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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes the general statement of the problem, background of the study,

specific sub-problems, statement of hypothesis, significance of the study, definition of terms,

scope and limitations, and conceptual framework.

Background of the Study

A Sanitary landfill is a waste disposal site designed, constructed, operated and maintained

in a manner that exerts engineering control over significant potential environmental impacts

arising from the development and operation of the facility. This is the definition from R.A. 9003

also known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, an act that ensures the

proper segregation, collection, transport, storage, treatment and disposal of solid waste through

the formulation and adoption of the best environmental practices in ecological waste

management.

According to Philippine Statistics Authority from the 2015 Census Population, Bacolod

City is the second most populous city in Visayas after Cebu City. The city needs to maintain

proper waste disposal and to ensure the presence of a sanitary landfill for garbage collection and

storage.

The absence of a sanitary landfill in Bacolod City will not only violate the law, it will

create a big impact in terms of health and pollution issues on the residents of the city especially

those that resides near the dumpsite. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources

(DENR) Undersecretary Arturo Valdez has warned mayors who are violating environmental

laws. Currently, Bacolod City is violating RA9003 of the Philippines. Its sanitary landfill is no

longer operational and is now categorized as an open dumpsite. The violations include Article 2 -

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Segregation of Wastes which includes Section 21 and Section 22 or the Mandatory Segregation

of Solid Wastes and Requirements for the Segregation & Storage of Solid Waste. It has also

violated and Section 37 which is the Prohibition Against the Use of Open Dumps for Solid

Waste.

The study will investigate the market, technical, financing, financial, environmental and

management feasibility of a new sanitary landfill for Bacolod City. The feasibility of the study

were divided into these six areas of focus. Each aims to contribute to the serviceability and

improvement of the new sanitary landfill.

Bacolod City built a sanitary landfill last April 19, 2013 making it among the first 5%

Local Government Unit to comply with the sanitary landfill requirement in the whole country.

However, in 2015, the landfill was turned to an open dumpsite. According to Mr. Ramel Palalon,

Public Service Officer II of Bacolod City and is in-charge of the city’s landfill, if segregation

was implemented in the landfill, it will be full by next year. The difference between the expected

and the current situation of the landfill stresses the pressing need of proper waste disposal and

storage for the city.

Civil engineers specializing in waste management have designed landfill sites that

incorporate environmental protection measures. Civil engineers specializing in geotechnical

engineering, hydrology, and environmental science are involved as soon as a landfill site is

proposed (Kielmas, 2017). The researcher's goal is to have a deeper and clearer understanding of

the landfill problems and current situation to help improve the current condition of the sanitary

landfill of the city.

Landfills present engineers with a variety of challenges, including how to manage land

use, traffic, liquids, and gases, as well as other environmental, civil, geotechnical, mechanical,

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and electrical engineering issues (Galvin & Steinhauser, 2017). The researchers would like to

rise up to the challenges by discovering methods appropriate for the feasibility of the new

sanitary landfill for Bacolod City.

The current site of the open dumpsite is in Brgy. Felisa, Bacolod City. According to

Pollution Abatement Systems Specialist, Inc. (PASSI) president Julito Pugoy, Felisa is the best

site to host the facility because it has a landfill. It is also the best barangay to host the project

because it is zonified as a heavy industrial zone, and in terms of social responsibility, the

problem is minimal.

Bacolod City should dispose its waste in a sanitary landfill to address the current situation

in compliance with the law as soon as possible. The aim of the study will be focused on the

feasibility of a new landfill for the city.

General Statement of the Problem

The study aims to determine the feasibility of a new sanitary landfill for Bacolod City.

Specific Sub-problems

1. Is there a need for a new sanitary landfill in Bacolod City?

2. Is it the most advantageous than other methods of waste disposal?

3. Is it technically feasible?

4. How much will it cost if a new landfill will be constructed and operated?

5. Will the operation of the landfill be financially feasible?

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6. Will it be socially and economically acceptable?

7. Will it comply with the environmental regulations stipulated in R.A.9003?

8. Can it be managed and operated effectively and efficiently?

Statement of Hypothesis

The propose sanitary landfill for Bacolod City is not feasible; in terms of its market,

technical, financing and financial, environmental and management feasibility.

Significance of the Study

The following will be benefited by the study:

1. The study aims to determine the feasibility of a new sanitary landfill for Bacolod

City. The city’s need for a new sanitary landfill is very immediate for the closure

of the existing open dumpsite being currently utilized to accommodate the daily

collection of solid wastes is targeted for closure by the Department of Natural

Resources as it violates the previsions of R.A. 9003.

2. A new sanitary landfill which can accommodate the current and future volume of

solid wastes will reduce health and environmental hazards of an open dumpsite

and comply with provisions of R.A. 9003 on sanitary landfill.

3. The result from the study can help the government of Bacolod City in their

decision-making regarding their action on how to address the current garbage

situation of the city and comply with provisions of R.A. 9003

4. Civil Engineers and Future Researchers. The result, findings and recommendation

of the study can contribut1e additional knowledge especially to Civil Engineering

since it is dealing with the feasibility of a sanitary landfill, also considered to be in

the area of concern of the profession.

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Definition of Terms

Project Feasibility Study

Conceptual and Operational: Project Feasibility Study refers to the culmination of all the

preparatory work that provides a comprehensive review of all aspects of the project before a final

decision about its viability is taken. An ideal F/S contains the following modules which provide

the basis for project evaluation: (a) demand-and-supply or market module; (b) technical or

engineering module; (c) manpower and administrative support module; (d) financial module; (e)

economic module; (f) social module; (g) institutional module; and (h) environmental module.

(National Economic and Development Authority Department of Budget and Management, 2014)

Market feasibility

Conceptual: In general, a market analysis searches for the intersection of demand and supply that

will create a market for a product at a given price, and a feasibility analysis tests whether a

certain product will meet certain financial or social goals in the market. The market study will

examine comparables in the study area to see what scale and amenities will increase absorption

and capture rates. The marketability study is mainly used to describe what conditions are

necessary for the project to be successful. (Novak, 1996)

Operational: In this study market feasibility will determine the demand and supply. It will also

assess the potential return on the investment, absorption and market capture rates and the

project’s timing.

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Technical feasibility

Conceptual: Technical and operational feasibility are concerned with whether the proper

resources exist or are reasonably attainable to implement a specific alternative. This includes the

square footage of the building, existing and available utilities, existing processing and material

handling equipment, quality requirements, and skill level of employees. During this process,

product specifications and facility constraints should be taken into account. (Franchetti, 2011)

Operational: Technical feasibility will determine the design and specifications, process of

construction and equipment to be used for the proposed sanitary landfill. The technical feasibility

study will involve evaluating the engineering aspect of the project by applying the principles of

civil engineering.

Financial feasibility

Conceptual: Financial feasibility analysis is performed to test whether the project's return will

exceed opportunity costs. y combining the results of the market analysis and the cost estimates,

the feasibility analysis will estimate financial returns. Most feasibility analysis include a pro

forma which outlines expenses and incomes in a spread sheet. The feasibility study estimates

value based on market prices and the present worth of the site. Developers, investors and lenders

base many of their decisions on the feasibility study. (Novak, 1996)

Operational: Financial feasibility study will determine how much will be the cost to operate the

project. The financial feasibility study will involve evaluating the capability of the government to

come up with the funds needed to operate the landfill.

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Financing feasibility

Conceptual: The criteria shall be used in the screening, prioritization and evaluation of the new

Feasibility Studies and Feasibility Studies updating that may be eligible for funding.

(National Economic and Development Authority Department of Budget and Management, 2014)

Operational: Financing feasibility will determine if the budget to finance for the investment of

the project using the pre-construction and construction cost estimate will be sufficient.

Environmental Impact

Conceptual: Modification of the environment caused by the action of man or of nature.

(Jaramillo, 2003)

Operational: Environmental feasibility will determine the effects of the project to the

environment. Environmental feasibility study will involve evaluating the capability of the project

to secure licenses, approvals and permits in a timely and cost effective way.

Management feasibility

Conceptual: The overall implementation plan is discussed in the organization and management

study. This aspect includes a study of the officers and key personnel, basic consideration in

forming the organization, form of ownership, organizational chart and project schedule. The

objective of the management aspect of a feasibility study is to determine the option effectiveness

of the organizational setup and the qualifications of the individuals who will make up the

organization. (Bejo, Bio , Borras, and Gabatan, 2013)

Operational: Managemeny feasibility will determine how the project will be managed effectively

and efficiently to achieve its purpose.

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Sanitary Landfill

Conceptual and Operational: A Sanitary Landfill is a disposal site designed, constructed,

operated and maintained in a manner that exerts engineering control over significant potential

environmental impacts arising from the development and operation of the facility. In particular,

engineering of the site is undertaken to contain and regulate the uncontrolled migration of

leachate (water contaminated from contact with decomposing waste) and landfill gas. (DENR

Administrative Order No. 49 Series of 1998)

Leachate

Conceptual and Operational: Water that collects contaminants as it trickles through wastes,

pesticides or fertilizers. Leaching may occur in farming areas, feedlots, and landfills, and may

result in hazardous substances entering surface water, ground water, or soil. (Bailey, 2016)

Geomembranes

Conceptual and Operational: Geomembranes are also called flexible membrane liners (FML).

These liners are constructed from various plastic materials, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The preferred material for use in MSW and secure

landfills is HDPE. This material is strong, resistant to most chemicals, and is considered to be

impermeable to water. Therefore, HDPE minimizes the transfer of leachate from the landfill to

the environment. The thickness of geomembranes used in landfill liner construction is regulated

by federal and state laws. (Hughes, Christy and Heimlich, 2013)

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Geotextile

Conceptual and Operational: In landfill liners, geotextiles are used to prevent the movement of

small soil and refuse particles into the leachate collection layers and to protect geomembranes

from punctures. These materials allow the movement of water but trap particles to reduce

clogging in the leachate collection system. (Hughes, Christy and Heimlich, 2013)

Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL)

Conceptual and Operational: These liners consist of a thin clay layer (four to six millimeters)

between two layers of a geotextile. These liners can be installed more quickly than traditional

compacted clay liners, and the efficiency of these liners is impacted less by freeze-thaw cycles.

(Hughes, Christy and Heimlich, 2013)

Landfill Base Liner

Conceptual and Operational: Landfill Base Liner means a continuous layer of primary

Geosynthetic membrane and a secondary compacted clayliner or Geosynthetic Clay Liner

(GCL), installed beneath and/or on the sides of a landfill footprint which acts as a barrier to

vertical and lateral leachate and landfill gas movement. (Landfill Criteria for Municipal Solid

Wastes, 2016)

Landfill Cell

Conceptual and Operational: "Landfill Cell" means that portion of compacted MSW in a landfill

that is enclosed by cover after a designated period. (Landfill Criteria for Municipal Solid Wastes,

2016)

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Landfill cover

Conceptual and Operational: A daily cover of compacted soil or earth is applied on top of the

waste deposited in a landfill. This cover minimizes the interaction between waste and the

surrounding environment. It also reduces odours. (Landfill Criteria for Municipal Solid Wastes,

2016)

Design Capacity

Conceptual and Operational: "Design Capacity" is the volume of airspace available for waste

within the landfill footprint. (Landfill Criteria for Municipal Solid Wastes, 2016)

Landfill Gas

Conceptual and Operational: "Landfill Gas" (LFG) means a mixture of gases generated by the

decomposition of MSW. (Landfill Criteria for Municipal Solid Wastes, 2016)

Scope and Limitations

Scope

General purpose: Specifically, the study aims to determine the feasibility of a new sanitary

landfill for Bacolod City.

Topics studied: Market Feasibility, Technical Feasibility, Financial and Financing Feasibility,

Environmental Feasibility and Mangement Feasibility

Study will be conducted in Bacolod City and will affect the residents of Bacolod City.

The study will cover the period: June 2017-March 2018

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Limitations

The basis of the study is the historical data of Bacolod City regarding its waste collection

volume and population. The study will not include cases of increase and decrease of prices due

to inflation or deflation. The feasibility of the study will be limited to the six aspects to be

investigated which are market, technical, financing, financial, environmental, and management

feasibility.

Conceptual Framework

DATA PROCESSING
INPUTS AND ANALYSIS
MARKETING DATA TO DETERMINE FEASIBILITY
OUTPUT
TECHNICAL DATA MARKETING
FINANCING DATA TECHNICAL ESTABLISH FEASIBILITY OR
FINANCIAL DATA FINANCING NON FEASIBILITY
ENVIRONMENTAL DATA FINANCIAL
MANAGEMENT DATA ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT

Figure 1. Feasibility of Proposed Landfill for Bacolod City

The feasibility of the proposed sanitary landfill will be evaluated through the six aspects

namely; marketing, technical, financial, financing, environmental and management. All these

aspects for the feasibility studies are interconnected and may affect one another:

1) The technical feasibility will include the following factors:

a) Product / Service

b) Process

c) Technology

d) Equipment / materials, facilities

e) Capacity / production rate

f) Cost (facilities and equipments)

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g) Production cost

2) The marketing feasibility will cover the volume produced and volume capacity.

3) The financing feasibility will cover the investment while the financial feasibility will

include the operation, maintenance and affordable management costs at the local level.

4) Management being the simple, dynamic management of the service.

5) The environmental factors include negative impacts on soil, water and air that should be

minimized.

Each of the six main feasibility studies will be evaluated by data collected and data

processing procedures setting a criteria in each area.

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Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter includes concepts, ideas and researches relevant to this study and that can

provide insights for the problems discussed in the first chapter. The concepts and researches are

presented in the following order: Related Literatures, Local Studies and Foreign Studies.

Related Literature

MARKET FEASIBILITY

Quantity of Waste

In the Philippines, where the population has already exceeded 100 million in 2015, and

an average solid waste generation rate of 0.5 kg per capita per day, it can be estimated that an

average of 50,000 metric tons of garbage per day is being generated, of which only 35,000

metric tons/day are collected. (Gilbert and Ramos, 2012)

Recycling offers some of the most pragmatic solutions to reduce the volume of generated

waste. The Philippine Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, defines recycling as

“the treating of used or waste materials through a process of making them sustainable for

beneficial use and for other purposes, and includes any process by which solid waste materials

are transformed into new products in such a manner that the original products may lose their

identity…” It is differentiated from Reuse in which there is no alteration of the physical or

chemical characteristics of the recovered material.

Improvements in recycling, collection, and disposal will become even more critical as

garbage production continues to increase with population growth and economic development.

Though not yet quite a pervasive practice, organized recycling in the Philippines has picked up in

recent years. According to the National Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC),

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recycling rates have been increasing, particularly in Metro Manila, from 6% in 1997; 13% in

2000; and 28% in 2006 (Andin, Z; NSWMC, 2007). Among the major reasons for this

improvement are the following: the implementation of RA 9003, the grassroots SWM/ recycling

movement, and the market forces. (Antonio, L. C., 2010)

Population (Produce Garbage)

Based on the 2015 Census of Population, the population of the Philippines as of August

1, 2015 was 100.98 million persons.

With a total area of approximately 300,000 square kilometers, the population density of

the Philippines in 2015 was posted at 337 persons per square kilometer. This represents an

increase of 29 persons per square kilometer (9.4 percent) from the population density of 308

persons per square kilometer in 2010. (POPCEN 2015)

Volume of Waste Generated per Year

With an average per-capita waste generation ratio of about 0.5 kg per day, the annual

waste generation in the Philippines is 12 million tons in 2012. This figure is expected to double

by 2025. The National Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC) reported that the

country’s solid waste generation includes 73% of households, 26% of commercial

establishments, institutions and industries, as well as 1% of healthcare facilities. (CCAC, 2014)

Capacity of Landfill

The Designed Landfill Capacity (DLC) shall be determined by calculating the product of

the sum of planned waste to be landfilled and soil covered per year, by the number of years that

the landfill is to be operated.

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Density of Compacted Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

The municipal solid waste is the combination of different individual waste components,

properties of the individual components controls the overall characteristics of the landfill waste.

The understanding of the variation in compositional characteristics is helpful to estimate

properties when MSW is subjected to spatial and temporal heterogeneity. (Tiwari, 2014)

It is of utmost importance to have reliable engineering properties of MSW in order to

evaluate and predict landfill behavior and hence for landfill operation. However, determining

engineering properties is extremely difficult as mentioned by Manasslero et al., (1997) due to the

following reasons:

1) Difficulties in sampling of MSW which simulate the in site condition

2) Lack of generally accepted sampling procedure for geotechnical characterization of

waste material

3) Variation in properties of municipal solid waste with time

4) Level of training and education of the personnel on site for basic interpretation and

understanding of the measurements

5) Heterogeneity of the MSW within the landfill and its variation with geographical

location.

