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NOUNS

VOCABULARY

1. BOAST: to express pride or satisfaction about something


2. BOWLING: a sport in which a three-hole ball is rolled to hit the twelve pins
3. BUTTERFLY: insect with colored wings
4. CANDLE: mixture of wax and grease that can be used to produce light
5. CRUTCH: device used to help persons to walk
6. DEER: wild animal which has horns
7. DESSERT: something sweet eaten with the meals
8. DIAMOND: precious stone
9. FEATHERS: objects which cover the skin of birds and help them to fly
10. FLAG: national emblem with different colors for each country
11. HOUSEHOLD PETS: domestic animals
12. LILAC: kind of flower
13. M A R S H : area of water (Florida) where crocodiles and alligators live
14. MATCH: object used to produce fire
15. PANTHER: black leopard
16. PLATE: dish
17. POLL: investigation of public opinion
18. PURSE: bag used by women to carry many things
19. REARRANGE: to correct or arrange again
20. RING: metal circle to put around the finger as an ornament
21. SADDLE: seat used to put on horses so a person can sit more comfortably
22. SAFE: strong box used to keep money
23. TILT A' WHIRL: ride in amusement parks which goes up and down turning around
at the same time
24. TORN DOWN: destroyed
25. VISITOR: person who comes for a visit
26. WORTHWHILE: good

DEFINING NOUNS. There is a group of words called nouns. Nouns are name words.
They can name a person, like teacher, a place, like zoo, or a thing like bear.

Check any word that is a noun.


EXAMPLE: ______ house

1. _______dog
2. _______pencil
3. _______go
4. _______flower
5. _______beautiful
6. _______blouse
7. _______apple
8. _______slowly
9. _______rug
10. _______soon
11. _______panther
12. _______free

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Underline all of the nouns in the examples.
EXAMPLE: Sports are fun.

1. Summer is the best time of year.


2. The lion lives in a large cage.
3. Someday I'd like to know boys and girls from around the world.
4. They walk their dog in the park.
5. The tent we bought for camping should last us for many years.
6. Put the sandwiches on a large plate.
7. My mother spends many hours working in the garden.
8. The building across the street will be torn down.
9. Books can take readers to imaginary places.
10. We had fruit for dessert.

COMMON AND PROPER NOUNS

A proper noun is the name of a particular person, place, or thing. Proper nouns
begin with a capital letter.
A common noun is a noun that does not name a particular person, place, or
thing. Common nouns are not capitalized.

Place a C next to all common nouns and place a P next to all proper nouns.
EXAMPLE: P Chris
C book

1. _____Alan
2. _____baby
3. _____clock
4. _____California
5. _____window
6. _____shoe
7. _____State Street
8. _____Senator Smith
9. _____basket
10. _____Batman
11. _____clown
12. _____Peter

Place a C above all common nouns and place a P above all proper nouns.
EXAMPLE:
C C P P
Children from any of the elementary schools will visit Washington, D.C. next June.

1. The Tilt A' Whirl is my favorite amusement park ride.

2. The Detroit Tigers draw more people each year than the Detroit Lions.

3. Public television offers many worthwhile programs for kids.

4. Julia called her travel agent to rearrange her trip to California.

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SINGULAR AND PLURAL NOUNS

Nouns can be singular or plural. A singular noun stands for one person, place, or
thing. A plural noun stands for more than one person, place, or thing.

FORMING THE PLURAL OF NOUNS

RULE 1
Most nouns become plural by adding the letter "s".
Examples: car-cars lion-lions

RULE 2
For words ending in s, x, sh, ch, z, add "es".
Examples: bus-buses tax-taxes bench-benches
waltz-waltzes dish-dishes

RULE 3
If a noun ends in "y" and is preceded by a consonant, change the "y" into "i" and
add 'es".
Examples: story-stories baby-babies secretary-
secretaries

RULE 4
If a noun ends in "o" and is preceded by a consonant, add "es"
Examples: potato-potatoes echo-echoes

EXCEPTIONS: solo-solos piano-pianos silo-silos


soprano-sopranos alto-altos

If a noun ends in "o" and is preceded by a vowel add "s".


Examples: rodeo-rodeos stereo-stereos patio-patios

RULE 5
Nouns ending in "f" or "fe" change the "f" or "fe" to "v" and add "es".
Examples: shelf-shelves half-halves knife-knives lives

EXCEPTIONS: roof-roofs safe-safes chief-chiefs


belief-beliefs sheriff-sheriffs

RULE 6
IRREGULAR PLURAL NOUNS

man-men woman-women
mouse-mice mother-in-law-mothers-in-law
goose-geese child-children
tooth-teeth spoonful-spoonfuls
foot-feet bookcase-bookcases
sheep-sheep birdhouse-birdhouses
deer-deer ox-oxen
trout-trout
moose-moose

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NOUNS ALWAYS IN PLURAL FORM
earnings clothes riches pants
proceeds scissors thanks

PLURAL FORMS WITH SINGULAR MEANING


athletics economics gymnastics
civics measles mumps
physics politics news

Place an S next to all singular nouns and a P next to all plural nous
EXAMPLE: P pets
S ring

1. _______movies
2. _______star
3. _______students
4. _______English
5. _______Harlem
6. _______magazine
7. _______guitars
8. _______glass
9. _______noses
10._______metal

Read the sentences. Then, place an S above all the nouns that are singular, and a P
above all the nouns that are plural.

P S P
EXAMPLE: The boys are playing soccer with the girls.

1. Sammy and John chose their own materials for the science project

2. Sylvia Jones drove the children to Chicago.

3. Boxes and suitcases were piled up to the ceiling.

4. Lincoln Park boasts one of the prettiest collections of flowers.

5. Disneyland attracts millions of visitors during the year.

6. Meadowlark Lemon is one of the players on the Harlem Globetrotters.

7. Most kids enjoy playing either baseball or football.

8. Cats and dogs are the most common household pets in America.

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Form the plural of the following nouns and write the words in the blank.

EXAMPLE: boys boy

1. toy 15. deer


2. wish 16. grass
3. book 17. lake
4. picture 18. crutch
5. dress 19. clock
6. tooth 20. marsh
7. flower 21. woman
8. card 22. minute
9. tea 23. birdhouse
10. basket 24. saddle
11. box 25. flaq
12. tray 26. train
13. house 27. match
13.
14. safe 28. shoe

POSSESSIVE NOUNS
One of the short cuts in our language is the possessive form of nouns-The form
that shows ownership.

All singular nouns, like bear, show possession by adding an apostrophe and "s":

Example: bear's, James's, Tess's

EXCEPTION:

If the noun has two or more syllables and ends in an "s, sh, ch, x" sound add
apostrophe only.

Example: Dennis' Carlos'

All plural nouns that ends in "s" like bears, show possession by adding an apostrophe
only:

Example: bears', girls', birds'

Plural nouns not ending in "s", like oxen, show possession by adding an apostrophe
and "s":

Example: oxen's, women's, children's

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Form the possessive form of the following nouns and write the word in the
blank space.

EXAMPLE: flowers' flowers

1. can 13. papers


2. books 14. pencils
3. child 15. butterfly
4. shoe 16. rings
5. cups 17. boys
6. sheep 18. candle
7. Jane 19. eel
8. parks 20. rugs
9. geese 21. tomatoes
10. basket 22. Phyllis
11. peaches 23. magazine
12. purse 24. lilacs

MAKING POSSESSIVES

The possessive form of nouns is a short cut way of showing ownership.


Read the following examples below carefully and fill in the blank spaces in the same
way as in the example.
EXAMPLES:
The hat that belongs to Sue. Sue's hat.
The food that belongs to the monkey. The monkey's food.

1. the cover that belongs to the book


___________________________________

2. the feathers that belong to the birds


___________________________________

3. the color that belongs to the leaves


___________________________________

4. the shine that belongs to the diamond


___________________________________

5. the boots that belong to the children


___________________________________

6. the smile that belongs to the girl


___________________________________

7. the keys that belong to the typewriter


___________________________________

8. the money that belongs to Fred


___________________________________

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9. the brightness that belongs to the teeth
___________________________________

10. the warmth that belongs to the sun


___________________________________

11. the paws that belong to the dogs


___________________________________

12. the smell that belongs to the perfume


___________________________________

COLLECTIVE NOUNS
They name groups or collections, such as mob, crowd, and committee. Parts of
numbers or sums of money are collective nouns (three fifths, one third, one hundred
dollars).

LIST OF COMMON COLECTIVE NOUNS

army company herd office force

assembly congregation jury panel


audience corps legislature platoon
band crew majority police

cast crowd mass public


choir faculty mob school
chorus family nation staff
class flock navy swarm
club gang number team
committee group orchestra trio

Place a C above all common nouns, place a P above all proper nouns, and place a
COL above all collective nouns.

EXAMPLE:
COL C COL
Our class led the cheers for the team.

1. The class took a poll on the number of different sports.

2. Only one fifth of the students ever bowled.

3. A reference to bowling in America appears in the novel The Sketch Book.

4. Washington Irving was the author of "Rip Van Winkle."

5. Rip Van Winkle heard the sound of falling pins.

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6. Women have become enthusiastic bowlers in all parts of the country.

7. A number of women from our office bowl with intense concentration.

8. Don Carter, Andy Varipapa, and Dick Weber are all members of the American

Bowling Congress Hall of Fame.

9. A group of experts consider football the most popular sport.

10. Another group believes baseball or basketball is the most popular.

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QUIZ

Fill in the blanks with the missing words.

1. A noun is a word that names a ______________, _______________ or


_____________.

2. Nouns like boy and park are called _______________________ nouns.

3. Nouns like Alan and Lincoln Park are called _________________ nouns.

4. All _____________ nouns begin with a ___________________________.

Place a P next to the plural nouns in the following list.

