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um D ES C RIP TI ON 00 m m um ‘

o T HE na me m u
, ?

m h m 6, r m PA TRI A RC H Q

AN D m an ;

m umum uB LRs, um m u ms or was 00 03

PE G ” m OUN EI E‘O RI l NECfiIP lI O N B


’ ‘
.

B Y G E O RGE S MI T H ,
N KDCE RL Y 9,
'
O
m D E P A B W E KT O i R IE NT AL AN TI Q U I TI EB ma m a w ,
i ll

Amman or 11 13 1 0 3 7 or Ass um umm n “


m urmur

c
,

ovz n ms, n o me
"
. .

A NE W E D I TI O N TH O R O U G H LY
, nnv mx o A ND COR RE C TE D

B YQ A . H ; SAY C E ,
D EP UTY PR O ? E880R
- OP CO MPA RA T IV E PHI LO L O G Y I!
U NI V KB B I TY O F O F O RD
X .

WI T H I L L U S TR A T I O N S .

L O N E.

DO W n aESTO N ,

ON WH BU m
H A LD EA N A C C O U NT O F G EN ES]

CO N TAI N I N G

T HE DE S C R I P T I ON O F REA T I ON T HE DE L U G E T H E
T HE C , ,

T O WE R O F B A B E L T H E D E ST R U C T I O N O F S O D O M
, ,

T HE T IME S O F T HE P A T R I AR C H S ,

AND NI MR O D ;
B AB YLO N IA N FAB LE S, AN D LEGE ND S O F TH E G O D S ;

FRO M TH E CUN EI FO RM I N SCRI P TI O N S .

B Y G E O R G E S MI T H ,
FO RM E RL Y O F TH E DE P ARTM E NT O F O R IE NT AL ANT I Q U I T I E S B RI T I S H M US UM
l 0

A U THO R O F HI S T O RY O F A SS U R B ANI P AL A SS Y R I A N
,

” “

D I S C O VE R IE S E TC E TC
,

. .
,

A NE W E D I T I O N T H O R O U G H LY
, R E VI E S D AND C O RR E C TE D (WI T H A DD I T I O N S ) ,

B YflA . H . SA Y CE ,
D E P UT Y - P ROF S O R
E S OF C O M P A R A T I VE PHI LOL O G Y IN TH E

U NI R I T
VE S Y OF O FO RD
X

WI T H I L L U S TR A T I O N S .

L ON D ON

SAMP SO N LO W MA RST O N
, , SEA RL E, AN D RIV IN G T ON ,

C O R WN B UI L DIN G S ,
FL E ET ST REE T .

1880 .
( R

S
I WI C K P S
RE S —C . WH I TT I NG H A M
'

AN D CO .
,
TO O KB CO U RT ,

CB AN C E B Y LAN E.
P RE FA CE B Y THE E D I T OR .

T is now five years since the present


volume was first laid before the p ubli c
by Mr George S mith j ust before setting
.
,

out on his last ill fated expedition to the


-

E ast It naturally awakened extreme interest and


.

curiosity The earlier chapters of Genesis no longer


.

stood alone Parallel acco unts had been discovered


.

by the author among the clay records of ancient


Babylonia which far exceeded in antiquity the vene
,

rable histories of the Bible All those who had a


.

theory to support or a tradition to overthrow turned


, ,

eagerly to the newly discovered documents which


-
,

possessed an equal interest for the students of history ,

of religion and of language


,
.

The five years that have elapsed since the publi



cation of Th e Chaldean Account of Genesis have
been five years of active work and progress among
As syrian scholars The impulse given to Assyrian
.

research by Mr Smith has survived his death ; num


.

b e r le ss new tablets and fragments of tablets have been


brought to E urope from Assyria and Babylonia ; fresh
students of the inscriptions have risen up in this country
vi PR EFA CE .

an d on the continent more e Sp e e ia


,
dly in Germany ; and
the scientific spirit which has been introduced into
the study of the Assyrian language has immeasurably
increased our knowledge of it Thanks to the labours .

of men like O p pe rt L e n orman t and Guyard in France


, ,

or of Schrader Delitzsch Haupt and Hommel in


, ,

Germany texts which were obscure and doubtful at


,

the time of Mr Smith s death have now become


.

almost as clear as a page of the more difficult por


tions of the Old Testament The Assyrian student .
,

moreover has an advantage whi ch the Hebrew stu


dent has not ; he possesses dictionaries and v oc
,

abu

lari e s compiled by the A ssyr o Babylonians them -

selves and these frequently throw light on a word


,

which otherwise would be a hapax legomenon .


T he more backwar d condition of our knowledge of


Assyrian however was not the only di fficulty against
, ,

whi ch Mr Smith had to contend H e was pressed


. .

for time when writing the present volume which had ,

to be finished before hi s departure for the East .

The class of texts also which he had brought to


, ,

light was a new class hitherto unknown or almost ,

unknown to the Assyrian decipherer He had to


, .

break fresh ground in dealing with them Their .

style d iffere d considerably from that of the texts


previously studied ; they had a vocabulary of their
ow n , allusions of their own and even it may be , ,

added a grammar of their own If the texts h ad


, .

been comp lete the di fficulty perhaps would not have


been so great ; but it was enormously increas ed by
P R E FA CE . v ii

their mutilated condition The sk ill an d success with


which Mr Smith struggled against all these d ifii


c
.

ult i e s Show more plainly than ever what a loss As


syri an research has sustained in him .

Nevertheless even the genius of Mr Smith could


,
.

not do more than give a general idea of the contents


of the fragments and not always even this
,
A com .

parison of the translations contained in the present


edition with those co n tained in the preceding ones
will show to what an extent the details of translation
have had to be modified an d chan ged sometimes with ,

important consequences Thus the corrected trans .

lation of th e fragme n ts relating to the Tower of


Babel will remove the doubts raised by Mr Smith s .

translation as to hi s correctness in associating them


with that event ; thus too the corrected rendering
, ,

of a passage in the Izdubar Epic wil l Show that the


practice of erecting a B ethel or sacred stone was
familiar to the early B abylonians In some instances .

Mr Smith has misconceived the true character of a


.

W hole text What he believed to be a record of the


.

Fall for instance is really as M O pp e r t first


, , ,
.

pointe d out a hymn to the Creator


,
.

On the other hand the fresh materials that have


,

been acquired by the British Museum durin g the


last five years or a closer examination of the trea
,

sures it already possessed have enabled u s to add to ,

the number of cuneiform texts which illustrate the


earlier portions of Gen esis Mr B assam for ex . .
,

ample has brought home a fragment of the Deluge


,
v ii i P REFA CE .

tablet which not only helps us to fi ll up some of the


lac
,

un ae in the text but is also important in another


,

way It is written not in Assyrian but in Babylonian


.
, ,

cuneiform characters and comes not from an Assyrian


, , ,

but from a Babylonian library But it agrees exactly .

with the corresponding parts of the Assyrian edition s


of the story and thus furnishes us with a proof of th e
,

trustworthiness of the Assyrian copies of the O ld


Babyloni an texts The text again which relates to
.
, ,

the destruction of a country by a rain of fire though ,

long contained in the B ritish Museum Collection ,

was first noticed by myself as being apparently the


Babylonian version of the biblical account of t h e
destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah .

Numerous alterations and insertions have had to


be made in the text w hi ch accompanies the trans
lati on s The latter n ecessarily occupied the main
.

part of Mr Smith s attention ; he had neither time


.

nor inclination to enter very elaborately into the


questions raised by them or the illustrations they
,

might receive from elsewhere In fact any adequate.


,

treatment of the great Izdubar Epic for instance , ,

demanded a Speci al acquaintance with the method


and results of Comparative Philology as well as a ,

more intimate knowledge of its history and character


than was possible at the time when Mr Smith .

wrote .

A large proportion of the cuneiform texts from


which the translations contained in the present volume
are made has not yet been published I have how .
,
PR E PA CE . ix

ever gone carefully over them al l with the exception


,

of a small portion of the Izdubar Epic and e n ,

d e av oure d to bring the translation s up to the level of


our present knowledge of the Assyr ian language I .

am indebted to the ready kindness and accurate eye


of Mr P in e h e s for copies of almost all the un pub
.

li sh e d portions of the Izdubar legends In these he .

h as corrected several faulty readings more especially ,

that of the name of the pilot of X i suth r us wh ich ,

ought to be N e S Hea the lion of Hea


-
,
Mr Pinches .

assures me that the name of the deity composing the


second part of the name is invariably written with
the numeral 4 0 the symbol of the god H ea except
, ,

once when the scribe has miswritten 5 0 the symbol ,

of Bel and he has pointed out to me a passage in a


,

bilingual tablet where the name is explained i n


Assyrian by Nes H ea U nfortunately the texts
-
.
,

given in pp 1 03 1 2 4 cannot be found and here there


.
-
,

fore I have been obliged to leave Mr Smith s trans .


lation s unaltered .

The reader however must remember that no


, ,

tran slations of these mutilated tablets can be more


t han approximately correct Even if the meaning
.

of all the words were well known and they were ,

divided from one another ( which is not the case ) the ,

broken condition of so many of the inscriptions would


make a good deal of the trans l ation more or less
conj ectural This must be doubly the case where
.

the signification of the words is either unknown or


only half known I have always endeavoured to
.
P R EFA OE .

indicate a doubtful word or passage by a query ; but


there must be instances in which the meaning that I
beli eve ought to be assigned to particular words will
be corrected by the further progress of discovery .

This is even more tr ue of W hat may be termed the


commentary accompanying the translations Sur .

prises are constantly in store for the Assyrian de


cipherer and a tiny fragment may suddenly throw a
,

new light on a question he had supposed to b e


settled . I n fact in Assyriology as i n all other
, ,

branches of science there is no finality ; we cannot


,

be more than approximately exact at any given time ,

and every month enables us to introduce fresh cor


rections and improvements into our work .

A fresh illustration of the fact has been afforded


even while the present volume has been passin g
thr ough the press Mr Pinches has come across
. .

two fragments (one marked S 669 the other un n um ,

bered) which belong to two separate copies or editions


of a very interesting work This is nothing less
.

than a list of the ancient epics and legends of


Chaldea along with the name s of their reputed
,

authors many of whom however are probably as


, , ,

mythical as the famous Rishi s of India The list .

shows how numerous these early poems were and ,

how few of them comparatively we possess at


, ,

present B oth fragments belong to the same part of


.

the list and we are therefore ignorant of many of the


,

ancient compositions it must originally have con


tained Some of the works mentioned receive their
.
PR EFA CE . xi

names from the heroes celebrated i n the m others are ,

named from their opening lines A distinction is .

drawn between those that belonged to the Accadian


period an d were written by Accadian poets in the
,

Accadian language and those that were of Semitic


,

Babylonian origin The interest of the list is e n


.

hanced by the great antiquity of the poems it r e


cords n one of them being later than about 2 000 B C
, . .

Here is a translation of the text as restored from a


comparison of the two fragments according to the
copies I have made of them

O B VER S E .

1 . Ca
2 . This is the work (liter ally from the mouth) of

a lelzu

3 . s 6a 0. Ti

4 . the god tsubu n u [ Accadia n ]

5 . This is the work of N up at uv



6 . Th e mighty l ady the winged one Nigirra
, , ,

or “
Bel
“ “
7 He restored Til enni or L ife
.
-
,
.

8 May Merodach the great lofd firmly defend


c
. .

[ Semiti ]
9 This is the work of Basa Gula the scribe
.
-
,


10 king of the sphere in their front
Th e or
c
.
,


the lord [ A e ]
1 1 This is the work of En me d uga
.
- -
x ii P R EFA CE .

12 . hea d thy lustre ,

13 . This I S the work of Elum


Ci bat

RE V ER SE .

1 .

( This
2 is.the work of ragas the scribe , ,

the man ( of a n on existent tablet ) -


.

the gods [ A c] e . This is the work

the bull of Bit B sir ( the firmame n t )


“ -
,

r “
The great fortress of the royal crown ”

[ A c] e

5 . This is the work of Cus dib the son of -

n un
This is the work of
-
2a
7 [ A c]
e

Elum ban c
.

ud ur the son of Kh ume tis the scribe t h e


- -
, , ,

man of (a non existent) tablet -


.


the which over heaven
'

7 a
p ggaltz ar e
placed
(8This
.
) is the work of Gimil Gula the son of -
,

I l k h igal the scribe the man of a non existent tabl et


-
,
-
.


9The d ay of calling the long day at the da wn
c
.
,

ing of light [ A e ] This is the work of Ek ur.

( E si r u) the son of ,Nunna tur -


.

10The hero Izd ubar


. . Thi s is the work of Sin
lici un n in i the scribe
-
x iv P R EFA CE .

preserved tablet recently brought to England which ,

contains a catalogue of the gardens belon ging to


Merodach Baladan the contemporary of Hezekiah and
-
, ,

grouped according to the districts in whi ch they were


situated Merodach Baladan mus t have been fond of
.
-

horticulture since the catalogue contains the n ame s


,

of no less than sixty seven seed gardens besides si x


- -
,

other pleasure grounds Many of them were name d


-
.

from the localities in whose neighbourhood they



were but others bore such signi ficant titles as t h e
,

“ “
forest of reeds the small enclosure or t h e
,

,

garden of the waters of the city As the tablet ”

was copied by a scribe named Merodac


.

h sum id d in - -

probably in the time of N e b uc


,

h ad n e zzar or hi s
successors it is evident that some of the contents
,

of the library of Babylon escaped the destruction


brought upon that city by S n n ac h e r ib I n B C 692 . . .

I may add that since t e greater part of this


edition has been in type I have found myself able ,

to explain the name of the hero which i n default


of the true transcription has bee n provisionally
read Izdubar The name is composed of three
.

ideographs the first of which is the determinative


,

prefix of wood W h ile the two latter are rendered


,

sa tu sa li tu

p p the lower
,
lip in Semitic Assyrian ,

.

