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LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY


ENGINEERING

FLUID MECHANICS LABORATORY

TITLE OF EXPERIMENT: FLOW


MEASUREMENT (E2)

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LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

1.0 Objective

The objectives of this experiment are to:


1. Measure the flow of water using different flow meters (orifice plate flow meter
and measuring nozzle, venturi nozzle and rotameter) by applying Bernoulli’s
principle
2. Investigate the relationship between flow and pressure in flow using Pitot tube
3. Determine the corresponding flow coefficients for each flow meters
4. Calibrate the flow meters

2.0 Introduction

In this experiment, the ability to operate flow measuring equipment (Orifice, Pitot
tube and Venturi nozzle) for discharge coefficient comparison from each equipment
will be performed. Measuring the flow rate is an important aspect in all industries and
there are several ways to measure the flow of fluids in pipes.

3.0 Theory

3.1 Venturi meter

The Venturi meter is a device for measuring discharge in a pipe. It consists of a


rapidly converging section (denoted as point 2 in Figure 1) which increases the
velocity of flow and hence reduces the pressure. It then returns to the original
dimensions of the pipe by a gently diverging the diffuser. By measuring the pressure
differences, the discharge coefficient can be calculated. This is a particularly accurate
method of flow measurement as energy loss is very small.

Figure 1: Schematic representation of a Venturi meter

Referring to the above Venturi tube diagram, the Bernoulli equation can be applied to
points 1 and 2. Following the analysis, the equations for flow rate can be derived.

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LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

Volumetric flow rate:


 
 
 2 g h1  h3   (Eq. 1)
Qth= A V  A  
3 3  A3 
2
3
 
 1- A  
  1 

where: Qth theoretical volumetric flow rate (m3/s)


A1 cross sectional area at 1 (m2 )
A3 cross sectional area at 3 (m2)
h1 height of manometer column 1 in meters (m)
h3 height of manometer column 3 in meters (m)

The discharge coefficient is defined as the ratio of actual volume flow rate to
theoretical volume flow rate:

Coefficient of discharge, Cd = Qactual/Qtheoretical

The discharge coefficient is less than unity due to the losses caused by the wall shear
stress, the losses in contraction and the losses during expansion.

Q act  C Q
d th
 
 
 
 2g h1  h3 
=C A 
d 3 2 
C A
d 3
2g
2
h1  h3
 A   A 
 1-  3   1-  3 
 A   A 
  1    1
2g
and Q act  n Δh ...........where nC A
d 3 2
A 
1-  3 
A 
 1

This equation can be written as:

Log Qact = log n + aLog h (Eq. 2)

In order to find n and hence, Cd experimentally, a graph of Log Qact versus Log h can be
used.

3.2 Orifice Plate Meter

An orifice plate is a restriction with an opening smaller than the pipe diameter which
is inserted in the pipe; the typical orifice plate has a concentric, sharp edged opening,
as shown in Figure 2. Because of the smaller area the fluid velocity increases, causing

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LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

a corresponding decrease in pressure. The flow rate can be calculated from the
measured pressure drop across the orifice plate, P1-P3. The orifice plate is the most
commonly used flow sensor, but it creates a rather large non-recoverable pressure due
to the turbulence around the plate, leading to high energy consumption.

Figure 2: Schematic representation of Orifice meter

Referring to the orifice plate diagram, the Bernoulli equation can be applied to points
1 and 3. Following the analysis, the equations for volumetric flow rate can be
expressed as the following:

 2g Δh 
Qth = a  2 
(Eq. 3)
 1- m 

where: Qth theoretical volumetric flow rate (m3/s)


a cross-sectional area of plate (m2 )
m ratio of cross-sectional area of plate to pipe, (a/A)
Δh difference in height of manometer column (m)

The discharge coefficient is defined as the ratio of actual volume flow rate to
theoretical volume flow rate:

Coefficient of discharge, Cd = Qactual/Qtheoretical

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LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

Q act  C Q
d th
 2g Δh  2g (Eq. 4)
= C a   C a Δh
d  1 - m 2  d 2
a
1-  
A
 aA   aA 
and Q act  C   2g Δh ...........where    meter coefficien t
d 2 2   2 2
A -a  A -a 

4.0 Apparatus

The flow measurement experiment apparatus (Figure 5) comprises a Venturi nozzle


(9), an orifice plate, a measuring nozzle and a Pitot tube (8) for flow measurement and
a rotameter (3). The flow rate can be regulated using the gate valve (2). The pressure
losses at the measuring elements can be recorded using pressure connections with
rapid action couplings. The connections are connected to a six-tube manometer (6),
which is fitted with a ventilation valve. The six-tube manometer is used in order to
determine the pressure distribution in the Venturi nozzle or the orifice plate flow
meter and measuring nozzle. The total pressure is measured by a Pitot tube.

