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Review

Author(s): W. A. T.
Review by: W. A. T.
Source: The Geographical Journal, Vol. 51, No. 5 (May, 1918), pp. 331-332
Published by: geographicalj
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1780078
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REVIEWS 331

As regards accuracy of nomenclature, such a pitfall for writers on Slavonic


subjects, Major iWhitton has done very creditably. " Suvdrrov" is certainly an
improvement on Lord Eversley's incredible " Suwarrow," but the correct form is
Suvorov. But there is really no excuse in the case of a language which, like
Polish, uses the Latin alphabet, even with additional signs, for not reprinting
proper names exactly as they are spelt in the language itself, except in the case
of such names as Warsaw, Cracow, and Vistula, etc, which have become
thoroughly English. Many names the author writes correctly, but, e.g.,
"Raclawitz" should be Racawice, "Targowitz"?Targowica ; on the other
hand Liegnitz, the well-known town in Silesia, is given in its little-known
Polish form of Lignica. If an English form of Mazowsze is required, Mazovia
would be preferable to " Massovia," and Kievis now generally accepted instead
of " KiefT." Kosciuzko Major Whitton gets nearly right the first time, but
after that he constantly omits the s. " Sbiquiew," p. 25, is doubtless a printer's
error for Zbiqniew. Major Whitton writes " Vladislas " (why not the English
form Ladislas ?), but always omits the second / in Boleslas?" Bolesas." One
error is of a more serious nature ; the important treaty of Buczacz is really
unrecognizable in the form given it here, viz. " Budziak, p. 108. Two other
slips of a difTerent kind must be mentioned. On p. 72 the author speaks of the
Poles and Lithuanians as " the two Slav peoples," but the Lithuanians are
not Slavs. On p. 3 he says "polska, in the Slavonic tongue, signifying a level
field or plain" ; the writer does not know to what " Slavonic tongue" the
author refers, but in no Slavonic tongue does this word mean what he says ; the
word for a level field or plain in all Slavonic languages is pole (in two syllables).
Polska is the Polish name for Poland, is adjectival in form, and possibly is
the residuum of some such expression as ziemia polska?" the open (treeless)
land," cf. Yurev Pdlski, a town in Russia, having nothing to do with Poland,
but used in contrast with Yurev ZahSski, i.e. Yurev (= George's sc. town)-in-
the-open, and Yurev-beyond-the-forests ; cf. also Yurev Nemetski = German
Yurev or Dorpat. But these are all minor defects in a book of this kind,
and on the whole the author might have done much worse in this respect.
In general he must be congratulated on having produced such a readable
and clear history of this difficult subject, and the book cannot fail to be of
service to the Polish cause at the present time. The three maps are about as
clear as black-and-white maps can be, and there is an index (not by any means
complete), but no bibliography or chronology.
Nevill Forbes.

ASIA

My Siberian Year.? M. A. Czaplicka, F.R.A.I., F.R,G.S., author of


' Aboriginal Siberia,' Diplomee in Anthropology, Oxford ; Research Student
of the Oxford School of Anthropology ; Holder of Mary Ewart Travelling
Scholarship, Somerville College, Oxford. London : Mills & Boon, Ltd.
[1916.] 10s. 6d. net.
Accompanied by Miss Haviland, an ornithologist, Miss Curtis, an artist,
and Mr. Hall of the Philadelphia University Museum, Miss Czaplicka travelled
by train to Krasnoyarsk on the Siberian railway, and thence by steamer down
the Yenisei to Golchikha, near the apex of the river delta. In this neighbour?
hood she came in contact with Samoyeds, Ostyaks, Tungus and Yakuts, sleep-
ing in their chums, travelling on their sledges, and obtaining a thorough insight
into their mode of life, customs, and religion. These peoples have migrated to
the Arctic lands more recently than the Chukchis and other tribes further east,

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332 REVIEWS

and are still striving to adapt themselves to the strange climatic and other con?
ditions of their new abode^ The Samoyeds have been longest in the country,
are the best breeders of reindeer, and contrive to do without firewood, tea, and
tobacco, while the Yakuts, the latest immigrants, often obtain some provisions
from the south. The most numerous and widely spread race is the Tungus, to
which the Lamut and Manchu tribes belong. The Yenesei Ostyaks are a
remnant of the oldest inhabitants of the southern Yenesei, and their origin is
obscure ; their language is said to be of an Indo-Chinese type. They are now
fast dying out.
Miss Czaplicka took anthropological measurements, and collected bones
and implements, idols, etc, which will no doubt enable her to throw fresh light
on ethnographical questions. In this book she gives very interesting accounts
of the domestic arrangements of the natives, their marriage and other customs,
the management of their reindeer, methods of fishing, and shamanism. She
had the advantage of being able to speak Russian, and also acquired sufficient
knowledge of the Tungus and Yurak languages to check the accuracy of her
interpreters. Many tales and conversations are reported which illustrate the
conditions of existence in these regions and the mentality of the natives, the
stolid Tungus and more emotional Yurak. The authoress was also present at
a meeting of a Tungus munyak, or council, an ancient institution now recog-
nized by Russian law.
Mention is also made of the ethnological problems of the southern Yenesei,
where Chinese annalists locate three peoples, the Usun, the Tiukiu, and the
Uigur ; and it is still a question by which of these the kurgany with their in-
scriptions were erected, or whether they are of still earlier origin. Finally the
Russian immigrants are discussed, the political exiles who have contributed
much to the scientific exploration of Siberia and the spread of education ; the
older settlers, descendants of the Cossack conquerors, fugitive serfs, etc, who
have shown great energy and enterprise; and the recent colonists who often
drift from place to place, obtaining only temporary work, or return to Russia.
The book is full of interesting information, containing few mere incidents of
travel, and these are generally intimately connected with the country or people.
The photographs are also useful. W. A. T.
AFRICA

Missione Stefanini-Paoli. Ricerche Idrogeologiche, Botaniche, ed Entomolo-


giche fatte nella Somalia Italiana Meridionale (i9i3)?? (N* 7- Relazioni e
Monografie agrario-coloniali.) Florence, 1916.
This book, which deals with the part of Italian Somaliland west of the
middle Webi Shebeli, and not the whole of that, is the result of only four months'
work in 1913. Owing to various obstacles the authors were not able to con-
clude satisfactorily any of the researches they had set out to make. Neverthe-
less a good deal of interesting material has been collected. The work falls into
two main sections : a geological and hydrographical inquiry by G. Stefanini,
and an entomological and botanical inquiry by G. Paoli. These are accom?
panied by the results of new surveys of certain parts of the region visited and
by eleven appendices, largely of a technical interest, by the authors themselves
and three other hands.
In the first main section, after a summary but clear description of the
physical geography of this area of Somaliland, there follow two chapters devoted
to geology, the first technical, the second treating it from the economic stand-
point. The most important chapter of this section is the last, which deals at

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