Now M L e n orman t has shown that Izdubar was


.

originally the Accadi an Fire god and Mr Boscawen -


,
.

has pointed out that the fir e stick was once used -

in Babylonia ; it is therefore evident that the three


ideographs composin g the name represent the lower
PR E PA OE . xv

pi ece of wood with a lip or groove in it which


, ,

formed the most important part of the primitive


fir e machine
-
I believe the Accadian pronunciation
.

of the name will turn out to be Kibi rr a .

H . S AYC E .

May 2 1 3i , 1 880
.
CO N T E N T S .

REFA CE p age vi
CHAP T E R I — TH E
. D I S C O VE R Y OF‘
TH E GE N E S I S
LE G N DS
E

cy
.

Cosmogo n
y of B e rosus — D is ove r of Cune i
c c
.

form I n s ip ti
r on s — H istori al Te x ts — B abylon ian
ori
g i n of A ssyrian lite rat ure — My h l gic
t oo l tabl a e ts .—z—
D is cy
ove r of

D e luge te xts — Mutilate d cd i i


on t on of table ts — L e ture on D c el uge
table ts D aily Te le gra h p
ofle r — E x e d i tion to A ss ria
y
'

p
c
. .

Fragme n ts o C
f r e at ion table ts — Solar Myth Se on d j ourn e y
c
.

to Assyria — Towe r . of B abe l — . Clay r e ord s — L ist of x


te ts

L eg en d of C ann e s — L ist of e arly le ge n d s an d th e ir auth ors p age 1

CHA P TE R II — B AB Y LO NI A N AN D A SS Y I R AN L I TE R ATUR E
c
. .

B abylon ian lite rature — Kouy unj ik library - Fragme n tary on

c
.

d ition — A rran ge me n t of table ts — Subj e ts — D ate s - B abylon ian


c
. .

u
so r e of li te rat ure — L ite rary pe riod — B abylon ian Ch ronology
cd
Ac c cd i
c
.

a — Sumir
. .
—E xtin tion of th e A a an lan guage — I zd ubar
le ge n d s — Cre atio
Syllabarie s an d bilin gual table ts — A ssy rian
n .—

c op ie s — D iffi u
. c
lt ie s as to d ate — L ibrary of Se n k e re h — As syrian
'

e mp ire — City of Assu —L ibrar at Calah — Sar on of Ass ria


r
y .
g y
c
.
.

Se a e b
n n h ri — R e m ova l of librar
y to N in e ve h — A ssur-ban i- al or
p
cp ti ct
. .

Sard an ap alu
s .
— H is ad d itions to library — D . e s ri on of on e n ts .

— L ate r B ab lon ian librar ie s 13


y
CH APT E R HAL D AN L E G E NDS TR ANS MI TTE D TH R O U G H
III — . C E

BE R O SUS D O THE R AN CI E N T A UT H OR S
AN .

B ou s and his c
op yi ts — Cory

er s t a slation —Ale a d e P oly
s . s r n . x n r

b
iii
xv CON T E N TS .

h istor .
—B ab lon ia —
y . O ann e s ,
h is te a Ei n c
g
— C re ation — . . B e lus .

Ch ald e a n k in gs —X isuth rus D e luge — Th e A rk — Re turn to


c
. . .

B abylon .
—A p ollod orus .
—P an tibiblon — L aran h a — Abyd e n us . . .

Alorus , fi rst k in
g
— Te n i
k g
n s -
Sis it h
. rus — D e luge — Arme n ia . . .

Towe r of B abe l — Kron os an d Titan — D is p e rs ion from H e stiw as.

c
. .

— B ab lon ian olon i e s — Towe r of B abe l — Th e Sibyl — Titan


y
.

an d P rome th e us .
-
D amas ius c .
— Te nt he .
— Moymis — Kissare . an d

A ss or s u
.
— Triad .
— B el 31

CHAPT ER B AB Y L O N I A N MY TH O L OGY
IV —
c
.

c
G re e k ac
.

oun ts — M y t h ology lo al i orig in — A n . nt iquity — Con .

q ue sts — Colo ies


.
— T h ee
gre at g o
n d s — T wel e
. r v
gre at
g od s .

A nge ls — i
S ri ts — A u
n — A n p
at u— R immon — I star -
E quivale nt
c
. . . . .
.

to V e n us — H e a — O an n e s — Me rod a B e l orZ e us h . .
—Z iratban it
,

ch
.

c
.

Su ot Be th — B l — Sin th e moon god — N in i — Samas


n o e . . .
p . .

N e rgal — A n n uit.
.
- Table of god s

CHAPT ER V— B AB YLO NI A N LE G NDE O F TH E CR E AT I ON


cd i i c D c
. .

Mutilate d on t on of table ts — L ist of s ubj e ip i


ts — es r t on

of c h a os — T i am at —
. Ge ne ratio of god S D a as . s o r n .
-
m c
iu — C mpa i .

son w ith G e e is — T h re e grenat god s


s — D ou btfu l f ag m e te — Fi fth r n

l
tab e t — Sta rs — M oon — Su — A b ys s or c
h ao s — C re at io of moon n. n

H ymn t o Me rod ac
. . . .

— Cre atio of an imals — Monoth e i m


n h s

Th e blac k h e ad e d rac
. . .

e or A d amite
- —G a d e of E d e n — Th e s. r n

flami g sword — Th e fall— Th e Sabbath — Sac


.

n re d t re e — H mn to
y .

th e Cre ator 56

CHAPT E R VI — O THE R B AB Y LO NI AN A CC O U NTS O F TH E C R A TI ON


E

c
cu
. .

Cune iform a o n ts origi n ally t rad i tion S —Variations — Ao

cu t
. .

o n of B e rosus — Table t from Cuth a —Tran slation — Composite


c
. . .

an imals .— Eagle - h e ad e d me n — Se ve n b roth e rs — D e str u tion of

c
.

c
.

me n — Seve n wi k e d sp irits — Myth i al e xplan ation s of lun ar

c W
.

e lip se s — H mn to th e G od of Fire — ar i n h e ave n -


Tiamat
y
cth cc
cu
. .

— Me rod a h e g re at d ragon .
— Par alle l B ibli al a o nt 91

C HAPT R E VII —TH E SIN O F TH E G O D ZU


c
. .

G od Z u— O b s ur ity of le ge n d — Tran slat ion — Sin of Zu


pe c
. . . .

A n ge r of t h e god s — S h e es of A rm to Rimmon —Rimmon ’s

c
.

an swe r.— S ee p h fA o nn to N e bo — An swe r of N e bo —L u


.
gal-turda . .
CO N T E N TS . x x i

— Ch an ge s to a bird — Th e Z n b ird — B ird . of prey — . L ugal- turd a


lord of A mard a — P rome th e us . 1 15

CHA PTE R VIII — T HE EX PLO I TS OF D IR R A R A .

c
.

D ibb ar a — G od of P e stile n e .— I tak —Th e P lague — Se ve n


c
. .

w arri or god s — D es tru tion of e o le — An u — G od d e ss of Kar rak p p


c c
. . . .

