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ENGLISH FOR COMPUTER

RE ADING 1.

THE INFORMATION SOCIETY


People live in a society. In this society, economy, culture, and technology
grow as the source of wealth.
In the twentieth century, economic growth has been fuelled by
manufacturing industries. These industries transformed basic raw materials
such as iron, coal, and oil into a wide range of products such as steel,
train, auto, ship, and aircraft industries.

Now, in the twenty-first century, the society has been changing. We do not
live in the industrial society anymore. But we live in an information
society. In this information society, collection, processing, and
distribution of information have replaced the manufacture of physical
goods.
Almost all economic activities involve the processing of knowledge or
facts or data to be information.
This technological revolution has been changing our way of life. The way
we live, work and play.

The cornerstone of this revolution is the computer. It is transforming the


way we communicate, do business, and learn.

( Adapted from : “ Computers” by Larry Long and Nancy Long )

Understanding
Discuss the meaning of the words , terms or phrases below with your friends:
1. Society
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a
large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically
subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations
2. Culture
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is
considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of
phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies
3. Source of wealth
Source of wealth is how you got the funds, for example from selling a property,
an inheritance payment or a divorce settlement. Source of funds means the
details of the bank account that the investment funds come from
4. Manufacturing industry
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and
machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
5. Basic raw materials
Basic Raw Materials (BRM) are used in the construction industry for both private and
public works such as housing, site preparation, concrete and cement manufacturing,
railway and road construction. These materials include sand, limestone, limesand, clay,
hard-rock and gravel aggregate.

6. Industrial society
In sociology, the post-industrial society is the stage of society's development
when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector
of the economy
7. Information society
Information Society is a term for a society in which the creation, distribution, and
manipulation of information has become the most significant economic and cultural
activity. An Information Society may be contrasted with societies in which the
economic underpinning is primarily Industrial or Agrarian.

8. Manufacture of physical goods


Products can be physical goods, immaterial services and most often
combinations of both. The characteristics created into the product by the
producer imply surplus value to the consumer, and on the basis of the market
price this value is shared by the consumer and the producer in the marketplace.
9. Processing of knowledge
The Knowledge Processes represent a range of different ways of making knowledge.
They are forms of action, or things you do in order to know. Following are some activity
types which illustrate each of the Knowledge Processes.

10. Way of life


The way of life means a way of living (preserving) the life
associated with the determination of life

11. Transforming
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the
direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings
through the cell membrane.

12. Communicate, do business, and learn


Business communication has an important role in determining the
success of a business that we will run, regardless of the type of
business.

13. Cornerstone
Cornerstone OnDemand Inc. is a cloud-based learning and talent management solutions
provider headquartered in Santa Monica, California. The company is publicly traded on
the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbol CSOD.

very important thing or person


14. Fuelled by manufacturing industries
triggered by manufacturing companies to make people more
developed in the business world

pushed / generated...............

15. Society has been changing


a changed society, indicating that the community is committed to
the culture first

Comprehension.
Choose or give the correct answer for the following questions carefully
1. In an (industrial society / information society) the collection, processing,
and distribution of information have become the primary source of wealth
and work.
2. For most of the twentieth century, economic growth has been fuelled by
“heavy” (information / industrial ) such as the steel and auto industries.
3. True or False ? our society has been transforming from an information
society into an industrial society .
4. True or False ? the cornerstone of this changing is the war.
5. Discuss : what is the difference between the industrial society and
information society ?

READING . 2

THE COMPUTER
The computer is a machine that proceeds information. A key aspect of
today’s computers is that they can proceed information in all of its forms as
words, numbers, voices, pictures, videos and animation.

Every computer has three fundamental characteristics that make it useful.


The three fundamental characteristics are: speed, reliability, and storage
capability.
A business depends on the speedy processing. Computers provide the
processing speed essential to our fast-paced society. The quick service that
we have come to expect, for examples: bank withdrawals, struck quotes,
telephone calls, and travel reservations, is made possible by computers.

Computers are extremely reliable. Of course, you might not think this from
some of the stories you may have seen in the press about “computer errors”.
However, most errors supposedly made by computers are really human
errors.