The properties of MSW are determined for designing landfill, particularly bioreactor

landfill. Generally, density, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, compressibility, stiffness and shear

strength are the most important properties of any solid waste. (Dixon and Jones 2005). Density

of MSW is determined to assess volume of transportation vehicle and size of the disposal

facility. (Chandrappa & Das, 2012)

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TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY

Technical Guidelines For Municipal Solid Waste Disposal

According to DENR Administrative Order No. 49 Series of 1998,

WHEREAS, the disposal of municipal solid waste in the Philippines is mostly through

open dumps that cause environmental damage and adverse impact on public health;

WHEREAS, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources as the primary

government agency in charge of environmental and natural resources management and as

Chairman of the Presidential Task Force on Waste Management is tasked with providing

appropriate guidelines in all aspects of waste management;

WHEREAS, Republic Act 7160, otherwise known as the Philippine Local Government

Code devolved the responsibility for the provision of basic services, such as but not limited to

general hygiene and sanitation, beautification and solid waste management to local government

units (LGUs);

WHEREAS, the DENR recognizes the value of strengthening its coordination and

cooperation with the LGUs in the planning and implementation of solid waste management

strategies;

WHEREAS, by virtue of Presidential Decree 1152 (the Philippine Environmental

Policy), Presidential Decree 984 (the Pollution Control Law) and Administrative Order no. 90

there is a need to improve the present disposal practices of municipal solid waste to make then

environmentally- sound;

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Design Landfill Layout

The site layout shall be designed to satisfy all criteria including the siting criteria, and

minimize environmental impacts. (British Columbia Ministry of Environment, June 2016)

The site layout shall provide for site entrance, gatehouse, material recovery/recycling

area, structures, access roads, landfill footprint, surface water ditching and management ponds

and leachate and gas management infrastructure if applicable. The site layout should minimize

the potential for leachate and landfill gas impacts offsite taking into consideration groundwater

flow direction and surface water infiltration and discharge points.

Site Equipment

Basic functions to be performed by landfill equipment are:

• Waste grading and compaction; and

• Excavating and placing of daily and intermediate cover.

Typically, these functions will be performed by a landfill compactor and a wheeled

loader. A pick-up truck will also be included in the typical on-site equipment fleet (Dillon, et. al.,

2007). Other functions requiring equipment are landfill cell preparation, final cover construction,

delivery of drop-off bin wastes to the working face, road maintenance and dust control. Some of

these functions may be performed with on-site equipment, but others may require equipment to

be leased or a contractor to be hired. Routine maintenance and cleaning will be performed as

necessary to keep onsite equipment in good operating order.

Topography of the site

The method of construction of a manual sanitary landfill depends mainly on the

topography of the site, although it is also influenced by the type of soil and the depth of the water

table.

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The area method is used on flat terrain, abandoned quarries, depressions, and low parts of

ravines. The features of each individual site will determine whether it is possible to extract the

cover soil from the site or whether it will have to be hauled from nearby places. The area method

consists of depositing the wastes on the surface and laying them against the slope of the inclined

terrain; they are then compacted in sloping layers to form the cell that will afterwards be covered

with earth. The first cells are built at one end of the area to be filled and the work advances to its

completion at the other end.

The trench method is used when the water table is deep and the gradients of the terrain

are gentle. The trenches can be excavated with earthmoving equipment. This method consists of

depositing the waste at one end of the ditch, placing it against the slope; the workers then spread

and compact the waste in layers using masonry tools until a cell is formed which, at the end of

the day, will be covered with the earth from the excavation. (Jamillo, 2003)

FINANCING FEASIBILITY

Initial Working Capital

The capital investment portion of the total costs is divided between site development,

equipment purchases and construction costs. The facility development costs are preliminary costs

associated with the entire site (e.g., characterization studies, land acquisition, engineering and

design studies, and permit package fees) thereby occurring only in the first year of operation.

The construction phase typically occurs in stages as required. Only a portion of the site or “cell”

is developed with each subsequent cell being developed as the previous cell nears capacity.

(Eilrich, et. al., 2002)

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Costs of Land

Costs of the land depend on the land prices which can differ for each location. The actual

use of the land is important for the price which influences the level of compensation for the

owner or actual users. The potential landfill with the lowest costs is more preferable. (Sener,

2004).

Costs for the Access of the Landfill

Costs for the access of the landfill depend on the condition and the presence of roads

close to the landfill. If reconstruction of actual roads is needed, the costs will increase. Because

of that road network is an important factor to locate a landfill site. (Sener, 2004).

Landfill Costs

Landfill costs fall into one of four categories: (1) initial construction, (2) cell

construction, (3) operations, and (4) closure as modeled. Initial construction costs consist of

those activities that would be completed prior to operation of the facility, which would not be

repeated for each individual cell. These costs are amortized over the facility life. Cell

construction costs include all engineering design and construction completed for each individual

cell of the facility and are amortized over the life of the cell. (Barbara Sich and Morton Barlaz

July 2000)

FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY

Payback period

Landfill cost recovery potential from 8% to 106% of total sanitary landfill costs

(including the gas system), if all revenues go only to landfill cost recovery. However, usually

some revenue needs to cover private developer profit and some is allocated to community

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development funding to the host municipality and surrounding neighborhood or waste picking

community. No funds are likely to be leftover for the rest of the solid waste system. When

systems are small and poorly operated, cost recovery potential can be half of the above estimates.

(Cointreau, March 2008)

Operation and Closure Costs

Operation costs include all costs incurred annually to run the facility. Closure costs

include all one-time activities conducted after all cells in the facility are completed, as well as

post-closure monitoring and other long-term activities related to site maintenance after closure.

The post-closure costs are amortized over the life of the facility so that these costs are reflected

in the cost of waste disposal. Landfill gas can be used directly or to generate electricity or steam.

The associated revenues can be sold to offset some of the costs associated with building,

operating, and maintaining a landfill. (Barbara Sich and Morton Barlaz July 2000)

Transport Costs

Transport costs are determined by the transport distances from the source of waste

generation, the way of transport and the way of collection. The other factors affecting transport

costs are the need for waste transfer stations and the possibility to use railways. (Sener, 2004).

Costs for Personnel, Maintenance and Environmental Protection

The costs for personnel will not differ so much between the different potential landfill

sites. Maintenance depends on the availability of soil needed for the daily or regular covering

and for the stability of the landfill. If the soil is not available in the area, it should be imported

which increases the maintenance costs. Technical provisions should be placed to prevent the

pollution of the soil, groundwater and surface water at the landfill. Monitoring the drainage

system and the quality of the leachate and surface water are also important factors in the

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maintenance costs. The potential landfill with the lowest maintenance costs is more suitable for a

landfill. (Sener, 2004).

Costs for the After-Care

The costs for after-care is not only dependent on the kind of final use but also on

provisions to monitor the groundwater quality, existence of gas, the winning of gas, the stability

of the completed landfill. Needed provisions are depending on the characteristics of the filled

waste, the kind of subsoil, the hydrogeological situation, and the kind of final use. (Sener, 2004).

ENVIRONMENTAL FEASIBILITY

Identification of Standards in Force

Another aspect not to be overlooked by the designer of a sanitary landfill is the need to

consult with the standards currently in force for the design and construction of the landfill and

infrastructure works, and also for the issue of environmental impact (constraints on the project in

order to prevent or mitigate possible negative effects from the construction and operation of the

landfill). (Jaramillo, 2003)

Analysis of Environmental Impacts

Environmental impact analyses serve to anticipate the positive and negative effects that every

sanitary landfill project has during its different stages: site selection, construction, operation, and

closure. The measurement of these impacts should be interdisciplinary and should be carried out

on the natural components (water, soil and air), of the site and surrounding area as well as on the

project-related economic and social variables. (Jaramillo, 2003)

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Republic Act No. 9003

According to Republic Act No. 9003 or “An act providing for an ecological solid waste

management program, creating the necessary institutional mechanisms and incentives, declaring

certain acts prohibited and providing penalties, appropriating funds therefor, and for other

purposes.”

Article 1, Section 2 states the declaration of policies wherein it is hereby declared the

policy of the State to adopt a systematic, comprehensive and ecological solid waste management

program which shall:

(a) Ensure the protection of public health and environment;

(b) Utilize environmentally-sound methods that maximize the utilization of valuable resources

and encourage resources conservation and recovery;

(c) Set guidelines and targets for solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through source

reduction and waste minimization measures, including composing, recycling, re-use, recovery,

green charcoal process, and others, before collection, treatment and disposal in appropriate and

environmentally sound solid waste management facilities in accordance with ecologically

sustainable development principles;

(d) Ensure the proper segregation, collection, transport, storage, treatment and disposal of solid

waste through the formulation and adoption of the best environmental practices in ecological

waste management excluding incineration;

(e) Promote national research and development programs for improved solid waste management

and resource conservation techniques, more effective institutional arrangement and indigenous

and improved methods of waste reduction, collection, separation and recovery.

(f) Encourage greater private sector participation in solid waste management;

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(g) Retain primary enforcement and responsibility of solid waste management with local

government units while establishing a cooperative effort among the national government, other

local government units, non-government organizations, and the private sector;

(h) Encourage cooperation and self-regulation among waste generators through the application of

market-based instruments;

(i) Institutionalize public participation in the development and implementation of national and

local integrated, comprehensive and ecological waste management programs; and

(j) Strengthen the integration of ecological solid waste management and resource conservation

and recovery topics into the academic curricula of formal and non-formal education in order to

promote environmental awareness and action among the citizenry.

Section 40, Article 6 of Republic Act No. 9003 states the criteria for siting a Sanitary

Landfill. The following shall be the minimum criteria for the siting of sanitary landfills:

(a) The site selected must be consistent with the overall land use plan of the LGU;

(b) The site must be accessible from major roadways or thoroughfares;

(c) The site should have an adequate quantity of earth cover material that is easily handled and

compacted;

(d) The site must be chosen with regard for the sensitivities of the community's residents;

(e) The size must be located in an area where the landfill’s operation will not detrimentally affect

environmentally sensitive resources such as aquifer, groundwater reservoir or watershed area;

(f) The site should be large enough to accommodate the community’s wastes for a period of five

years during which people must internalize the value of environmentally sound and sustainable

solid waste disposal;

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(g) The site chosen should facilitate developing a landfill that will satisfy budgetary constraints,

including site development, operation for many years, closure, post-closure care and possible

remediation costs;

(h) Operating plans must include provisions for coordinating with recycling and resource

recovery projects; and

(i) Designation of a separate containment area for household hazardous wastes.

Section 41, Article 6 of Republic Act No. 9003 states the criteria for Establishing a

Sanitary Landfill. The following shall be the minimum criteria for the establishment of sanitary

landfills:

(a) Liners – a system of clay layers and/or geosynthetic membranes used to contain leachate and

reduce or prevent contaminant flow to groundwater;

(b) Leachate collection and treatment system – Installation of pipes at the low areas of the liner

to collect leachate for storage and eventual treatment and discharge;

(c) Gas control recovery system – a series of vertical wells or horizontal trenches containing

permeable materials and perforated piping placed in the landfill to collect gas for treatment or

productive use as an energy source;

(d) Ground water monitoring well system – wells placed at an appropriate location and depth for

taking water samples that are representative of groundwater quality;

(e) Cover – two (2) forms of cover consisting of soil and geosynthetic materials to protect the

waste from long-term contact with the environment:

(i) a daily cover place over the waste at the close of each day’s operations, and;

24
(ii) a final cover, or cap, which is the material placed over the completed landfill to control

infiltration of water, gas emission to the atmosphere, and erosion.

(f) Closure procedure – with the objectives of establishing low maintenance cover systems and

final cover that minimizes the infiltration of precipitation into the waste. Installation of the final

cover must be completed within six (6) months of the least receipt of wastes; and

(g) Post-closure care procedure – During this period, the landfill owner shall be responsible for

providing for the general upkeep of the landfill, maintaining all of the landfill’s environmental

protection features, operating monitoring equipment, remediating groundwater should it become

contaminated and controlling landfill gas migration or emission.

MANAGEMENT FEASIBILITY

Operational Procedures

The operational procedures employed at any landfill site will have a significant bearing

on its planned development, performance and potential effects on the environment, particularly

effects on site neighbours. The procedures are the following: landfill management plan, staffing

and training, health and safety, site access,waste acceptance and monitoring, roading, visual

impacts, waste compaction, cover, nuisance control, fire prevention, water control, landfill gas

management, and closure and aftercare. (Centre for Advanced Engineering , 2000)

Staffing

The level of staffing should be adequate for environmentally-responsible and safe

management of the landfill. Staffing requirements will vary as a function of size, types of wastes,

and diversity and complexity of site operations. Landfill operators should provide adequate

staffing to ensure that during operating hours all continuous tasks (including waste reception, and

25
security, compaction and covering) are completed in accordance with the landfill management

plan. (Centre for Advanced Engineering, 2000)

Related Studies

Local Studies

Market Study

A Study by Van Ryan Kristopher R. Galarpe and Richard B. Parilla entitled

“Opportunities and Threats to Adjacent Community in a Sanitary Landfill, Philippines” assessed

the adjacent community in Cebu City Sanitary Landfill (CCSL), Philippines. Data were gathered

on April, 2011 using interview-questionnaire covering sixty three households. Areas assessed

include the general household profile, perceived opportunities, water resources and utilization,

health status and services, waste management practices, and perception to CCSL management

and institutions. Result showed that households perceived opportunities in CCSL as a result of

employment, resources, and security through informal workforce like scavenging. However, the

adjacent community was found to be at high risk owing to use of contaminated groundwater and

unsafe waste management practices. These threats were manifested through prevalence of

gastrointestinal, respiratory, and dermal diseases. Households also acknowledged the negative

impacts to health and environment however their major concern was accessed to employment

upon closure and relocation of CCSL. The study provided basis for policy makers and concern

institutions on identifying basic services to be made available to the adjacent community

considering the closure of CCSL. The study gave idea to the researchers on what to consider in

the formulation of the design and considerations for the new sanitary landfill in study.

26
Technical Study

Solid waste management remained to be a serious problem in the country. Despite the

enactment of Republic Act 9003 or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act, nothing has

improved. The volume of wastes being generated particularly in the urban centres tends to

increase with increased population growth. Improper waste disposal is not only an eyesore but

has serious environmental consequences to the soil, air, ground and surface waters and even to

human health. Groundwater contamination may be the most serious problem caused by improper

waste disposal because, as usually the case in the Philippines where dependence on groundwater

for drinking purposes is very common. Sanitary landfills are the most widely utilized method for

solid waste disposal. (Rebullida, 2000)

According to Republic Act No. 9003 which states that “An act providing for an

ecological solid waste management program, creating the necessary institutional mechanisms

and incentives, declaring certain acts prohibited and providing penalties, appropriating funds

therefor, and for other purposes.”

Article 1, Section 2 states the declaration of policies: It is hereby declared the policy of

the State to adopt a systematic, comprehensive and ecological solid waste management program

which shall:

(a) Ensure the protection of public health and environment;

(b) Utilize environmentally-sound methods that maximize the utilization of valuable resources

and encourage resources conservation and recovery;

(c) Set guidelines and targets for solid waste avoidance and volume reduction through source

reduction and waste minimization measures, including composing, recycling, re-use, recovery,

green charcoal process, and others, before collection, treatment and disposal in appropriate and

27
environmentally sound solid waste management facilities in accordance with ecologically

sustainable development principles;

(d) Ensure the proper segregation, collection, transport, storage, treatment and disposal of solid

waste through the formulation and adoption of the best environmental practices in ecological

waste management excluding incineration;

(e) Promote national research and development programs for improved solid waste management

and resource conservation techniques, more effective institutional arrangement and indigenous

and improved methods of waste reduction, collection, separation and recovery.

(f) Encourage greater private sector participation in solid waste management;

(g) Retain primary enforcement and responsibility of solid waste management with local

government units while establishing a cooperative effort among the national government, other

local government units, non-government organizations, and the private sector;

(h) Encourage cooperation and self-regulation among waste generators through the application of

market-based instruments;

(i) Institutionalize public participation in the development and implementation of national and

local integrated, comprehensive and ecological waste management programs; and

(j) Strengthen the integration of ecological solid waste management and resource conservation

and recovery topics into the academic curricula of formal and non-formal education in order to

promote environmental awareness and action among the citizenry.

Republic Act No. 9003, Article 2, Section 21 states the Mandatory Segregation of Solid

Waste; The LGUs shall evaluate alternative roles for the public and private sectors in providing

collection services, type of collection system, or combination of systems, that best meet their

needs: Provided, That segregation of wastes shall primarily be conducted at the source, to

28
include household, institutional, industrial, commercial and agricultural sources: Provided,

further, That wastes shall be segregated into the categories provided in Section 22 of this Act.

Financing Study

Cost Estimates /Financial Aspects

The Solid Waste Management Program of San Carlos City is being financed through the 20%

Development Fund (20% of the Internal Revenue Allotment or IRA) as source of fund. The

yearly budget is being deliberated annually (which usually falls on the 3rd quarter of the year)

under the auspices of the Local Finance Committee.

Investment cost

29
Financial Study

In the study “Final Report on Consulting Services for Solid Waste Management

(Environmental Management) Within Project Micropolis in Metro Manila, Republic of the

Philippines” last April 2007 provided a breakdown of the costs. The table includes a schematic

calculation for a Barangay in Metro Manila with 10,000 inhabitants of mixed population. The

Barangay has initially eight (8) hauling trips per week to collect the Solid Waste. The Barangay

has initially no Eco Aids designated to the Solid Waste Management System. Each item can

naturally be discussed and modified, but the ambition of the table is to show the orders of

magnitude and where the critical costs and revenues are found.

The investments can naturally vary a lot depending on the starting conditions in the

specific Barangay, the level of ambition, stepwise implementation of the new schemes, etc.