— S ee p h
of B e l — Sin an d d e str u tion of B ab lon ians — Samas y
c c
. .

Si n an d d e stru tion of E re h I .
— star. -Th
e g re at
god an d
D uran — Cuth a —
. . I n te rn al war s — . I tak g oe s Syria — P owe r
to

an d glory of D ibbara — Song of D ibbara — . . B le ssings on his worsh i p .

— G od N er .
— P raye r to arre st th e Plague An t iquity of th e

le ge n d — . I tak 125

CHAPT E R I X — B AB Y LO NI AN FAR L E S
cpti c
. .

Fable s — . Common i n t h e E as t — D . e s ri on .— P owe r of S e e p h


in an imals — Story of th e e agle . — Se rp e n t — Samas — Th e e agle

ch
. .

aug t — E ats th e p
se r e n t . - A nge r of bird s — E tan a — Se ve n
c
. . .

od — Th ird table t - S p ee h f o e agle — Stor of th e fox — H is


g s y
c
.

u i gnn n — Jud me n t
g of Samas — H is h ow of sorrow — H is
S

pee c
. .

p un ish me h of fo — Fabl of
n t .— S x e t h e h ors e an d ox — Th e y

c c
.

o sort t og th r — Sp
n h of th ox — H is
e e ee e good fortun e — Con
pe e c
. .

tr as t wi t h th e h orse — H un ting th e ox . S h of th e h orse


c
.

Offe rs to re oun t st or
y
— Stor
y . of I star — . Furth e r table ts 1 40

CHAPTE R X — . FR A GME NTS O F MI S CE LL ANE O US T EX TS .

A tarpi — P un ish me n t of world — Rid d le of wise mam— N ature


cf c
.

an d un ive rsal p re se n e o air .


—Sin uri — D ivin ing by fra ture of

c
.

re e d — Th e foun d li n g - Towe r of B abe l — O bs u rit


y of
. le e nd
g
c c
. .

N ot d by
n ot i B o u — Fr a me tar table t — D e stru tion of
e e r s s
g n
y . .

Tow e r — D is e rsion — Site of th e Towe r — Me an ing of B abe l


p
c
. . . .

Ched orlaome r — . Th e d e stru tion of Sod om an d G omorrah 15 5

CH AP TE R X L — TH E I Z DUB AR LE G NDSE .

I zd ubar — Me an ing of th e n ame — A solar h ere — P rotot


y pe of

c c
.

H e rakles Le ge nd S — B abylon ian ylind e rs — N oti e s of


.
- Age of .

I zd ubar — Surippak — Ark City — Twe lve athle te — E te n t of L e x


cp c
. . .

e nd s — D e s ri tion — I n trod u t ion —Me e tin of H e n-ban i an d


g g
c
. . .

I zd ubar — . D e str u tion of tyr ant Kh umbaba — A d ve n ture s . of I s tar .


CON TE N TS .

— I lln e ssan d i gs of wan d e r n I zd ubar — D cp i


e s ri t on of D e luge an d
cc
.

on lusion — First Table t — Kin gd om of N imrod — Trad iti on s


c
. . .

I d e n ti fi at ion s — Translation — Elami te


. . Con q uest — . D at e s 1 75

CHAP T R X II
E — . ME E T1 N G OF H E A -R A NI AND I Z D UB A R .

D re am of I zd ubar — . H e a-ban i .
— H i s wisd om —
y life H is solitar .

—I zd ubar s

p e tition . — Z aid u— Kh arimtu an d Samkh at — Te m t p
pe c
. .

H e a—
ban i — Might an d fame of I zd ubar — . S h of e H e s -bani .

c
.

H is j ourn e
y to E re h .
— Th e mid ann u or t ige r — Fe stival at E ree h . .

— D re a m of I zd ubar — Frie n d sh ip . wi t h H e s-bani 2 01

C H P TE R X III — D STR U C TI O N o
A E r TH E T RAN T Y KH U MR AB A
Mythi c
. .

al geog ap h y — Fo t r . re s re gion . Conve rsa - Kh umbaba — .

t io — P titio to Sama — J ou
n. e n s. rn e
y to fore st —D we lli
g of Kh um n

c
.

babe — E ntran e t o fore st — Mee ti ng with Kh umbaba —D e at h of .

Kh umbaba— I zd ubar k ing . 216

C HAPT R X IV — TH E AD N TURE S O F I STA R


E . VE .

T iump h of I d uba — I star lo e — H r off of marriag



r z r. s v e er e.

H e p omise
r rI d uba s a sw — Tammu — Amou of I tar
s. - z

r n e r. z rs s

c
. .

— H is re fusal— I star s ange r — As e n d s to H e ave n — Th e bull


c
. . .

b y I zd u urse — I zd ub ar s triumph — The


’ ’
Slain bar — I star s
d c cp i
. .

fe ast — I star

s d e s air p — H er H d e s e nt to a es — D es ri t on

c
. . .

Th e s e ve n
gate s — Th e u A u u mi
rs es . — ts -s na r th e S ph i nx .

Release of I s tar .
- Th e d og of t h e d awn — L ame n t for Tammuz 2 2 6 .

C HAPT R XV
E .
—I LL N E SS AND WAND E R NGS
I OF I Z D UB AR .

H e a- b an i an d th e t re e s — Illn es s of I zd ub ar — D e ath of H ea
cpi
.

b an i — J ourn ey
. of I zd ubar — H is d re am — S or on me n — Th e
Wt
. .

D Mas
es e rt of -
Sid uri and Sabitu — N e s -H e a th e p ilot — a er

c
. .

of d e ath Mua .
-
.
- Th e on ve rsation . — X isuth rus 252

CHAP T E R XVI — . TH E ST OR Y O F TH E FLOO D A ND C O N C L US I O N .

E le ve nth table t — Th e god s — Sin of th e world — Comman d to


build th e ark — I ts on te n ts — Th e b uild in g — Th e Flood — D e c
str c
u tion of p ople e — Fe ar of t h e god s — End D e lu
of ge -
N izir
c
. .

R es ting of A rk — Th e bird s — Th e d es e n t fr om t h e ark — Th e

cficc c
.

sa ri e, ove n an t an d rai n bow — . S p ee h fgd es o o s — Tran slat ion of


A d ra-kh asis — . Cure of I zd ubar .
—H is re t rn .— u L ame n t ove r H ea
LI S T OF I LL U S T RA T I O N S .

RO N TI SPI ECE , P h otogra ph I zd ubar (N imrod ) in


cflicWi h li f m
.

on ly B byl i
t t a on , ro an e ar a on an

c yli d n e r.

2 R f i c
e ve rse o ib d c bl c i i g ns r e te rra otta ta e t, on ta n n

c cu f h D lug h wi g h i u
.

h t e a o nt o t e e e, s o n t e v ar o s

fragme n ts of h ic
w hi i c mp d 9 t s o ose

f m c
.

h B byl i my h l gic
,

3 . O an n e s an d ot e r a l figu on
yli an t oo a re s, ro n

d e r , 33
Comp osite animals from c
.

