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OS Project about Scheduling Algorithms

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SCHEDULING ALGORITHM

REVIEW REPORT

Submitted by

MAYANK GUPTA(15BCE0477)

AAKASH SAXENA(15BCE0963)

MILAN SANDHAYA(15BCE0828)

ANAY ANAND BHORASKAR(15BCE0966)

Prepared For

Submitted To

ARUNKUMAR G.

Assistant Professor

1.1.1.1.1.1.1

PAGE 1

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

1 . ABSTRACT

This project deals with the simulation of CPU scheduling algorithms with C. The

following algorithms are simulated:

First Come First Serve (FCFS)

Shortest Job First

SRTF Algorithm

Round Robin

Our innovative algorithm

The metrics such as finishing time, waiting time, total time taken for the processes to

complete, number of rounds, etc are calculated.

2. SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE

There are five files for the five scheduling algorithms. They are made into each functions. This function is

imported to main function which has the menu. The menu has the choice of which of the algorithm it want to get

executed. In each function the code for each algorithm is done. The code consists arrival time and burst time for

each process. The output has the waiting time and turnaround time for each process.

At the beginning any number of processes can be taken in account. The output of each process with all the

algorithms can be found.

In SRTF Algorithm, the output comes as an average value i.e avg waiting time and avg turnaround time. While

for the rest algorithms each process has its own waiting time and turnaround time shown.

3. ALGORITHM

First Come First Serve (FCFS)

scheduling algorithm. Processes are dispatched according to their arrival time on the ready

queue. Being a nonpreemptive discipline, once a process has a CPU, it runs to completion. The

FCFS scheduling is fair in the formal sense or human sense of fairness but it is unfair in the

sense that long jobs make short jobs wait and unimportant jobs make important jobs wait.

FCFS is more predictable than most of other schemes since it offers time. FCFS scheme is not

useful in scheduling interactive users because it cannot guarantee good response time. The code

for FCFS scheduling is simple to write and understand. One of the major drawback of this

scheme is that the average time is often quite long.

The First-Come-First-Served algorithm is rarely used as a master scheme in modern operating

systems but it is often embedded within other schemes.

Shortest-Job-First (SJF) is a non-preemptive discipline in which waiting job (or process) with the smallest

estimated run-time-to-completion is run next. In other words, when CPU is available, it is assigned to the

process that has smallest next CPU burst.

PAGE 2

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

The SJF scheduling is especially appropriate for batch jobs for which the run times are known in

advance. Since the SJF scheduling algorithm gives the minimum average time for a given set of

processes, it is probably optimal.

The SJF algorithm favors short jobs (or processors) at the expense of longer ones.

The obvious problem with SJF scheme is that it requires precise knowledge of how long a job or process

will run, and this information is not usually available.

The best SJF algorithm can do is to rely on user estimates of run times.

SRTF Algorithm

The SRT is the preemtive counterpart of SJF and useful in time-sharing environment.

In SRT scheduling, the process with the smallest estimated run-time to completion is run next, including

new arrivals.

In SJF scheme, once a job begin executing, it run to completion.

In SJF scheme, a running process may be preempted by a new arrival process with shortest estimated

run-time.

The algorithm SRT has higher overhead than its counterpart SJF.

The SRT must keep track of the elapsed time of the running process and must handle occasional

preemptions.

In this scheme, arrival of small processes will run almost immediately. However, longer jobs have even

longer mean waiting time.

Round Robin

One of the oldest, simplest, fairest and most widely used algorithm is round robin (RR).

In the round robin scheduling, processes are dispatched in a FIFO manner but are given a limited

amount of CPU time called a time-slice or a quantum.

If a process does not complete before its CPU-time expires, the CPU is preempted and given to

the next process waiting in a queue. The preempted process is then placed at the back of the

ready list.

Round Robin Scheduling is preemptive (at the end of time-slice) therefore it is effective in time-

sharing environments in which the system needs to guarantee reasonable response times for

interactive users.

The only interesting issue with round robin scheme is the length of the quantum. Setting the

quantum too short causes too many context switches and lower the CPU efficiency. On the other

hand, setting the quantum too long may cause poor response time and appoximates FCFS.

In any event, the average waiting time under round robin scheduling is often quite long.

The proposed algorithm focuses on the improvement on CPU scheduling algorithm. The

algorithm reduces the waiting time and turnaround time drastically compared to the other

Scheduling algorithm and simple Round Robin scheduling algorithm. This proposed algorithm

works in a similar way as but with some modification. It executes the shortest job having

minimum burst time first instead of FCFS simple Round robin algorithm and it also uses Smart

time quantum instead of static time quantum. Instead of giving static time quantum in the CPU

PAGE 3

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

scheduling algorithms, our algorithm calculates the Smart time quantum itself according to the

burst time of all processes. The proposed algorithm eliminates the discrepancies of implementing

simple round robin architecture.