5._________pencils

6._________dog

7._________teeth

8._________ring

9._________girls

10.________Hollywood

11.________coats

12.________State Street

Write the plural of the nouns that follow in the blank space.

13.______________________ torch

14.______________________ slide

15.______________________ goat

16.______________________ church

17.______________________ purse

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PRONOUNS

VOCABULARY

1. AWARD: prize
2. BOUNCE (TO): to jump back after hitting the floor
3. CHAPTER: part of a book
4. CIRCUS PERFORMERS: persons who work acting in a circus
5. CLAY: mud, mixture of water and soil, used for ceramics
6. COACH: sport instructor
7. COOL OFF (TO): to become cool, to refresh
8. CROP: production of a farm
9. DAD: familiar word for father
10. DRAWING: picture of an object made with a pencil
11. FISHERMAN: man who likes or needs to catch fish
12. GOOD SHAPE: good condition
13. HOOK: pin used to catch fish
14. HUNTING: catching animals
15. PARADE: group of persons marching in lines with special music and bands
16. PRAISE (TO): to congratulate
17. RIBBON: line of cloth
18. SEW (TO): to unite two pieces of cloth using thread
19. SHOELACE: string to tie the shoe
20. STURDY: strong
21. TOSS (TO): to throw
22. WOODEN: made of wood
23. WORM: little animal used to catch fish

DEFINING PRONOUNS

Pronouns are noun substitutes. They can take the place of nouns. There are three case forms
of personal pronouns.

NOMINATIVE CASE: pronouns used as the subject or the predicate pronouns of the sentence.
I-YOU-HE-SHE-IT-WE-YOU-THEY.

OBJECTIVE CASE: pronouns used as the object of a verb, indirect object, or object of a
preposition. ME-YOU-HIM-HER-IT-US-YOU-THEM.

POSSESSIVE CASE: pronouns used to denote ownership. MY/MINE-YOUR/YOURSHIS/HIS-


HER/HERS- ITS/ITS- OUR/OURS- YOUR/YOURS- THEIR/THEIRS

Different kinds of pronouns:

INDEFINITE: some, any something, anybody

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RELATIVE: who, whom, whose, which, that
who: persons (nominative case)
whom: persons (objective case)
whose: persons, animals or things (possessive case)
which: persons, things (telling one from another)
that: persons, animals or things

DEMONSTRATIVE: this, that, these, those

POSSESSIVE: mine, yours, his, hers, ours theirs

INTERROGATIVE: who? whom? whose? Which? What?

U n d e r l i n e the p e r s o n a l pronouns in the sentences below.

EXAMPLE: She threw the paper in the basket.

1. He plans on giving a present to him on Wednesday.


2. The family will see them often.
3. She loves to ice skate.
4. They toured the United States by bicycle.
5. Hunting is to them what sports are to us.
6. Send him a thank you letter.
7. You and he will lead the parade.
8. It can't live without water.
9. I read at least one chapter each day.
10. We enjoy winter sports.
11. Joshua invited us to visit him for a week during the summer.
12. They will build a new home in the country.
13. The award was given to her for excellence.
14. It looks good on you.
15. He paints small wooden animals.
16. The school principal will choose six of them to attend the festival.
17. You deserve to win the contest.
18. She and I spend time together.

ANTECEDENT: When using pronouns be sure you 're clear about what noun you're
referring to.

In the exercise below, find the noun for which the underline pronoun substitutes and circle it.

EXAMPLE:
Sally baked a cake for her dad a and he loved it.
dad,

1. We invited our friends and they all accepted.


2. The fisherman hooked the worm, but it managed to get away.
3. The farmers are unhappy because they want more money for their crops.
4. Charlotte exercises every day, and she is in qood shape.

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5. Typewriters are delicate machines, and they must be treated carefully.
6. The building survived the tornado in one piece because it is very sturdy.
7. The coach awarded ribbons to the winners, and they were all pleased.
8. Circus performers live an interesting life because they travel around the country.

SINGULAR AND PLURAL PRONOUNS

Personal pronouns have singular and plural forms, depending on whether the noun they replace
is singular or plural.

For example, if we wanted to use a personal pronoun to take the place of the noun girl in the
sentence, "The girl draws funny cartoons," we'd use the singular pronoun she. "She draws
funny cartoons."

Read the sentences below and decide whether the pronoun that will fill the blank should be
singular or plural. Then, choosing from the singular and plural pronouns listed below, fill in the
blanks with the correct pronoun.

SINGULAR: I you he she it me you him her it


PLURAL: we you they us you them

EXAMPLE: Rose plays the guitar. She loves music.

1. Flowers bloom in the spring. __________ need warmth.

2. The bear jumped into the pool. __________ wanted to cool off.

3. Alan wrote the movie script. __________ enjoys writing.

4. See those people. Throw the ball to ___________.

5. Helicopters can land where larger planes cannot. __________can save lives.

6. Those are my parents. ___________haven't missed one of my basketball games yet.

7. There's John. Give the magazine to __________.

8. Jenny enjoys working with clay. In fact, ________ has made several vases and cups.

SUBJECT AND OBJECT PRONOUNS

Most pronouns take a different form depending upon where they are found in the sentence and
what they do.
Some pronouns are in the subject position and name the doer of the action. "He sings with
a rock group."
Other pronouns are in the object position in the sentence and name the receiver of the
action. "The dog bit him."

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Read the sentences bellow. Place an S in the blank if the pronoun is in the subject position and
an O in the blank if the pronoun is in the object position.

Example: __O__ Give your pencil to him.

1. _____ They love animals.


2. _____ Sue will show the film to us first.
3. _____ It doesn't like carrots.
4. _____ George tossed the ball at them.
5. _____ You shouldn't talk so loudly.
6. _____ The teacher praised her for the excellent paper.
7. _____ He just learned how to tie shoelaces.
8. _____ Joshua's brother will go with him.
9. _____ Place the boxes next to her.
10. _____ She sewed her own skirt.
11. _____ It seems harder this way.
12. _____ They have played tennis together before.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (used as Adjectives)

Pronouns take special forms when they are used to show possession or ownership.
They are called possessive pronouns.
Possessive pronouns include: my, your, his, her, its, our, your, and their.

Read the exercises below. Fill in the blank with the correct possessive pronouns.

EXAMPLE: Susan's coat: her coat

1. Tommy´s drum. _____ drum.

2. Friends´ house _____ house.

3. The drawing that belongs to me. _____ drawing.

4. The table that belongs to you. _____ table.

5. The garage that belongs to all of us. _____ garage.

6. The gorilla´s cage. _____ cage.

7. Policemen´s whistles. _____ whistles.

8. Fireman´s boots. _____ boots.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

These pronouns specify exactly which noun we're referring to. They demonstrate what noun
we're talking about. They are: this, that, these, those

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Complete each of the following sentences by underlining the correct pronoun in the
parentheses.

EXAMPLE: (This, These) is Tom's jacket.

1. (That, Those) is the country of Greece.


2. (This, These) is my cat, and she is a very smart animal.
3. Was (that, those) a meow from the cat?
4. Whose shoes are (this, these)?
5. (That, Those) are my parents over there.
6. (This, These) is the boat you took to Cuba.
7. (This, These) statesmen live exciting lives.

QUIZ

Fill in the blanks with the missing words.

1. A pronoun is a _______________ substitute.

2. Words like I, she, you, me, and them are called _______________ pronouns.

Underline the pronouns in the following sentences.

3. She loves ice cream.


4. He gave the flower to a good friend.
5. Jack saw him yesterday.
6. I enjoy sports.

Place an S in the blank if the pronoun is singular. Place a P in the blank if the pronoun is
plural.

7. _____ them
8. _____ it
9. _____ he
10. _____ us
11. _____ we
12. _____ I

Choose the correct pronoun and write it in the blank.

13. ______ went camping.


(We, Us)
14. The ball bounced off of ______.
(he, him)
15. Anna helped _______ with the story.
(they, them)

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ADJECTIVES

VOCABULARY

1. BUBBLEGUM: chewing gum


2. EXPRESSWAY: highway
3. FALSE: incorrect, not true
4. FUDGE: soft candy made of sugar, butter, and chocolate
5. FUZZY: with much hair
6. GORGEOUS: beautiful and sexy
7. HONEY: product of colonies of insects called bees and which can be a substitute of sugar
8. LAUGHTER: sound produced by the mouth when one is happy
9. NAIL: metal object used to keep pieces of wood in their place
10. PITCH A TENT(TO): to put up a tent
11. SKILLFUL: competent
12. STEM: part of the flower which keeps it up
13. STUCK: past tense of STICK(TO): to put or stay in a place without moving
14. WOLVES: wild, gray, doglike animals which live in the mountains of Europe, the United
States, and Canada.

An adjective modifies (describes) a noun or a pronoun. It answers such questions as: how many?,
how big?, what kind?, which?. Adjectives are the picture words that make sentences more
interesting. Adjectives tell color, number, kind, size, shape, flavor, age, condition, and
possession.

Different kinds of adjectives:

DESCRIPTIVE: beautiful, pretty, tall


PROPER: Alaskan, Guatemalan, European
DEFINITE: the
INDEFINITE: a, an
POSSESSIVE: my, your, his
DEMONSTRATIVE: this, that, these, those

Read the following examples. Underline the adjectives in each with one line.

Example: musical boy.

1. skillful dancer 6. quick throw


2. green shirt 7. orange juice
3. beautiful woman 8. open book
4. medium height 9. white pants
5. three bears 10. terrific party

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Read the sentences and underline all adjectives with one line.
EXAMPLE: Herman bought two notebooks.

1. She wore a fur coat.


2. That fuzzy dog won.
3. Merry laughter floated through the house.
4. Many people hate shopping in large stores.
5. We can do without false friends.

NOUN MARKERS

Another group of adjectives is the determiner or noun marker. These words are like signals
that tell us a noun is up ahead. The most common determiners or noun markers are the words
a, an, and the.