4 y lin d e r 35

h (B e l) an d th e d ragon to fac
Figh t be twe e n Me rod ac
. .
, ,

5 e p 62

Sac tre e or grove w ith atte n d an t c


. . .
,

6 re d h e rubim from A ssyrian


c
.
, ,

yl i d n e r, 85
c c
.

7 Sac d
re tre e , se ate d figue o r n ea h id s e an d se r p e nt in ba kgroun d ,
c
.

from an e arl
y B abylon ian
yli d n e r, 88
c c c
.

8 Me rod a h atta king th e se r p e n t , on an Assy ri an yli dn e r, in th e


Wll William
.

po ss ess ion of D r. S e s s, N e wh ave n , 90


cd
. .

9 Sa re tree , atte n d ant fi gu re s an d e agle - h e ad e d me n , from th e


c cuy
.

se al of a Syrian hi f e n in t h e nt r B .C., 97
Me rod ac
, .

10 h d elive ri ng th e moon -god from th e e vil s pi rits ; from a

c
.

B abylon ian yli d n er ; 1 01


cu c
.

ll B el e n o n te rin g th e d ragon , from B abylon ian yli d n e r, 1 09


d c cflicwi h
. .

12 Me ro ah or B e l arme d for th e on t t th e d ragon , from


c
.

Assyrian yli d n e r, 1 12
c
.

13 . Figh t be twe e n B e l an d th e d ragon , from B abylonian yli d n e r,

114
14 . Eagle - h ead ed me n , from N imroud c
lp tu
u
s re , to fa cp e . 1 02 .
x xiv LI ST OF IL L U S TR A T I O N S .

1 5 , 1 6 an d 1 7 . Me n e n ga e d
g in build in g, from B abylonian c
yli d n e rs ,

1 62 .

1 8 Vie w of B irs N imru


. d , th e s uppose d site of th e Towe r of B abe l,

1 67 .

1 9 Vie w of th e B abil mound at B abylon , th e


. site of th e te m le of p
B e l, 1 68 .

Towe r in stage s, from an Assyrian baa- re lie f, 1 69


c c
.

21 . I zd ubar stran li
g gn a li on, from Kh orsabad ulp u
s t re , to fa e
p 1 75
c
. .

22 Migration of Easte rn tribe , from early B abylonian yli d n e r, 1 97


W ka c
. .

23 . B oware ye h Mound at ar
( Ere h) , s ite of th e te m le p of

I s tar 2 48
cflicwi h
.
,

24 . I zd ubar an d H e s-b an i in on t t th e lion an d b ull, 2 4 9 .

25 I zd ubar amon g th e tre e s of th e God s from a B abylonian


c
.

y li d f u d i n Cy p u b
ery G d i C
o nl 2 63 n r s en e sn o a,

cmp i figu d U H a i th b f m a a ly
. .

2 6 I d ubz ar , o os te re s , an r- e n e oat , ro n e r

c
.

B abyl i y li d 2 70
on an n e r,

figu ( cp i m ) f m a A y ia c
.

2 7 C mp i
. o os te
yl
re si d s or on en , ro n ss r n n er ,

2 76 .

2 8 X isuth rus , or N oah , an d I zd ubar from an earl


y
c
.
,

yli d n e r, 300 .

29 Mugh e ir th e site o f Ur of th e Ch ald e es 31 7


c cp
.
, , .

30 O ann e s,
. from N imroud s ulp u t re , to fa e . 32 5 .
CHA P T ER I .

D I SCO V ERY O F TH E G EN E SI S L EG END S .

Cosmogony of B e rosus c
—D is ove r
y of Cu e iform I nsc
n iption sr

c
. .

B byl i
H istori al te xt s — igi
a on an or n of A ssyrian lite rat ure — Myth o
l gi c
o l tabl t — D i c y f D lug
a e s s ove r o e e te x ts — Mutilate d cd i i
on t on of

t bl
a — L c
e ts eu t D lug t bl t
re on e e D aily Te le gra h
a e s. offe r p .

E x e d i tion to As syri a— Fragme n ts of Cre ation table ts — Solar Myth


p
c c
.

Se on d j ou rne t o A ss ria — Towe r of B abe l — Cla re ord s — L ist of


y y .
y .

te xts — L e ge nd of O an n e s —
. L ist of e arly le ge n d s an d th e ir auth ors .

T has long been known from the frag


ments of the Chaldean historian B erosus , ,

preserved in the works of various later


writers that the Babylonians were ac
,

q u ai nte d with traditions referring to the Creation ,

the pe riod before the Flood the Deluge and other , ,

matters of W hich we read in the book of Genesis .

Berosus however who recorded these events is


, , ,

s tated by E usebius an d Tatian to have been a con


temporary of Alexander the Great and to have lived ,

into the reign of Antiochus Soter H is date lies .


,

therefore between
,
330 and 2 60 As this was .

B
2 TH E DI S C O VER Y OF

three hundred years after the captivity of the Jews in


Babylon the great antiquity of these traditions could
,

not be proved with certai nty much less their inde


end e n c
,

e of the accounts which we have in Genesis


p .

O n the discovery and decipherment of the cunei


form inscriptions O riental scholars hoped that copies
,

of the Babylonian histories and traditions would one

day be found and that earlier and more satisfactory


,

evidence as to these primitive histories than had


previously been ac cessible would thus be gained ,
.

In the mound of Kouy unj ik opposite the tow n of ,

M osul Mr L ayard discovered part of the Royal


,
.

Assyrian library and further collec tions also formin g


, ,

part of th is library have bee n subsequently found


,

by Mr H Rassam Mr L oftus and Mr George Smith


. .
,
.
,
. .

Sir Henry Rawlinson who made the preliminary ,

examination of Mr L ayar d s treasures and was t h e


.

first to recognize their val ue estimated the number ,

of fragments brought from this L ibrary at over twenty


thousand .

The attention of decipherers was i n the first in


stance drawn to the later historical inscri ptions par
t ic
,

ularly to those of the Assyrian kings contem porary


with the Hebrew monarchy ; and in this departme n t
of research a very large number of texts of great
importance rewarded the toil of Assyrian scholars .

Inscriptions of Tiglath Pile se r Shalmaneser Sargon


Sennacherib Esarhaddon N e b uc
, , ,

, h ad n e zzar N ab on i
, ,

dus and numerous other ancient sovereigns bearing


, ,

directly on the Bible and throwing new light u pon


,
TH E G ENE SIS L E GEN DS . 3

parts of ancient history previously obscure for a long ,

time occupied almost exclusively the attention of


students and overshadowed any work i n other divi
,

sions of Assyrian literature .

A lthough it was known that Assyria borrowed its


civili zation and written characters from Babylonia ,

yet as the Assyrian nation was throughout the greater


,

part of its independent existence hostile to the south


ern and older kingdom it could not be guessed
,

beforehand that the peculiar national traditions of


Babylonia would have been transported to Assyria .