However, the order of magnitude, 1,000,000 – 2,000,000 pesos, is a good estimate for a

Barangay of 10,000 inhabitants. An investment of this magnitude is very hard for a typical

Barangay to handle in one step. However, with a good planning of budget allocations over the

years and a stepwise implementation it would be possible to build up a well-functioning Solid

Waste Management System within just a few years. Experience from various other projects also

shows that there are other sources of funding than only the Barangay budgets.

Waste Management Fund as a part of the Property Tax allocations;

Savings and funding;

Soft Loans / Concessionary credits;

30
Donations from companies and individuals; and

Various “politically” allocated funds

are some examples of funding used in other projects.

The use of part of the Property Tax to the Waste Management Fund seems to be

supported by law. Savings and funding are sometimes difficult due to administrative rules and

regulations where a “saving” from one budget year can not be transferred to the following.

However, it seems as if such transfers can be done given one of the basic rules: “If there is a will

there is a way”. Countries that are engaged in various kinds of support to developing countries

sometimes provide so called Soft Loans (or Concessionary Credits) at favorable conditions.

Naturally, a single Barangay cannot get involved in such a financing scheme, but with a good

coordination between Barangays and the City Level or at the Central Government Level (like the

DILG, Department of Interior and Local Government), such financing would bring down the

costs and increase the implementation pace.

The latter two types of funding are available especially during election periods. This kind

of sources can, of course, not be utilized in every Barangays when a full scale Solid Waste

Management work is started. The interest on the investment should be included as a cost in a

complete budget estimate. However, since the budgets for investments in a Barangay are

provided on an annual basis by City / Municipality, the interest is of no significance on the

Barangay level.

Another study entitled, “Funding Solid Waste Disposal: A Study from the Philippines”

by Antonia Corinthia C. Naz and Mario Tuscan N Naz , talks about the treatment of solid waste

as a major priority in countries across Southeast Asia. Economic development and population

growth, particularly in the region's mega-cities, have made the challenge more acute. This is

31
particularly true in the Philippines, where the legacy of dangerous open dump sites such as

'Smokey Mountain' have kept the issue high on the political agenda. This study looks at how a

municipal government in one of the Philippines's provinces should organize its solid waste

management plans to meet strict new national targets. It recommends that the local government

charge user fees for its waste collection & disposal services and recommends a level of service

that will reflect people's preferences, However, even with this level of charges, the study warns

of a funding gap and says that the local government may have to divert as much as 25% of its

development fund to pay for it.

In the study “A Systems Approach on Solid Waste Management in Metro Manila, Philippines”

by Rhea Abigail Navarro last November 2003, he indicated the following assumptions:

 SWM expenses include personnel services, landfill aftercare, maintenance and operation

costs, wastewater treatment, landfilling costs (tipping fee) and collection and

transportation costs. Except for transportation and collection, all costs are deducted from

MMDA’s SWM budget. Transportation and collection costs are borne by the individual

LGUs themselves.

 All initial prices of expenses are worked out from the 2002 SWM budget of MMDA.

Maintenance and operation cost Php34.17/m2 of controlled dump area. Wastewater A

Systems Approach on Solid Waste Management in Metro Manila, Philippines Rhea

Abigail Navarro, LUMES 2002/2003 8 treatment costs Php8.68/m2 while the tipping fee

is initially Php600/ton. Landfill aftercare is paid yearly after a controlled dump is closed

up to 10 years at the same rate as wastewater treatment. All rates double for each new

controlled dump opened. Php2.35 million is spent annually for total personnel services.

(MMDA, 2002)

32
 Collection and transportation costs are priced at Php785.7/ton. This is derived from a

weighted average of costs spent by Marikina, Valenzuela and Muntinlupa (WB, 2001).

 Total SWM allocation is composed of the share of SWM from the government plus the

individual expenses of LGUs in collection and transportation. The government allocated

share for SWM is set as 0.13% of the GRDP, based on the approved 2002 budget

(MMDA, 2002). LGU contribution, on the other hand, varies yearly depending on the

amount of waste collected.

Environmental Study

A study by Paz B. Reyes, Mabelle V. Portu entitled, “Greening of the Solid Waste

Management in Batangas” can also help improve design the new sanitary landfill. Management

of solid wastes in the Philippines has long been a responsibility of the Local Government Units

in the country since the enactment of Republic Act 9003 also known as the Ecological Solid

Waste Management Act of 2002. In support to the local government of Batangas City, this study

was conducted to propose a plan of action that will enhance the level of implementation of solid

waste management in the city, lessen the harmful effects to the environment and health of the

people and find solutions to problems encountered in its implementation. The descriptive survey

method was used with 204 respondents taken by stratified sampling from selected 69 barangays.

A Likert scale instrument was used to measure the level of implementation of solid waste

management practices of the residents and the problems encountered by the residents in the

implementation of solid waste management practices. A checklist determine the effects of the

implementation of solid waste management practices to the environment and health of the people

Data analysis made use of frequency distribution, weighted mean and ANOVA. From the

findings gathered on the level of implementation of solid waste management and the observed

33
effects to the environment and health of the people including the problems encountered in its

implementation, a plan of action was proposed with the hope of enhancing the level of

implementation of solid waste management thereby lessening its harmful effects and problems to

health and environment.

Another study by Leonora E. Ngilangil entitled, “Assessment of Groundwater and

Leachate Quality from Balaoan Sanitary Landfill in La Union, Northern Philippines” could be

very helpful as well. The study emphasizes that landfills are point sources of pollution. In this

study, it seeks to assess the groundwater and leachate quality in Balaoan sanitary landfill using

physico-chemical and biological characteristics and to compare the results to quality standards.

Proper coordination with authorities, ocular visits and surveys and final evaluation on the study

site were made to ascertain the presence of a leachate pond and deep/tube wells within or near

the facility.

Groundwater and leachate samples were collected through grab sampling during the

months of February and April and sent for laboratory analyses .Except for the Total coliform and

E.coli counts, the physicochemical parameters of the groundwater samples such as pH,

turbidity,total dissolved solids, and nitrate were found to conform to the Philippine National

Standards for Drinking Water (PNSDW). Leachate water samples in terms of chemical oxygen

demand were found to conform to the regulatory limit while toxic metals such as cadmium,

chromium, copper, lead and mercury showed very low concentration based on DAO 35, series of

1990 class C waters.

34
Management Study

A study by Gia Golda D. Dela Corte entitled “Establishment of Municipal Solid Waste

Management Guidelines for Bais City Using Leachate Analyses and Wastes Characterization”

published on December 2005 states that although landfilling is a part of solid waste management,

environmental management practices should also be of concern. These practices can be

summarized in a comprehensive and integrated form such as a waste management plan. Waste

management plans are formed by performing waste characterization through inventory of the

volume of incoming solid wastes. Aside from determining the volume of solid wastes through

inventory, evaluation of effluent parameters may be used to formulate solid waste management

plans or guidelines. Analysis of effluent parameters may reveal which parameter is critical.

Foreign Studies

Market Study

A study in India is entitled “Modified Landfill Design for Sustainable Waste

Management” by Sudhakar Yedla states that waste management, being one of the most important

aspects of urban development, is gaining importance among developing nations. Landfills, which

were initiated for hazardous waste management and subsequently transformed into sanitary

landfills, have been the most widely adapted practice for municipal solid waste management

worldwide. However, the conventional design of landfills not only fails to fulfil the needs of

waste management but also fails to target optimal resource recovery and energy generation. In

the present study, modified design was proposed for partially engineered landfill system based

on theoretical considerations. Its potential for energy generation and resource utilization was

analyzed with a case study of Mumbai municipal solid waste. It was found that the system with

35
modified design could yield 0.157 million tons of landfill gas (0.145 million tons of coal

equivalent) out of one year of solid waste. Further, this could recover resource valued at US$2.49

million per year.

“The Normandy Landfill: A Case Study in Solid Waste Management” is a study by S.

Sadek* and M. El-Fadel in Lebanon and was published in 2000. As in most developing

countries, municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal has been a chronic problem, particularly in

areas with high population density, high production of refuse, and scarcity of land adequate for

landfills. In such settings, uncontrolled waste dumping along the seashore has been an

unfortunate, yet common practice for solid waste disposal in major urban centers. These

practices along the Mediterranean coast resulted in serious sea pollution problems. Random

disposal activities began around 1975 and were suspended in 1994. Initially, the waste was

limited to household wastes and later included inert fill and construction material. The site

currently covers about 360000m2 and extends about 600 m beyond the original shoreline. During

the period 1975 to 1982, the material dumped was mostly municipal waste with some

construction rubble. At that point 30 000m2 land area had been deposited into the sea. Between

1982 and 1983, large quantities of demolition debris were dumped into the sea north of the

existing waste piles. In addition, the years of war resulted in significant damages to the city

infrastructure, including sewage and wastewater disposal, resulting in the discharge of large

volumes of untreated wastewater at the edge of the fill.

Technical Study

Based on the “Technical Guidelines on Specially Engineered Landfill” published by Basel

Convention in 2002, a number of technical measures which are interdependent should be taken

36
to mitigate the impacts of landfill operations on the environment and human health, they

concern:

a. Site selection. Landfills should be sited, where possible to avoid the possibility of ground

water pollution. Where this is not possible, landfills should be designed and constructed

to prevent the migration of leachate from the fill to ground water.

b. Design of operations. Landfills can be designed and operated in ways that minimize the

generation of leachate, by for example tipping vertically rather than horizontally, and by

the prompt application of appropriate intermediate cover over the deposited waste, graded

to encourage run-off rather than infiltration. Effective compaction of the deposited waste

is also important.

c. Design of landfill and its proper engineering

d. d. Control on incoming waste. The amounts of waste that directly increase leachate

volumes (e.g. wet wastes) should be reduced to a practical minimum.

e. Landfill closure. The final closure cover for the landfill can be designed and laid in such

a way that infiltration of rainfall into the fill will be greatly reduced.

f. Careful construction and operation are essential.

g. Monitoring. A comprehensive programme of monitoring will be required for all landfill

sites. It should cover inputs to, contents of and emissions from the site and the

surrounding environment. It should be designed to provide advanced warning of any

unexpected problems and guidance on remediation possibilities. It should also indicate

the point at which the landfill has become stable.

37
Financing Study

The study “Municipal Solid Waste Landfills: Economic Impact Analysis for the Proposed

New Subpart to the New Source Performance Standards” by staff from the Office of Air and

Radiation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency last June 2014 had given insights about costs

and revenue streams for landfills. Landfill costs are site specific and vary based on factors such

as terrain, soil type, climate, site restrictions, regulatory issues, type and amount of waste

disposed, preprocessing, and potential for groundwater contamination. Landfill costs fall into the

following categories: site development, construction, equipment purchases, operation, closure,

and post-closure.

Construction costs encompass building the landfill cells as well as development of

permanent on-site structures needed to operate the landfill. Cortland County, New York

estimated that the cost for site development and cell construction (not including on-site building

construction) for a 224.5-acre site would be approximately $500,000 per acre (EnSol, 2010). In

2005, a series of articles was written that estimated costs for a hypothetical landfill based on

known market conditions and cost data. The theoretical landfill had a design capacity of 4

million cubic yards and a footprint of 33 acres. The study determined that the cost of

constructing a landfill of this size would be between $300,000 and $800,000 per acre. For the

hypothetical landfill in the study, total building and additional structure costs could total between

$1.165 million and $1.77 million. The cost of each building structure varies depending on its

functions and could range from $10 to $100 per square foot. Office buildings cost more while

maintenance buildings and tool sheds cost less. (Duffy, 2005a).

Operating costs of the example landfill include staffing, equipment, leachate treatment,

and facilities and general maintenance. Landfill operations and maintenance activities are

38
performed using a variety of heavy construction equipment with operating costs dependent on

fuel, repairs, and maintenance. Operating costs are relatively small when compared to the capital

costs; estimated annual operating costs from this study are:

• Operations (equipment, staff, facilities and general maintenance): $500,000.

• Leachate collection and treatment (assumes sewer connection and discharge cost of

$0.02/gallon): $10,000.

• Environmental sampling and monitoring (groundwater, surface water, air gas,leachate):

$30,000.

• Engineering services (consulting firms and in-house staff): $60,000.

Financial Study

The collection, transportation, and disposal of solid waste in Fiji’s cities and towns are

the responsibilities of individual municipal councils, under the country’s Local Government Act.

In the capital city, Suva, solid waste management is carried out by the Suva City Council (SCC).

Household waste is collected by the SCC, using its fleet of compactor trucks. The SCC

believes that its collection system is cost-effective and customer-friendly. It does not plan to

outsource these services to the private sector. The cost of compactor trucks is seen by the SCC as

a barrier to private sector participation, although Port Moresby has shown that this can be

overcome by councils leasing trucks to private contractors.

Green waste collection in Suva is outsourced, as part of municipal cleaning and

maintenance contracts, which also include grass-cutting, clearing of drains, and street-sweeping.

Suva is divided into 10 sectors, tendered separately through the SCC tender process, which

encourages local contractor participation and an equitable distribution of economic opportunities.

Contracts have a 3-year term. They include a lump sum component and a fee for each load of

39
waste transported to the Naboro landfill. Current contractors include eight incorporated

companies, a youth group, and a church group. Performance is monitored daily through physical

inspections, and penalties are applied for non-performance. Fiji’s Office of the Auditor General

recommended in 2014 that the SCC enter into legally binding contracts with contractors. The

SCC reports that standardized contract documents are now being used, and that improvements in

contract management and monitoring have led to improvements in service delivery.

The SCC also has a 2-year contract with a waste disposal company to provide skip bins at

informal settlements and council facilities (about 28 sites in total). The contract includes fixed

rental and haulage fees. Commercial and industrial wastes in Suva are collected by private

companies.

The city’s waste is disposed of at a sanitary landfill at Naboro, which also serves the

towns of Lami, Nasinu, and Nausori, as well as Navua and Korovou. The Government of Fiji

owns the landfill, and the Department of Environment (DOE) is responsible for its operation.

Since the landfill opened in 2005, its management has been contracted out to a private

operator from New Zealand. Until 2010, a 5-year contract provided a lump sum payment to the

company for the disposal of 100,000 tons of waste per year. Since 2010, the company has been

awarded two weight-based contracts with 2-year terms, following competitive tenders. There has

since been a number of contract extensions and interim contracts due to delays in the process for

tendering and awarding of contracts. The most recent 2-year contract has expired, and is

expected to be extended until a new, longer-term contract is awarded.

In the absence of a longer-term contract, there has been insufficient investment in

equipment by the contractor, which is impacting services at the facility. Delays in the

40
development of the landfill’s second stage, which is the government’s responsibility, have

resulted in additional strain and overload at the existing site.

In February 2016, the DOE called for expressions of interest for a waste-to-energy

facility at Naboro. However, amid uncertainty about key project parameters and the tender

process, it is unlikely that any contract that might be awarded would maximize value for money

for the government. Further, the absence of an integrated solid waste management strategy for

the Greater Suva area means that there are uncertainties about the future quantity of solid waste,

landfill requirements, and waste-to-energy potential.

Environmental Study

“Landfill site suitability assessment by means of geographic information system

analysis,” is a study by M. Yazdani1, S. M. Monavari, G. A. Omrani, M. Shariat, and S. M.

Hosseini in Iran and was published last July 30, 2015. Open dumping is the common procedure

for final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Iran. Several environmental pollution and

soil degradation problems were found as a consequence of poor planning of landfills.

So recognition of the MSW landfill state is required to prevent environmental problems.

The objective of this research was to study the suitability of existing municipal landfill sites

using geographic information system methods. Tonekabon city in the west area of Mazandaran

province, northern Iran, along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, was chosen as a case study.

In order to carry out this evaluation, two guidelines were used: Minnesota Pollution Control

Agency (MPCA) and regional screening guidelines. The results indicate that the landfills were

not located in suitable sites and also that there are few suitable locations to install the landfills.

The study entitled “The Challenge Of Future Landfill: A Case Study Of Malaysia” by

Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail and Latifah Abd. Manaf focuses on Toxicology and

41
Environmental Health Sciences published last May 16, 2013. Landfilling is the most frequent

waste disposal method worldwide. It is recognized as being an important option both now and in

the near future, especially in low- and middle-income countries, since it is the easiest and the

cheapest technology available. Owing to financial constraints, landfills usually lack of

environmental abatement measures, such as leachate collection systems and lining materials. As

a result, a lot of contamination is inflicted upon the environment. Importantly, even with proper

abatement measures in landfills, there is no guarantee that contamination will be prevented.

Another major concern is the appropriate location for landfills to ensure the impact towards the

environment are minimized. This paper highlights the challenge to find suitable place for future

landfill in Malaysia. There is a tendency of landfill to be built on unsuitable area such as near to

residential area or on agricultural land where most of the land are grading as high prospect value

to be developed as business or industrial area that are more profitable.