Read the sentences below. Underline all the determiners or noun markers with one line and
circle the noun they modify.

EXAMPLE: The boys played tennis.

1. He ate a large sundae with hot fudge.

2. The owner of the store shouted for help.

3. They sounded like the wolves howling.

4. A nail stuck into the tire.

5. An hour passed so quickly.

6. The ride was frightening.

7. The monkey stole our lunch.

8. A happy boy pitched his tent.

9. The comic book was funny.

10. We saw a horse, two ducks, and a gray cat.

11. She climbed to the top of the pole and rang the bell.

12. Try honey on the sandwich.

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THE COMPARATIVE FORM OF ADJECTIVES

Adjectives can be used to show how people or things are the same or different -to
compare. There are two forms of comparison: the comparative and the superlative.
We use the comparative form when we're comparing two persons, places or things. For most
adjectives of one syllable, we add the letters er to make the comparative form: taller.
For most adjectives of two or more syllables, we use the word more to make the
comparative form: more mysterious.

Write the comparative form of each adjective in the space provided.


EXAMPLE: smaller small

1. __________ deep

2. __________ green

3. __________ beautiful

4. __________ difficult

5. __________ loose

Read each sentence and fill in the blank with the correct comparative form of the adjective in
parentheses.
EXAMPLE: (yellow) The sleeves are ___more yellow___ than the rest of the blouse.

1. (lean) The shopper wanted a ________________ piece of meat.


2. (strong) John is _____________ than Mike.
3. (light) The table on the left is ________________ than the table on the right.
4. (careless) Mr. Sherman's class is ________________ with their supplies than Ms. Ann´s clas.
5. (delicious) Chocolate ice cream is ________________ than vanilla ice cream.

THE SUPERLATIVE FORM OF ADJECTIVES

To compare three or more persons, places, or things, we use the superlative form. For many
adjectives, this form is made by adding the letters est to the adjective: longest. For adjectives of
two or more syllables, we use the word most to make the superlative form: most delicious.

Write the superlative form of each adjective in the space provided.


EXAMPLE: ___smallest___ small

1. __________________ weak 4. __________________ hard

2. __________________ gorgeous 5. __________________ tall

3. __________________ smooth

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Read each sentence and fill in the blank with the correct superlative form of the adjective in
parentheses.

EXAMPLE: (GREEN) We have ___the greenest__ lawn on the block.

1. (wonderful) My vacation was the________________________ time of my life.


2. (wide) This expressway is the______________________ in the state.

3. (slender) The stem on that flower is the ________________ of all the steems.
4. (cool) This spring has been the_____________________ in ten years.
5. (cute) Shadow is the _____________________________ dog in the obedience class.

IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

Some adjectives, such as good, bad, far, little, many, much don't follow any rules when
making comparisons. These are called irregular adjectives and must be memorized or
looked up in the dictionary.

good better best


bad worse worst
far farther farthes
further t
furthes
little less tleast
many more most
much more most
early earlier earliest
slow slower slowes
fast faster tfastest

Read each sentence bellow and write the correct comparative or superlative form of the
irregular adjectives in parentheses.

EXAMPLE: (good) It was the ___best___ circus the kids had ever seen.

1. (bad) He is the _____________ speller in the class.

2. (good) Christine runs ____________than Jenny.

3. (good) The race was the ____________ he'd ever run.

4. (many) That's the _______________ bubblegum I've seen on one store counter.

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QUIZ

Fill in the blanks with the missing words.

1. An__________________ is a word that modifies or limits the meaning of ______________

or ___________________________.

Underline the adjectives in the following examples.

2. cute baby
3. red book
4. four magazines
5. the bird
6. wonderful movie
7. the two boys
8. juicy, red meat
9. an answer
10. loud noise
11. interesting idea

Fill in the blanks with the missing words.

12. There are two forms of comparison. They are the ___________________form

and the _________________________ form.

13. We use the _______________________form when we are comparing _______________

people or things.

14. We use the________________form when we're comparing three or more people or things.

15. If we wanted to compare two girls using the adjective smart, we'd say that one of the girls is

____________________ than the other.

16. If we wanted to compare three boxes using the adjective small, we'd say that one of the

boxes is _____________________, another is ________________________

and the third is __________________________.

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VERBS-1

VOCABULARY

1. APOLOGY: excuse
2. BEHAVE(TO): to act
3. CHIME(TO): to sound the bells for happy occasions
4. DROOPY: without life
5. GROCERIES: food and things that we buy at a supermarket
6. HATE(TO): not to love, the opposite of love
7. ISSUE(TO): to give or hand out
8. JUDGE: person who sentences a criminal
9. LADDER: utensil used to climb and reach high places
10. SCOLD(TO): to call someone's attention angrily
11. SENIOR CITIZEN: older people
12. SHRINK(TO): past tense SHRUNK, to reduce in size, become smaller
13. SPANK(TO): to hit with the open hand, usually for punishment
14. SPIDER: animal belonging to the arachnid family, example: tarantula
15. TRAINER: instructor

DEFINING VERBS:

There is a group of words called verbs. Verbs are words that can express action or
condition.
For example, in the sentence: "She sings," the word sinqs is a verb because it describes an
action and tells what she does.

Place a V in the blank next to any word that can be used as a verb of action or condition.
EXAMPLE: _____ slowly
__V__ fall

1. _____ quickly
2. _____ beautiful
3. _____ wave
4. _____ tea
5. _____ feel
6. _____ white
7. _____ stand
8. _____ read
9. _____ speak
10. _____ dangerous

Underline the verbs in the following sentences.


EXAMPLE: The fireman climbed the ladder.

1. Americans eat too much sugar.


2. Oranges grow on trees. Actors work long hours.
3. Carol and Georgia practiced their skit for two weeks.
4. Sally's dog follows her everywhere.

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5. His mother scolded him.
6. She photographed senior citizens.
7. The teacher read the poem aloud.
8. The cleaners shrunk his suit.
9. The judge issued a sentence of two years probation.

LINKING VERBS:

Linking verbs link a noun or pronoun to a word that renames or describes the noun or
pronoun.
For example, in the sentence: "She is angry," the verb is links the pronoun she to the
word angry. The word angry describes or tells us more about the w o r d she.
And in the sentence, "They are teachers " the linking verb are links the pronoun they to the
word teachers.

In the sentences that follow, underline the linking verb and then fill in the blanks
with the words linked by the linking verb.
EXAMPLE: The children are scared.
___children___
___scared____

1. The flowers look droopy.

_______________

_______________

2. He is a lawyer.

_______________

_______________

3. The baby seems hungry.

_______________

_______________

4. They are excited.

_______________

_______________

5. I feel sad.

_______________

_______________

21
TENSE:

All verbs, whether they express action or a state of being, have to be able to show changes in
time. We call these time changes changes of tense. Verbs have different tense forms to show
an action or state of being in the present, in the past, and in the future.
To describe action or a state of being taking place right now, we use the present tense. "He
jumps."
To describe action or a state of being in the past, we use the past tense. "He jumped."
And to describe action or a state of being in the future, we use the future tense. "He will
jump."

Read the sentences below. Place a PR in the blank next to the verbs in the present
tense, a P in the blank next to the verbs in the past tense, and an F in the blank
next to the verbs in the future tense.
EXAMPLE: __P__ The dancer leaped in the air.

1. _______ The baby cries.

3. _______ The school will notify parents about the concert.

4. _______ Lions roar.

5. _______ Jason rode his bike home.

6. _______ Our family camped in Rocky Mountain National Park.

7. _______ Insects serve many purposes.

8. _______ I will write there a letter of apolociy.

9. _______ The monkey rides a horse. Sheila swims better than Mike.

10. _______ His father hated the movies.

IRREGULAR VERBS:
Regular verbs form their past tense by adding the letters d or ed. There are irregular
verbs, however, that do not follow the rules.

1. ____________ drive 7. ____________ fear

2. ____________ skate 8. ____________ spank

3. ____________ iron 9. ____________ give

4. ____________ draw 10. ____________ learn

5. ____________ suspend 11. ____________ wear

6. ____________ talk 12. ____________ attend

22
13.____________ mail 19. ____________ applaud

14.____________ fall 20. ____________ dance

15.____________ walk 21. ____________ offer

16.____________ fire 22. ____________ tear

17.____________ write 23. ____________ greet

18.____________ hit 24. ____________ behave

HELPING VERBS:
Verbs are not always single words. Often words like is, was, ham, had, will are used to help
other verbs. We call words that help other verbs helping verbs. Helping verbs do two things.
They give a "signal" that a main verb is to follow and they change the tense of a verb.

Circle the helping verbs and underline the main verb in the following sentences.

EXAMPLE: My friend has helped me with homework before.

1. You can hear me.

2. That rule should work.

3. He is working on Saturdays.

4. I am reading about spiders.

5. John can swim three hundred yards now.

6. Mr. Smith can be coach.

7. Peter will deliver groceries.

8. Snow has fallen.

9. The twins have been naughty.

10. Janet was elected president.

11. They are waiting for the bus.

12. We have seen that man before.

13. My friends will try their best.

14. Her grandmother did love children.

15.The students were planning a picnic.

23
HELPING VERBS AND COMPLETE VERBS:

Some verbs, like has can be used as a helping verb or as a complete verb by itself.
For example, in the sentence, "She has a sore throat," the verb has is a complete verb.
In the sentence, "She has had sore throats often," the verb has is a helping verb.
The only way to tell how a verb is used is to see or hear it in a sentence.

Read the sentences below. If the underlined verb is a helping verb, write an H in the blank. If the
underlined verb is a complete verb by itself, write a C in the blank.

EXAMPLE: __C__ They have ten minutes left.


__H__ They have fought over money before.

1. _____ The baseball player can steal third base.

2. _____ The instructor is helping her keep her balance.

3. _____ The fans are happy about the new stadium.

4. _____ He is my favorite actor.

5. _____The teacher will sign the note.

