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Inerrant Inamorata CE-2015

FORESTRY
STUDY PLAN ACCORDING TO PAST PAPERS
FORESTS & THEIR TYPES
2005 - What are different temperate zones of Pakistan? Relate different forest types of Pakistan
to these temperature zones. Give correct binomial nomenclature of major species representing
each forest type in this respect.
2006 - Rive rain forests were at one time considered to be inexhaustible natural wood mines with
remarkably high growth rate. What has gone wrong with thee forests and what remedial
measures of practical significance do you propose for rescuing and promoting these?
2007 - Describe Tidal Swamp Forest with respect to its distribution, locality factors and floristic
composition. Give botanical names of major species of this forest.
2012 - Explain the basis of forest classification in Pakistan and highlight features of different
forest types.
Area of Focus:
 Forests and characteristics,
 Classification and types of different forest.

SILVICULTURE
2003 - What is meant by Forest Thinning? What is its silvicultural and economic
importance?
2004 - Length of a Felling Cycle is determined by Silvicultural and Economic parameters.
Discuss each one with respect to Conifer forests.
2009 - What silvicultural practices are important for improved growth, at what stage and how
various environmental factors help/affect those practices?
2010 - Effects of silvicultural activity of eucalyptus trees on ecological processes in irrigated
forests of the Punjab, Pakistan?
2012 - Discuss various silvicultural practices for the management of these forests. (2012)
Area of Focus:
 Silviculture and its different systems,
 Its role and economic, ecological effects,
 Forest Thinning.

FOREST BIOMETRICS/MENSURATION
2007 - Differentiate between Rotation and Exploitable Age. Describe factors which
determine the length of Rotation period.
2012 - Discuss the significance of stem analysis. How can you establish height and age
curves from stem analysis? Does the stem analysis indicate any relationship to thickness of
the bark?
Area of Focus:
 Mensuration,
Inerrant Inamorata CE-2015

 Different measurements of trees and forests.

FOREST MANAGEMENT
2009 - Define research. What is the importance of experimental design in research? Write the
main components of a research paper.
2013 - Give detailed module of natural resource measurement and forest management.
Area of Focus:
 Forest management and its principles,
 Research methods in watershed & water resource management.

FOREST ECONOMICS
2010 - Forest resources are important for countries like Pakistan with a n agro-based
economy. Discuss in detail these resources keeping in view soils and rainfall regime in
Pakistan. Also give an account awareness programs run by NGOs or public sectors to
conserve and preserve these resources.
Area of Focus:
 Forest economy,
 Steps for improving productivity,
 Forests resources and their preservation.

WATER SHED MANAGEMENT


2003 - What are the prospects of enhancing recharge of underground water reserves in
various valleys of Baluchistan? What line of action will you propose?
2006 - What does Watershed Management mean? How can Crop Farming, Fruit Orchards,
Timber Forestry, Grazing Grasslands and Managing Wildlife Parks be made compatible with
it? Is conventional Watershed Management possible in northern reaches of Indus River?
Discuss.
2008 - Judicious Watershed Management may help overcome water and power crisis in the
country. Please justify with arguments.
2007 - Justify existence of Irrigated Plantations in view of decreasing land and water
resources.
2009 - Differentiate between catchment and watershed. How the range lands in watershed
region can be managed to ensure increased quantity and improved quality of water in
Pakistan?
2010 - Discuss steps in managing water resources for environmentally sustainable irrigated
agriculture Pakistan. Design a community-based watershed management support project.
Explain complementary role of research and teaching in Courses Dealing with Integrated
Watershed management.
2012 - Discuss the significance of watershed area of Pakistan; explain how forest degradation
aggravate the ecological health of these watersheds? Discuss various measures needed to
rehabilitate the degraded watersheds in northern mountainous areas of the country.
Inerrant Inamorata CE-2015

2012 - Discuss various measures needed to rehabilitate the degraded watersheds in northern
mountainous areas of the country.
Area of Focus:
 Watershed management, its basics, principles, objectives, kinds,
 Important watershed region of Pakistan,
 Catchment,
 Water resource management,
 Water Reserves.