U nder these circumstances for some years after


,

the cuneiform inscriptions were first deciphered ,

nothing was looked for or discovered bearing upon


the events described in Genesis ; but as new texts
,

were brought into notice it became evident that the


,

Assyr ians borrowed their literature largely from


Babylonian sources and it appeared likely that search
,

among the fragments of Assyrian inscriptions would


yield traces at least of some of these ancient Baby
lon ian legends .

Attention was early drawn to thi s fact by Sir


H enry Rawlinson w h o pointed out several c
,
oin c
i
de uces between the geography of Babylonia and the
account of Eden in Genesis and sugges ted the great
,

probability that the accounts in Genesis had a Baby


lon ian origin
.

Whi le preparing the fourth volume of Cuneiform


Inscription s for the trustees of the British Museum ,

Mr George S mith noticed re ferences to th e Creation


.
4 TH E DIS C O VER Y CF

in a tablet n umbered K 63 in the Museum collection ,

as well as allusions in other tabl ets to similar legends ;


he therefore searched through a series of tablets he
had previously classed as Mythological in order to ,

fin d if possible some of these legends


, ,
This series
.

of mythological tablets was one of six into which he


had divided the Museum collection of cuneiform i n
sc r i t i on s for convenience of working By placi ng
p .

all the tablets and fragments of the same class together ,

he had been able to complete several texts to find ,

easily any subj ect required and to get W henever it was


, ,

needed a general idea of the contents of the collection


,
.

The mythological di vision contained all the tablets


which related to Assyrian mythology and all the ,

legends in which the gods took a leading part to ,

gether W ith prayers and similar subj ects .

A steady search among these fragments soon brought


to light half of a c urious tablet which had evidently
contained originally six columns of text ; two of these
( the third and fourth ) were still nearly perfect ; two
others ( the second and fifth ) were impe rfect abou t ,

half being lost while the remaining columns ( the


,

first and sixth ) were entirely gone A statement in .


the third column that the shi p had rested on the
mountain of Nizir followed by an account of the
,

sending forth of a dove and its finding n o resting


,

place and return ing convinced Mr S mith that he had


, .

discovered a portion at least of the Chaldean account


of the Deluge He then proceeded to read through
.

the d ocument and found it was in the form of a


,
6 TH E DIS C O VE R Y OF

of the Society of Biblical Archae ology Mr E Arnold


,
. .
,


in the name of the proprietors of the Daily Tele
graph asked the fortunate discoverer to reopen at
,

,

their cost the excavations in Assyria in the hope of


,

fi n ding the missing portions of the story of the Deluge .

The trustees of the British Museum granted Mr


S mith leave of absence for the purpose and he ac
.

c
,

ord i n gly started for the ruins of Nineveh and there ,

engaged in researches the history of which is related in


,

his w ork entitled Assyrian Discoveries



Hardly .

had he begun his excavations on the site of the palace


of Assur bani pal at Kouy unj i k when he came across
— -
,

a new fragment of the Chaldean account of the Deluge


belonging to the first column of the tablet containing ,

the command to build and fill the ark and nearly ,

fillin g up the most considerable blank in the story .

Some other fragments found afterwards still further


, ,

completed this tablet which was already the most


,

perfect one in t h e Izdubar series The tren ch in


.

which the fragment in question was discovered must


have passed very near the part of t h e L ibrary i n which
the Assyrians kept a series of in scriptions relating to
the early history of the world The same trench soon
.

afterwards yielded a fragment of the sixth tablet ,

describing the destruction of the h ull of Istar by


Izdubar and H e ab an i an incident often depicted on
,

early Babylonian gems The next discovery was a


.

fragment which referred to the creation of the world ;


it formed the upper corner of a tablet and gave a ,

fr agmentary accou n t of the creation of animals Two .


TH E GENE S I S L E GEN DS 7

other por tions of this legend were found further on in


the trench one of whi ch contained a mutilated account
,

of the war between the gods and evil spirits .

In the following year Mr Smith was again in


.

Assyria in charge of an expedition sent out by the


,

trustees of the British Museum and succeeded in ,

bringing home fresh fragments relating to the ear l y


traditions and legends of B abylonia Amon g these .

is the fiagme n t which seems to describe the buildin g


of the Tower of Babel Then followed the disastrous
.

expedition of 1 875 6 in the course of w hi ch Mr


-
, .

S mith fell a victim to over fatigue and his zeal for


-

Assyrian research The sub sequent explorations of


.

Mr H ormuzd B assam though rich i n other results


.
, ,

have added very little to our knowle d ge of the old


Babylonian legends ; and it seems probable that the
missing portions of the tablets which contained them
have irretrievably perished We must wait for
.

further light upon the subj ect until the cities an d


li braries of Babylonia have been excavated After .

all the ear l y Babylonian legends of which copies


, ,

were made for the Assyrian L ibrary at Kouy unj ik ,

were but a se l ected few ; the A ssyrians took li ttle


in terest i n that part of Babylonian li terature which
had no connection with their own history or beliefs ,

and we have reason to congratulate ourselves that


among the tra d itions they borrowed from their older
and more civilized neighbours were so many which
bear upon the earlier chapters of Genesis .

The fragmentary condition of the legen d s we


8 TH E D IS C O VE R Y OF

possess however is much to be lamented The


, ,
.

chief difficulties with which the Assyrian scholar has


to contend when dealing with them are due to the
, ,

mutilated state of the tablets If the inscriptions .

were pe rfect their translation would be a compara


,

t i v e ly easy matter As it is so skilled a decipherer


.
,

as Mr Smith himself was deceived by the defective


.

character of the text into imagining that a hymn


addressed to the Creator was the Babylonian version
of the Fall of Man .

The fragmentary and scattered character of these


legends is explained by the nature of the material of
which the tablets are composed and the chan ges ,

undergone by them since they were written They .

consist of fine clay and were inscribed with cuneiform


characters while i n a soft state ; they were then
baked in a furnace until hard and afterwards trans ,

ferred to the library The library seems to have


.

been in an upper storey of the palace and after the ,

d estruction of Nineveh the fall of the building in


,

which it was placed naturally caused the tablets con


t ain e d in it to be broken to pieces Many of them .

were cracked and scorched by t h e heat of the burni n g


ruins Subsequently the ruins were turned over in
.

search of treas ure and the tablets st ill further


,

broken ; while to complete their destruction the


, ,

rain soaking through the ground every s pring


, ,

saturates them with water containing chemicals and ,

these chemicals form crystals in every available


crack The grow th of the crystals further splits
.
TH E G ENE SI S L E GEN DS . 9

the tablets some of them being literally shivered


,

to pieces .

S ome idea of the mutilated con d ition of the Assy


rian tablets and of the work required by the r e st ora
,

tion of a single text will be gained from the e n grav


,

REV E R ES OF NS C RI D T RRA C O TT A TA L T C ONTA I N IN G


I BE E A CCO UNT
B E TH E

or TH E D L U G SH WIN G
E E, O A R I O U S FRAG M NT S
TH E V WHI CH E OF IT

WA S C O M POS D E T I M o M S M I TH S T RANS LA T I ON
A T TH E E r R.

.

ing above which exhibits the appearance of one of


,

the De l uge tablets at the time Mr Smith published .

his translation of it In this tablet there are no less


.

t han s ixteen fragments .