6. _____Jeffrey has a lot of nerve.

7. _____ That puppy is adorable.

8. _____ School will be over soon.

9. _____ Elephants have attacked their trainers.

10. _____Traffic lights are for the driver's benefit.

11. _____Joan's hair has such a bright shine.

12. _____He can join us if we promise to be home early.

13. _____ The judges were certain they'd picked a winner.

14. _____ Your dog may need a rabies shot.

15. _____ The bells will chime at noon.

24
QUIZ

Fill in the blanks with the missing words.

1. _______________________________ are words that express _______________________.

Underline the verbs in the following sentences.

2. The carpenter banged the hammer.


3. Children grow so quickly.
4. His father drove the team to the game.
5. Angela twisted her ankle.

Fill in the blanks with the missing words.

6. ___________________ verbs link a noun or pronoun to a word that renames or


describes the noun or pronoun.

Underline the linking verbs in the following sentences.

7. They are students.


8. She is a dancer.
9. The parents looked proud.
10. The animals seemed tired.

Fill in the blanks with the missing words.

11. Verbs have different ________________forms to show if the action takes place in

the ___________________, in the _________________, or in the ________________.

Underline the complete verbs in the following sentences.

12. The crops will have enough rain.


13. Shelly is helping her friend build a castle.

Write the past tense of the following verbs in the blanks.

14. ________________ follow


15. ________________ fly
16. ________________ buy
17. ________________ happen
18. ________________ teach

25
VERBS-2

VOCABULARY

1. ENROLLING: to register in a class or school


2. GUILTY: culpable
3. TRIAL: legal process in a court with a judge and a jury
4. PRIOR: before
5. PRINCIPAL: most important
6. SUMMIT: the highest point of a mountain
7. WILD: not domesticated
8. REACH(TO): arrive
9. TRAIL: path, route, or road
10. FEE: money paid for entering a place like a theater, concert, or opera

THE PERFECT TENSES:


All perfect tenses show action that is completed in relation to a later action, circumstance, or
time. Although we use the perfect tenses less, an understanding of them is essential to good
English.

THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE:


It is formed by using the present tense of the verb "have" as an auxiliary before the past
participle of the main verb. The present perfect tense shows that something has started in the
past and has continued to the present. With regular verbs, use the past participle of the verb
(add "e d ") to the verb or just -d- if the verb ends in -e- as listen-listened believe-believed;. Be
careful of the subject as that decides whether "have" or "has" is to be used. Use "has" only
when the subject is third person singular. Use "have" with all other singular and plural
subjects.

EX. They have practiced for a long time. Have they practiced for a long time?
Our orchestra has played it before. Has your orchestra played it before?

Complete each of the sentences below by writing in the blank provided the correct present
perfect tense of the verb in parentheses. Watch the past participle in irregular verbs.

1. Carlos (present perfect of speak) English for several years.

__________________________________

2. We (present perfect of notice) new students enrolling daily.

__________________________________

3. Many parents (present perfect of visit) the school.

__________________________________

26
4. Some students (present perfect of use) a tape recorder to practice their English.

__________________________________

5. They (present perfect of practice) speaking over the phone.

__________________________________

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE:


It is formed by using the past tense of the verb "have" (which is HAD) as an auxiliary in all
numbers of persons with the past participle of the main verb. The past perfect tense refers to
something which was completed in the past before another past action.

EXAMPLE: The jury had decided the man was guilty before the trial ended.
Had the jury decided the man was guilty before the trial ended?

Complete each of the sentences below by writing in the blank provided the correct past perfect
tense of the verb in parentheses. Watch the past participle in irregular verbs.

1. Max (past perfect of be) to the United States once before.

__________________________________

2. Elena (past perfect of hope) to learn English last semester.

__________________________________

3. He (past perfect of learn) English before coming to the United States.

__________________________________

4. Some new students (past perfect of walk) many miles from their homes before eating

breakfast. __________________________________

5. The new bilingual textbooks (past perfect of arrive) last week prior to classes beginning.

__________________________________

THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE:


It is formed by using WILL with the past participle of the main verb. The future perfect tense is
used when an action, begun at any time, will be completed by some definite time in the future.
Be sure to include the helping verb.

27
EXAMPLE: We will have walked six miles before dinner.
Will you have walked six miles before dinner?

Complete each of the sentences below by writing in the blank provided the correct future perfect
tense of the verb in parentheses. Watch the past participle in irregular verbs.

1. By then, she (future perfect of see) the principal.

__________________________________

2. By June, Elena (future perfect of achieve) her goal.

__________________________________

3. Students in his class (future perfect of master) their lesson together.

__________________________________

4. His sister, Marlene, (future perfect of arrive) at school by the end of first period.

__________________________________

5. They (future perfect of finish) the work by 10:00 a.m.

__________________________________

THE SIMPLE PROGRESSIVE TENSES:


The simple progressive tenses indicate continuing action.

THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE:


It expresses an action in progress at the moment we speak. To form the
present continuous tense, use the verb BE (am, is, are) as auxiliary and the
main verb in ING form.

EXAMPLE: I am writing a letter now. Are you writing a letter now?


Complete each of the sentences below by writing in the blank provided the correct present
progressive tense of the verb in parentheses.

1. Tom and Mary (present progressive of answer) their exams.

_____________________________________________________________

28
2. My mother (present progressive of bake) a cake for dad.

__________________________________________________________________

3. I (present progressive of study) Course V.

_____________________________________________________________

4. Robert (present progressive of fix) his car now.

_____________________________________________________________

5. We (present progressive of type) our report.

_____________________________________________________________

THE PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE:


It expresses the idea of an action that was in progress when another action happened in the
past. It is formed using the forms of the verb BE in the past (was, were) and the main verb in the
ING form.

EXAMPLE: He was speakinq English when the teacher arrived.


EXAMPLE: Was he speaking English when the teacher arrived?

Complete each of the sentences below by writing in the blank provided the correct past
progressive tense of the verb in parentheses.

1. The party host (past progressive of serve) dessert when we arrived.

_____________________________________________________________

2. Rick ( past progressive of work) on the computer when the lights went out.

_____________________________________________________________

3. He (past progressive of have) breakfast when his children came downstairs.

_____________________________________________________________

4. John(past progressive of paint) a picture when someone knocked on the door.

_____________________________________________________________

29
5. We (past progressive of enjoy) the play when the man interrupted us.

_____________________________________________________________

THE FUTURE PROGRESSIVE TENSE:


It expresses a continuous action that will happen sometime in the future. It is formed with the
auxiliary WILL, the verb BE, and the main verb in the ING form.

EXAMPLE: She will be working next year. Will she be working next year?
They will be playing soccer . Will t h e y b e playing soccer?

1. Katherine(future progressive of practice) medicine in two years.

_____________________________________________________________

2. Samuel(future progressive of graduate) next month.

_____________________________________________________________

3. Stuart and his friends(future progressive of climb) the summit soon.

_____________________________________________________________

4. Dr. Smith (future progressive of operate) as soon as possible.

_____________________________________________________________

5. The boys(future progressive of leave) in the morning.

_____________________________________________________________

30
QUIZ

Complete the sentences below by underlining the correct form of the verb in parentheses.
Remember that "present tense" tells what is happening now, "past tense" tells what has already
happened, and “future tense” tells what will happen later.

1. Last week, Priscilla and Dan (leave, left, will leave) for Hawaii.
2. They (arrive, arrived, will arrive) in Honolulu right now.
3. Before they leave they (ask, asked, will ask) Mary and Al to breakfast.
4. They (eat, ate, will eat) before they boarded the plane.
5. Dan (pays, paid, will pay) for breakfast before they departed.
6. Next week Mary (calls, called, will call) the travelers in Kona, Hawaii.
7. Their cruise ship (sails, sailed, will sail) every Saturday.
8. Prices for the cruise ship (jumps, jumped, will jump) last month.
9. If the volcano on Hawaii erupts, they (see, saw, will see) it from the ship.
10. The hurricane (damage, damaged, will damage) Kauai last year.

Complete each of the sentences below by writing in the blank provided the correct form of the
verb in parentheses.

11. Last summer, our family (past of drive) to Virginia City, Nevada.
___________________________

12. We always (present of arise) early to pack the car.


___________________________

13. Dad (past of sleep) while Mother drove the car.


___________________________

14. At our lunch stop, I (past of tear) my shirt on a tree.


___________________________

15. To pass the time, we (present of sing) songs.


___________________________

16. We had (past participle of do) well to reach Mammoth Lakes by early evening.
___________________________

17. Since we had (past participle of ride) a long way, we were tired.
___________________________

18. Our friends had (past participle of choose) the restaurant.


___________________________

19. My sister had (past participle of write) about the trail in her diary.
___________________________

20. In Virginia City, we (past of pay) a fee to see a famous old opera house.
___________________________

31
ADVERBS

VOCABULARY:

1. BLARE(TO): to sound loudly


2. BOLDLY: courageously, intrepidly
3. CHEER(TO): to scream with joy or to animate a sports team
4. COZY: nice and comfortable
5. ELDERLY: old
6. FAN: abbreviation of the word: FANATIC
7. FRIGHTENED: terrorized
8. GLIDE(TO): to move smoothly in the snow or air
9. GUEST: an invited person
10. HIKE(TO): to walk in nature
11. HIRE(TO): to give a job to a person
12. HUM(TO): to sing with a mmm sound
13. LEAP(TO): to jump
14. LIGHTNING: electrical discharge in the sky
15. MUSICIAN: person who plays musical instruments
16. PEACEFULLY: in peace, without problems PUPPY: baby dog
17. QUITE: very
18. SHINY: brilliant
19. SHY: timid
20. SKIDDED: to move, slide uncontrollably
21. SLUGGISHLY: lazily, unenergetically
22. SPOIL(TO): to change from a good to a bad condition
23. SWIFTLY: quickly
24. TIPTOE(TO): to walk quietly on your toes
25. WAIL(TO): to cry in a loud, sharp tone

ADVERBS:
They describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Adverbs usually tell something
about time, place, or manner. If the word answers the question: how? how often?
when? or to what extent? You are probably dealing with an adverb.