Computer systems can store tremendous amounts of data, which can be


located and retrieved efficiently. The capability to store volumes of data is
especially important in an information age.

Source: http://www.perrypl.okpls.org

Understanding
Discuss the meaning of the words, terms, or phrases below :

1. Proceed information in all of its forms =.........................................................


2. Speed, realibility, and storage capability =.....................................................
3. Fast-paced society =......................................................................................
4. Most errors supposedly made by computers are really human errors
=.....................................................................................................................
5. The capability to store volumes of data is especially important in an
information age =............................................................................................

Comprehension
Choose or give the correct answer for the following questions carefully

1. (input/output) is anything that comes out of computer processing.


2. (soft copy/ hard copy) is a form of volatile (mudah berubah, berganti) output
usually on a screen display.
3. (processor /storage) is a peripheral device that stores instructions or data for a
computer.
4. True or False : the physical component of a computer system is hardware
5. Discuss: why do people use an application software ?

==================================================
Wikipedia’s Definition
A computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a list of
instructions.
=======================================================

READING 3
COMPUTER LITERACY &
COMPUTING LITERACY
As we have known today, we are living in an information society. In this
society, economy is dependent on knowledge workers, that is people whose
primary work activity is the creation, use, and distribution of information.

In this society, some people need to be a computer literacy, that is knowing about
computers. This knowing of a computer is needed in order to function in an
information society. Three–pronged definition of computer literacy :
Awareness, Knowledge, and Interaction.
(* Three-Pronged definition = definition that has 3 branches)
You become aware of their importance , versatility, and pervasiveness in our
society. You will learn what computers are and how they work.
( * Versatility = having many different skills ).
(* pervasiveness = exist / present everywhere , or the power of spreading something everywhere )

There is no better way to understand computers than through interacting with the
computer itself. You can use computer to operate the ATM machine to withdraw
your money from the bank, or operate your mobile phone, or, other computers
application machine.

Others, however, need to be a computing literacy, that is, the ability to use the
computer. This ability is needed by some people as a tool to enrich their personal
and professional lives.

The staircase of computing literacy are : Overcoming any fear of computer;


Using computers in daily activities; Using the computers as a business tool;
Identifying new ways to use computer at work; and Creating your own computer
application.
(* enrich = to improve or develop,
withdraw = pull out / take out ,
staircase = stairway/levels /set of steps )

Source : http://www.beloit.edu

Understanding words , terms, and phrases.


Discuss the meaning of the words, the terms or phrases below :

1. Economy is dependent on knowledge workers =


........................................................................................................................
2. Distribution of information = ...............................................................
3. A computer literacy = ...........................................................................
4. Three-Pronged definition = ...................................................................
5. Awareness, knowledge, and interaction = .............................................
6. Versatility and pervasiveness = ............................................................
7. ATM machine = ...................................................................................
8. To withdraw = ......................................................................................
9. Enrich your personal and professional lives =
.........................................................................................................
10. The staircase of computing literacy = levels of computing literacy
..............................................................................................................

Comprehension

Choose or give the correct answer for the following questions carefully

1. Some debates exist about the type of computer education, or (computer


literacy /computing literacy ) people need to function in an information
society
2. ( Computer literacy/computing literacy) is learning how to use computers
to benefit your life and work.
3. True or False: knowledge workers mean an uneducated people
4. True or False: more people need to be a computing literacy than a
computer literacy
5. Discuss: what is the difference between computer literacy and computing
literacy

Wikipedia’s Definition :
The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and
write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak.

READING 4
HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, BRAINWARE
Computers are actually composed of many electronic and electromechanical
devices. Electromechanical devices contain both electronic and mechanical parts.
All of these devices taken together are referred to as computer hardware.

But hardware by itself is useless. Hardware needs programs in order to make the
machine work. The hardware needs programs to proceed the data. All of these
programs are collectively referred to as computer software. A software contains a
set of instructions that tells the hardware what to do.

When people refer to a “ computer”, they are usually referred to a set of hardware
and software used as single unit. In fact, it is more correct to use the term
“computer system”. The computer system refers to the computer hardware and
the computer software.