In the first stage of the innovative algorithm CPU scheduling algorithms all the processes are

arranged in the increasing order of CPU burst time. It means it automatically assign the priority

to the processes. Process having low burst time has high priority to the process have high burst

time.

Then in the second stage the algorithm calculates the mean of the CPU burst time of all the

processes. After calculating the mean, it will set the time quantum dynamically i.e. (average of

mean and highest burst time)/2.

Then in the last stage algorithm pick the first process from the ready queue and allocate the CPU

to the process for a time interval of up to 1 Smart time quantum. If the remaining burst time of

the current running process is less than 1 Smart time quantum then algorithm again allocate the

CPU to the Current process till it execution. After execution it will remove the terminated

process from the ready queue and again go to the stage 3.

The flowchart for proposed algorithm is shown below in figure 1:

PAGE 4

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS

CPU Burst Time in Increasing Order

Waiting Turnaround of Context

Time(ms) Time (ms) Switch

FCFS 38.4 57.8 10

RR 30.4 49.8 7

SJF 26.4 45.8 6

XX 24.4 43.7 4

0 0 2 10 16 24 0 0 6 14 0 0

P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P2 P3 P4 P5 P4 P5

0 5 15 25 35 45 47 57 67 77 83 97

Figure 2: Gantt chart representation of FCFS

0 0 0 10 16 24 0 0 0

P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P3 P4 P5

0 5 17 27 37 47 57 73 97

Figure 3: Gantt chart representation of RR

0 0 0 0 16 24 0 0

P1 P2 P3 P5 P4P4 P5

0 5 17 37 47 57 73 97

Figure 4: Gantt chart representation of SJF

P1 P2 P3 P4 P5

0 5 17 37 63 97

Figure 5: Gantt chart representation of XX

Waiting Turnaround of

Time(ms) Time (ms) Context

Switch

FCFS 58 77.4 11

RR 49 68.4 8

SJF 34.4 53.8 7

XX 24.4 43.79 4

PAGE 5

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

0 24 16 10 2 0 14 6 0 0 4 0 0

P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P1 P2 P3 P4 P1 P2 P1

0 10 20 30 40 45 55 65 75 77 87 93 97

Figure 7: Gantt chart representation of FCFS

0 24 16 10 0 0 14 0 0 0

P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P1 P2 P3 P1

0 10 20 30 42 47 57 73 83 97

Figure 8: Gantt chart representation of RR

0 24 0 0 0 16 14 0 0

P1 P5 P4 P3 P2 P1 P2 P1

0 10 15 27 47 57 67 81 97

Figure 9: Gantt chart representation of SJF

0 0 0 0 0 8

P5 P4 P3 P2 P1

0 5 17 37 63 97

Gantt chart representation of XX

CPU Burst Time in Random Order:

of

Waiting Turnaround Context

Time(ms) Time (ms) Switch

FCFS 48 67.4 11

RR 40.4 59.8 8

SJF 31 50.4 6

XX 24.4 43.7 4

0 10 24 0 2 16 0 14 0 6 4 0 0

P1 P2 P3 P4 P1 P2 P5

P3 P5 P2 P5 P2

0 10 20 25 35 45 55 65 67 77 87 93 97

Figure 12: Gantt chart representation of FCFS

0 10 24 0 0 16 0 14 0 0

P1 P2 P3 P4 P1 P2 P5 P5 P1

0 10 20 30 42 47 57 73 83 97

Figure 13: Gantt chart representation of RR

0 0 0 0 16 24 0 0

P1 P3 P4 P5 P2 P5 P2

PAGE 6

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

0 20 25 37 47 57 73 97

Figure 14: Gantt chart representation of SJF

0 0 0 0 0 8

P3 P4 P1 P5 P2

0 5 17 37 63 97

Figure 15: Gantt chart representation of XX

4. SAMPLE CODE

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

#include<math.h>

#include<string.h>

int wt[100],bt[100],at[100],tat[100],n,p[100];

float awt[5],atat[5];

void create_file_csv(char *filename,int a[][2],int n,int m)

{

printf("\n Creating %s.csv file",filename);

FILE *fp;

int i,j;

filename=strcat(filename,".csv");

fp=fopen(filename,"w+");

fprintf(fp,"FCFS, SJF, RR, SRTF, Innovative Algo");

for(i=0;i<m;i++)