Ex. They leave soon. He always comes in late.


He ran inside. She is very shy.
She sang softly. It´s quite warm.

Read the sentences below. Underline the adverbs.

EXAMPLE: The girls slept soundly after their experience.

1. The skier glided down.


2. The quest will arrive later.
3. Patricia works carefully.
4. Jack draws well.
5. Emma worked quickly on her basket.
6. We hiked far today.
7. The ballet dancer leaped high.

32
8. He bent down to pick up the money.
9. He didn't come here.
10. The children screamed excitedly.

Underline the adverb with one line. Then write the word modified by the adverb in the
blank.
EXAMPLE: walked She walked slowly down the street.

1. _____________ Harry played well in every game.


2. _____________ The boys quickly took turns at bat.
3. _____________ Jack swung wildly at the ball.
4. _____________ Please play the record again.
5. _____________ The principal spoke clearly.
6. _____________ The elderly man moved slowly.
7. _____________ The guests thanked us kindly.
8. _____________ The lightning struck suddenly.
9. _____________ We enjoyed ourselves immensely.
10. _____________ The two boys fought aggressively.

Most adverbs modify verbs and tell something about time, place, or manner. There are a
small number of adverbs, however, that modify adjectives or other adverbs.
For example, in the sentence, "We arrived too early," the adverb too modifies the
adverb early. How early? Too early.
And in the sentence, "Sam was somewhat thoughtful," the adverb somewhat modifies
the adjective thoughtful.

Read the sentences and underline all the adverbs.


EXAMPLE: They danced very gracefully.

1. He was a very happy child.


2. George was so angry he screamed at me.
3. He tiptoed extremely carefully through the broken glass.
4. The musicians played somewhat sluggishly.
5. Pumpkin was so hungry.
6. I always played hard.
7. The box is very heavy.
8. They go quite often.

Underline the adverb or adverbs in each sentence with one line. Then write the word or
words modified by the adverbs in the blank.

EXAMPLE: The girls were somewhat upset. Upset

1. He managed quite well. ________________


________________

2. They drove very carefully. ________________


________________

33
3. The dog is quite large. ________________
________________

4. Pauline is so happy. ________________


________________

5. She jumped too soon. ________________


________________
At the end of each sentence, underline the word that belongs in the blank.

EXAMPLE: Jack was ___________ frightened. (shiny, happily, terribly)

1. The sun was shining _________. (yellow, brightly, darkly)


2. The radio blared _________. (softly, loudly, unhappy)
3. Dad was sleeping _________. (peacefully, quickly, thickly)
4. The car skidded _________ on the ice. (full, sweetly, wildly)
5. Mama hummed _________ as she worked. (softly, wildly, downhill)

THE COMPARATIVE FORM OF ADVERBS:


Adverbs can be used to compare. There are two forms of comparison: the comparative
and the superlative forms.
To compare two actions, we use the comparative form. For many adverbs, the
comparative form is made by adding the letters er: soon – sooner. For adverbs that end in
ly, use the word more to make the comparative form: carefully - more carefully

Make the comparative form of the adverbs and write the word in the blank.

EXAMPLE: more loudly loudly

1. _______________ calmly
2. _______________ late
3. _______________ fast
4. _______________ nervously
5. _______________ rapidly

Fill in the blanks with the comparative form of the adverb in parentheses.
EXAMPLE: (loudly) She spoke more loudly than her sister.

1. (gracefully) Tom skates ________ than his brother.


2. (soon) The teacher arrived ________ than the students.
3. (excitedly) The Bronco fans cheered ________ than the Jet fans.
4. (rapidly) My plant has grown ________ than yours.
5. (boldly) He described his adventures ________ than the other man involved.

THE SUPERLATIVE FORM OF ADVERBS:


We use the superlative form of adverbs to compare two or more actions. For many
adverbs, the superlative form is made by adding the letters est: soon- soonest.
For adverbs that end in ly, we use the word most to make the superlative form: carefully -
most carefully.

34
Make the superlative form of the adverbs and write them in the blanks.
EXAMPLE: most loudly loudly

1. _______________ interestingly
2. _______________ recently
3. _______________ late
4. _______________ early
5. _______________ certainly

Fill in the blanks with the superlative form of the adverbs in parentheses.
EXAMPLE: (loudly) Of the three girls, Susan spoke most loudly.

1. (safely) If it's a choice between all the drivers, I'd go with Bob because he
drives _____________________.

2. (heavily) Farmers depend ___________________ on the climate.

3. (late) Of all the actors, he was the ______________________.

4. (cheerfully) If he is to pick one girl, he should hire Sue because she did the
job ________________________.

IRREGULAR ADVERBS:
Some adverbs don't follow any rules when making comparisons. These are called
irregular adverbs and must be memorized or looked up in the dictionary.

well better best


badly worse worst
far farther farthest
further furthest
little less least
many more most
much more most
hard harder hardest
high higher highest
fast faster fastest
early earlier earliest
slow slower slowest

Read each sentence below and write the correct comparative or superlative form of the
irregular adverbs in parentheses.

35
EXAMPLE: (well) Jack draws well, but Larry draws better.

1. (far) We have hiked __________________ today than yesterday.

2. (well) Of the three boys, Harold draws __________________.

3. (little) The apples cost __________________ than the pears.

4. (much) He painted __________________ than Jeremy.

5.(well) I like baseball __________________ than I like soccer.

6. (far) Of all the runners, Sarah ran the __________________.

7. (little) Of the four cows Bessie cooperates the __________________.


8. (much) There are three brothers, and Bob grew the __________________this
year.

9. (fast) Jim can swim __________________ than Susan.

10. (well) Of all the club members, Alice did __________________ on her report.

36
QUIZ

An adverb modifies actions and tells more about the way things are done. U n d e r l i n e the
adverbs in the f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s .

1. moving slowly
2. sleeping soundly
3. call soon
4. jump down
5. terribly ugly
6. jump high

Fill in the blanks with the missing words.

7. To use a one-syllable adverb to compare, add the letters ________ to the adverb.
8. To use an adverb that does not end in ly to compare three or more people
or things, add the letters __________ to the adverb.

Circle all the adverbs that you can find in each sentence .

9. The brown puppy cried out sharply when I accidentally stepped on his foot.

10. The sirens wailed loudly as the red fire truck sped swiftly down the street.

11. I was sleeping soundly when the noisy doorbell spoiled my sweet dreams.

12. The history book was on the kitchen table, and I quickly took it.

13 My left leg was in a heavy cast after I foolishly broke it.

14. The wooden house was completely destroyed by the roaring flames.

15. A yellow bird sang sweetly as it busily built its cozy nest.

37
PREPOSITIONS

VOCABULARY

1. AGREEABLE: pleasant
2. BOARDS: wooden wall
3. BRUSH: bushes
4. CAGE: place where a zoo animal is kept
5. CHARTS: list of popular records
6. CLAWED: to attack by tearing or scratching
7. CONDUCTOR: director of an orchestra
8. CRAWLED: to move on hands and knees, to move close to the floor
9. DONKEYS: animals related to the mule
10. DRIFTED: to move without a specific direction
11. HEATER: a stove or radiator used to make a room, car, water, etc. hot
12. HERDS: groups of animals. ex. a herd of horses
13. MUD: a wet, soft, combination of water and earth
14. PULLED: opposite of push
15. RAINBOW: an arc of 7colors formed by the sun's rays in falling rain
16. SLID: past of slide. To move with friction along a surface
17. STAGE: the area in a theater where artists perform
18. STRAIGHT: directly
19. STRIPES: horizontal or vertical lines
20. TARGET: a diagram of circles used for shooting practice
21. TOY: an object a child plays with
22. TRAMPED: to walk heavily
23. VARY(TO): to change
24. YOUNGSTER: a child

Pick up your pencil. Hold it in your right hand. Now place your left hand over the pencil,
beneath the pencil, toward the pencil, on the pencil, below the pencil. The italicized words
show the relationship between your hand and the pencil. These words are called
prepositions. A preposition is a word which shows a relationship between a noun or pronoun
and some other part of the sentence.

EXAMPLE: The ball rolled down the driveway toward the truck near the corner.
down: r e l a t i o n s h i p between r o l l e d and driveway
toward: r e l a t i o n s h i p between driveway and truck
near: relationship between truck and corner

about around between in round underneath


above at by into since until
across before down of through up
after behind during off till upon
against below except on to with
along beneath for over toward (s) within
among beside from past under without
38
Identify the prepositions in the following sentences by underlining them.

1. Is the zebra a white horse with black stripes or a black horse with white stripes?
2. The size and pattern of a zebra's stripes identify the different kinds for me.
3. Donkeys and zebras belong to the family of the domestic horse.
4. Giraffes in different parts of Africa vary in color and pattern.
5. Herds of animals often stand around water holes and drink during the early
morning.
6. Raquel Diaz bought a colorful map of historic Washington, D.C., from the handsome
guide.
7. Mr. Dent got a ticket from the dignified Congresswoman for an exclusive tour of the
Capitol.
8. The Smithsonian Association prepared the map of Washington, D.C., for visitors.
9. Rich and Dennis traveled with a group from school to the famous Smithsonian
Institute.
10.An agreeable friend consulted the map for interesting places around the
White house.

THE OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION:


Every preposition has a noun or pronoun as its object. If a pronoun follows a preposition, it
must be in the objective case (me, you, him, her, us, them). Be careful of compound
objects when the pronoun is the second object mentioned.

EXAMPLE: Willie went to the show with them.


The singers sang to him and me.
The dancers waltzed by Pedro and us.