The situation in Sweden, relates a lot in the current situation in the city in sanitary

landfills turning into open dumpsites. Mohammad Aljaradin and Kenneth M Persson elaborates

in their study entitled “Design of Sanitary Landfills in Jordan for Sustainable Solid Waste

Management” that Municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the major environmental problems in

Jordan. World Bank visibility study (2004) showed that the rate of production of solid waste in

Jordan was estimated annually of about 1.46 million ton, and is expected to reach 2.5 million ton

by year 2015 with generation of 0.9/kg/capita/day. This solid waste volume is still increasing at

high rates due to the rapid increase of populations and change in living standards and the

consumption patterns. The Majority of landfills in Jordan are practicing open dumping and thus

cause various environmental problems such as health hazards, surface water and ground water

contamination, odors, etc. Sanitary landfills offer a viable option for the Common Service

42
Councils (CSCs) which are responsible for operation and management of disposal sites in the

country, to deal with the environmental hazards caused by open dumps practice within its

financial constraints. If sanitary landfills are conducted properly, the negative environmental

impacts can be kept to a minimum level.

Management Study

The study “Understanding Waste from a Climate Change Perspective: Municipal Solid

Waste Management in Canada” by Rathan Kumar Bonam published on May 2009 states that

current waste management practices are unsustainable requires that we look for alternative waste

management practices tohelp us stop and, eventually, reverse the steady increase in our waste

production. Although usable materials are now being salvaged from landfills in many locations,

there are easier ways to cycle resources (Van der Zee et al., 2004). Significant environmental

pressures are currently resulting from our rising waste generation levels and our improper

disposal of waste; these behaviours lead to the unsustainable consumption of natural resources

and energy, and contribute to the pollution of air, land, and water. In awareness of these

environmental risks, Canada adopted a 50% waste reduction target from 1988 levels by 2000 to

increase waste diversion (i.e., recycling, composting, etc.) (PWGSC, 2005). However, contrary

to this goal, the amount of waste disposed in landfills in Canada actually increased by 25%

2between 1990 and 2000 (Thompson et al., 2006).An average person in Canada currently

generates about 2.66 kg of waste each day and most of it ends up in a landfill (Thompson et al.,

2006).

43
SYNTHESIS

MARKET STUDY

The estimation and analysis of the capacity and volume of waste of the new sanitary

landfill study can be based on the historical information about the amount of population, average

volume of garbage collected in a certain amount of time and other processes necessary for the

landfill from cities in the country or in the Philippines as a whole. The aim is to come up with a

capacity that can hold the amount of volume of garbage collected to be disposed in the landfill. A

study was cited about the market aspects of a landfill in Cebu City in terms of its market

feasibility. Foreign studies cited, also based their landfill capacity from market studies conducted

to provide a feasible supply from the demand.

TECHNICAL STUDY

This related literature provides insights for determining the equipment, facilities, materials

and process involved in creating the design for the new sanitary landfill. It provided ideas on the

method of construction of the landfill. Also, the technical study cited governing laws (R.A. 7169 and

P.D. 1152) and the government department liable of ensuring that the technical guidelines are met as

well as the impact of the technical aspect of the sanitary landfill.

FINANCING STUDY

This study provides estimates for total cost of landfill. Results indicate that volume

significantly impacts feasibility. Additional information is required to localize the estimate to a

specific site. However, this study provides useful information to assist community and county

decision-makers as they attempt to evaluate their alternatives.

44
FINANCIAL STUDY

The financial feasibility highlights the operation and maintenance cost of sanitary landfills. It

generally involve transport cost, cost for personnel, maintenance and environmental protection. Local

and foreign related studies are cited regarding financial information on the operation of sanitary

landfills.

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY

Environmental related literature stresses the importance of negative effects during site

selection, construction, operation, closure. R.A. 9003 that regulates the protection of public

health and environment information about the environmental risks of landfills. Also, some

procedures stated could be applied in the environmental feasibility of the new sanitary landfill in

Bacolod City.

MANAGEMENT STUDY

This study aims to provide guidelines in how an organization manages a landfill. It

provides different functions of an organization that needed to be fulfilled properly so that the

landfill would serve its purpose well. This could help us in creating a project schedule for the

construction of the landfill.

45
Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter includes the research design, data gathering and analyses procedures of

marketing, technical, financial, financing, management, environmental and socio-economic

study.

Methodology

The study aims to determine the feasibility of the proposed sanitary landfill of Bacolod

City. The type of research that will be used for this study is descriptive research, this kind of

research focuses on the current issues or problems done by a process of data collection that

enables them to describe the situation completely than without using this method. To describe

the aspects of the phenomenon, descriptive research are used. And also, descriptive research is

used to described characteristics and/or behavior of the sample population. The most important

trait of descriptive research that more researchers use this kind of study is that it can employ a

number of variables, however only one variable is required to conduct the study.

The descriptive research has its three main purposes: describing, explaining and

validating research findings. The kind of study is also closely related with observational studies

but not just limited for observation data collection method and case studies. Descriptive study

also has surveys as a popular data collection method.

An effective method to analyze non-quantified topic and issues, possibility to observe the

phenomenon in a completely natural and unchanged natural environment, and its opportunity to

integrate the qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection are some of the reasons why

descriptive research is used for this study.

46
The study aims to determine the feasibility of marketing, technical, financing, financial,

environmental, and management. The method of descriptive research is most closely practical for

determining the feasibility of the said studies. Collecting data by historical method, surveys,

observations, interviews, and taking it from a reliable source, are used in the descriptive research.

The procedure for the conduct of a project feasibility study are the following:

1. Market Study

2. Technical Study

3. Management Study

4. Environmental Study

5. Financing Study

6. Financial Study

1. Market Study

1.1 Service: The “Proposed Sanitary Landfill of Bacolod City” aims to come up with a

sanitary landfill that is designed and constructed in a manner that exerts engineering

control over significant potential environmental impacts arising from the development

and operation of the facility.

1.2 Volume of Wastes:

1.2.1 Data Gathering:

1.2.1.1 Secure weight per capita per day of solid wastes in Bacolod City.

47
1.2.1.2 Secure data of the number of inhabitants and population in Bacolod City

for the next 5 years using the rate of population growth from the City

Government.

1.2.2 Data Processing:

1.2.2.1 Project the volume of the solid waste for the next 5 years.

1.2.2.2 Determine the volume and weight capacity of the proposed sanitary

landfill.

1.2.2.3 Estimate the volume/weight produced by the population.

ppc = DSr / (Pop x 7 x Cov)

DSd = Pop x ppc

ppc = Production per capita per day (kg/cap/day)


DSr = Quantity of MSW collected in one week (kg/wk)5
Pop = Total population (inhab)
Cov = Coverage of the urban cleaning service (%)
Cov = Population served (inhab) / Pop
DSd = Quantity of MSW produced per day (kg/day

Source: Jaramillo, 2003

1.2.2.4 Estimate the projected total volume.

1.3 Capacity of Landfill:

1.3.1 Data Gathering:

1.3.1.1 Create criteria for capacity.

1.3.1.2 Visit current site and check for area condition.

1.3.2 Data Processing:

1.3.2.1 Determine if current landfill is still operational or there is a need to design

for the new landfill.

1.3.2.2 Estimate required volume capacity of the landfill.

48
Volume of Solid Waste:

Vdaily = DSp / Dmsw

Vcompacted annually = Vdaily x 365

Volume of the Cover Material:

c.m = Vcompacted annually x (0.20 or 0.25).

Volume of the Sanitary Landfill:

VSL = Vstabilized annually + c.m

Vdaily = Volume of MSW to be disposed of in one day (m3/day)


Vannual = Volume of MSW in one year (m3/year)
DSp = Quantity of MSW produced (kg/day)
365 = Equivalent to one year (days)
Dmsw = Density of the recently compacted MSW (400-500 kg/m3) and
of the stabilized landfill (500-600 kg/m3)
c.m = cover material equivalent to 20 or 25% of the volume of the recently
compacted wastes.
VSL = Volume of the sanitary landfill (m3/year)
Source: Jaramillo, 2003

1.3.2.3 Estimate/Compute the landfill land area for the next 5 years.

1.4 Volume Capacity

1.4.1 Data Gathering:

From the processed Market Feasibility Analysis on the average volume per day

that solid waste in Bacolod City have and the volume capacity of the sanitary

landfill.

1.4.2 Data Processing:

Determine design specification of new landfill.

49
2. Technical Study

The determination of engineering layout and design and its corresponding equipment,

facilities, materials and process involved in creating the design for the new sanitary

landfill.

2.1 Data Gathering:

2.1.1 Create criteria for feasibility on technical aspect of landfill.

2.1.1.1 Site visit and determination of technical violations of current landfill.

2.1.2 Secure common type of soil, permeability coefficient, and the allowable

side-slope of the landfill requirement of the landfill.

2.1.3 Determine average depth of the water table of the Bacolod City.

2.1.4 Identify different kinds of construction method for a sanitary landfill.

2.1.5 Identify the necessary facilities required for the sanitary landfill

2.2 Data Processing:

2.2.1 Identify compliance and non-compliance of the current site to the technical

criteria.

2.2.2 Use the data from 2.1.2 and 2.1.3 for the design of the landfill.

2.2.3 Select construction method that is suitable for the project study.

2.2.4 Prepare vicinity, location and site development plan.

2.2.5 Selection and computation of structural configuration of landfill

2.2.6 Prepare landfill Layout and facilities drawings and specifications

50
3. Management Study

3.1 Data Gathering:

3.1.1 Identify the functions involved in setting up the organization for the

construction and operational phase of the landfill

3.1.2 Identify the activities needed for the construction of the landfill

3.2 Data Processing:

3.2.1 Set up the organization for construction and operational phase

3.2.2 Set up project schedule for the construction phase

 Gantt Chart

 PERT-CPM

4. Environmental Feasibility

4.1 Environmental Provisions

Determine environmental requirements set forth by R.A. 9003 or the Ecological Solid

Waste Management Act of 2000 and the Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC)

from DENR pursuant to P.D. 1586. Compile in a checklist as environmental criteria.

4.2 Site Investigation

Visit current site at Brgy. Felisa and check for environmental criteria.

4.3 Data Processing

Identify mitigating measures to counteract violations from environmental criteria.

5. Financing Study

5.1 Data Gathering:

5.1.1 Identify the source of financing.

5.1.2 Listing of project cost which will include the following:

51
 Equipment

 Machinery

 Materials

 Supplies Requirements

 Labor

5.2 Data Processing:

5.2.1 Compute project cost considering the following:

 Equipment

 Machinery

 Raw Materials

 Supplies Requirements

 Labor

5.2.2 Determine the total investment cost needed for the construction of the

landfill.

6. Financial Study

6.1 Data Gathering:

6.1.1 Listing of operation cost for the landfill

6.1.2 Determine the labor requirements taking into consideration the following:

 Labor types (Direct, Indirect and Administrative)

 Pay scale

6.2 Data Processing:

6.2.1 Determine the total operating cost

52
6.2.2 Draft a cash budget for the project life

6.2.3. Construct a proposed project schedule for construction and operation of the

proposed sanitary landfill

53
Chapter 4

RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS

This chapter consists of the results of the feasibility studies namely; market, technical,

financial, financing, and environmental. This includes the data collected, analysis, design and

specification for the new sanitary landfill for Bacolod City.

1. Market Study
1.1 WEIGHT PER CAPITA PER DAY OF GARBAGE IN BACOLOD CITY

0.50 kg per capita per day

Source: Department of Public Services- Bacolod City, 2017

1.2 BACOLOD CITY PROJECTED POPULATION

Source: Philippines Statistics Authority- Bacolod City, 2015

Table 1.1. Bacolod City Projected Population by Barangay 2017 - 2022


BACOLOD CITY PROJECTED POPULATION BY BARANGAY 2017 - 2022
PSA 2015 BASELINE USING 1.79% A.G.R.
BARANGAY 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Alangilan 7,568 7,703 7,841 7,982 8,124 8,270
Alijis 22,316 22,715 23,122 23,536 23,957 24,386
Banago 29,236 29,760 30,292 30,834 31,386 31,948
Bata 29,826 30,360 30,903 31,456 32,091 32,592
Cabug 10,229 10,412 10,598 10,788 10,981 11,177
Estefania 42,409 43,169 43,941 44,728 45,528 46,343
Felisa 9,994 10,173 10,355 10,541 10,729 10,922
Granada 28,013 28,514 29,024 29,544 30,073 30,611
Handumanan 28,558 29,099 29,620 30,150 30,690 31,239
Mandalagan 27,004 27,488 27,980 28,481 28,990 29,509
Mansilingan 46,813 47,651 48,504 49,372 50,256 51,155
Montevista 1,317 1,340 1,364 1,389 1,414 1,439
Pahanocoy 15,112 15,382 15,658 15,938 16,223 16,514
Punta-Tatay 7,600 7,736 7,874 8,015 8,159 8,305
Singcang 34,935 35,560 36,197 36,845 37,504 38,175
Sum-ag 19,429 19,777 20,131 20,491 20,858 21,232

54
BARANGAY 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Taculing 41,332 42,072 42,825 43,591 44,372 45,166
Tangub 40,146 40,864 41,596 42,340 43,098 43,869
Villamonte 37,896 38,574 39,265 39,968 40,683 41,411
Vista-Alegre 21,858 22,249 22,648 23,053 23,466 23,886
1 5,632 5,733 5,836 5,940 6,047 6,155
2 4,005 4,076 4,149 4,224 4,299 4,376
3 3,877 3,947 4,017 4,089 4,162 4,237
4 1,475 1,502 1,529 1,556 1,584 1,612
5 504 513 522 531 541 550
6 2,612 2,659 2,706 2,755 2,804 2,854
7 3,145 3,201 3,258 3,317 3,376 3,436
8 1,457 1,483 1,509 1,536 1,564 1,592
9 708 720 733 746 760 773
10 2,606 2,652 2,700 2,748 2,797 2,848
11 381 388 395 402 409 417
12 1,622 1,651 1,680 1,710 1,741 1,772
13 526 536 545 555 565 575
14 2,210 2,250 2,290 2,331 2,373 2,415
15 350 356 363 369 376 383
16 8,287 8,435 8,586 8,740 8,896 9,056
17 2,451 2,495 2,540 2,585 2,632 2,679
18 984 1,002 1,020 1,038 1,057 1,076
19 1,312 1,335 1,359 1,383 1,408 1,433
20 856 871 887 903 919 935
21 220 224 228 232 236 240
22 319 325 331 337 343 349
23 991 1,008 1,026 1,045 1,063 1,082
24 95 97 99 101 102 104
25 362 368 375 381 388 395
26 1,798 1,830 1,863 1,896 1,930 1,964
27 2,238 2,278 2,319 2,360 2,403 2,446
28 1,838 1,871 1,904 1,939 1,973 2,009
29 2,081 2,118 2,156 2,194 2,234 2,274
30 3,958 4,029 4,101 4,174 4,249 4,325
31 1,209 1,231 1,253 1,275 1,298 1,321
32 812 827 842 857 872 888
33 878 893 909 926 942 959
34 1,176 1,197 1,218 1,240 1,262 1,285

55
BARANGAY 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
35 8,504 8,657 8,812 8,969 9,130 9,293
36 1,721 1,752 1,783 1,815 1,848 1,881
37 461 469 478 486 495 504
38 880 895 911 928 944 961
39 2,375 2,417 2,461 2,505 2,549 2,595
40 3,119 3,175 3,231 3,289 3,348 3,408
41 517 526 536 545 555 565
Grand Total 582,170 592,591 603,198 613,996 624,986 636,173

56
Table 1.2. Volume Required for the Sanitary Landfill
Quantity of Solid Wastes Volume (m^3)
Compacted Cover Material Stabilized
Population ppc Daily Sanitary Landfill
Year Solid Waste (m^3) Solid
(inhab.) kg/cap/day (kg/day Annual Accumu-
(t/year) lated (t) Daily Annual Daily Annual Wastes Accumu-
) m^3
(m^3) (m^3) (m^3) (m^3) (m^3/year) lated
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2018 592591 0.50 296296 108148 108148 864 315431 173 63086 216296 279382 279382
2019 603198 0.50 301599 110084 218231 880 321077 176 64215 220167 284383 563765
2020 613996 0.50 306998 112054 330286 895 326825 179 65365 224109 289474 853238
2021 624986 0.50 312493 114060 444346 911 332675 182 66535 228120 294655 1147893
2022 636173 0.50 318087 116102 560447 928 338630 186 67726 232203 299929 1447822
(3) = (1) x (2) , Population x ppc DENSITY OF THE WASTE
(6) = [(3) x 7/6] / D C , The solid wastes produced in one week are taken to the landfill on collection days, normally (kg/(m3)
from M onday to Saturday (7 days of production / 6 days of collection) DS : Loose 200 - 300
(8) = (6) x 0.2 , Cover material = 20% of the volume of compacted waste DC: Compacted 400 - 500
(11) = (9) + (10) , The volume of the sanitary landfill VRS = cover material + volume of stabilized waste DE: Stabilized 500 - 600