The clay records of the Assyrians are by these


m e an s so broken u p that a single text is in some
c
,

as e s di vided into over one hundred fragments ; an d


it is only by collecting and j oining these together
that the old texts can be restored Many of the .
10 TH E DI S C O VE R Y OF

fragmentary tablets which have been more than


twenty years in the British Museum have bee n
added to considerably by the fragments recently
bro ught to E n gland by Mr Smith and Mr B assam ; . .

and yet there probably remain from ten to twen ty


thousand fragments still buried in the ruins without ,

the recovery of which it is impossib l e to complete


these valuable Assyrian inscriptions .

It is nevertheless out of these imperfect materi al s


, ,

that we have at present to piece together our know


ledge of the early legends of B abylonia and Ass yr ia .

Most if not all of them are it must be remembere d


, , , , ,

of Chaldean or Babylonian origin the Assyrians ,

having either s lavishly copied Babylonian origin als


or simply put i n to a new form the story they had
borrowed from their southern neighbours Such as .

they are however they are presented to the reade r


, ,

as faithfully translated as our existing knowledge of


the Assyrian language allows it is for him to draw
his inferences and make his comparisons The greater .

number of the m as we shall see mount back to a


, ,

date earlier than the second millennium before the


Christian era and even W here the actual text belongs
,

to a later period the legend which i t embodies claims


,

a similar antiquity We may classify them in the .

followi n g order
1 An account of the Creation of the world in six
.

days parallel to that in the first chapter of Genesis


, ,

and probably i n its present form not older than the


7th ci ent I r
y B C . .
TH E GENE S I S L E G EN DS . 11

2 A second account of the Creation derived from


.
,

the L ibrary of Cuthah and belonging to the oldest


,

period of B abylonian literature .

3 A history of the con flict between Merodach the


.


champion of the gods and Tiamat the Deep the
, , ,

representative of chaos and evil T o this we may .

add the bi lingual legend of the seven evil spirits and


their fight against the moon .

4 The story of the descent of the goddess Istar or


.

V enus into Hades an d her retur n


,
.

5 The legend of the sin of the god Zu punished


.
,

by Bel the father of the gods


,
.

6 A collection of five tablets giving the exploits


.

of D ibb ar a the god of the pestilence .

7 The story Of the wise man who put forth a


.

riddle to the gods .

8 The legend of the good man A t ar pi and the


.
,

wickedness of the world .

9 The legend of the tower of Babel and dispersion


.
,
.

1 0 The story of the E agle and E tana


. .

1 1 The story of the ox and the horse


. .

1 2 The story of the fox


. .

1 3 The legend of Sin uri


. .

1 4 The Izdubar legends


. twelve tablets with the ,

history of Izdubar and an account of the flood


, .

1 5 The story of the destruction of S odom and


.

Gomorrah B esides these there are fragments of


.

other legends which show that there was a consider


,

able collection of such primitive stories stil l quite


unknown to us In fact we have little chance of
.
12 TH E G ENESIS L E G EN DS .

becoming acquainted with them until the libraries of


Babylon ia are excavate d Thus for example we
learn from Berosus that the Babylonians asc
.

ribed
their civilization to certain wonderful creatures who
ascended out of the Persian Gulf and more especially ,

to a being called O annes B ut of all this the library


.

of Nineveh tells us nothing although an Accadian ,

Reading book compiled for Assyrian students con


-

tain s an excerpt which seems to be taken from


legend of Oannes It is as follows
.

1 To the waters their god


.

2 had returned
. .

3 To the glistening house


.

4 he descended ( as ) an icicle
. .

5 ( O n ) a seat of snow
.

6 he grew not old in W isdom


. .

7 The wise people


.

8 with his wisdom he filled


. .

Two fragments belonging to two editions of


,

same text have j ust been foun d containing a li st of


, ,

the numerous legends and epics current among the


ancient Babylonians along with the n ames of their
,

authors Among them are found several of which


.

translation s are given further on in this volume ; but


there are also several of which we hear for the first
time The great Izdubar E pic it may be noted is
.
, ,

ascribed to a certain Sin lici un n in i ( O Moon god


- “ - -
,

receive my cry A fuller account of the fragments


and their contents will be found in the Introduction .
14 B A B YL O N IA N AN D

from one inch long to over a foot square are generally


,

in fragments and in consequence of the chan ges


,

which have taken place in the ruins the fragments of


the same tablet are sometimes scat tered widely apart .

They were origi n ally deposited it would seem in


, ,

one of the upper chambers of the palace from which ,

they fell on the destruction of the building In some .

of the lo w er chambers the whole floor has been found


covered with them in other cases they lay i n groups
,

or patches on the pavement and there are occasion al


,

clusters of fragments at various heights in the earth


which covers the ruins O ther fragments are scat
.

t e re d singly through all the upper earth which covers


the floors and walls of the palace Di fferent frag.

ments of the same tablet or cylinder are found in


separate chambers which have no immediate connec
tion with each other showin g that their present
,

distribution has nothing to do with the original


position of the tablets of which they formed
part.

The inscriptions Show that the table t s were ar


ra n ged according to their subjects Stories or sub
ec
.

s were continued on other tablets of the same


j t

size and form as those on which they were com


me n c ed in some cases the number of tablets i n a
,

series and on a single subj ect amounting to over


one hundred .

Each subj ect or series of tablets had a title t h e ,

title consisting of the first phrase or part of a phrase


in it . Thus the series of Astrological tablets
, ,
A SSYR IA N LI TER A T UR E . 15

numbering over seventy tablets bore the title When ,

the gods An u (and) B el this being the commence


,

ment of the first tablet At the end of every tablet


.

in each series was written its number in the work ,

thus “
the first tablet of When the gods Anu B el ”
, ,


the second tablet of When the gods A n u B el
&c & c and further to preserve the proper positio n
, ,

.
,
.

of each tablet every one except the last in a series


,

had at the end a catch phrase consisting of the first ,

line of the following tablet There were besides .


,

catalogues of these documents writte n like them on


clay tablets and other Smal l oval tablets w ith titles
,

upon them apparently labels for the V arious series of


,

works All these arran gements Show the care taken


.

with respect to literary matters There were regular .

libraries or chambers probably on the upper floors of


,

the palaces appointed for the reception of the tablets


, ,

and custodians or librarians to take charge of them .

These regu l ations were all of great antiquity and ,

lik e the tablets had a B abylonian origin .

Judging from the fragments discovered it app ears ,

probable that there were in the Royal L ibrary at


Nineveh over inscribed tablets treating of ,

almost every branch of knowledge existing at the


t ime .

I n considering a subj ect like the present one it is


a point of the utmost importance to define as closely
as possible the date of our present copies of the
legen ds and the most probable period at which the
,

original copies may have been inscribed B y far the .