Complete each of the following sentences by writing in the blank provided the correct
pronoun in the parentheses.

EXAMPLE: Mr. Polito played Verdi's opera for (they, them) __them__

1. The soprano sang with the choir and (he, him). __________.
2. Our music teacher sang some operatic songs to her son and (I, me). __________.
3. The orchestra played music written by the conductor and (we, us). __________.
4. The piano player stood between Todd and (we, us) on the stage. __________.
5. Madame Butterfly by Puccini is an opera enjoyed by my aunt and (they, them).
__________.
6. Several of (we, us) knew that Verdi was the composer of Aida. __________.
7. The star of La Boheme visited with Mrs. Gilbert and (she, her). __________.
8. She gave two tickets to Arlene and (he, him). __________.
9. The music from the opera Barber of Seville drifted toward Betsy and
(we, us). __________.
10. We were sorry to go without Milt and (she, her). __________.

39
Underline the object of the preposition in each of the following phrases with one
line.
EXAMPLE: in the house.

1. over the rainbow 11. over the bench


2. in the mud 12. with them through
3. through the castle 13. through the years
4. under the highway 14. with love
5. with the boys 15. on his back
6. along the way 16. down the slide
7. on his shoulder 17. over his head
8. at her 18. along the coast
9. up the mountain 19. at their house
10. down Paul's shirt 20. at the target

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE:
A preposition is a word that introduces a prepositional phrase. When prepositions combine
with a noun or pronoun, they form a prepositional phrase.

EXAMPLE: I enjoy working in the lab.

1. The little girl ran along the beach.

2. The puppy in the middle is my favorite.

3. The eye doctor asked that she look straight at the numbers.

4. Paul left a record on the heater.

5. The car skidded down the hill.

6. In the beginning, there were only six.

7. The cat crawled through the open window.

8. The clam slid down his throat.

9. Becky climbed up the pole and rang the bell.

10. Along the road were several flowers.

11. The tiger clawed at the cage.

12. Mother left her package on the bus.

CONNECTING THE OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION AND ANOTHER WORD:


A preposition shows a relationship or connection between the object of the preposition and
another word in the sentence.

40
Prepositional phrases can modify a verb in the same way that an adverb does or can
modify a noun in the same way an adjective does.

Find the prepositional phrases in the following sentences and underline them. Then, find
the word modified by the prepositional phrase and circle it

1. The instruments on the shelf are all new.

2. The elephant tramped through the brush.

3. Kids marched down State Street.

4. The dead fish on the beach smelled.

5. Ants crawled over the picnic lunch.

6. The boy with the cast had broken his leg playing football.

7. Records on the charts sell well.

8. His father opened the door with his key.

9. The hockey player jumped over the boards.

10. The girl with the glasses should be careful.

11. The horse galloped to the finish line.

12. The baby pulled her toy along the floor.

THE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE AS AN ADJECTIVE PHRASE:


If the prepositional phrase modifies a noun or pronoun, it is an adjective phrase.

EXAMPLE: The painter with the red beard won the prize.
Adjective phrase as it modifies the noun p a i n t e r .

THE PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE AS AN ADVERBIAL PHRASE:


If the prepositional phrase modifies a verb, and adjective, or an adverb, it is an
adverbial phrase.

EXAMPLE: The winner walked around the room.


Adverbial phrase as it modifies the verb walked.

Identify the prepositional phrases in each of the following sentences by underlining them.
Identify each phrase as an adjective phrase or as an adverbial phrase by writing your
answers in the blanks provided.

1. Ricky Henderson is a base runner with tremendous speed.

____________________________________________.

41
2. The fans ran under the stands when it rained.

____________________________________________.

3. Many spectators left during the game.

____________________________________________.

4. Steve Carlton, a great pitcher for the Phillies, has many records.

____________________________________________.

5. The youngster crawled underneath the fence.

____________________________________________.

6. Pete Rose without great speed or size became a great player.

____________________________________________.

7. The outfielder crashed into the fence when he caught the ball.

____________________________________________.

8. The Yankees' team bus drove across town yesterday.

____________________________________________.

9. The fan reached over the fence.

____________________________________________.

10. Rod Carew originally came from Panama.

____________________________________________.

42
QUIZ

Fill in the blanks with the missing words

1. A ______________________ is a word that shows relationship between a

____________ or pronoun.

2. The noun or pronoun that follows the preposition is called the ____________

of the preposition.

3. When the preposition combines with a noun or pronoun, they form a


_______________________ ________________________.

Identify the prepositions in the following sentences by underlining them.

4. The team with the better players won the game.


5. No one knew about their trick plays.
6. The game was played under a clear sky.
7. Tom and Jim made an investigation for the football book.
8. Other people helped in the final edition.

Identify the prepositional phrases in the following sentences by underlining them.

9. The illustrations were designed by the author and an artist.


10. The fans were among the noisiest this season.
11. At the next game our friend will be the referee.
12. Everything went against the visiting team yesterday.

Identify each phrase as an adjective phrase or as an adverbial phrase by writing


your answers in the blanks provided.

13. Among Lois, Len and me, $5 was spent on snacks. _______________________.

14. Aggie went past us without speaking. _______________________.

15. The cheerleaders learned new yells during the year. _______________________.

43
CONJUNCTIONS

VOCABULARY

1. ACCOUNTANT: auditor
2. APPLICANT: person who applies for a job
3. BE ABLE TO: to have the ability
4. BONE: skeleton parts
5. CALL OFF(TO): cancel, postpone
6. COTTON GIN: machine used to process cotton
7. FEARLESS: brave, valiant
8. FILE DRAWER: place where records are kept '~.
9. FREEZING: very cold
10. GROCERY SHOPPING: buying at a supermarket
11. IRON-LUNG/HEART-LUNG MACHINES: artificial machines that help doctors
during operations
12. JOIN(TO): connect
13. KITTENS: baby cats
14. LEND: to give something expecting to have it returned
15. PRINTING PRESS: machine that prints books, newspapers, etc.
16. PROMOTED: moved to a higher job position
17. RANK: value
18. REAPER: farm machine used for cutting and collecting grains (cereals)
19. ROUGH RIDER: member of an American horse regiment during the Spanish
American war
20. SAFETY MATCH: small wooden stick with a phosphorous head
21. SAFETY PIN: special pin that closes at one end
22. SCUBA DIVING: swimming underwater with oxygen tanks
23. SEAFOOD: any type of food you can get from the ocean
24. THRESHER: machine used to separate grains from their coverings
25. WHEEL: important invention with a circular shape used on land vehicles

CONJUNCTIONS:
Conjunctions join words, phrases (group of related words), or clauses (parts of sentences
that contain a subject and a verb).

EXAMPLE: Henry and Dexter sell many video games. and: joins Henry and Dexter

Did you score higher than Leo or Sue? or: joins Leo and Sue

Conjunctions are classified as coordinating, subordinating, or correlative.

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS:
Coordinating conjunctions join sentence parts of equal rank. Clauses of a compound
sentences are connected by c o o r d i n a t i ng conjunctions. Common c o o r d i n a t i n g
c o nj u nct i on s are and, but, or, nor, yet.

EXAMPLE: The wind and rain canceled the picnic.


and: joins two words to form a compound subject wind and rain.

44
EXAMPLE: Hilda or Jack will drive the car to the beach.
or: joins two words to form a compound subject Hilda and Jack.

EXAMPLE: We will go to the beach for scuba diving or for surfing.


or: connects two phrases, for scuba diving and for surfing.

EXAMPLE: Most scuba divers are careful, but a few beginners don't listen to the
instructions.
but: joins two clauses, Most scuba divers are careful with a few
beginners don't listen to the instructions.

U n d e r l i n e t h e c o n j u n c t i o n s in the following s e n t e n c e s .

1. They like green and blue the best.


2. She won the contest but didn't receive her prize.
3. They're freezinq out there, so they're very unhappy.
4. His parents sent him magazines, and his friends sent him candy.
5. Lucy likes apples, but she doesn't like peaches.
6. It is late at night, yet I am still going out.
7. My father bought me a car, but I don't know how to drive.
8. This magazine is Roi's, so be careful with it.
9. Sandra or Edgar will be promoted.
10. The teacher explained everything again, yet I still don't understand.

SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS:
Subordinating conjunctions connect subordinate clauses to the main clause.

SUBORDINATE OR DEPENDENT CLAUSE: depends upon the independent (main)


clause for understanding. A DEPENDENT CLAUSE when standing alone is not a
complete sentence. Just as a person needs food in order to live and a plant needs
water in order to grow, a dependent clause needs an independent clause to
express a complete thought.
An INDEPENDENT CLAUSE expresses a complete thought and has a subject and
a verb. It is the main thought of a sentence and can stand alone correctly as a
simple sentence without anything attached to it.

most common subordinating conjunctions are:

after for till


although if unless
as since until
as if so that when
as though than where
because that wherever
before though while

45
EXAMPLE: You should look at many cars before you buy your first auto.
before: connects the subordinate clause you buy your first auto
to the main clause you should look at many cars

EXAMPLE: Because my brother didn't listen to the mechanic, he bought a bad car.
because: connects the subordinate clause my brother didn't listen to
the mechanic to the main clause he bought a bad car.

EXAMPLE: Since you lived in New Orleans, you should be familiar with seafood.
since: connects the subordinate clause you lived in New Orleans
to the main clause you should be familiar with seafood.

EXAMPLE: When you vacation in Victoria, B. C. , you must see the Empress Hotel.
When: connects the subordinate clause you vacation in
Victoria, B.C. to the main clause you must see the Empress
Hotel.

1. After the children watched the movie, they commented on it .


_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________

2. If you don't pay attention, you won't be able to answer the quiz.
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________

3. My mother won't let me go out unless I finish my homework.


_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________

4. When you travel to Escuintla, you should stop at Sarita.


_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________

5. Julio was fixing the car while Pedro washed it.


_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS:
Correlative conjunctions are conjunctions used in pairs.

