – Application of Rainfall Intensity / Duration Diagram

60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200
TIME OF CONCENTRATION (IN MINUTES)
10 YEAR

PERIOD
FLOOD

50
2 YEAR

PERIOD
FLOOD

40
30
20
10
0
160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

RAINFALL INTENSITY (IN MM / HOUR)

Step 1: Diagram obtained Step 3 : 5 years flood period selected


(estimate between 2 and 10
year curves)

Step 2 : Tc of 36 min calculated Step 4 : Read intensity of 78 mm/hour


from diagram

Appendix 1 / Page 3 February 06


CULVERT MANUAL APPENDIX 1

EXAMPLE OF A FLOOD CALCUATION 1-A

CALCULATION OF DISCHARGE (Q) BY RATIONAL METHOD FORMULA

Q= CxIxA
3.6

Where:
Example:
Q= Flood peak at catchment exit (m3/sec)

C= Rational runoff coefficient (weighted


runoff coefficient depending of the
characteristics of the catchment) = 0.16

I = Average rainfall intensity over the whole


catchment = 78 mm/hour

A= Catchment area = 5 km2

Application of Rational Formula provides therefore:

Q= 0.16 x 78 (mm/hour) x 5 km2 = 17.3 m3 / second


3.6

CROSS CHECKING RESULT BY RULE OF THUMB

According to TRRL Overseas Road Note 9*, the peak discharge for
small catchment areas up to 15 km2 is often between 1 and 2 m3/sec
per 25 hectares.
*TRRL - Transport and Research Laboratory, Overseas Unit,
Crowthorne, Berkshire, UK.

Control: 1 km2 = 100 hectares


The above rule of thumb is therefore equivalent to
4 m3/sec – 8 m3/sec per km2 of catchment area.
Because the example catchment area is:
- moderate in topography (average slope of 3%);
- covered by forrest;
- and sandy/gravel soils allow for a high degree of
infiltration,
we assume the lower value of of 4 (m3/sec)/ km2
Therefore: Q ~ 5 km2 x 4 (m3/sec)/ km2 ~ 20 m3/sec
(Our calculation result is comparable with this rule of
thumb estimate).

February 06 Appendix 1 / Page 4


CULVERT MANUAL APPENDIX 1

EXAMPLE OF SIZING A STRUCTURE 1-B

SIZING THE STRUCTURE BY USE OF AREA – VELOCITY FORMULA

Having determined (Q) the quantity of water to be discharged, a


velocity (V) must then be chosen which is a safe velocity with regard
to scour of the streambed, banks and the structure through which it
passes.

We shall choose a velocity of 2.5 m/sec for this example, and use the
Area-Velocity Formula to calculate the required waterway area.
A = Q = 17.3 m3/sec = 6.9 m2
V 2.5 m/sec

The required culvert opening is therefore 6.9 m2.

A possible suitable culvert would be a Box Culvert with the following


dimension:

Height of opening = 2.30 m

Width of opening (span) = 3.00 m

The area of opening would be = 2.30 m x 3.00 m = 6.90 m2

SIZING THE STRUCTURE BY USE OF NOMOGRAPH (FOR PIPE CULVERTS)

The sizing of pipe culverts is best done by use of a nomograph as


provided in Section E – 2, Figure E.8, page E 15.
Two out of the four variables can be freely chosen. The results of the
other two are then to be checked against given design criteria. Culvert
diameter (D) (availability of pipes) and Headwater/Diameter Ratio
(H/D) are often used as starting values.

