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Laboratory Manual "Variable g Pendulum with Cobra4"

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You are on page 1of 6

Related topics

Oscillation period, harmonic oscillation, mathematical pendulum, physical pendulum, variable g-

pendulum, decomposition of force, gravitational force.

Principle

Earth’s gravitational acceleration g is determined for different lengths of the pendulum by means of the

oscillating period. If the oscillating plane of the pendulum is not parallel to the gravitational field of the

earth, only one component of the gravitational force acts on the pendulum movement.

Material

1 Cobra4 Wireless Manager 12600-00

1 Cobra4 Wireless-Link 12601-00

1 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Timer/Counter incl.1 × 12651-01 12651-00

1 Movement sensor with cable 12004-10

1 Cobra4 Software – multiuser license 14550-61

1 Silk thread, l = 200 m 02412-00

1 Fish line, l = 20 m 02089-00

1 Wight holder, 1 g 02407-00

2 Pendulum ball with eyelet, d = 32 mm 02466-01

1 Tripod PHYWE 02002-55

1 Support rod PHYWE, l = 1000 mm 02028-55

1 Stand tube 02060-00

1 Plate holder, l = 0…10 mm 02062-00

2 Right angle clamp PHYWE 02040-55

1 Bench clamp PHYWE 02010-00

1 Semicircular scale with pointer 08218-00

1 Circular level 02122-00

1 Measuring tape, l = 2 m 09936-00

1 Pendulum for movement sensor 12004-11

Additionally required

1 PC with USB-Interface, Windows XP or higher

www.phywe.com

P2132360 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG © All rights reserved 1

TEC Variable g pendulum with Cobra4

Tasks

1. Determination of the oscillation period of a thread pendulum as a function of the pendulum length.

2. Determination of g.

3. Determination of the gravitational acceleration as a function of the inclination of the pendulum force.

In accordance with Fig. 1 measure the oscillation peri-

od of the thread pendulum.

Perform the electrical connection of the movement

sensor to the Cobra4 Sensor unit Timer/Counter ac-

cording to Fig. 2. The thread runs parallel and is

placed across the larger of the two cord grooves on

the movement sensor.

able g pendulum.

Connect the Cobra4 Wireless Manager to the USB-

interface of the computer and plug the Cobra4 Sensor-

Unit Timer/Counter on the Cobra4 Wireless-Link and

switch the link on. Start the “measure”-software and

open the “Variable g pendulum” experiment. (“Experi-

ment” “Open experiment”). All pre-settings that are

necessary for measured value recording are now car-

ried out except the axis diameter. To set this parame-

ter double click on “Distance s1” and enter the right

value (Fig. 3). The axis diameter in the ”Rotation”

menu item is twice the distance from the pivot point of

the pendulum to the attachment point of the silk thread

that runs to the movement sensor. Set the pendulum in Fig. 2: Connection of the movement sensor to the Cobra4

Sensor Unit Timer Counter.

motion (small oscillation amplitude) and click on in

the icon strip to start measurement.

After approximately 5 oscillations click on the ”Stop measurement” icon. You receive a characteristic

curve of the pendulum oscillation as shown in Fig. 4.

Variable g pendulum with Cobra4 TEP

Remark:

Move the 1 g weight holder, which tautens the coupling thread between the pendulum ball and the

movement sensor, manually downward and then release it. This avoids lateral oscillations of the pendu-

lum ball, which can lead to measurement errors.

Calculate the acceleration of gravity for various pendulum lengths, but constant pendulum mass.

Subsequently, keep the pendulum length constant but increase the pendulum mass by hanging the se-

cond sphere onto the eyelet of the first one; and then determine g. Determine the period duration with

the aid of the cursor lines, which can be freely moved and shifted onto the adjacent maxima or minima of

the oscillation curve (Fig. 5).

Rebuild the experimental set-up according to Fig. 6. The oscillation plane is initially vertical. The round

level located on top of the movement sensor housing facilitates the exact adjustment. Determine g for

various deflection angles.

For identical initial deflection angles (e.g. approx. γ = 15°) determine g; in these measurements, howev-

er, the oscillation plane is not vertical but rather at an angle ϑ to the perpendicular. The following angles

are recommended for measurement: ϑ = 0°, 10°, 20°, 40°, 60°, 80°.

www.phywe.com

P2132360 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG © All rights reserved 3

TEC Variable g pendulum with Cobra4

As a good approximation, the pendulum used here can be treated as a mathematical (simple) pendulum

having a length l. However, depending on the position of the pendulum weight, the length l deviates

more or less from the geometric pendulum length L, which is measured between the pivot point and the

centre of the moveable weight (compare Task 3). A retracting force acts on the pendulum mass m at a

deflection equal to the angle ϑ

If one ensures that the amplitudes remain sufficiently small while experimenting, the movement can be

described by the following differential equation:

∙ =

(1)

= ∙ sin ∙

This is a harmonic oscillation having the amplitude γ0 and the oscillation period T.