RANGE LAND & RANGE MANAGEMENT


2004 - Enlist four basic Principles of Range management. Describe in detail one of the
principles, which you would prefer to apply to increase forage production in the Range land
areas of Baluchistan.
2004 - Define Retrogression. In what way this parameter would guide a Range Land
Manager to take timely action for improvement of the Range Land.
2005 - Proper management and use of resources in a given range are based on four important
fundamental criteria. Describe the same in detail with respect to range areas in Cholistan
desert
2005 - Define range condition. Analyze range condition by drawing a relationship between
grazing intensity and percent plant composition by using your own hypothetical data.
2008 - Name the most productive Range land of Pakistan. Describe its carrying capacity,
rainfall, topography, vegetation and constraints.
2011 - How are various range components related to each other? Briefly point out various
losses of energy from range ecosystem and also write a note on corrective measures with
reference to energy losses from a range ecosystem.
2012 - Describe in detail different Rangeland ecological zones of Pakistan. Explain different
constraints to rangeland development and outline improvement potential of desert grasslands
in terms of forage productivity through natural and artificial regeneration.
Area of Focus:
 Range management
 Its Characteristics, components and principles,
 Different rangelands of Pakistan,

FOREST SURVEYING
2009 - What are transect and quadrant methods of vegetation survey and what is their
usefulness and application?
Area of Focus:
 Forest survey and types of survey.

AGRO-FORESTRY
2003 - How can Agro forestry invigorate our ailing Farming Systems?
Inerrant Inamorata CE-2015

2006 - What important factors will you consider while selecting tree species suitable for agro
forestry? Please discuss.
2011 - Analyze the present and future situation of forestry in Pakistan and discuss the
reservations/reasons due to which farmer community is reluctant to adopt agro-forestry in
Punjab. Support your answer with appropriate figures and sound arguments.
2012 - What are major components of Agro forestry systems? Discuss the role of important
tree species used successfully in forestry programs in Punjab, Sindh and KPK.
2013 - Describe in detail the role of tree species in reclaiming saline soil. Explain different
dry afforestation techniques employed successfully in Thal desert.
2014 - Through logical frame works discuss the limiting factors in promoting agro-forestry in
Punjab with a possible solution. Do you think promoting agro-forestry could affect
biodiversity?
Area of Focus:
 Agro forestry and its components,
 Advantages over farming,
 Different tree species and their impact.

FOREST POLICY AND PROTECTION


2006 - Discuss the role of various wood-based industries in achieving the goals of national
forest policy and in accelerating poverty alleviation.
2010 - How many times forest policies in Pakistan have been revised and what new was
added and adopted in each policy? Discuss the merits and demerits of current policy in the
light of war on terrorism in forest epicenters in northern areas of Pakistan.
2014 - Explain how the forests policies can enhance the contribution of forestry sector to the
country's ecology and economy. Do you think and forest policies have multiple dimensions?
What are these and how the forest policies can be developed in their presence?
Area of Focus:
 Forest policy and forest protection,
 Advantages and essential features of forest policy, its background & impact.

FOREST BIOLOGY / BIODIVERSITY


2003 - What is meant by “Biological Diversity”? What are its various aspects? Why has it
gained more importance recently? How will you promote and conserve it?
2008 - Define Biological Diversity. Enlist the factors threatening Biological Diversity.
Suggest measures to save and restore it.
2012 - What are direct and indirect causes of biodiversity loss in Pakistan? Discuss the role
of protected areas in biodiversity conservation. Explain how forest and rangeland habitat is
related to wildlife management and conservation?
2013 - What are direct and indirect causes of biodiversity loss in Pakistan? Discuss the role
of protected areas in biodiversity conservation. Explain how forest and rangeland habitat is
related to wildlife management and conservation?
2014 - There been has major change in the biodiversity in Pakistan. How can this be
minimized in order to protect the biodiversity?
Inerrant Inamorata CE-2015

Area of Focus:
 Biological diversity,
 Biodiversity in Pakistan.