Assumption:
D = 1.75 m (assumed to be corrugated steel pipes)
H/D = 1.2 (according to culvert site conditions)
The nomograph reading will result in:
Q = 6.1 m3/sec (capacity per culvert line)
V = 2.6 m/sec (considered to be within limits)
This implies the number of lines required is:

No. = Total Q = 17.3 m3/sec = 3 Lines


Q per line 6.1 (m3/sec)/line

Appendix 1 / Page 5 February 06


CULVERT MANUAL
February 06

FIGURE 2A.1 - TYPICAL WORK PROGRAMME FOR THE INSTALLATION


ACTIVITY Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 15 Day 16

Set out culvert including outlet and head/wingwalls

Prepare traffic warning signs

Clear site and prepare diversion for traffic


Prepare all required construction materials and take to the
culvert site. (Cement is kept in site store)

OF A SINGLE LINE CULVERT


Excavate outlet and culvert trench. (Start from end of
outlet to avoid flooding in case of heavy rainfall)
Construct foundations for inlet and outlet structures (cut
of walls)
Place and compact pipe bedding materials

Shape pipe bed using template

Lower rings and align to required setting out and spacing

TYPICAL WORK PROGRAMME


Seal joints

Construct inlet and outlet structures

Place and compact haunch or backfill material


Place and compact overfill material in layers not exceeding
0.15m. (Leave slight hump over culvert)
Construct ramp using selected surplus trench or imported
materials.
Erect marker posts (if required)

APPENDIX
Check periodically for possible settlement of ramp and
overfill until final handing over of works. (Bi-monthly)
Appendix 2 / Page 1

Correct eventual settlement or other damages during


entire defects liability period

STAFFING REQUIREMENTS: Total (days)


Ganger (on some days part time only) 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 5
Skilled labourers (Masons) 1 1 2 2 1 7
Unskilled labourers 2 2 10 4 4 2 2 2 28

2-A
Total staff days required (excluding for works during defects liability period) 40

2
Note:
Indicates Critical Path (Activity can not commence unless previous one has been substantially completed)
CULVERT MANUAL APPENDIX 3

EXCAVATION DEPTH OF CULVERT TRENCHES 3-A

Figure 3A.1 - Minimum Excavation Depth of Culvert Trenches According to


Subgrade Conditions and Haunch Profile
Total excavation
depths in:
Insitu soil pipe surrounds

Insitu soil pipe surrounds

Good soils and profiles I -VI


excavation depths:

Fair soils and profiles I -VI


Standard

Profiles I -VI

Poor soils and profiles I -VI


soils
Additional granular
material fill for:

Fair
Poor soils

In swampy conditions fascines can be used to


stabilise the pipe foundation additionally to the
granular fill material.

Standard trench
Total trench Total trench Total trench
depth according to
excavation depth excavation depth excavation depth
bedding and
in good material in fair material in poor material
haunch profile*
(m) (m) (m) (m)
φ 450 φ 600 φ 900 φ 450 φ 600 φ 900 φ 450 φ 600 φ 900 φ 450 φ 600 φ 900
mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
Insitu Material 0.76 1.01 1.51 0.76 1.01 1.51 - - - - - -
Profile I 1.00 1.33 1.91 1.00 1.33 1.91 1.20 1.73 2.51 1.50 2.33 3.41
Profile II 1.00 1.33 1.91 1.00 1.33 1.91 1.20 1.73 2.51 1.50 2.33 3.41
Profile III 0.89 1.18 1.68 0.89 1.18 1.68 1.09 1.58 2.28 1.39 2.18 3.18
Profile IV 0.96 1.18 1.53 0.96 1.18 1.53 1.16 1.58 2.13 1.46 2.18 3.03
Profile V 1.00 1.33 1.91 1.00 1.33 1.91 1.20 1.73 2.51 1.50 2.33 3.41
Profile VI 0.99 1.33 1.91 0.99 1.33 1.91 1.19 1.73 2.51 1.49 2.33 3.41
Good 0 0 0
Additional Fill According to
Fair 0.20 0.40 0.60
Subgrade (m)
Poor 0.50 1.00 1.50
* According to Technical Manual, Appendix H - 4 / Page 6 - 8
The above figure/diagram can be used as a “Rule of Thumb” for determination of depth of
excavation of pipe trenches, but for very difficult subgrade conditions, foundations should be
designed following approved engineering procedures.

Further information on trench widths and bedding and haunch profile dimension is provided in the
Technical Manual, Appendix H – 4.

Appendix 3 Page / 1 February 06