57
1.3 COMPUTATION for Table 1.2
Year 2018:
Quantity of Solid Waste:
Column 3 (Daily – kg/day) = Population (inhabitant) x Production Per Capita (ppc)
= 592591 x 0.5 = 29696 kg/day
Column 4 (Annual – tons/year) = Daily – kg/day (1ton / 1000kg) (365days / year)
= 29696 (1/1000) (365)
= 108148 tons/year
Column 5 (Accumulated – tons/year) = 108148 tons
Compacted Solid Waste:
Column 6 (Daily Volume) = [(kg/day) x 7/6] / 400 kg/m3
= [29696 x 7/6] / 400
= 864 m3
Column 7 (Annual Volume) = Daily Volume x 365 days / year
= 864 x 365
= 315431 m3
Cover Material:
Column 8 (Daily Volume) = Column 6 x 0.20
= 864 x 0.20
= 173 m3
Column 9 (Annual Volume) = Column 7 x 0.20
= 315431 x 0.20
= 63086 m3
Stabilized Solid Waste:
Column 10 (m3/year) = (Column 3 / 500kg/m3) (365days/year)
= (296296/500)(365)
= 216296 m3/year
Sanitary Landfill:
Column 11 (m3) = Column 10 + Column 9
= 216296 + 63086
= 279382 m3
Column 12 (Accumulated m3) = 279382 m3
Year 2019:
Quantity of Solid Waste:
Column 3 (Daily – kg/day) = Population (inhabitant) x Production Per Capita (ppc)
= 603198 x 0.5 = 301599 kg/day
Column 4 (Annual – tons/year) = Daily – kg/day (1ton / 1000kg) (365days / year)
= 301599 (1/1000) (365)
= 110084 tons/year

58
Column 5 (Accumulated – tons/year) = Column 5(2018) + Column 4(2019)
= 108148 + 110084
= 218231 m3
Compacted Solid Waste:
Column 6 (Daily Volume) = [(kg/day) x 7/6] / 400 kg/m3
= [301599 x 7/6] / 400
= 880 m3
Column 7 (Annual Volume) = Daily Volume x 365 days / year
= 880 x 365
= 321077 m3
Cover Material:
Column 8 (Daily Volume) = Column 6 x 0.20
= 880 x 0.20
= 176 m3
Column 9 (Annual Volume) = Column 7 x 0.20
= 321077 x 0.20
= 64215 m3
Stabilized Solid Waste:
Column 10 (m3/year) = (Column 3 / 500kg/m3) (365days/year)
= (301599/500)(365)
= 220167 m3/year
Sanitary Landfill:
Column 11 (m3) = Column 10 + Column 9
= 220167 + 64215
= 284383 m3
Column 12 (Accumulated m3) = Column 12(2018) + Column 11(2019)
= 279382 + 284383
= 563765 m3
Year 2020:
Quantity of Solid Waste:
Column 3 (Daily – kg/day) = Population (inhabitant) x Production Per Capita (ppc)
= 613996 x 0.5 = 306998 kg/day
Column 4 (Annual – tons/year) = Daily – kg/day (1ton / 1000kg) (365days / year)
= 306998 (1/1000) (365)
= 112054 tons/year

Column 5 (Accumulated – tons/year) = Column 5(2019) + Column 4(2020)


= 218231 + 112054
= 330286 m3

59
Compacted Solid Waste:
Column 6 (Daily Volume) = [(kg/day) x 7/6] / 400 kg/m3
= [306998 x 7/6] / 400
= 895 m3
Column 7 (Annual Volume) = Daily Volume x 365 days / year
= 895 x 365
= 326825 m3
Cover Material:
Column 8 (Daily Volume) = Column 6 x 0.20
= 895 x 0.20
= 179 m3
Column 9 (Annual Volume) = Column 7 x 0.20
= 328625 x 0.20
= 65365 m3
Stabilized Solid Waste:
Column 10 (m3/year) = (Column 3 / 500kg/m3) (365days/year)
= (306998/500)(365)
= 224109 m3/year
Sanitary Landfill:
Column 11 (m3) = Column 10 + Column 9
= 224109 + 65365
= 289474 m3
Column 12 (Accumulated m3) = Column 12(2019) + Column 11(2020)
= 563765 + 289474
= 853238 m3
Year 2021:
Quantity of Solid Waste:
Column 3 (Daily – kg/day) = Population (inhabitant) x Production Per Capita (ppc)
= 624986 x 0.5 = 312493 kg/day
Column 4 (Annual – tons/year) = Daily – kg/day (1ton / 1000kg) (365days / year)
= 312493 (1/1000) (365)
= 114060 tons/year
Column 5 (Accumulated – tons/year) = Column 5(2020) + Column 4(2021)
= 330286 + 312493
= 444346 m3
Compacted Solid Waste:
Column 6 (Daily Volume) = [(kg/day) x 7/6] / 400 kg/m3
= [312493 x 7/6] / 400
= 911 m3

60
Column 7 (Annual Volume) = Daily Volume x 365 days / year
= 911 x 365
= 332675 m3
Cover Material:
Column 8 (Daily Volume) = Column 6 x 0.20
= 911 x 0.20
= 182 m3
Column 9 (Annual Volume) = Column 7 x 0.20
= 332675 x 0.20
= 66535 m3
Stabilized Solid Waste:
Column 10 (m3/year) = (Column 3 / 500kg/m3) (365days/year)
= (301599/500)(365)
= 220167 m3/year
Sanitary Landfill:
Column 11 (m3) = Column 10 + Column 9
= 228120 + 66535
= 294655 m3
Column 12 (Accumulated m3) = Column 12(2020) + Column 11(2021)
= 853238 + 294655
= 1147893 m3
Year 2022:
Quantity of Solid Waste:
Column 3 (Daily – kg/day) = Population (inhabitant) x Production Per Capita (ppc)
= 636173 x 0.5 = 318087 kg/day
Column 4 (Annual – tons/year) = Daily – kg/day (1ton / 1000kg) (365days / year)
= 318087 (1/1000) (365)
= 116102 tons/year
Column 5 (Accumulated – tons/year) = Column 5(2021) + Column 4(2022)
= 444346 + 116102
= 560447 m3
Compacted Solid Waste:
Column 6 (Daily Volume) = [(kg/day) x 7/6] / 400 kg/m3
= [318087 x 7/6] / 400
= 928 m3
Column 7 (Annual Volume) = Daily Volume x 365 days / year
= 928 x 365
= 338630 m3

61
Cover Material:
Column 8 (Daily Volume) = Column 6 x 0.20
= 928 x 0.20
= 186 m3
Column 9 (Annual Volume) = Column 7 x 0.20
= 338630 x 0.20
= 67726 m3
Stabilized Solid Waste:
Column 10 (m3/year) = (Column 3 / 500kg/m3) (365days/year)
= (318087/500)(365)
= 232203 m3/year
Sanitary Landfill:
Column 11 (m3) = Column 10 + Column 9
= 232203 + 67726
= 299929 m3
Column 12 (Accumulated m3) = Column 12(2020) + Column 11(2021)
= 1147893 + 299929
= 1447822 m3

62
1.4 COMPUTATION FOR LANDFILL CELL DIMENSION
Total Volume of Accumulated Wastes = 1,447,822 𝑚3
Number of Cells = 4
Volume per Cell = 361, 955.5 𝑚3
Depth of water table = 5.5 m
Slope = 1:3
Required distance from bottom of liner to water table = 1 m
Depth of Landfill = 5.5 m – 1m = 4.5 m
Height of Liner = 1.3 m
Depth of Volume of Wastes = 4.5m – 1.3m = 3.2 m

SOLVING FOR LANDFILL DIMENSIONS

Formula for Volume (Frustum of a Pyramid)


𝐴1 + 𝐴2 + √𝐴1 𝐴2
𝑉 = 𝑑( )
3
1. Volume of excavation for accumulated wastes
Slope = 1:3
Depth of Volume of Wastes = 3.2 m
Horizontal distance = 3(3.2m) = 9.6m

63
3.2 2
𝑉 = 361.955.5 = (𝑎 + (𝑎 + 19.2)2 + √𝑎2 + (𝑎 + 19.2)2
3
𝑎 = 401.84 𝑚
Abottom = (a)2 = (401.84)2= 177, 274.68 m2
Rectangular Ratio = 1:2 let b = width, 2b = length
Abottom = 2b2 = 177, 274.68 m2
b = 284 2b = 568

Dimensions:
Abottom = 284m x 568m = 161,312 sq.m
Atop = (284+19.2)m x (568+19.2)m = 303m x 587m = 177,861 sq.m.

Design Capacity

3.2
𝑉= (161,312 + 177,861 + √161,312 + 177,861
3

𝑉 = 362,405.74 𝑚3
2. Volume of Accumulated waste with liner
Depth of Landfill = 5.5 m – 1m = 4.5 m
Abottom = 284m x 568m = 161,312 sq.m
Atop = (303m + 3.84m) x (587m +3.84m) = 306.84m x 590.84m = 181,293.35 sq.m

4.5
𝑉= (161,312 + 181,293.35 + √161,312 + 181,293.35)
3
𝑉 = 514,546.99 𝑚3

64
2. Technical Study
2.1 TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY REQUIREMENTS

TECHNICAL TECHNICAL COMPLIANCE NON-


REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION OF THE COMPLIANCE
(LOCATION AND SITE) CURRENT SITE
Jaramillo 2003 The current sanitary landfill is
The sanitary landfill should be situated at Brgy. Feliza which
as close as possible to the urban is near the urban area. 
area, especially in a small
municipality.
Jaramillo 2003 The distance of the sanitary
Some specialists recommend landfill to the nearest
that the borders of a sanitary residential area is
landfill site be traced at a approximately 500m. 
minimum distance of 200 m
from the nearest residential
area.
Jaramillo 2003 The location of the current
A sanitary landfill should be sanitary landfill is 
located close to the main road. approximately 5 kilometers.

Jaramillo 2003 Infrastructures like control


Additional area for center, weigh station,
infrastructure and buffer zone washing facilities for dump 
should be 30% of the area of trucks and guard house
the landfill. occupies at least 30% of the
area of the landfill.

Jaramillo 2003 The location of the landfill is


The sanitary landfill should be surrounded by sugarcane
located downwind from the plantation and trees. It is also
urban area; otherwise, to located downwind from the 
counteract this nuisance trees urban area.
and thick vegetation should be
planted all around the landfill.
RA 9003 - Article 6: Section 40 The height of the solid
Availability of cover material: wastes has gone up to 16
The site should have an meters which makes it
adequate quantity of earth 
difficult for the dozers to
cover material that is easily compact and there is no earth
handled and compacted cover material in the vicinity.

65
TECHNICAL TECHNICAL COMPLIANCE NON-
REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION OF THE COMPLIANCE
(LOCATION AND SITE) CURRENT SITE
Jaramillo 2003 In an interview conducted by
Depth of the water table: the the researchers to Engr.
height of the water table or the Mapa, the average depth of
dominant height of the water table in the city (away
groundwater level. Preference from the reclamation) area is
will be given to well drained 15-18ft or 4.8-5.5m. A
land, where the water table is distance of at least 1.0 m
more than one meter deep the between the water table and
whole year round. Poorly the solid waste is

drained land —that is, sites recommended when there is
where the water table is less silty clayey soil.
than one meter down for most
of the year— will have to be
drained artificially. It is better
to discard sites such as these,
especially those that are prone
to prolonged flooding.
RA 9003 - Article 6: Section 40 The current landfill is already
The site should be large enough full on its third year. This is
to accommodate the the result of not segregating
community’s wastes for a the wastes from the city.
period of five (5) years during 
which people must internalize
the value of environmentally
sound and sustainable solid
waste disposal.
RA 9003 - Article 6: Section 41 A liner is placed at the
Liners – a system of clay layers bottom of the landfill and is
and/or geo-synthetic preventing contaminant flow
membranes used to contain 
to groundwater.
leachate and reduce or prevent
contaminant flow to
groundwater.
RA 9003 - Article 6: Section 41 There is no ground
Ground water monitoring well monitoring well system that
system – wells placed at an is placed in the vicinity.
appropriate location and depth 
for taking water samples that
are representative of
groundwater quality.

66
Jaramillo 2003 The sanitary landfill has only
Sanitary facilities consisting of one bathroom making it
adequate number of toilets and inadequate for personnel
hand-washing facilities shall be 
working at the site.
available to personnel at or in
the immediate vicinity of the
site.

TECHNICAL TECHNICAL COMPLIANCE NON-


REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION OF THE COMPLIANCE
(WATER TABLE LEVEL) CURRENT SITE
Jaramillo 2003 The depth of groundwater is
It is also necessary to evaluate greater than 1 m. In an
the depth of the water-bearing interview conducted by the
stratum or groundwater. A researchers to Engr. Mapa,
distance of at least 1.0 m the average depth of water 
between the water table and the table in the city (away from
solid waste is recommended the reclamation) area is 15-
when there is silty clayey soil. 18ft or 4.8-5.5m.

67
TECHNICAL TECHNICAL COMPLIANCE NON-
REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION OF THE COMPLIANCE
(CELL REQUIREMENT) CURRENT SITE
RA 9003 - Article 6: Section 41 Pipes are installed to collect
Leachate collection and leachate. The discharge will
treatment system – Installation then flow out to the drainage.
of pipes at the low areas of the
liner to collect leachate for 
storage and eventual treatment
and discharge.

RA 9003 - Article 6: Section 41 The current sanitary landfill


Gas control recovery system – a has no gas recovery system.
series of vertical wells or
horizontal trenches containing
permeable materials and 
perforated piping placed in the
landfill to collect gas for
treatment or productive use as
an energy source.

RA 9003 - Article 6: Section 40 The current landfill has only


Designation of a separate one cell and there is no
containment area for household separate containment area for 
hazardous wastes. household hazardous wastes.

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TECHNICAL TECHNICAL COMPLIANCE NON-
REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION OF THE COMPLIANCE
(SOIL TYPE) CURRENT SITE
Jaramillo 2003 DENR approved the type of
The type of soil should be soil in the current location of 
impermeable, clayey soil. sanitary landfill.
Jaramillo 2003 Since the current location of
Type of soil: a sanitary landfill the sanitary landfill passed
should be located preferably on the requirements of the
a terrain of sandy-silty-clayey DENR, the type of soil
soils (loamy coarse sand, passed the given
predominantly clayey loam); requirements.
also suitable are silty-clayey 
soils (heavy predominantly
silty, predominantly silty
clayey, light clayey silty) and
clayey-silty ones (heavy clayey
silty and clayey).
Jaramillo 2003 The soil in the current
Soil permeability: the greater or sanitary is permeable since it
lesser ease with which water passed the requirements of
seeps through a soil. The DENR.
permeability coefficient (k) is
an indicator of the greater or 
lesser difficulty with which a
soil resists seepage of water
through its pores. In other
words, it is the speed with
which the water crosses
different types of soil.

69
TECHNICAL TECHNICAL COMPLIANCE NON-
REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION OF THE COMPLIANCE
(PUBLIC ACCESS) CURRENT SITE
Jaramillo 2003 There is no visible sign that
Each point of access from a indicates the facility name
public road shall be posted with and other pertinent
an easily visible sign indicating information that can be seen 
the facility name and other from each point of access
pertinent information as from a public road.
required by the Department.
Jaramillo 2003 There is no visible sign at the
If the site is open to the public, primary entrance of the site
there shall be an easily visible indicating the name of the
sign at the primary entrance of site operator, the operator’s
the site indicating the name of telephone number, and hours
the site operator, the operator’s of operation; and an easily
telephone number, and hours of visible sign at an appropriate 
point that indicates the
operation; an easily visible sign
schedule of charges and the
at an appropriate point shall general types of materials
indicate the schedule of charges which will be accepted or
and the general types of not.
materials which will be
accepted or not.

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2.2 COMMON SOIL DATA OF BACOLOD CITY
2.2.1 Soil Types in Bacolod City

Nine soil types occur in Bacolod City, namely: hydrosol, rough mountainous land, silay sandy

loan, silay loam, bago sandy clay loam, guimbala-on fine sandy loam, bago fine sandy loam,

guimbala-on loam, and tupi fine sandy loam.

1.) Hydrosol - this type of soil formation is found all along the coastal areas of the city. The soil

is not suited for crops, as it is most of the time covered by sea water, especially during high tide.

The soil varies in texture from sand to clay. It is gray to bluish gray, indicating its poor drainage

condition.

2.) Rough Mountainous Land - this miscellaneous land type is of non-agricultural value. But

unlike it, the areas classified under rough mountainous land are mostly derived from basalt and

andesites. These are fine-texture rock mainly dark in color and of volcanic origin. Because of

the humid condition and the comparatively high temperature prevailing in the locality, rock

weathering is intense with the resulting formation of deep soils. In some sections outcrops of

boulders are abundant.

It is hilly and mountainous roughly broken by very deep guiles and canons, cliffs, creeks and

rivers. The soil formed from the decomposition of this rock is dark brown to reddish brown

loam to clay loam, raging in thickness from 20 to 35 centimeters. These areas are covered by

Lantawan Peak, Mounts Mandalagan, Silay and Canla-on. The chain of mountain ranges along

the boundary between Occidental and Oriental Negros are classified under this category subsoil,

grayish brown when wet to gray when dry, silt loam.

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3.) Silay Sandy Loam - this type of soil series is found near Bacolod, Talisay and Bago Abuanan.

This soil has a nearly flat topography with good external drainage. The internal drainage is poor.

The surface soil is very loose and friable, the layer and depth is from 20 to 25 centemeter, dark

gray when dry becomes almost black when wet. There are no stones or rock outcrops in this soil

type. It is acidic ranging from 5.00 – 6.00. This soil is more acidic than the sandy loam type.