WILDLIFE
2009 - How wildlife play its role in propagation and conservation of vegetation species?
What are essential features of wildlife sanctuaries?
2010 - There are more than 21 national Parks of Pakistan. Give detail of bio-ecology or the
most important park. Discuss endangered species in this part and steps to be taken for
amelioration or conditions of the parks to make it important in ecotourism.
2011 - Write the factors responsible for drastic decline of wildlife in Pakistan along with
brief discussion of principles of sound wildlife management. Also give and justify your
suggestions that how wildlife can be promoted in the country.
2013 - Discuss in detail wild life and natural park management with special reference to
Pakistan.
2013 - Write the factors responsible for drastic decline of wild life in Pakistan along with
brief discussion of sound wildlife management. Also give your suggestions that how wildlife
can be promoted in the country.
Area of Focus:
 Wildlife, its principles & importance,
 Wildlife management,
 Wildlife of Pakistan,
 National park management.

FOREST GRAZING
2010 - Livestock provides with many services to the mankind. Evaluate status of grazing
animals of range lands in Pakistan. Discuss problems of grazers in these land and measures to
overcome the problems in enhancing livestock production. What are prospects of increasing
agro-grazing in Punjab, Pakistan?
2011 - Define "Carrying capacity of a grazing land". How it is determined practically? Write
he procedure stepwise. How many sheep can be allowed to graze on 500 hectares of grazing
land per month if weight of green forage per quadrat was 2 kg and it contained 70 percent
moisture contents? Size of the quadrat used for sampling was 1x1m2 and grazing allowed
was 50 percent respectively.
Area of Focus:
 Forest grazing and its types,
 Measurement of grazing land

FOREST & FORESTRY IN PAKISTAN


2003 - Compare natural and artificial regeneration of forest. Indicate latest development and
trends.
Inerrant Inamorata CE-2015

2003 - How should Govt. of Pakistan proceed to establish and promote Commercial
Ranching in high potential sub-humid regions of the country?
2003 - How can Forestry come to the rescue of our degraded environment?
2005 - What are major environmental problems of Pakistan? How could knowledge of
forestry help in combating these problems?
2005 - What are different temperate zones of Pakistan? Relate different forest types of
Pakistan to these temperature zones. Give correct binomial nomenclature of major species
representing each forest type in this respect.
2005 - Describe selection coppice system. Which forest type of Pakistan is being worked out
under this system and why?
2006 - How far are mangrove forests threatened by reduced downstream flow of Indus?
Justify if such apprehension is a reality or a myth.
2007 - Define Forest Ecosystem. Discuss critically threatened ecosystems of Pakistan.
2008 - Pakistan is a forest deficient country. Describe the key factors responsible for scarcity
of forest resources in the country.
2010 - Discuss phytosociology and structure of Himalayan forests from different climatic
zones Pakistan.
2011 - With respect to climate, vegetation, soil, wildlife, topography and other physiographic
features, discuss briefly but comprehensively different types of forest found in Pakistan and
also mention their contribution in wood production.
2014 - Do you consider that Forests in Pakistan are below the average requires percentage?
How would you justify the commercial values of these forests? Discuss major issues of
forests losses and how can these be overcome at large.
Area of Focus:
 Different forests and forest ecosystem of Pakistan,
 Problems to forests in Pakistan,
 Phytosociology
 Coppice system
 Factors causing scarcity of forests.

FOREST PRODUCTION / AFFORESTATION, FOREST


NURSERY, FOREST SITE
2004 - Describe different approaches to identify quality of a Forest Site. Which one of the
approaches is most practical and why?
2005 - Define Forest nursery. What is the need of raising a forest nursery?
2005 - Calculate the number of seeds required to be sown per square foot in a bed nursery to
obtain 200 seedlings by using the following data.
No. of seeds per pound = 19000
No. of transplants per pound = 900
2006 - In the presence of severe constraints of nearly all vital resources required for
implementing any massive afforestation program, what alternatives do we have for
increasing forest production in the country? Give outline of a workable strategy. (2006)
Area of Focus:
 Forest site,
 Forest nursery,
Inerrant Inamorata CE-2015

 Afforestation.