(1)

=2

If one rotates the oscillation plane around the angle ϑ with respect to the vertical plane, the components

of the acceleration of gravity g(ϑ) which are effective in its oscillation plane are reduced to

g(ϑ) = g・cosϑ and the following is obtained for the oscillation period:

(2)

=2

∙ cos

Table 1 contains exemplary measurements for different pendulum lengths; whereas the mass of the

sphere is kept constant. An increase in the pendulum mass for constant pendulum lenghts supplies an

identical acceleration of gravity value. In one sample measurement, the pendulum length is l = 0.9 m:

1 9.75

2 9.76

l [m] g [m/s²]

0.84 9.75

0.69 9.61

0.43 9.86

Table 1

Variable g pendulum with Cobra4 TEP

The familiar equation (1) for the calculation of the period of a thread pendulum

=2 ∙

applies strictly only for the borderline case of infinitely small oscillation amplitudes. For greater ampli-

tudes this equation must be replaced by an expression such as

1 9

=2 1+ sin ² + sin + ⋯

4 2 64 2

If

4 ²∙ (3)

=

²

is used to calculate g, this results in an acceleration of gravity that becomes continually smaller. The

measured values in Table 2 exhibit this exact behaviour. However, Table 2 also shows that angles

smaller than 20° can be considered as being sufficiently small to satisfy the equation (3).

5 9.87

10 9.82

20 9.82

45 8.67

90 7.07

approx. 180 3.95

Table 2

For a pendulum with vertical oscillation plane (Fig. 7), the tangential component of the weight mg sin γ is

the restoring force of the oscillation. If the oscillation plane is at an angle ϑ to the perpendicular (Fig. 8),

only the force component mg sin γ cos ϑ is effective. Therefore, for the oscillation period T it follows that

=2

∙ cos

0 9.87 0

10 9.69 9.11

20 9.34 17.89

40 7.74 37.93

60 5.22 57.85

80 2.07 77.81

Table 3

www.phywe.com

P2132360 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG © All rights reserved 5

TEC Variable g pendulum with Cobra4

In the framework provided by the measuring accuracy, the measurement data in Table 3 confirm this

correlation.

Since with a variable g pendulum, the acceleration of gravity acting on the pendulum is virtually change-

able, the experiment can also be performed in order to become an idea of how rapidly a vertical pendu-

lum would oscillate on the moon or on Mars. On the moon the gravitational attraction is approximately

16.6% of that on the earth; this corresponds to an angle ϑ = 0.5°. The gravitational attraction on Mars

can be simulated by an angular setting of ϑ = 69°, since the acceleration of gravity only reaches 38% of

that on the earth.

In the evaluation of the oscillation periods the pendulum rod was considered massless. The pendulum

length l was the distance of the centre of the supported mass from the centre of the rotational axis. If the

mass of the pendulum rod is considered, this has the consequence that the centre of mass moves closer

to the rotational axis, i.e. l becomes shorter. If an increase in measuring accuracy is desired, this effect

must be taken into consideration.

Remarks

The weight hanging directly on the rotational axis of the movement sensor should not exceed 100 g and

should also be only briefly attached to the movement sensor to avoid bearing damage.

In extremely short oscillation periods, signal transients or deformations can occur. These can be reduced

if the sampling rate is changed. In any case, error-free recorded intervals can be selected from the

measuring signal after completion of the measurements.

Sickle-shaped deformation of the oscillations are due to slippage of the thread across the cord groove on

the movement sensor. This is avoided if the thread is wound around the cord groove once.

Since the movement recording is not performed without contact, slight damping of the measured oscilla-

tions does occur. In the calculation of alpha (t) differences of small sizes must be formed and divided by

short time intervals. This results increased noise in the alpha (t) curve compared to the omega (t) curve.

Angular velocities that are too small can no longer be registered by the movement sensor and are dis-

played as a reference line.

Instead of the movement sensor, the compact, fork-type light barrier (11207-20) can be used. However,

in this case the experiment with the variable g pendulum cannot be performed.

Fig. 7: Consideration of the standard pendulum. Fig. 8: Analysis of the force for a pendulum with an in-

clined oscillation plane (g pendulum).

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