When a computer system serves a practical use in a business, the application is


termed an information system. An information system proceeds data to produce
information. The term data refers to symbols used to represent a fact, event, or
thing. While information is the meaning given to the set of data that become
useful for an organization and activities.

Information systems are actually made up of three components: hardware,


software and brainware. Brainware is the human that build and use the
computer hardware and software.
Users are people who purchase and use computer software.
In business, users are often called end-users because they are at the end of the
“ computer line “ , actually making use of the computer’s capabilities.

There are some people that involved in the computing line, they are : Computer
analyst, Programmer, data-entry, information technology Support, and End user.

Source: http://www.brainware-india.com

Understanding words , terms, and phrases.


Discuss the meaning of the words , terms or phrases below :
1. Computer system =........................................................................................
2. Electromechanical devices = ...............................................................
3. Hardware =............................................................................................
4. Software =............................................................................................
5. Brainware = .........................................................................................
6. Operating system = ..............................................................................
7. Application = .......................................................................................
8. Proceed data to produce information = ...........................................
9. User = ..................................................................................................
10. End-User = ...........................................................................................
11. System analyst = ..................................................................................
12. Programmer =.........................................................................................
13. Data entry = ........................................................................................
14. Information Technology Support = .....................................................

Comprehension
Choose or give the correct answer for the following questions carefully

1. A computer professional who writes and tests software is called a


(Programmer / System analyst )
2. Step by step instructions that run a computer are called (documents /
programs)
3. Making illegal copies of copy righted software is called (software piracy/
browsing)
4. True or False : you are legally required to pay for shareware after a trial
period
5. Discuss: if you have, or will have a computer of your own, how will you
get software for it ?

Wikipedia’s definition :
Hardware is a general term that refers to the physical artifacts of a
technology. It may also mean the physical components of a computer
system, in the form of computer hardware.
Computer software or software is a general term used to describe a
collection of a computer programs, procedures and documentation that
perform some tasks on a computer system.

READING 5

INPUTS AND PROCESSING DEVICE


A computer system has four fundamental components : input, processing,
output, and storage. Each of the components in a computer system can take on a
variety of forms.

Input devices include keyboard, mouse, microphone, scanner, and camera.


Data can be entered to a computer system via keyboard. We can type one
character at a time through this component. A point-and-draw device , such as a
mouse, is a very important component to input data. By using a microphone we
can input voice and sound data. We can copy the data by using a scanner.
Videos and photos are taken from video and photo camera.

Processing device is the computer processor, or just called a processor. It is the


“heart” of a computer system. It performs all computation and logic operations.
The computer processor is made up of two parts : primary memory and the
central processing unit [CPU].

Primary memory provides temporary storage for all the data and information
being processed. The central processing unit or CPU is made up of an
arithmetic-logic unit to perform the data processing operations, and a control
unit to direct and coordinate those processing activities.
UNDERSTANDING

Discuss the meaning of the words, terms or phrases below.

1. Four fundamental components of computer system =


2. Input devices =
3. A point-and-draw device =
4. A microphone =
5. Video and photo camera =
6. The computer processor =
7. Computation and logic operations =
8. Primary memory =
9. The central processing unit =
10. Arithmetic-logic unit =

COMPREHENSION

Choose and give the correct answer to these questions carefully

1. A (joystick / trackball) is a pointing device with which the user move the
pointer by rolling a ball with fingers.
2. A screen that accepts input from a pointing finger is called (touch screen
/ bar code)
3. The keyboard and the mouse are (output / input) devices.
4. ( memory / processor ) is the heart of the computer that organizes data
into information.
5. (keyboard / motherboard) is an input device that contains letters,
numbers, and special characters and keys.
6. The term (data / information) refers to symbols used to represent a fact,
event, or thing.
7. True or false : CPU proceeds the input data.
8. True or false : the processing result of information is data.
9. Discuss : most people use a mouse as their pointing device. Discuss the
reason why someone might prefer to use one of other pointing devices
described in the text.
10. Discuss : what is the difference between devices and programs ?