{

fprintf(fp,"\n%d",i+1);

for(j=0;j<n;j++)

fprintf(fp,",%d ",a[i][j]);

}

fclose(fp);

printf("\n %sfile created",filename);

}

void input()

{

printf("Enter Number of processes:");

scanf("%d",&n);

int i;

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

p[i]=i+1;

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

{

printf("Enter Burst Time of process %d:",i+1);

scanf("%d",&bt[i]);

printf("Enter Arrival Time of process %d:",i+1);

scanf("%d",&at[i]);

}

for(i=0;i<5;i++)

PAGE 7

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

{

awt[i]=0.0;

atat[i]=0.0;

}

}

void changeArrival(){

int a=at[0];

int i;

for(i=0;i<n;i++){

if(at[i]<a)

a=at[i];

}

if(a!=0){

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

at[i]=at[i]-a;

}

}

void fcfs(){

wt[0]=0;

atat[0]=tat[0]=bt[0];

int btt=bt[0];

int i;

for(i=1;i<n;i++){

wt[i]=btt-at[i];

btt+=bt[i];

awt[0]+=wt[i];

tat[i]= wt[i]+bt[i];

atat[0]+=tat[i];

}

atat[0]/=n;

awt[0]/=n;

printf("SR.\tA.T.\tB.T.\tW.T.\tT.A.T.\n");

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

{

printf("%3d\t%3d\t%3d\t%3d\t%4d\n",i+1,at[i],bt[i],wt[i],tat[i]);

}

}

void innovative()

{

int bt1[n],i,j,temp,tq;

int b[n];

float twt,ttat;

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

bt1[i]=bt[i];

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

b[i]=bt[i];

int num=n;

int time=0;

int max;

int sum,t,a,ap;

ap=0;

while(num>0){

a=0;

PAGE 8

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

max=0;

sum=0;

t=0;

//sorting in ascending order

for(i=0;i<n;i++){

for(j=0;j<n;j++){

if(b[i]<b[j] && at[i]<=time){

temp=p[j];

p[j]=p[i];

p[i]=temp;

temp=at[j];

at[j]=at[i];

at[i]=temp;

temp=b[j];

b[j]=b[i];

b[i]=temp;

temp=bt1[j];

bt1[j]=bt1[i];

bt1[i]=temp;

}

}

}

for(i=0;i<n;i++){

if(at[i]<=time && b[i]!=0){

a++;

if(b[i]>max)

max=b[i];

sum+=b[i];

}

}

if(a!=ap){

tq=sqrt((sum/a)*max);

ap=a;

}

for(i=0;i<n;i++){

if(at[i]<=time && b[i]!=0)

{

if(b[i]<tq)

{

t+=b[i];

b[i]=0;

}

else

{

t+=tq;

b[i]-=tq;

}

if(b[i]==0){

wt[i]=(time+t)-bt1[i];

tat[i]=time+t;

num--;

}

}

PAGE 9

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

}

time+=t;

}

printf("Processes\tWaitingtime\tTurnAroundTime\n");

for(j=1;j<=n;j++){

for(i=0;i<n;i++){

if(j==p[i])

printf("process %d\t%d\t\t%d\n",p[i],wt[i],tat[i]);

}

}

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

twt+=wt[i];

awt[4]=twt/n;

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

ttat+=tat[i];

atat[4]=ttat/n;

}

void rr()

{

int i, total = 0, x, counter = 0, time_quantum;

int wait_time = 0, turnaround_time = 0, temp[100];

x=n;

for(i = 0; i < n; i++)

{

temp[i] = bt[i];

}

printf("\nEnter Time Quantum:\t");

scanf("%d", &time_quantum);

printf("\nProcess ID\t\tBurst Time\t Turnaround Time\t Waiting Time\n");

for(total = 0, i = 0; x != 0;)

{

if(temp[i] <= time_quantum && temp[i] > 0)

{

total = total + temp[i];

temp[i] = 0;

counter = 1;

}

else if(temp[i] > 0)

{

temp[i] = temp[i] - time_quantum;

total = total + time_quantum;

}

if(temp[i] == 0 && counter == 1)

{

x--;

printf("Process[%d]\t\t%d\t\t %d\t\t\t %d\n", i + 1, bt[i], total - at[i], total - at[i] -

bt[i]);

wait_time = wait_time + total - at[i] - bt[i];

turnaround_time = turnaround_time + total - at[i];

counter = 0;

}

if(i == n - 1)

{

i = 0;

PAGE 10

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

}

else if(at[i + 1] <= total)

{

i++;

}

else

{

i = 0;