The high acidity may be attributed by the constant application of ammonium sulfate. The

organic matter content of this soil is very low.

4.) Silay Loam – fairly well due to the presence of drainage canals drained. It has a thick layer of

heavy clay as part of the substratum. Drainage in this case is very much checked. The surface

soil is usually from 15 to 20 cm. thick, which is dark gray to almost black. It is triable when

moist but becomes a little crumbly to almost slightly clodded. This is especially true under

lowland rice conditions. Stones or rock outcrops of any kind are absent in this soil. The

appearance of this soil indicates the presence of more organic matter than in the sandy loam or

fine sandy loam types. Some parts of this soil type are grown to sugar cane, while the others are

devoted to lowland rice fields, weeds and rice straw are plowed under during the preparation of

the field for rice.

5.) Bago Sandy Clay Loam - this soil type is found in widely, scattered areas in the lower

sections of the upland soils. Unlike the other types, Bago sandy clay loam occurs in the low-

lying areas between high slopes. It has very poor internal and external drainage. The surface

soil has the characteristics of clay properties and is gray to light gray in color. When wet it is

soft plastic and sticky. The soil ranges from 15 to 30 cm. depth. The bluish gray soil is poor

drainage, it is sticky when wet and becomes hard and compact upon drying. Bago sandy clay

loam is seldom devoted to upland crops.

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6.) Guimbala-on Fine Sandy Loam - the surface soil of Guimbala-on fine sandy loam is light

brown when wet, to a depth from 20 to 30 cm. the horizon lies over a clay substratum. Drainage

is good to fair and the topography is generally flat to undulating bamboo clumps are abundant

along the banks of creeks and gullies. Sugar cane is the most important crop grown in this soil

type; other crops grown are upland rice and corn. This soil is acidic with a ph of 5.5 like the

other types. This soil needs liming and green manuring in order to partly increase the organic

matter content of the soil and by addition of more nitrogen and other mineral elements in

valuable forms.

7.) Bago Fine Sandy Loam – this soil type has generally an undulating slope. This type has an

elevation of about 8 ft. above sea level. Drainage is externally and internally poor. The loose and

friable surface soil has always been constantly washed away due to poor percolation. Erosion in

this soil type is serious. The surface soil generally ranges in thickness from 10 to 15 cm. and

reaches up to 20 cm. The loose and friable fine sandy loam is gray when dry but becomes flow of

the water. Contour farming and strip cropping are some of the practices suggested. Sugar cane

is the principal crop raised on this soil type. The soil is deficient in potash and considered poor.

8.) Guimbala-on Loam - guimbala-on clay cannot be cultivated in wide lots because of gullies

and rivers, the loam type is not so dissected or broken. The elevation of this soil type varies

from 400 to 500 ft. This is a medium brown soil, varying from light brown to dark brown or dark

grayish brown when moist. The surface soil depth from 20 to 30 cm. sugarcane is the principal

crop grown in this soil type. Other upland crops are rice and corn.

73
9.) Tupi Fine Sandy Loam - this soil type has a surface soil with a depth from 5 to 30 cm. and

ranges in texture from sandy to silty. The soil is dark gray to grayish black when dry but

becomes black when wet and easy to plow.

The soil in the level areas of the city are suitable for production of primary crops such as: rice,

sugarcane, coconuts and vegetables. Areas adjacent to the shoreline are suited for aquamarine

culture.

2.2.2 Soil Type Selection for New Sanitary Landfill

The soil type recommended by Engr. Mapa for the site of the New Sanitary Landfill for

Bacolod City was cohesive soil or fine grained soil or soil with a high clay content, which

has cohesive strength. Cohesive soil does not crumble, can be excavated with vertical side

slopes, and is plastic when moist. Cohesive soil is hard to break up when dry, and exhibits

significant cohesion when submerged.

2.2.3 Permeability Coefficient

Clay liner at least 75 cm thick, clay liner with a permeability of 10−7 cm/sec or better, or

composite liner consisting of at least 1.5mm thick HDPE membrane over at least 60 cm

thickness of compacted fine materials with permeability no more than 10−6 cm/sec

(Technical Guidebook on Solid Wastes Disposal Design, Operation and Management Second

Edition, 2010)

2.2.4 Allowable Side-Slope

The landfill layers shall be made as uniform as possible and when necessary, the solid wastes can

be pushed up a slope when spreading and compacting the solid waste. A slope gradient of 3:1

(about 20 degrees) is recommended. (Technical Guidebook on Solid Wastes Disposal Design,

Operation and Management Second Edition, 2010 )

74
2.3 AVERAGE DEPTH OF WATER TABLE

In an interview conducted by the researchers to Engr. Mapa, the average depth of water table in

the city (away from the reclamation) area is 15-18ft or 4.8-5.5m.

2.4 SITE DEVELOPMENT REQUIREMENT

A proper Categorized Final Disposal Facility (CFDF) must be provided with all the necessary

facilities in order for the system to function effectively. The supporting and ancillary facilities

must be integrated with the core facilities to complete the Sanitary Landfill System.

A typical sanitary landfill system must be provided with all the necessary facilities as shown in

Figure II-1. Generally the sanitary landfill system comprise of the core facilities, such as the

waste retaining facility, leachate collection piping facility, gas vents, access roads, drainage

system, fencing etc; and the supporting facilities, such as the leachate treatment facility,

administrative facility, machineries etc. The supporting facilities must be able to function

75
independently as individual stand-alone facilities. However, their functions are generally

interdependent and should be operated as integrated facilities; mutually support each other's

functions. The design of the individual facilities differs from site to site, depending on the size,

the requirements and the design service lifespan. All the facilities must be designed to operate

and to be used throughout the designed target lifespan of the landfill. Some facilities must also

be able to function beyond the target lifespan, i.e. to function even after the closure of the site.

Such facilities include the gas venting systems, the leachate collection and treatment facilities

etc.

2.4.1 Integrated Landfill Facilities

A proper Categorized Final Disposal Site (CFDF) must be provided with all the necessary

facilities in order for the system to function effectively. The supporting and ancillary facilities

must be integrated with the core facilities to complete the Sanitary Landfill System.

Source: Technical Guidebook on Solid Wastes Disposal Design, Operations and Management

2nd Edition, 2010

2.4.2. Selection of Integrated Landfill Facilities

The listed buildings and facilities are reflected in the Design an Specifications on a

separate document. The following is a list of buildings and facilities with their

function or purpose.

 Disposal Site (CELL 1, CELL 2, CELL 3, CELL 4-HAZARDOUS WASTES)

- Area where the wastes from the dump-trucks are disposed.

 Drainage system for leachate

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- Series of pipes installed for controlling leachate to maintain landfill cover

integrity and to prevent contamination of surface and ground waters.

 Storage basin for leachate water

- Leachate pond where the leachate from the drainage system is delivered

and stored. The leachate in the pond is tested for acceptable levels of various

chemicals (biological and chemical oxygen demands, organic chemicals, pH,

calcium, magnesium, iron, sulfate and chloride) and allowed to settle. After

testing, the leachate must be treated like any other sewage/wastewater; the

treatment may occur on-site or off-site.

 Control Center

- An office for overall management, communication base and headquarter

for the landfill.

 Restrooms

- Public restrooms for workers.

 Garage

- Parking area for dump trucks, crane and bulldozers.

 Weigh Stations

- Weighing stations for dump trucks before disposing wastes into the

disposal area for monitoring.

 Washing Facilities for Dump trucks

- An area provided for washing dump trucks.

77
 Roads

- For easier transport around the landfill.

 Monitoring Wells

- Placed in 10m, 20 and 50m away from the landfill for monitoring the

groundwater from contamination.

 Guard House

- For security and safety of the landfill area.

2.5 Landfill Construction Method

The solid wastes shall be landfilled following the most appropriate method. The landfilled wastes

need to be sufficiently compacted so as to stabilize the landfill foundation and to prolong the

lifespan of the landfill sites. Layers of cover soil shall be systematically placed after landfilling

of solid waste for each layer.

There are several kinds of landfilling methods as well as cell construction methods. The most

suitable method needs to be selected depending on the location and topographic conditions of the

landfill site, daily landfilled waste volume as well as the daily soil cover so as to improve

stabilization of the landfill site, create a physically strong foundation, improve the usability of

the completed landfill site, etc.

On the other hand, when leachate and gas quality or quantity is important, the order of

landfilling, cover soil and maintenance facilities shall be given priority. In the particular case

when liner facility is used, special care shall be taken so that the liner sheets are not being

damaged during landfilling works such as spreading or compacting the solid wastes.

78
2.5.1 Area Method

Area method is used when the terrain is unsuitable for the excavation of trenches. Earth dike

with a height of 2-3m as one lift is first constructed to get the support for compaction. The

wastes are unloaded at the toe of the earth dike and then be spread and compacted on the slope of

the dike in a series of layers that vary from 30 to 60cm in depth. The recommended slope of

these layers is 1:3. The width of the working face shall be as narrow as possible to confine the

wastes to the smallest possible area but at the same time it shall be wide enough to give

necessary movement space for bulldozers.

2.5.2 Trench Method

This method is suitable for areas where the water table is not near the surface and terrain can be

excavated for landfilling. The excavation of trenches gives on-site cover soil as well as support

for compaction. Solid wastes are placed in trenches varying from 30 to 120m in length, 1 to 2m

in depth and 5 to 8m in width. To start the process, a portion of the trench is dug and the earth is

stockpiled to form an embankment behind the first trench. Wastes are then placed on the trench,

spread and compacted into thin layers of 30 to 60cm with the slope of 1:3. Cover soils shall also

be placed at the end of each day's operation. Cover soils can be obtained by excavating an

adjacent trench or continuing the trench that is being filled.

2.5.3 Depression Method

This method is applied in areas where natural or artificial depressions exist. Canyons, avines, dry

borrow pits and quarries have been used for this landfilling method.

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2.6 Selection and Computation of Structural Configuration of Landfill

2.6.1 Classification of Categorized Final Disposal Facility (Sanitary Landfill)

The improvement of the sanitary landfill system can be classified into four (4) categories

These are:

Category 1 ≤15 ton/day

Category 2 >15 ton/day ≤ 75 ton/day

Category 3 > 75 ton/day ≤ 200 ton/day

Category 4 >200 ton/day

The classification is used to determine the required standards for development and operation of

sanitary landfill facilities and system based on the applicable category of the Local Government

Unit.

The classifications are also used to determine the environmental impact and countermeasure of

the landfill facility. The higher the category, the lower the environmental impacts required for

development of the facilities. The summary of the classification of the categories of final

disposal facility (sanitary landfill) stipulated under Department Administrative Order 10 of 2005

is shown in Table 2.6.1.

80
Table 2.6.1 Categories of Final Disposal Facilities (Sanitary Landfill) Department Administrative
Order 10 - 2006 (Department of Environmental and Natural Resources)

FACILITIES CATEGORY 1 CATEGORY 3 CATEGORY 4


(≤15 ton/day) (> 75 ton/day ≤ 200 (>200 ton/day)
CATEGORY 2 ton/day)
(>15 ton/day ≤ 75
ton/day)
Daily and Intermediate Soil
Cover   
Embankment/Cell   
Separation
Drainage Facility   

Gas Venting   
Leachate Collection   
Leachate Treatment Natural Attenuation Pond System Combination of physical,
biological and chemical

Leachate Re-circulation At the later stage of At the later stage of At the later stage of
operation operation operation

*Natural Clay Layer  

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FACILITIES CATEGORY 1 CATEGORY 3 CATEGORY 4
(≤15 ton/day) (> 75 ton/day ≤ 200 (>200 ton/day)
CATEGORY 2 ton/day)
(>15 ton/day ≤ 75
ton/day)
Clay liner and/or synthetic Clay liner at should Synthetic liner should be at least
liner least 75 cm thick, clay 1.5mm thick High Density
liner with a Polyethylene membrane over at
permeability of least 60 cm thickness of
cm/sec or better, or compacted clay materials with
composite liner permeability no more than
consisting of at least cm/sec.
1.5mm thick
High Density
Polyethylene membrane
over at least 60 cm
thickness of compacted
fine ma6terials with
permeability no more than
cm/sec
Additional Items
Natural Clay Liner In case of more of more than 2m thickness
natural clay layer (permeability coefficient less
than 1 x cm/sec is distributed underneath
the landfill area, compacted clayey soil lining
system for horizontal lining system is not
required. The value of permeability shall be
certified by the sufficient number of
permeability test at sites.
Bed Rock/Base Rock In case of bed rock/base rock (Lugeon value at less than 10 is distributed underneath
of the landfill area, compacted clayey soil lining system for horizontal lining system
is not required. However, it shall be certified that the depth of the bed rock/base rock
is sufficient for the purpose. The lugeon value shall be certified by the sufficient
number of field test site.
Permit Environmental ECC via IEE ECC via IEE Facilities
Compliance exceeding
Certificate via Initial a daily disposal
Environmental of 1000 tpd
Examination must prepare
an
environmental
impact
assessment

In case of more than 2 m. thickness natural clay layer (permeability coefficient less than
1x10−6cm/sec) is distributed, compacted clay material lining system is not required.

Source: Technical Guidebook on Solid Wastes Disposal Design Operation and Management, 2010

82
2.6.2 Selection of Landfill Category

CATEGORY 3

2.6.3 Composite Liner System

Liner facility is installed to prevent pollution of public water bodies or groundwater by leachate

discharged from the landfill site. It also prevents the increase of leachate volume caused by

inflow of surrounding groundwater into the landfill site.

A separation of at least two (2.0) meters shall be maintained between the top of the liner

system and underlying groundwater. (Implementing Rules and Regulations of R.A. 9003 RULE

XIV Section 1.0)

Category 3:

Classification of Liner Facility


Liner facility can be classified according to the structures and types of material into surface liner

facility and vertical liner facility. The surface liner facility is applied to landfill sites or ground

with high coefficient of permeability. The whole landfill areas should be covered with a

waterproof material and in principle, the construction of drainage facility for groundwater is

necessary. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the drainage facility does not disintegrate due to

displacement or subsidence of the landfill structures.

83
2.6.4 Design of Access Road

Source: Gravel Roads, 2000

Road Specification
Surface Aggregate: 290 mm
Sub-base: 200 mm

84
2.6.5 Leachate Collection Facility

Leachate collection facility consists of collection pipes, leachate retention pits, leachate control

valves, etc. It needs to conform with the landfill conditions such as the topography of the landfill

bottom or landfill structure. Ultimately it shall be able to collect and discharge leachate

effectively.

(1) Bottom Pipes

Ducting placed at the bottom of landfill sites for leachate collection. It comprises of trunk and

branch pipes that are installed at a gradient to enable natural flow potential.

(2) Inclined Pipes

Placed along the slope of the landfill sites and connected to collection pipes at the landfill

bottom. Preferred to vertical drainage pipe which shall be avoided from the aspect of

intermediate covering. It also serves as gas vent.

(3) Vertical Pipes

Leachate collection pipes placed vertically on the landfill. The heights of the pipes will be

extended vertically as landfilling continues. The bottom ends of the vertical pipes are connected

with the bottom pipes. It can also serve as gas vent like the inclined pipes.

85
Figure II-11 DESIGN OF BOTTOM COLLECTION PIPE

86
Structures

(1) Bottom Pipes

The bottom pipes are perforated pipes or packed gravels which are buried together with filter

materials. In order to prevent deterioration of the filter materials, their thickness shall be more

than 50cm from the ground level (or above the protective soils cover on the liner). The efficiency

of the collection pipes can be enhanced if proper filter materials are used. Figure II-11 shows

the typical design examples of bottom collection pipe.

The width of filter materials shall be three times more than the diameter of the pipe in order to

ensure its functionality and to reduce direct vertical loading on the collection pipes. In the

presence of liner, extra care shall be taken to ensure that the gravels and pebbles do not touch the

liner directly. A protective layer of buffer blanket, sands or soil cover can be applied.

(2) Inclined Pipe

It is relatively difficult to fix the filter materials around the inclined pipes placed on the cut

section. Plastic or anti-corrosive netting can be used to fix the shape of the filter materials. On a

gentle slope, packed gravels can be used if measures to prevent the distortion of its shape are

taken when packing the gravels. In addition, synthetic polymer material or permeable materials

are also commonly used.

(3) Vertical Pipe

In order for the vertical pipe to stand upright, the base shall be fixed and is built up by packing

filter materials around the pipe as landfilling works progress. Generally, the initial height of the

pipe is recommended to be 4 to 5m. Leachate collected by the vertical pipe is discharged by the

bottom pipes. The vertical pipes can be located directly above the bottom pipes or connected to it

in such a way to expedite the discharge of leachate.

87
2.6.6 Earthworks

88
3. Management Study
3.1 CONSTRUCTION PHASE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

Project Manager

In-charge of overall procedures in the construction. Makes sure that project is within

schedule and build with high quality materials.

Geotechnical Engineer

Plans and designs the structures for sanitary landfill. The job of the geotechnical engineer

essentially starts with a collection of soil samples from the project's intended site, using

bores and test pits. Amongst other factors, the analysis will determine the ground's stress

bearing capability and stability.

89
Electrical Engineer

Designs, tests, installs and maintains electrical equipment and facilities that transmit

power.

Surveyors

Deals with the plotting of plan in the land. He uses a transit or building level to make sure

the structure lines are level and square, and check by measuring corner to corner,

diagonally, to make sure the walls and corners are square.