Wikipedia’s definition:
Input is the term denoting either an entrance or changes which are inserted into
a system and which activate /modify aprocess .it is an abstract concept, used in
the modelling, system design and system exlpoitation. It is usually connected
withother terms e.g, input field, input variable, input parameter, input value,
input swignal, input device and input file.
A Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a machine that can execute computer
programs.

READING 6

OUTPUT AND STORAGE DEVICES

The four basic hardware components are the input devices, the computer
processor, output devices, and storage devices. As data are processed, they flow
between these components.

The fundamental output devices in a computer system is a monitor, a printer,


and an audio speaker system.

The monitor will display visually the results of processing. The printer will
produce a paper printed output.

The output on a monitor is temporary and is called soft copy. The output that
resulted by a printer is called hard copy.

The audio data can be heard from the speaker system.

Storage of data and software in a computer system is either temporary or


permanent.

Random Access Memory or RAM provides temporary storage. It works only


during processing, therefore, do not forget to save your data.

Permanently installed and interchangeable disks provide permanent storage. For


examples, hard disk, CD or DVD ROM, USB flash disk, and memory cards.
Read Only Memory (ROM) is a memory into which data are entered during
manufacturing. Contents can only be read and can not be changed.

Source: http:// www.nvtech.com

UNDERSTANDING

Discuss the meaning of the words, terms, or phrases below;

1. The four basic hardware components =


2. Input devices =
3. Computer processor =
4. Output devices =
5. Storage devices =
6. Data rae processed and flowing between the four basic hardware
components =
7. Storage of data and software in a computer system is either temporary or
permanent =
8. RAM =
9. Memory cards =
10. ROM =

COMPREHENSION

Answer these questions carefully

1. (hard copy / soft copy) is resulted by a printer


2. (audio speaker / scanner) is one of the fundamental output devices.
3. (monitor /printer) will produce a paper printed output.
4. True or false : storage of data and software in a computer system is either
temporary or permanent.
5. True or false : data are flowing through input device, process device,
output device, and storage device.
6. (RAM / USB) is a temporary storage
7. Discuss : the most common back up medium is CD ROM.

Wikipedia’s definition
Output is the term denoting either an exit or changes which exit a systemand which activate /
modify a process. It is an abstract concept, used in the modelling systems design and systems
exploitation.

Computer data storage , often called storage or memory, refers to computer components,
devices, and recording media that retain digital data used for computing for some interval of
time. Computer data storage provides one of the core functions of the modern computer, that
of information retention. It is one of the fundamental components of all modern computers,
and coupled with a central processing unit (CPU, a processor), implements the basic
computer model used since the 1940s.

READING 7

THE SYSTEM SOFTWARE

When people think about computers, they usually think about machines. But the
machine can not be run without software.

Software refers to the programs ,the intangible components, as opposed to


hardware, which, as you know, refers to the physical component of the computer.

The software is a step by step of instructions that is required to turn data into
information. So that makes a computer useful.

Generally speaking, software can be categorized as system software and


application software.

As operating software is a set of programs that lies between application software


and the hardware; it is the fundamental software that controls access to all other
hardware and software resources.

Incidentally, the term system software is often used interchangeably with


operating system. System software means all programs related to coordinating
computer operations.

Systems software includes the operating system but also includes other
elements, such as programming language translations and a variety of utility
programs.
UNDERSTANDING

Discuss the meaning of the words, terms, or phrases below;

1. Computers are machines =


2. Software refers to the programs =
3. To turn data into information =
4. System software =
5. Operating system is laid between application software and the hardware =
6. System software includes the operating system and other elements =

COMPREHENSION

Choose or give the correct answer for the following questions carefully

1. Computer is a (machine /animal)


2. Software is a (tangible /intangible ) component
3. Hardware is a (tangible /intangible) component
4. True or false : the software is required to turn data into information
5. Dfiscuss : software can be categorized as system software and application
software.

WIKIPEDIA’S DEFINITION

System software is any computer software which manages and controls computer hardware so that
application software can perform a task. Operating systems, such as microsoft windows, mac
OSX or Linux, are prominent examples of system software.

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