}

}

awt[2] = wait_time * 1.0 / n;

atat[2] = turnaround_time * 1.0 / n;

}

void srtf()

{

int i,x[10],b[10],count=0,time,smallest;

double avg=0,tt=0,end;

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

{

x[i]=bt[i];

}

bt[9]=9999;

for(time=0;count!=n;time++)

{

smallest=9;

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

{

if(at[i]<=time && bt[i]<b[smallest] && bt[i]>0 )

smallest=i;

}

bt[smallest]--;

if(bt[smallest]==0)

{

count++;

end=time+1;

avg=avg+end-at[smallest]-x[smallest];

tt= tt+end-at[smallest];

}

}

awt[3]=avg/n;

atat[3]=tt/n;

void display(int c)

{

int i;

printf("Average Waiting Time: %f\nAverage Turn Around Time:%f",awt[c-1],atat[c-1]);

}

void sjf()

{

float wavg=0,tavg=0,tsum=0,wsum=0;

int i,j,temp,sum=0,ta=0;

PAGE 11

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

{

for(j=0;j<n;j++)

{

if(at[i]<at[j])

{

temp=p[j];

p[j]=p[i];

p[i]=temp;

temp=at[j];

at[j]=at[i];

at[i]=temp;

temp=bt[j];

bt[j]=bt[i];

bt[i]=temp;

}

}

}

int btime=0,min,k=1;

for(j=0;j<n;j++)

{

btime=btime+bt[j];

min=bt[k];

for(i=k;i<n;i++)

{

if (btime>=at[i] && bt[i]<min)

{

temp=p[k];

p[k]=p[i];

p[i]=temp;

temp=at[k];

at[k]=at[i];

at[i]=temp;

temp=bt[k];

bt[k]=bt[i];

bt[i]=temp;

}

}

k++;

}

wt[0]=0;

for(i=1;i<n;i++)

{

sum=sum+bt[i-1];

wt[i]=sum-at[i];

wsum=wsum+wt[i];

}

awt[1]=(wsum/n);

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

{

ta=ta+bt[i];

PAGE 12

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

tat[i]=ta-at[i];

tsum=tsum+tat[i];

}

atat[1]=(tsum/n);

printf("SR.\tA.T.\tB.T.\tW.T.\tT.A.T.\n");

for(i=0;i<n;i++)

{

printf("%3d\t%3d\t%3d\t%3d\t%4d\n",i+1,at[i],bt[i],wt[i],tat[i]);

}

}

int main(){

printf("Welcome to CPU Scheduling:\n\n");

input();

int c,choice;

changeArrival();

printf("Choice\tAlgorithm used\n1\tFCFS Algorithm\n2\tSJF Algorithm\n3\tRound robin\n4\tSRTF

Algorithm\n5\tOur innovative algorithm\n");

do

{

printf("Enter your choice from the above table");

scanf("%d",&c);

switch(c)

{

case 1:fcfs();break;

case 2:sjf();break;

case 3:rr();break;

case 4:srtf();break;

case 5:innovative();break;

default: printf("Please enter choice from 1 to 5 only\n");break;

}

display(c);

printf("\n\nEnter 1 to continue 0 to stop");

scanf("%d",&choice);

}while(choice==1);

getch();

int a[5][2],i;

for(i=0;i<5;i++)

{

a[i][0]=awt[i];

a[i][1]=atat[i];

}

create_file_csv("schedule",a,5,2);

}

5. SNAP SHOTS

PAGE 13

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

PAGE 14

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

6. CONCLUSION

Results have shown that the proposed algorithm gives better results in terms of average

waiting time, average turnaround time and number of context switches in all cases of

process categories than the simple Round Robin CPU scheduling algorithm.

In all these proposed algorithms time quantum is static due to which in these cases the

number of context switches, average waiting time and average turnaround time will be

very high and in our proposed algorithm, time quantum is calculated dynamically

according to the burst time of all processes and it will find out a smart time quantum for

all processes which gives good performance as compared to FCFS, RR, SJF and XX.

PAGE 15

CSE2005 –OPERATING SYSTEM –J COMPONENT PROJECT WORK REPORT

7. REFERENCES

Abdulraza, Abdulrahim,Salisu Aliyu, Ahmad M Mustapha, Saleh E Abdullahi, “ An Additional

Improvement in Round Robin (AAIRR) CPU Scheduling Algorithm,” International Journal of

Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering Volume 4, Issue 2, February

2014 ISSN: 2277 128X.

Manish kumar Mishra and Abdul kadir khan, “An Improved Round Robin CPU scheduling

algorithm,” Journal of Global Research in Computer Science Volume 3, No. 6, June 2012.Neetu

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