SOCIAL FORESTRY
2008 - What is meant by Social Forestry? Explain its various types being practiced in Agro-
ecological zones of Punjab and Sindh.
Area of Focus:
 Social forestry and its types in Pakistan.

TIMBER/WOOD
2011 - Enlist qualities of good wood. Also discuss in detail different wood defects and their
respective treatments.
Area of Focus:
 Utilization of wood,
 Wood defects and their treatment, i.e, seasoning,
 Timber types of Pakistan and their uses.

MISCELLANEOUS TOPICS
2004 - Discuss in detail Interpretative Facilities that would enhance public enjoyment of Out-
door Recreation.
2006 - What important factors will you consider while selecting tree species suitable for agro
forestry? Please discuss.
2007 - Define Forest Increment/Growth. What is the need for information on Increment?
Describe Stand Table Projection Method to predict Increment of a Forest Stand.
2008 - By using Von Mantle's formula, calculate Annual yield of a coniferous forest whose
growing stock volume is 40,000 cft and rotation period of 150 years. What constant is used in
this formula?
2009 - What is sustainability? What risk factors are involved in long term forestry projects?
2011 - Conservation of natural resources (Forests, rangelands and watershed areas) as a key
of national food security.
2014 - Define curving and how would you classify curving. What are the methods of setting
up the curves?
Inerrant Inamorata CE-2015

DEFINITIONS
 Cause way
 Game Reserve
 Random Sampling
 Mensuration
 Behavioural Adaptations of Trees
 Chain Survey
 Radio Frequency – Vacuum Seasoning
 Laminated Wood Products
 Tethered Grazing
 Forest Policy

DIFFERENTIATIONS

 Forest Compartment and Forest Apartment


 Particle Board and Hard Board
 Floating PB and Fixed PB
 Working Plan and Working Circle
 Quarter Girth formula and Cylindrical formula

SHORT NOTES

 Ecophysiology of tree growth  Forest ecosystem


 Role of silviculture in forest and  Forage forestry/forest grazing
wildland management  Environmental degradation and vegetation
 Stand density determination
 Conservation of natural resources (forest
 Offences related to reserved forests
 Role of shelter belts and wind breaks rangeland and watershed areas) as a key of
 Types of Theodolite national food security
 Green house effects  List of satellite in forest mensuration
 Range management  Principle of range management
 Social forestry  Steps of enhancing forest production
 Watershed management biography  Arid wild lands in Pakistan
 Forest protection
 Phytoremediation
 Forests and climate change
 Sheesham dieback disease in Pakistan  Bioengineering
 Trees and noise pollution  Noise pollution and trees
 Non timber forest products  Carbon sequestration
 Wood seasoning and preservation  Natural heritage
 Causes and control of wildfires  Environmental hazards
 Rangeland carrying capacity  Browse line
 Forestry and eco tourism
 Volume table
 Agro grazing
 Randomization
 Game reserve
Inerrant Inamorata CE-2015

 Normal forest  Plotless sampling


 Stubble farming  Tree fallow
 Merchantable timber  Nurse crop
 Proper Use Factor  Cover crop
 Meiosis  Pneumatophores
 Chlorophyll Cells  Point Sampling
 Standard Deviation  Hydrosere
 PH  Discount rates
 Plane Tabling  Seigniorage
 Vegetative Reproduction  Fundamentals of Wildlife and National Park
 Mulching Management.
 Soil Humus  Major hazards to Pakistan’s forests.
 Dieback of Dalbergia sissoo  Management Tables for Farm Grown Trees
 Evaluating Forest Sites  Compare roles of PFI and of Agricultural
 Leguminous shrubs and trees Universities in popularizing forestry
 Merit four pasture rotation system education and forestry consciousness in the
country.