The main ones are: either...or


both...and
neither...nor
not only...but also
whether...or

EXAMPLE: Neither the secretary nor the accountant was lazy.


neither...nor connects words secretary and accountant
REMEMBER that neither, nor takes a singular verb when the subjects themselves
are singular.

46
EXAMPLE: The aplicant was not only a good typist but also a fine receptionist.
not only...but also connects words a good typist and a fine receptionist

EXAMPLE: Either the papers were on the desk, or they were in the file drawer.
Either...or connects clauses.

Identify the correlative conjunctions in the following sentences by underlining them.

1. President Teddy Roosevelt was not only a fearless president, but also a famous
Rough Rider.
2. Either the governor or the senator will run for president.
3. Some inventions not only solve some problems, but also create other problems.
4. Benjamin Franklin invented the lightning conductor either before 1776 or after 1776.
5. The dog wanted neither the bone nor the toy.
6. Neither John nor Peggy wanted ice cream.
7. They either want to skate or ski during the afternoon.
8. Either Hawaii or Alaska was the fiftieth state.
9. The automobile club gave us not only road maps but also a list of hotels.
10. Whether you come early or late does not concern me.

CONJUNCTION RECOGNITION:
Identify the conjunctions as coordinating, subordinating, or correlative. Tell whether they
connect words, phrases, or clauses.
Remember that a PHRASE is a group of words used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. It
does not contain a subject and a verb in combination. A CLAUSE is a part of a sentence
that contains a complete subject and a complete predicate.

EXAMPLE: Unless you invent something people want, you won't be able to sell it.
Unless SUBORDINATING CLAUSES

1. Was the wheel or the printing press a great invention?


Or ____________________________________________

2. The safety match was invented after 1843 yet prior to the invention of the safety pin.
Yet ____________________________________________

3. Although Samuel Colt invented the revolver in 1835, Camillo Vitelli finished the pistol
around 1540.
Although ____________________________________________

4. Neither the thresher nor the cotton gin was invented prior to 1750.
Neither.... nor ____________________________________________

5. Other companies have become large corporations since Henry Ford popularized
the automobile.
Since ____________________________________________

6. Unless you heard of Cyrus McCormick, you don't know about his invention of the reaper.
Unless ____________________________________________

47
7. Both the iron-lung and the heart-lung machines help doctors in their operations.
Both...and ____________________________________________

8. When I was in high school, I took a trip to the Smithsonian Institute.


When ____________________________________________

9. A patent gives the inventor the right to make and sell an invention.
And ____________________________________________

10. Some inventions are valuable, but other inventions are impractical.
But ____________________________________________

48
QUIZ

Fill in the blanks with the missing words.

1. The word __________________ means to join or bring together.

Underline the conjunctions in the following examples.

2. Jim and Susan


3. neither the cat nor the dog
4. sink or swim
5. run and hide

Fill in the blanks with the missing words.

6. Conjunctions can connect two ______________or two _____________ of words.

Underline the conjunctions in the following sentences.

7. He wanted to go to the party but didn't have the time.


8. Her mother hates grocery shopping , so Jenny did it for her.
9. The students studied, yet few passed the test.

Join each set of sentences to make a compound sentence by writing but, and, or so in the
blank.

10. This book is mine __________ be carefull with it.


11. I´d like to buy a car __________ I don´t have any money.
12. You pull from your end __________ I´ll push from my end.
13. I´ll go with you if you want __________ I really don´t want to go.
14. My cat had kittens __________ my dog had puppies.
15. We heard it was going to rain __________ we called off the picnic.

Underline the two separate sentences in each of these compound sentences. Then circle
the conjunction which joins them.

16. You take the high road and I'll take the low road.

17. It happened a long time ago, so no one remembers the story.

18. I won't lend you the money, but I'll help you find a job.

19. He's a friend of mine and I don't want to hurt him.

20. Tom bought a new car, but he couldn't make the payments.

49
INTERJECTIONS

VOCABULARY

1. BALD: with no hair


2. BEWARE: precaution
3. BUDGET: cheap
4. BUREAU: government office or department
5. ENGRAVING: to cut letters or figures by incisions into stone or metal
6. GRAVE: tomb
7. ICELANDIC: adjective referring to Iceland
8. NEIGHBOR: persons who live behind, in front of, or next to your house
9. OVER: finished
10. PLUSHIER: expensive
11. PROUD: to feel satisfied with someone or something
12. SPRAWLING: growing in all directions
13. TIPS: extra money given to a waiter or bellboy for good service

INTERJECTIONS:

Interjections are words or short phrases that don't play any other grammatical role in the
sentence other than to express sudden feeling, such as surprise, fear, suspense, anger,
love, joy, and other emotions.. If you do ever want to use an interjection in a sentence, try
to use it in the beginning. Make sure to finish your sentence with an exclamation point.

Special words such as wow, horrors, hurrah, yow, hey, yipes, golly, ugh, gosh,
well, oh, ouch, and hooray are often used, but words such as help, beware, and stop
(usually verbs) may also be used as interjections. Interjections are generally set apart from
a sentence by an exclamation point or by a comma when the feeling is not strong.

Use Hurray! when you are happy


Aw! when you are sad
Rats! when you are mad
Eeeeek! when you are frightened
Wow! when you are excited
Hey! when you are glad
Darn! when you are angry

EXAMPLE: Oh! I didn't know it closed at midnight.

Yipee, I finally won a game!

Identify the interjections in the following sentences by underlining them.

1. Hooray! The cafeteria installed a soft drink and ice cream machine for the students.
2. Gosh! The principal worries about the students and their lunch!

50
3. Wow, Yolanda and Ramon worked hard after the lunch period was over!
4. Whoopee! I finally saw the American Bald Eagle.
5. Whew!, the roar of the lion scared me!
6. Ouch, I stepped on a nail near the cage!
7. Gosh, the sick animal finally died yesterday.
8. Whew! They finally hired Nick and Priscilla.
9. Yippee! The employer told me about a job in sales or accounting.
10. Golly! They certainly treated us courteously and respectfully.
11. Ugh! The heavy box landed on the desk and finally on me.
12. Wow! I secretly hoped for a position with the company or some other group.

GENERAL REVIEW

PART I

Identify the nouns, pronouns and verbs in the following sentences. Place an N for
nouns, a P for pronouns and a V for verbs above them.

Example: N V P N
Mystery writers often fascinate us with exciting stories.

1. They saw an exciting game last Thursday.

2. The pitcher threw him a fastball.

3. Baseball belongs to the fans.

4. He and I go every Friday to the game at the stadium.

5. The neighbor gave her a free ticket.

6. We saw him many times over the years.

7. The American League consists of 14 teams.

8. He watches the Los Angeles Dodgers.

9. Mr. Jefferson took him and her to an exciting game.

10. Fujio prepared a lunch for him and us.

51
PART II

Identify the adverbs and the adjectives in the following sentences. Place ADV for adverbs,
and ADJ for adjectives above them.

Example: ADJ ADJ ADV ADJ ADJ


The entire family often travels to different countries around the world

1. A wonderful visit to the sprawling city of Madrid was a great experience.

2. The selective tourist certainly has an exciting time in the heart of old Madrid.

3. Why are you looking at the Icelandic trip now?

4. Today the happy group will buy a budget package for the trip this summer.

5. The inexpensive price covers good hotels and sometimes the cost of a superb dinner.

6. The lovely women had previously traveled extensively throughout the English countryside.

7. Confirmed reservations probably will arrive for Mr. Hunt tomorrow.

8. Sometimes the tour price includes all tips.

9. The French family will certainly not travel extensively throughout the city of Bordeaux.

PART III

Identify the prepositions, conjunctions and interjections in the following sentences.


Place a P for prepositions, a C for conjunctions and an I for interjections above
them.

Example: P P C
The agent of our tour arranged for a trip through the famous buildings and the
Arlington Cemetery.

1. Oh! We really missed the trip to the Space Museum and the Bureau of Engraving

and Printing.

52
2. She quickly suggested a drive to the Washington Monument or to John

Kennedy´s grave.

3. Tremendous! The museum easily provided us many hours of fun and pleasure.

4. They always planned a walking tour to Georgetown and Ford's Theater.

5. We respectfully listened to the proud statements of the guide and driver.

6. Shh-h! We walked quietly and happily through the rooms of the White House.

53
SIMPLE SENTENCES

VOCABULARY

1. DISBELIEF: (noun) not to believe in something


2. PLAYFUL: adjective which describes a person or animal that likes to play
3. SHARK: dangerous carnivorous predator that lives in the ocean
4. SKILLS: abilities
5. SLIPS: bank forms for deposits, withdrawals etc.
6. TELLER: person who receives or pays out money in a bank
7. WHALE: the biggest fishlike mammal that lives in the ocean

THE SENTENCE DEFINITION


A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. A sentence always
begins with a capital letter.
All sentences end with a period, question mark, or exclamation point. A sentence doesn't
make sense unless the words are in the right order.

A simple sentence consists of two important parts: the subject and the verb. The subject is
the person, place or thing the sentence is about.

The verb is the word that tells what the subject does or is.

SIMPLE SENTENCES
They are called simple because all of the elements within the sentence are either part of
the subject or the predicate.

THE SUBJECT:
The subject of the sentence is the part that performs the action of the main verb. The
simple subject is the specific noun that is performing this action. Everything together is
called "the complete subject."

THE PREDICATE:
The predicate of a sentence consists of the main verb which is called the "simple
predicate", and everything that goes with it. This makes the predicate pretty much
everything that's not part of the subject. This whole part is called "the complete predicate."

Identify the subject of the following sentences by underlining them once. Identify the verbs
by underlining them twice.

