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Preface

The TWT requires an SMA (f) connector coaxial input and WR-90 waveguide output. The input
coupler will be a coaxial type stepped transformer transition from the helix to the coaxial
window. An adapter will mate the window with the standard SMA (f) coaxial connector. The
output coupler will also be, in principle, a coaxial type transition from the helix to the standard
waveguide through a stepped impedance transformer and a coaxial window. The center pin of
the coupler acts as an antenna radiating power into the standard waveguide. This waveguide in
turn couples the power from the tube to the system.
The output window has to be made compatible with the standard coaxial TNC connector for
wideband low average power operation and waveguide for high power narrow band operation
with minimal deterioration in performance. Obtaining a proper match between the couplers and
the helix over a broad frequency range is a critical design area. The main reason is the substantial
variation of the helix impedance with frequency. The requirement is to design an impedance
transformer between the interaction circuit (SWS) and coupler with a good coupling match.
For the present tube, we designed to use both coaxial coupler and a waveguide coupler. The
window is capable of handling more than 400W CW power at different frequency bands. The
coupler transition employs a quarter wave impedance transformations to bring up the coaxial-line
impedance to match the helix impedance at the mid-band frequencies.
Quarter-wave impedance transformation is used as intermediate matching section for the
existing coupler, as it is desired to match the characteristic impedance of the helix to that of a
coaxial line (50). To obtain a good match over the entire band, quarter wave sections at 10
GHz have been used. We have analyzed here the feasibility of using a coaxial coupler with the
output helix. The helix characteristic impedance is calculated using a sheath helix model and the
characteristic impedance of a coaxial line is calculated as
60 D
Z0  ln  
r  d 

Here, D is the inner diameter of the outer conductor and d is the outer diameter of inner
conductor of the coaxial transmission line. The dimensions of D and d (mm) are further
constrained by the cut-off frequency of the coaxial mode (above which TE11 mode is supported
by the line) and the standard connector used in providing the external connections. The cut-off
frequency for the coaxial mode is given as
200
f c (GHz ) 
Dd
Care is taken to see that the coaxial cut-off frequency is well above the frequency band of
operation.
For extracting the RF power at the output, we propose a coaxial to WR-90 transition,
design and simulation of which is being carried out using a CST Microwave studio. Thus,
impedance transformation from the helix to the standard waveguide remains the core task of the
coupler. The design goal may be summarized as follows:
 To obtain a good match between helix and coupler over 8 - 12 GHz bandwidth.
 Prevention of coupling of undesired modes.