Electrician

Executes plans of electrical wiring for well-functioning lighting, intercom and other

electrical systems. Installs electrical apparatus, fixtures and equipment for alarm and

other systems.

Foreman

Determines whether the number of employees possess the required skills for the job,

verifies that the needed items are available and direct employees on which tasks are to be

completed first.

Equipment Operator

Operates earth-moving or construction equipment as part of his job. His job may require

coordinating excavation efforts with other drivers and operators, or he may work alone.

Mason

Lays building materials, including concrete and brick, and constructs or repairs surfaces

or structures. Deals with clearing of the site, foundation works, building structures and

installation of leachate collection pipes and drainage.

90
Plumber

Assembles, installs, and repairs pipes, fittings, and fixtures of water, drainage and

sanitary systems, according to specifications and plumbing codes.

Laborers

Work in one of the construction trades, by tradition, considered unskilled manual labor.

Act as helpers of mason and plumber.

3.2 ACTIVITIES FOR BUILDINGS AND FACILITIES

3.2.1. Buildings and Facilities

The listed buildings and facilities are reflected in the Design and Specifications on a

separate document. The following is a list of buildings and facilities with their

function or purpose.

 Disposal Site

- Area where the wastes from the dump-trucks are disposed.

List of activities:

Site Clearing- site is cleaned by removing trees, bushes, or vegetation which

interferes with the construction of site

Laying Out - plotting of cells in the land

Excavation - removing the topsoil from the foundation area

Compaction – compacting of soil

Leachate Drainage Placing – installation of drainage for leachate

Backfilling – pushing back of excavated soil to fill in construction ditches

91
Placing of Cover Materials – cells should be covered daily after the entry of the

last load of waste

Compaction of Soil Cover – the earth is spread whit the help of hand trucks or

wheelbarrows, shovels and hoes and compacted with a roller and hand tampers

 Storage basin for leachate water

- Leachate pond where the leachate from the drainage system is delivered

and stored. The leachate in the pond is tested for acceptable levels of various

chemicals (biological and chemical oxygen demands, organic chemicals, pH,

calcium, magnesium, iron, sulfate and chloride) and allowed to settle. After

testing, the leachate must be treated like any other sewage/wastewater; the

treatment may occur on-site or off-site.

List of activities:

Site Clearing - site is cleaned by removing trees, bushes, or vegetation which

interferes with the construction of storage basin for leachate water

Laying Out – plotting of plan for the storage basin

Excavation – removing the topsoil from the area

Foundation Works – construction of walls and floor of storage basin

Plumbing Works – installation of pipes for leachate

Backfilling - pushing back of excavated soil around the storage basin

 Control Center

- An office for overall management, communication base and headquarter

for the landfill.

92
List of activities:

Site Clearing - site is cleaned by removing trees, bushes, or vegetation which

interferes with the desired location of the control center

Laying Out – plotting of plan for the control center

Excavation – removing the topsoil from the area

Foundation Works – installation of concrete footings which serve as the base for

the foundation wall and the basement columns

Plumbing Works – installation of three but interrelated systems: the water supply,

the sewer system, and the vent system.

Construction of Septic Vault – filter untreated waste

Backfilling - pushing back of excavated soil around the control center

Beam & Column – construction of walls of the control center

Flooring and Tile Setting – construction of base floor

Electrical Works - includes installation of wires and pipe networks to supply

power

Roof Work - includes welding of trusses and installation of roof sheath

Electrical Installation - includes installation of wires and pipe networks to supply

power

Door and Window Installation - installation of necessary windows and doors

inside the control center

Bathroom Fittings Installation – installation of bathroom fixtures and fittings

 Restrooms

- Public restrooms for workers.

93
List of activities:

Site Clearing - site is cleaned by removing trees, bushes, or vegetation which

interferes with the desired location of restrooms

Laying Out – plotting of plan for the restroom

Excavation - removing the topsoil from the area

Foundation Works - installation of concrete footings which serve as the base for

the foundation wall and the basement columns

Construction of Septic Vault – filters untreated waste

Backfilling - pushing back of excavated soil around the restrooms

Beam & Column - construction of walls of the restroom

Flooring and Tile Setting - construction of base floor and setting of tiles

Electrical Works - includes installation of wires and pipe networks to supply

power

Roof Work- includes welding of trusses and installation of roof sheath

Electrical Installation – installation of sockets and light fixtures

Door and Window Installation - installation of necessary windows and doors in

the restrooms

Bathroom Fittings Installation - installation of bathroom fixtures and fittings

 Parking Area

- Parking area for dump trucks, crane and bulldozers.

List of activities:

Site Clearing - site is cleaned by removing trees, bushes, or vegetation which

interferes with the desired location of the parking area

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Laying Out – plotting of the plan for the parking area

Compaction – compacting of soil to attain high density

 Weigh Stations

- Weighing stations for dump trucks before disposing wastes into the

disposal area for monitoring.

List of activities:

Site Clearing - site is cleaned by removing trees, bushes, or vegetation which

interferes with the desired location of the weighing stations

Laying Out – plotting of plan for the weigh stations

Excavation - removing of topsoil from the area

Foundation Works - installation of concrete footings which serve as the base for

the foundation wall and the basement columns

Backfilling - pushing back of excavated soil around the weigh stations

Beam & Column - construction of walls for the weighing stations

Flooring- construction of base floor

Electrical Works - includes installation of wires and pipe networks to supply

power for weighing

Roof Work - includes welding of trusses and installation of roof sheath

Electrical Installation - installation of sockets and light fixtures

Door and Window Installation- installation of necessary windows and doors in the

restrooms

Weighing equipment installation – installation of equipment that will be used for

weighing garbage

95
 Washing Facilities for Dump trucks

- An area provided for washing dump trucks.

List of activities:

Site Clearing - site is cleaned by removing trees, bushes, or vegetation which

interferes with the desired location of the washing facilities

Laying Out – plotting of plan for the washing facilities

Excavation – removing of topsoil area

Foundation Works - installation of concrete footings which serve as the base for

the foundation wall and the basement columns

Plumbing Works - installation of three but interrelated systems: the water supply,

the sewer system, and the vent system.

Construction of septic vault – filters untreated wastes from washing the dump

trucks

Drainage Works - installation of pipe system for drainage

Backfilling - pushing back of excavated soil around the washing facilities

Column – supports the roof beam

Flooring – construction of base floor

Electrical Works - includes installation of wires and pipe networks to supply

power

Roof Work - includes welding of trusses and installation of roof sheath

Electrical Installation - installation of sockets and light fixtures

Fitting Installation – fittings and fixtures for water supply

96
 Roads

- For easier transport around the landfill.

List of activities:

Site Clearing – site is cleaned by removing trees, bushes, or vegetation which

interferes with the desired location of the roads

Laying Out - plotting of the plan for the roads

Excavation – removing of topsoil area for roads

Grading – leveling of the ground

Compacting – compaction of soil to attain high density for road pavement

Placement of Gravel – construction of base course for the road

 Monitoring Wells

- Placed in 10m, 20 and 50m away from the landfill for monitoring the

groundwater from contamination.

List of activities:

Site Clearing - site is cleaned by removing trees, bushes, or vegetation which

interferes with the desired location of the monitoring wells

Laying Out – plotting of plan for the monitoring wells

Excavation – removing of topsoil area

Installation of monitoring wells – construction of wells to monitor the

groundwater from contamination

 Guard House

- For security and safety of the landfill area.

97
List of activities:

Site Clearing - site is cleaned by removing trees, bushes, or vegetation which

interferes with the desired location of the guard house

Laying Out – plotting of plan for the guard house

Excavation - removing of topsoil from the area

Foundation Works - installation of concrete footings which serve as the base for

the foundation wall and the basement columns

Beam & Column - construction of walls for the guard house

Flooring- construction of base floor

Electrical Works - includes installation of wires and pipe networks to supply

power

Roof Work - includes welding of trusses and installation of roof sheath

Electrical Installation - installation of sockets and light fixtures

Door and Window Installation- installation of necessary windows and doors in the

restrooms

98
3.3 CONSTRUCTION PHASE - WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

1. Site Clearing

1.1 Site Inspection

1.2 Identify Tools/Equipment/Manpower needed

1.3 Site Clearing Proper

2. Laying Out & Staking

2.1 Benchmarking

2.2 Setting up the level

2.3 Establish Points on a Line

2.4 Staking out the Landfill

2.5 Batter Boards

3. Compact Clay

4. Install High-Density Polyethylene

5. Install GCL Bentonite Synthetic Liner

6. Install Leachate Drainage

7. Excavate Fill Areas and Perimeter Drainage

8. Backfill

9. Compact

10. Install Environmental Protection Facilities

10.1 Groundwater Monitoring System

10.2 Gas Control Recovery System

11. Prepare Access Roads

12. Construct Support Facilities

99
12.1 Storage Basin for Leachate Water

12.2 Control Center

12.3 Restrooms

12.4 Parking Area

12.5 Weigh Stations

12.6 Washing Facilities for Dump Trucks

12.7 Guard House

13. Install Utilities

13.1 Electricity

13.2 Water

13.3 Sewage

14. Construct Fencing

14.1 Perimeter Fence

14.2 Entrance Gate

14.3 Entrance Sign

14.4 Sign Board

100
3.3 OPERATIONAL PHASE ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

Site Manager

Needs not to be on site all the time but a significant proportion of the working week

should be spent on the landfill site supervising its operations. Responsible for

supervising refuse disposal and associated activities at the site Landfill in accordance

with appropriate methods, standards and requirements

Site Engineer

Carries out of routine site visits, inspections/certifications and overall supervision of

developments at the landfill site.

Administrative Officer

Develops organization strategies by identifying and researching human resources issues;

contributing information, analysis, and recommendations to organization strategic

thinking and direction; establishing human resources objectives in line with

organizational objectives for the landfill

101
Bookkeeper

Keeps records of average daily waste collection and maintains records of financial

transactions by establishing accounts; posting transactions; ensure legal requirements

compliance.

Payroll Custodian

Maintains payroll information by collecting, calculating, and entering data to compensate

and oversees employees’ salaries and benefits

Personnel Clerk

Compiles and maintains personnel records: Records employee information, such as

personal data; compensation, benefits, and tax data; attendance; performance reviews or

evaluations; and termination date and reason

Scale Operator

Accurately and efficiently monitors and records waste volumes entering the landfill site

Safety Officer

Ensures that employees comply with government regulations on proper storage, handling

and disposal of these materials. Identifies waste materials, training others on the proper

safety guidelines to follow, and conducts risk assessments on hazardous materials.

Equipment Operators

Responsible for the safe and proper operation of complex motorized equipment, as well

as the proper handling and compaction of solid waste

102
Maintenance Personnel

Performs daily equipment checks, complete pre-check and post-check of equipment,

immediately report all equipment defects to the site engineer

Garbage Collector

Picks up and removes waste, recyclable goods, or yard debris from residential

neighborhoods, commercial business centers, and public parks.

Truck Driver

Drives the garbage trucks used in collecting wastes.

Guard

Monitors and authorizes entrance and departure of employees, visitors, and other persons

to guard against theft and maintains security of landfill premises.

3.5 OPERATIONAL PHASE - WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

1. Marking Out of the Site Area To Be Occupied

2. Weighing of Garbage Trucks

2.1 Record

2.2 Monitor Daily Weight

3. Unload the Waste at the Working Face

4. Spread the Waste in Thin Layers

5. Cover the Compacted Waste with Excavated Soil from Site

6. Compact the Cell until a Uniform Surface is obtained

7. Washing of Trucks

8. Parking of Truck

103
3.6. DURATION AND PERT-CPM FOR LANDFILL ACTIVITIES
Construction of Disposal Site and Leachate Collection Storage
ACTIVITY DURATION

0-1 A Site Clearing 11


1-2 B Laying out 2
2-3 C Excavation 83
3-4 D Compaction 56
2-4 E Placing of Cover Materials 12
4-5 F Leachate Drainage Placing 14
5-6 G Backfilling 26
6-7 H Compaction of Soil Cover 56
TOTAL 260

104
Control Center

Activity DURATION (Days)


0-1 A Site Clearing 1
1-2 B Laying Out 1
2-5 C Excavation 1
2-3 D Foundation Works 21
3-4 E Plumbing Works 1
4-5 F Construction Of Septic 2
Vault
5-6 G Backfilling 2
6-7 H Beam And Column 21
7-8 I Roof Works 3
7-9 J Flooring And Tile 16
Setting
8-9 K Electrical Works 1
9-10 L Electrical Installation 1
9-11 M Door And Window 2
Installation
10-11 N Bathroom Fittings 1
Installation
TOTAL 67

105
Restrooms
Activity DURATION
0-1 A Site Clearing 1
1-2 B Laying Out 1
2-5 C Excavation 1
2-3 D Foundation Works 16
3-4 E Plumbing Works 2
4-5 F Construction Of Septic 2
Vault
5-6 G Backfilling 1
6-7 H Beam And Column 16
7-8 I Roof Works 3
7-9 J Flooring And Tile 16
Setting
8-9 K Electrical Works 1
9-10 L Electrical Installation 1
9-11 M Door And Window 1
Installation
10-11 N Bathroom Fittings 2
Installation
TOTAL 56

Parking Area

Activity DURATION
0-1 A Site Clearing 1
1-2 B Laying Out 1
2-3 C Compaction 1
TOTAL 3

106
Scale House and Weighing Area

Activity DURATION
0-1 A Site Clearing 1
1-2 B Laying Out 1
2-5 C Excavation 1
2-3 D Foundation Works 16
3-4 E Backfilling 1
4-5 F Beam And Column 17
5-6 G Roof Works 2
6-7 H Flooring and Tile Setting 15
7-8 I Electrical Works 2
8-9 J Electrical Installation 1
9-10 K Door And Window 1
Installation
10-11 L Weighing Equipment 1
Installation
TOTAL 59

107
Washing Facilities for Dump trucks
Activity DURATION
0-1 A Site Clearing 1
1-2 B Laying Out 1
2-5 C Excavation 2
2-3 D Foundation Works 19
3-4 E Plumbing Works 2
4-5 F Installation of Grease 2
Trap
5-6 G Drainage Works 14
6-7 H Backfilling 2
7-8 I Column 5
8-9 J Roof Works 5
7-10 K Flooring 17
9-10 L Electrical Works 1
10-11 M Electrical Installation 1
11-12 N Fitting Installation 1
TOTAL 60

Roads

ACTIVITY DURATION
0-1 A Site Clearing 1
1-2 B Laying out 1
2-3 C Excavation of drainage 1
3-4 D Grading 6
4-5 E Compacting 12
5-6 F Placing of Gravel 12
TOTAL 33

108
Monitoring Wells
ACTIVITY DURATION
0-1 A Site Clearing 1
1-2 B Laying out 1
2-3 C Excavation 1
3-4 D installation of monitoring 2
wells
TOTAL 5

Guard House
Activity DURATION
0-1 A Site Clearing 1
1-2 B Laying Out 1
2-5 C Excavation 1
2-3 D Foundation Works 16
3-4 E Backfilling 1
4-5 F Beam And Column 16
5-6 G Roof Works 2
6-7 H Flooring And Tile Setting 15
7-8 I Electrical Works 1
8-9 J Electrical Installation 1
9-10 K Door And Window 1
Installation
TOTAL 55

109
MAIN ACTIVITIES DURATION: IN 2WEEKS
Construction of Disposal Site and Leachate Collection Storage
Construction of Guard House
Construction of Roads
Construction of Control Center
Construction of Restrooms
Construction of Scale House and Weighing Area
Construction of Washing Facilities for Dump trucks
3.7 GANTT CHART OF LANDFILL ACTIVITIES

Construction of Parking Area


Construction of Monitoring Wells last

110
4. Environmental Study
I. ENVIRONMENTAL FEASIBILITY REQUIREMENTS
ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE NON-
REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION OF THE COMPLIANCE
CURRENT SITE
RA 9003 - Article 6: Since the solid wastes had gone
Section 42 up to 16 meters high the
Covered surfaces of the workers are having difficulties
disposal area shall be graded compacting and grading the 
to promote lateral runoff of solid wastes .
precipitation and to prevent
pounding.
RA 9003 - Article 2: The current landfill has only
Section 21 one cell and there is no separate
Designation of a separate containment area for household 
containment area for hazardous wastes.
household hazardous wastes.
RA 9003 - Article 6: A liner is placed at the bottom
Section 41 of the landfill to prevent
Cover - two (2) forms of contaminant flow to
cover consisting of soil and groundwater. 
geosynthetic materials to
protect the waste from long-
term contact with the
environment.
RA 9003 - Article 6: A liner is placed at the bottom
Section 41 of the landfill and is preventing
Liners – a system of clay contaminant flow to
layers and/or geo-synthetic groundwater
membranes used to contain 
leachate and reduce or
prevent contaminant flow to
groundwater

111
ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE NON-
REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION OF THE COMPLIANCE
CURRENT SITE
RA 9003 - Article 6: The current sanitary landfill has
Section 41 no gas recovery system.
Gas control recovery system
– a series of vertical wells or
horizontal trenches
containing permeable
materials and perforated

piping placed in the landfill
to collect gas for treatment or
productive use as an energy
source
RA 9003 - Article 6: There is no ground monitoring
Section 41 well system that is placed in the
Ground water monitoring vicinity.
well system – wells placed at
an appropriate location and 
depth for taking water
samples that are
representative of
groundwater quality.
RA 9003 - Article 6: Pipes are installed to collect
Section 41 leachate. The discharge will
Leachate collection and then flow out to the drainage,
treatment system –
Installation of pipes at the 
low areas of the liner to
collect leachate for storage
and eventual treatment and
discharge.