Base plate Pressure


with frame measurement
connections

Multi-tube Rotameter
manometer
Gate valve for
Water inlet outlet

Water outlet

Flow meter with orifice plate,


measuring nozzle, or Pitot tube Venturi nozzle

Figure 5: Flow measurement apparatus set-up (HM 150.13, G.U.N.T Gerätebau


GmbH)

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LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

The tube manometer panel (Figure 6) has 6 glass cylinders (11) with milimeter (mm)
scale for measuring the water column (WC). The unit mmWC is used here (10mmWC
≙ 1mbar). The measuring range is 390 mmWC. All the tubes are connected to one
another at the upper end and ventilated by a shared ventilation valve (12). The
measuring connections (10) are at the lower end. Differential pressure measurements
are carried out with the ventilation valve closed (12, 13), while relative gauge
pressure measurements with the ventilation valve open (12). Standard pressure unit is
Pascal (Pa), where 1Pa = 1N/m2= 10-5bar = 0.01mbar

Figure 6: Illustration of multi-tube manometer

Equating the pressure at the level (pressure at the same level in a continuous body of
static fluid is equal),

For the left hand side:

p1  p A  gh1

For the right hand side:

p2  p A  gh2

Pressure difference, p

p  p1  p 2  p A  gh1  p A  gh2
p  p1  p 2  g (h1  h2 )

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LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

Rotameter in this apparatus consists of a vertical conical measuring section, through


which the liquid flows from bottom to top. A specially shaped float moves freely in
the liquid flow and is carried along by the flow due to its flow resistance. This results
in equilibrium between the weight of the float on the one hand and its drag and lifting
force on the other. The float adjusts to a particular height in the measuring tube
depending on the flow volume. Because of the operating principle, a reliable
measuring range on a rotameter never begins at zero, but at 5-10% of the final
measuring value. The measured flow rate value is always read at the upper edge of the
float. The maximum flow measured by the rotameter is 1,600 L/h.

Figure 7: Technique to read the measurement of a rotameter.

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LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

Figure 8: Basic bench

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Figure 9: Methods of Flow Measurement

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LABORATORY MANUAL & INSTRUCTION

5.0 Experimental Procedure

1. Make sure Orifice or Nozzle are fix (Venturi meter is permanently fixed).
2. Make sure manometer tubes are connected (H1 & H2) to the Orifice / Nozzle.
3. For the Venturi meter, make a tube connection H1 to H3.
4. Close inlet valve and control valve.
5. Switch on the main switch.
6. Switch on the pump.
TO GET RID OF THE AIR BUBBLE
7. Now open the inlet valve slowly, also open the control valve slowly until
maximum level (until water in the manometer overflow).
i. Open the black valve (anticlockwise) on top of the manometer to
release all bubble in the system;
ii. Close the black valve.
8. Now close the control valve.
9. Switch off the pump and control the water level.
10. Now slowly open the white valve until maximum level of 30-40 mm.
11. Now switch on the pump again.
12. Open the control valve slowly until level of water in H1 reach maximum (390
mm) and manometer H at minimum level. Take all the reading (Multi-tube
Manometer/ Rotameter).

ACTUAL Q FLOWRATE CALCULATION


13. Collect the water in a jar and at the same time, take the time taken for the
maximum volume filled/collected or close the basin tank valve, take the time
measured for example, 5 Liter.
14. Now take 4 different flow rate, Q (Range above 200 L/min is the reference
flow to all component).
15. Now close the control valve and pump switch again.

BEFORE YOU CHANGE TO ORIFICE or NOZZLE FOR THE NEXT


EXPERIMENT PLEASE DISCONNECT ALL TUBES FROM
ORIFICE/VENTURI EXCEPT FROM GLASS MANOMETER

16. Switch on the pump and slowly open the control valve to get rid of the bubble.
17. Repeat as previous steps.

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6.0 Experimental data

NOZZLE

Volume Time Qact Qtheo H1 H2 Δh Cd,theo


water (second) (mm) (mm) (mm)
collected (m3/s) (m3/s)
(Liter)

ORIFICE PLATE

Volume Time Qact Qtheo H1 H2 Δh Cd,theo


water (second) (mm) (mm) (mm)
collected (m3/s) (m3/s)
(Liter)

VENTURI METER

Volume Time Qact Qtheo H1 H2 Δh Cd,theo


water (second) (mm) (mm) (mm)
collected (m3/s) (m3/s)
(Liter)

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7.0 Discussion

Discuss below questions for all flow measuring meter (nozzle, orifice plate and
venturi meter):

a) Discuss the trend of manometer water level respective to different flow meter.
b) Determine the discharge coefficient for every flow meter and explain the
differences in their discharge coefficient value (if any).
c) Plot the flow values recorded against the associated differential
Pressure(Bernoulli equation computation).
d) Demonstrate the relationship between flow and pressure using Bernoulli
principle. Discuss your calculated data. Your discussion should include
following elements comparison of flow coefficients
- investigation of relationships between flow and pressure in flow
measurement.
- which flow meter gives more accurate measurement and explanation of your
choice.
- factors contributing to errors or inaccuracy in experimental data and propose
recommendation to improve the results.
e) Suggest the most accurate flow meter based on your chosen experiment.

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