1. Certain jobs require special skills.


2. Mr. Martinez met with the interested students.
3. Ann found the perfect job.
4. She enjoyed the great outdoors.
5. The path covered many miles.
6. Her uncle walked over many of the hidden trails.
7. Oscar studied for the test with Ann.
8. The salary included many health benefits.
9. Some students decided on careers in the circus.
10. Rita Thomas acted the part of the clown.

54
COMPLETE OR INCOMPLETE SENTENCES
Identify the incomplete sentences by placing a check mark in the blank. In the space
provided below the sentences, rewrite each of the incomplete sentences, adding whatever
words are necessary to make them complete. Remember that a sentence expresses a
complete thought and has a subject and verb.

1. The teller opened the windows for depositors. ___________


2. He smiled at the first customer. ___________
3. Nina with her paycheck in her hand. ___________
4. The manager walked over to Nina at the window. ___________
5. The possibility for a large deposit. ___________
6. The guard at the door with his pistol in his pocket. ___________
7. The slips, the checks, and the tables. ___________
8. The president of the bank sat in a large, open office. ___________
9. With flowers, telephones, papers, and messages on his desk. ___________
10. Ms. Marcellus married my uncle, the bank president. ___________

KINDS OF SENTENCES

The DECLARATIVE SENTENCE OR STATEMENT. It states a fact. It ends with a period.


EXAMPLE: She used them in her speech.

The INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE OR QUESTION. It asks a question. Ends with a


question mark.
EXAMPLE: How did they learn them?

The EXCLAMATORY SENTENCE OR EXCLAMATION. It expresses surprise, disbelief, or


deep feeling. It ends with an exclamation point.
EXAMPLE: No one uses that word!

The IMPERATIVE SENTENCE OR COMMAND. It gives a command or begs. It usually


ends with a period, but a strong command may be ended with an exclamation point. The
subject YOU is often omitted, but understood.
EXAMPLE: Learn six new words for tomorrow.

TYPES OF SENTENCES
Indicate whether the following sentences are declarative, interrogative, exclamatory or
imperative by writing it in the space provided.

1. Sea World in San Diego features playful dolphins.


2. Did you ever see a shark swim?
3. Look at the penguins at the entrance.
4. The one-hour cruise of Mission Bay leaves every hour.
5. Have you looked through America's largest telescope?
6. What a spectacular sight it is!
7. Balboa Park includes the famous San Diego Zoo.
8. Give me a chance to look.
9. Look at the size of that whale.
10. When did you leave for home?

55
QUIZ

Identify the subject of the following sentences by underlining them once.


Identify the verbs by underlining them twice.

1. Juanita finally learned about the computer at the school.


2. Kevin went early for an interview.
3. He carefully completed the application form.
4. Ten girls and five boys finally arrived for the same job.
5. Twelve people seldom receive an early interview.
6. Ramona waited patiently for the interesting interview.
7. The manager officially received 16 applications.
8. Electronic computers quickly processed the forms of the nervous applicants.
9. The tall boy in the blue shirt missed the pleasant interview.
10. A small machine quietly printed the results.

Connect with a line to make a correct statement

11. A sentence is a group of words asks something


12. A sentence always begins with tells about something
13. All sentences end with a period, question mark, or
exclamation point
14. A sentence spoken with great feeling is a command
15. A statement is a sentence which a capital letter
16. A question is a sentence which that expresses a complete thought
17. A sentence which gives an order is an exclamation
18. The subject of the sentence the part of the sentence that
contains the verb
19. Verbs are words that show action
or condition
20. The predicate is tells what the sentence is about

After each sentence below, put in the right punctuation mark:

21. Hooray___
22. It's your turn to bat___
23 What a fantastic sunset___
24. I won't worry about it___
25.What difference does it make___

56
PHRASES AND OBJECTS

VOCABULARY

1. ALIENS: extraterrestrials
2. BLESSED: fortunate
3. BREVITY: something short in duration, words etc.
4. CAVE: place where primitive man lived
5. CONCEALED: hid, (past of hide)
6. DEALT: gave
7. DEFEAT: destruction
8. EARTHQUAKE: natural disaster when the earth shakes
9. INSANE: crazy
10. MERCY: kindness
11. MERRY: very happy
12. MESS: disorganized
13. MIGHT: power, strength
14. PEACEMAKERS: pacifists
15. POURED: to serve a liquid
16. PRIDE: arrogance
17. REWARD: prize, recompense
18. SAUCE: any liquid similar to Ketchup
19. STAINED: discoloring a fabric
20. STARTLING: surprising
21. STRAINED: forced
22. SUCCESS: a favorable result, opposite of failure
23. WIT: good sense, intelligence

A PHRASE is a group of closely related words that is not a sentence and that may
contain either a subject or predicate, but not both.

EXAMPLE: She returned to the library. (prepositional phrase)

Identify the prepositional phrases in the following sentences.

1. Brevity is the soul of wit.


2. A rose by any other name would smell as sweet.
3. The quality of mercy is not strained.
4. Men of few words are the best men.
5. Blessed are the peacemakers on earth.
6. The better part of valor is discretion.
7. My pride fell worth my fortune.
8. A merry heart goes through the day.
9. Fear of death is worse than death itself.
10. I speak in a monstrous little voice.

57
An APPOSITIVE PHRASE is a descriptive phrase that either restates the simple
subject of the sentence, or adds new information about it.

EXAMPLE: Olivia, my favorite house plant, grew one eighteenth of an inch today.

I d e n t i f y the a p p o s i t i v e phrases in the f o l l o w i n g sentences.

1. Rascal, my French poodle, likes to go outside.


2. Edgar, our supervisor, jokes a lot.
3. Mary, Julio's secretary, is very efficient.
4. Dennis, the tall teacher, is friendly.
5. Puerto Rico, an island in the Caribbean, is beautiful.
6. Guatemala, the land of eternal spring, is my country.
7. Diabetes, a terminal disease, kills a lot of people all over the world.
8. An earthquake, a natural disaster, can happen anywhere.
9. Red, one of the primary colors, is associated with love.
10. CIAV, the best place for learning English, has the lowest prices.

AN OBJECT is a noun that is not the simple subject itself, but it is instead a part of the
predicate or part of the subject phrase.

The DIRECT OBJECT of a sentence answers the question who? or what? So a noun that
receives the action of the verb is called the direct object.

The INDIRECT OBJECT of a sentence answers the question to or for whom? or to or for
what?
Pronouns used as direct or indirect object are always in the OBJECTIVE CASE (me,
you, him, her, it, us, you, them)

Identify the DIRECT and INDIRECT objects in the following sentences by writing D
above the direct, and I above de indirect object.

D
EXAMPLE: She is typing the letter

1. They are putting the car away.

2. They were testing him.

3. We are arguing the case now.

4. They are building a new subway in that town.

5. He is putting some chairs in that room.

6. They are writing a letter.

7. They gave him a present for his birthday.

8. The police gave the man a reward of a hundred dollars.

58
9. Apparently his parents never taught him anything.

10. She had already promised the boy a watch for his birthday.

PREDICATE NOMINATIVES: A predicate nominative is a noun or pronoun that follows a


linking verb, and renames or identifies the subject of the sentence. (LINKING
VERBS link the subject to something else in the sentence. Common linking verbs are:
be, look, sound, smell, feel, taste, become, seem, remain. Linking verbs may be
followed by a noun (predicate noun), a pronoun (predicate pronoun), or an adjective
(predicate adjective).
NON-SUBJECT NOUN is a noun in the sentence that doesn't perform any action.
That means it's not the subject. So it's the non-subject noun.

EXAMPLE: The mystery skier was she.


Predicate pronoun, follows the verb was and refers to the subject skier.

It is I.
Predicate pronoun, follows the verb is and refers to the subject it.

James Michener is a famous author.


Predicate noun, follows the verb is and renames the subject James Michener.

Susan is pretty.
Predicate adjective, follows the verb is and describes the subject Susan.

Identify the predicate nouns, predicate pronouns, or predicate adjectives in the following
sentences, and write your answer in the space provided.

EXAMPLE: They are happy. __Predicate_adjective___

1. She looks happy. _______________________


2. They are soldiers. _______________________
3. I am Guatemalan. _______________________
4. Bill remains quiet. _______________________
5. The kids seem bored. _______________________
6. We are getting cold. _______________________
7. They'll become a success. _______________________
8. This is he. _______________________
9. These are they. _______________________
10. She is an actress. _______________________

NOUNS OF DIRECT ADDRESS: The noun that starts a sentence is the noun of direct
address since it is the one we're talking to, but it is not the one performing the
action.

EXAMPLE: Julio, your car is dirty.

59
ºUnderline the nouns of direct address in the following sentences.

1. Samuel and John, you are both fired.


2. Gilda, your dress is stained.
3. Richard, your wife called.
4. Sam, the checks will arrive tomorrow.
5. Miriam, Roi isn't coming this afternoon.
6. Gilda, your children are also invited.
7. Peter, your papers will be ready in an hour.
8. Carlos, there is an E- mail for you.
9. James, your books are on the desk.
10. Rose, the game was canceled.

QUIZ

Identify the prepositions and appositives in the following sentences by underlining them.

1. Ottawa, the capital of Canada, is very cold in the winter.


2. Ted was tired of waiting in line.
3. He stayed with me for Christmas.
4. If we hurry, we can be at the train station on time.
5. The cook poured the sauce into the pan.
6. To whom were you speaking?
7. Joseph, the earthly father of Jesus, was a simple man.
8. In the beginning God created heaven and earth.

Identify the direct and indirect objects by writing D above the direct objects and I above the
indirect objects.

1. Dense vegetation concealed the cave.

2. The mechanic gave the car a closer look.

3. A scientific team reports a startling discovery.

4. The aliens dealt the planet a terrible defeat.

5. At last, the waiter brought Janet her order.

6. The famous pianist performed the concerto.

7. Arguments always gave Mario a headache.

8. The coach told Jim, "Kent is a sure winner."

9. The director gave the president the important memo.

10. People enjoy sunsets.

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