112
ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGATING MEASURES (Jaramillo, 2003)
Impact Mitigation Measures
Generation of landfill gas and odors - proper ventilation
from decomposing process - applying coverage for waste on daily and regular
basis
- active gas control recovery system
Erosion of soil - reduce water flow over bare soil
- reduce velocity of water by using effective
contouring to reduce slope grades, ditch blocks to
reduce runoff velocities and prompt and effective
re-vegetation of bare ground whenever possible,
which stabilizes the soil and helps to reduce run-off
water velocities
- appropriate measures including provision of berms
and silt traps during construction
Contaminations of surface and ground - all water from the waste should be kept in an
water appropriate leachate pond
- use appropriate liners- either natural or synthetic to
contain leachate
- surface water drains can be constructed
around the site to minimize the inflow of water into the site
- Groundwater monitoring wells should be
constructed
Noise, pest, dust and other disturbances - establish buffer zone
- daily proper cover of waste
- use dust suppressor
- proper maintenance of machineries, vehicles, and
use of low noise equipment
Occupational and public health hazards - provision and use of proper personal protective
equipment
- provision of first aid facilities
- regular medical check-up and provision of
appropriate sanitary facilities

113
5. Financing Study

5.1 SOURCE OF BUDGET FOR LANDFILL

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 189

EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 189 - DIRECTING ALL LOCAL GOVERNMENT UNITS TO

SUBMIT TO THE DEPARTMENT OF BUDGET AND MANAGEMENT THEIR

RESPECTIVE ANNUAL INVESTMENT PLAN

WHEREAS, Local Government Units (LGUs) are mandated to appropriate in its annual budget

no less than twenty percent (20%) of its annual internal revenue allotment for development

projects with copies of their respective Development Plans to be furnished the Department of the

Interior and Local Government, pursuant to Sec. 287 of R.A. No. 7160, the Local Government

Code of 1991, as implemented by Article 384 of its Implementing Rules and Regulations;

WHEREAS, while the Local Government Code empowers local authorities to manage their

internal affairs consistent with devolution and local autonomy, it should be emphasized that part

of the responsibility of the national government is to help ensure that public funds, particularly

the 20% Development Fund, shall be appropriated and disbursed only for the very purpose or

purposes for which such Fund was established; and

WHEREAS, it has been observed that most LGUs, if not all, do not submit an Annual

Investment Plan (Local Development Plan) as required under the Local Government Code of

1991.

NOW, THEREFORE, I, JOSEPH EJERCITO ESTRADA, President of the Republic of the

Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by law and the Constitution, do hereby order

the following:

114
Section 1. Use of the 20% Development Fund. — The Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA)

share of local government units equivalent to twenty percent (20%) set aside for

development projects shall be used for specific sectoral programs, projects and activities in

furtherance of the development agenda of the government. Accordingly, priority

consideration shall be given to the following areas:

a. Solid waste management which may include purchase of related equipment, trucks and

compactors, as well as purchase of land for sanitary landfill purposes;

b. Purchase of lots for hospitals, health centers, day care centers and similar facilities which may

include construction, repair and/or maintenance of such facilities;

c. Purchase of lot for resettlement of squatters, including construction of housing units and

facilities;

d. Activities in support of the Food Security Program, and the Livestock Dispersal, Fisheries

Development and Fish Culture Farming Programs;

e. Initiatives in support of Cooperative Development;

f. Construction, maintenance and/or repair of post-harvest facilities, irrigation and other

agricultural production systems;

115
g. Construction, maintenance and/or repair of local roads and bridges;

h. Construction, maintenance and/or repair of water and sewerage system, as well as, power and

communication facilities; and

i. Construction, maintenance and/or repair of public buildings which may include purchase

of equipment necessary in the implementation of infrastructure undertakings.

Sec. 2. Submission of the Annual Investment Plan. — All local government units shall submit

their respective Annual Investment Plan (Development Plan) as approved by their Local

Development Council, to the appropriate regional office of the Department of Budget and

Management, not later than January 31st of each year; provided, however, that the submission of

this Annual Investment Plan for the year 2000 shall be not later than March 31, 2000. More

specifically, said Annual Investment Plan shall contain specific programs, projects and activities,

as aforementioned, the corresponding project cost including the necessary fund flows to

approximate the reasonable timing in the release of funds.

Sec. 3. Direct Release of the Internal Revenue Allotment Representing the 20% Development

Fund. — The DBM Regional Office shall release the twenty percent (20%) Development Fund

of the LGU on the basis of programs, projects, and activities embodied in the Annual Investment

Plan direct to the LGU concerned considering the appropriate schedule for the release of funds.

When appropriate, the initial release for mobilization and the subsequent progress billing scheme

may be adopted for the purpose.

116
Sec. 4. Implementing Guidelines. — The Department of Budget and Management, in

consultation with all the Leagues of the local government units, shall formulate the necessary

guidelines for the effective implementation of this Order and may prescribe appropriate forms

for the purpose.

Sec. 5. Review of the Project List to Implement the 20% Development Fund. — The

Development Budget Coordinating Committee (DBCC) shall conduct a semestral review of the

list of eligible projects and shall provide the Office of the President with a report and

recommendation on the effective implementation thereof.

Sec. 6. Effectivity. — This Executive Order shall take effect on January 1, 2000.

DONE, in the City of Manila, this 21st day of December, in the Year of Our Lord, Nineteen

Hundred and Ninety Nine.

5.2 INTERNAL REVENUE ALLOTMENT (IRA) OF BACOLOD CITY

Approximate Budget for Landfill: (1,145.28)(0.20) = 229.056 Million Pesos

117
CONSTRUCTION COST ESTIMATES

5.3 SITE CLEARING

Ref No. Equipment Flywheel/ Hourly Fuel and Labor Operating Cost
Horse Bare Lubricants (Pesos) Per Hour
Power Rental (Pesos) (Pesos/hour)
(Pesos)
SC001 Crawler Dozer 165.00 1,691.69 1,251.00 70.92 3,216.61
D6H
PS/DD/PSDS,
165 hp

5.3.1. Production Rate : Clearing -1000 sq.m./hr.

5.3.2. Lot Area Approximate = 264, 301.51 sq.m.

5.3.3. Efficiency Factor: 50 min. – hour

5.3.4. Total Clearing Time

264, 301.51 sq. m.


𝑇= sq. m. = 264.301 ℎ𝑟 = 33.04 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠 = 1.3 𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ𝑠
1000
hr

264,301.51 sq.m.
Using 3 Dozers = sq.m. = 88.10 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠 = 11 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠
3 x 1000
hr

5.4 EARTHWORKS

The sanitary landfill requires a large amount of earthwork that will greatly affect the financial
aspect of the study. Earth must be excavated and compacted for the landfill to accommodate the
amount of waste generated by the city for five years.

118
5.4.1. Equipment Selection

Ref Equipment Flywheel/ Hourly Fuel and Labor Operating Cost


No. Horse Bare Lubricants (Pesos) Per Hour
Power Rental (Pesos) (Pesos/hour)
(Pesos)
E001 Backhoe Crawler, 118.00 1,451.45 715.00 70.92 2,411.54
1.09 cu.m.
EL200B
E002 Pneumatic Tire 85.50 1,137.57 1,320.00 70.92 2,664.99
Roller, Bomag
BW16R 8wheels,
20M.T.
E003 Dump Truck, 369.00 1,062.36 550.00 66.16 1,806.00
11.50 cu.m.

5.4.2 EXCAVATION

5.4.2.1 Cycle Time

TABLE 5.4.3.1. Excavation cycle times for hydraulic crawler hoes under average conditions. *
Bucket size Load Bucket Swing loaded Dump bucket Swing empty Total cycle
(cy) (sec) (sec) (sec) (sec) (sec)
<1 5 4 2 3 14
1-1 1/2 6 4 2 3 15
2-2 ½ 6 4 3 4 17
3 7 5 4 4 20
3½ 7 6 4 5 22
4 7 6 4 5 22
5 7 7 4 6 24
*Depth of cut 40 to 60% of maximum digging depth; swing angle 30° to 60°; loading haul units
on the same level as the excavator.

119
5.4.2.2. Fill Factor

Table 5..3.2. Fill factors for hydraulic hoe buckets


MATERIAL FILL FACTOR* (%)
Moist loam/ sandy clay 100-110
Sand and gravel 95-110
Rock – poorly blasted 40-50
Rock – well blasted 60-75
Hard, tough clay 80-90
*Percent of heaped bucket capacity
Reprinted courtesy of Caterpillar Inc.

5.4.2.4. Efficiency Factor: 50 min. – hour

5.4.2.5. Swell Factor:

5.4.2.6. PRODUCTION RATE COMPUTATION

a. Size of bucket = 1.09 cu.m

b. Bucket Fill Factor = Hard clay = 80% - 90% ; Use average, 85%

c. Typical Cycle time elements

Convert 1.09cu.m to cu. yd.:

120
0.9144 𝑦𝑑 3
1.09 𝑐𝑢. 𝑚. ( ) = 0.833 𝑐𝑢. 𝑦𝑑
1𝑚

From Table 6.1.3.1 = 14 sec


d. Efficiency factor = 50 min
e. Class of material = hard clay , swell 35% From Table 6.1.3.5.
f. Probable Production Rate (PPR)

3600 sec 𝑥 𝑄 𝑥 𝐹 𝐸 1
𝑃𝑃𝑅 = 𝑥 𝑥
𝑡 60 min ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛

3600 sec 𝑥 1.09 𝑐𝑢. 𝑚. 𝑥 0.85 50 min ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 1


𝑃𝑃𝑅 = 𝑥 𝑥
14 𝑠𝑒𝑐 60 min ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 1 + .35
𝑃𝑃𝑅 =147.06 bank cu.m. per hour

5.4.2.7. Total Excavation Time

Cell Volume
3.8
𝑉= (161,312 + 181,293.35 + √161,312 + 181,293.35)
3

𝑽 = 𝟒𝟑𝟒, 𝟕𝟎𝟖. 𝟏𝟗 𝒎𝟑

Leachate Storage Facility Volume


3.8
𝑉= (45,944.74 + 54,411.94 + √(45,944.74 + 54,411.94 )
3
V = 127,519.73 cu.m

Total Volume = 𝟒𝟑𝟒, 𝟕𝟎𝟖. 𝟏𝟗 cu.m. + 127,519.73 cu.m = 562,227.92 cu.m.

𝑃𝑃𝑅 =147.06 bank cu.m. per hour

121
𝟓𝟔𝟐,𝟐𝟐𝟕.𝟗𝟐 𝑐𝑢.𝑚.
Hours Using 1 Backhoe Crawler = 147.06 𝑐𝑢.𝑚 𝑝𝑒𝑟 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟 = 33,823.12 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠

8ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠 26 𝑑𝑎𝑦𝑠
Number of Hours Per month = ( ) ( 𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ ) = 208 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠
𝑑𝑎𝑦
𝟓𝟔𝟐,𝟐𝟐𝟕.𝟗𝟐 cu.m.⁄
728 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠
Number of Backhoe Crawler for 3.5 months = 147.06 𝑐𝑢.𝑚.⁄ = 5,25 ≈
ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟
𝟓 𝑩𝒂𝒄𝒌𝒉𝒐𝒆 𝑪𝒓𝒂𝒘𝒍𝒆𝒓

5.4.2.8. Number of Trucks

5 Backhoe capacity = 735.3 cu.m. per hour

Truck Capacity = 11.50 cu.m.

𝟓𝟔𝟐,𝟐𝟐𝟕.𝟗𝟐 cu.m.

Number of Trucks for 3.5 months = 735.3𝑐𝑢.𝑚.÷11.50728 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠
𝑐𝑢.𝑚 = 12.08 ≈ 𝟏𝟐 𝒕𝒓𝒖𝒄𝒌𝒔
⁄ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟

5.4.3 COMPACTION

Average Production Rate = 135 cu.m./hr.

Efficiency: 50 min – hour

PPR of Compactor = 112.5 cu.m. per hour

Volume of liner to be Compacted = 144,604.90 cu.m. + 116,458.82 = 261,063.72 cu.m

261,063.72 cu.m.
Total Time to compact liner = = 2320.57 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟
112.5 cu.m./hr

261,063.72 cu.m.⁄
468 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠
Number of Roller for 2.25 months = 112.5 𝑐𝑢.𝑚.⁄ = 4.95 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 ≈
ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟

𝟓 𝒄𝒐𝒎𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒐𝒓

5.4.4. BACKFILLING

122
Using 5 Backhoe Crawler and 12 trucks:

130,531.86 𝑐𝑢.𝑚.⁄
208 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠
Number of Backhoe Crawler for 1 month = 147.06 𝑐𝑢.𝑚.⁄ = 4.26 ≈
ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑟
𝟒 𝑩𝒂𝒄𝒌𝒉𝒐𝒆 𝑪𝒓𝒂𝒘𝒍𝒆𝒓

5.5 ACCESS ROAD

COMPACTION

Average Production Rate = 135 cu.m./hr.

Efficiency: 50 min – hour

PPR of Compactor = 112.5 cu.m. per hour

Volume of liner to be Compacted = 1899.36 cu.m.

1899.36 cu.m.
Total Time to compact liner = = 𝟏𝟔. 𝟖𝟖 𝒉𝒐𝒖𝒓𝒔 𝑢𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝟏 𝒄𝒐𝒎𝒑𝒂𝒄𝒕𝒐𝒓
112.5 cu.m./hr

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COST OF LAND

5.6 AVERAGE PRICE PER SQUARE METER FOR LAND ACQUISITION

Republic of the Philippines


DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE
Manila

DEPARTMENT ORDER NO. 65-02


September 16, 2002

SUBJECT: IMPLEMENTATION OF THE REVISED ZONAL VALUES OF REAL PROPERTIES


IN THE CITY OF BACOLOD UNDER REVENUE DISTRICT OFFICE NO. 7
REVENUE REGION NO. 12 (BACOLOD CITY) FOR INTERNAL REVENUE TAX
PURPOSES.

T O : All Internal Revenue Officers and Others Concerned.

Section 16(E) of the Republic Act No. 8424, otherwise known as the 'Tax Reform Act of 1997",
authorizes the Commissioner of Internal Revenue to divide the Philippines into different zones of areas
and determine for internal revenue tax purposes, the fair market value of the real properties located
in each zone or area upon consultation with competent appraisers both from private and public sectors.

By virtue of said authority, the Commissioner of Internal Revenue has determined the zonal values
of real properties (3rd revision) located in the City of Bacolod under the jurisdiction of Revenue District
Office No. 77 (Bacolod City), Revenue Region No. 12 (Bacolod City) after public hearing was conducted
on August 20, 2001 for the purpose. This Order is issued to implement the revised zonal values for land
to be used in computing any internal revenue tax.

In case the gross selling price or the market value as shown in the schedule of values of the provincial
or city assessor is higher tha the zonal value established herein, such values shall be used as basis for
computing the internal revenue tax.

GENERAL PURPOSE - rawland, undeveloped and underdeveloped area which has potential for
development into residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, etc., must not be less than
5,000 square meters.

300+250+150+200
AVERAGE PRICE PER SQ.M OF G.P. CATEGORY =
4
= Php 250 per sq.m.
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5.7 Administrative Order No. 2016-28, Providing for new Fees and Charges for various

services of the Environmental Management Bureau (Department of Environment and

Natural Resources)

Pursuant to Executive Order No. 197 dated 13 January 2000, the following fees and charges for

services rendered by the Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) are hereby revised and/or

updated:

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5. Financial Study

5.1 OPERATION COST PER MONTH

IPM-CDC secures P52-M Bacolod landfill contract

THE Bids and Awards Committee (BAC) of Bacolod City has declared the city's current garbage

hauler IPM-Construction and Development Corp. (IPM-CDC) as the winning bidder in the

P52.5-million maintenance and operation of the sanitary landfill in Barangay Felisa. Mayor

Evelio Leonardia said Monday, May 29, that he approved the recommendation of the BAC for

the awarding of the contract to the Metro Manila-based IPM-CDC. The P52.5-million

maintenance and operation of the landfill is separate from the P150-million environmental and

sanitary services contract of the IPM-CDC. Leonardia said the contract could be presented on

Wednesday's regular session for the granting of authority to the city mayor to sign. The IPM-

CDC, a lone bidder, had the lowest and responsive calculated bid of P52,420,281.06. The seven-

month contract, from June to December 2017, for the maintenance and operation of the landfill

amounts to P7.4 MILLION PER MONTH. The IPM-CDC was declared a winner after passing

the post-qualification. Members of the Technical Working Group (TWG) along with the BAC

earlier inspected the Payatas landfill in Barangay Payatas, Quezon City, the largest ongoing

contract of the IPM-CDC. Meanwhile, Leonardia said they will hold another meeting to finalize

the implementation of the "no segregation, no collection" policy.

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