16 B A B YL O N IA N AN D

greatest number of the tablets brought from Nineveh


belong to the age of Assur bani pal who reigned over
- -
,

Assyria from B C 670 and every copy of what we


. .
,

will term the Genesis legends yet found was inscribed


with one exception during his reign The sta te .

ments made on the tablets themselves are conclusive


on thi s point and have not been called in question
, ,

but it is equally stated and ackno w ledged on all


hands that most of these tablets are not the originals ,

but are only copies from earlier texts It is unfort u .

nate that the date of the original copies is never pre


served and thus a wide door is thrown open for
difference of opinion on the point The Assyrians ac
,

knowledged that this class of literature was borrowed


from Babylonian sources and of course it is to Baby
,

lonia that we have to look to ascertain the app rox i


mate dates of the original documents But here we .

are met by the following difficulty It appears t h at .

at an early period in Babylonian history a grea t


literary development took place and numerous works ,

were produced which embodied the prev ai ling myths ,

religion and science of the day Written many of


,
.

t hem in a noble style of poetry and appealing to the ,

strongest feelin gs of the people on one Side or regis ,

tering the highest e fforts of their science on the


other these texts became the standards of B ab y lo
,

nian literature and later generations were content


,

to Copy them instead of composing new works for


themselves Clay the material on which they we re
.
,

written was everywhere abundant copies were


, ,
A SS YR IA N LI TE RA T UR E . 17

multipli ed and the veneration in which the texts


,

were held fixed and stereotyped their style Even .

the lang uage in which they were wri tten remained


the language of literature up to the period of the
Persian conquest Thus it happen s that texts of
.

Rim agu Sargon and Kh ammuragas who lived at


-

least a thousand years before N e b uc


, , ,

h ad n e zzar and
N ab on id us are composed in the same lan gu age as the
,

texts of these later kings there being no sensible di ffer


,

ence in style to match the lon g interval between them .

We have however clear proof that although


, , ,

the language of devotion and literature remai ned


fixed the speech of the bulk of the peopl e was
,

gradu ally modi fied ; and in the t ime of Assur


bani pal when the texts of the Genesis legends
-
,

w hi ch we possess were copied by Assyrian scribes ,

the common speech of the day w as widely different


from that of li terature The private letters and .

despatches of this age which have bee n discovered


differ considerably in language from the contem
p orar
y public documents and religious writings ,

showing the change the language h ad undergone


sin ce the style of the latter had been fixed So .
,

too in our own country the language of devotion and


,

the style of the Bible differ in several respects from


those of the English of to d ay -
.

These considerations show th e difficulty of fixing


the age of a cuneiform document from its style and ,

the difficulty is further increased by the uncertain ty


which han gs over all Baby l onian chronology an —

C
18 B A B YL O N IA N AN D

uncertainty that can be cleared away only when the


ruined cities of Babylonia are excavated .

Chronology is always a thorny subj ect and dry ,

and unsatisfactory to most person s besides ; some


notice must however be taken of it here in order to
, , ,

fix something like an approximate date or epoch for


the original composition of the Genesis legends .

The so called Assyrian Canon affords us an exact


-

chronology up to the year B C 909 and a series . .


,

of contemporaneous monuments together with on e ,

or two chronological allusions in later inscriptions ,

enables us to work back from this date to a period


falling between B C 1 4 5 0 and 1 4 00 when Assyria
. .

w as brought into close relation with the southern


kingdom of Babylonia Babylonia was at the time
.

under the sway of a foreign dynasty of Koss man


princes from the mountains of Elam which was over ,

thrown as we learn from the Assyrian records about


, ,

B C 1 2 70
. . .It had b een in possessi on of the country
for a considerable time sin ce a fragmentary list
,

which gives the names of the first n ine sovereign s


composing it does not come d own to the time when
the first of the princes who came into close contact
with Assyria was reigning Indeed a considerable.
,

interval must be allowed between the latter period


and the last of the n ine kings men tioned in the list ,

in which to insert the isolated names of more than


one monarch of the dynasty incidentally mentioned
on later monuments Supposing that n ot more than
.

fifteen kings preceded Cara indas in R C 1 4 5 0 and


-
.
,
A SS YR IA N L I TE R A T UR E . 19

that the average length of their reigns was twenty


years we should have B C 1 75 0 as the approximate
,
. .

date of the leader of the dynasty H e could not have .

been l ater than this and there are many reasons


,

which would lead us to suppose that he was earlier .

Kh ammuragas was the leader of the dyn asty in


question He had conquere d the rulers of the two
.

ki ngdoms into which Babyl onia was at this time


divided One of these was a queen with whom
.
,

ended a dyn asty famous in the annals of early B aby


,

lonia whose seat was at A gan é or Agad e near Se p h


, ,

arv ai m She had been the successor of Naram Sin


.
-
,

the son of S argon who like his father had extended


, , ,

h i s power far and wide and had even penetrated as


,

far as the shores of the Mediterranean Sargon had .

been a great patron of learning as well as a con


q u e r or ; he had established a famous library at
A gan é and had caused a work on astronomy and
,

astrology to be compil ed which remai ned the standar d


,

authority on th e subj ect up to the end of the Assyrian


E mpire It was entitled The Illu mination of B e l
.

, ,

an d was in seventy two books B erosus the his


-
.
,

tori an seems to have translated it into Greek


,
.

L ike the Babylonians and Assyrians of a later


day Sargon and his subj ects belonged to the Semi
,

tic stock and were therefore related to the Hebrews


,

and the Arabian s B ut they were really intruders


.

in Chaldea The primitive inhabitants of the coun


.

try th e bu ilders of its cities the i n ventors of the


, ,

cuneiform system of writing and the founders of th e ,


20 B A B YL O N IA N AN D

culture and civilization which was afterwards bor


rowed by the Semites were of a wholly different race
,
.

They spoke an agglutinative language of the same


character as that of the modern Turks or F inns and ,

were originally divided into two sections the in h abi


tants of Sumir or Shinar ; the plain country and the ,

Accadians or Highlanders who had descended



,

from the mountains of Elam subsequently to the


first settlement of their kinsfolk in Shinar At some .

date between B C 3000 and 2 000 the Semitic p opu


. .
,

lation which bordered upon Babylonia on th e west ,

and had long bee n settled in some of its wester n


cities such as U r ( now Mugheir ) conquered Shinar
, ,

or Sumir .The Accadians however maintained


, ,

their independence for a cons iderab l e time after thi s


conquest until finally Accad also was reduced
, , ,

under the sway of the Semitic kin gs The old .

population of the country was gradually absorbed ,

and its language became extinct The exti nction of


.

the Accadian or Sumerian language had already taken


place at all events among the educated classes— at

the time that Sargon founded his library at A gan é ,

and one of the chief re asons which l ed to the compi


lation of the great work on as tronomy was the n e
c
,

e ssit
y of prese rving the astronomical and as trological
observations recorded in a language which was b e
ginning to be forgotten At the same ti me Semitic
.

translation s of other portions of the old Accadian


literature were made The library at Agan é how
.
,

ever was not the only place where the work of trans
,
22 B A B YL O NI A N AN D

writing and were common in some form to the whole


,

of Chaldea .

The account of the Creation in days though pro ,

bably of late Assyrian origin in its present form may ,

nevertheless rest on older traditions At present .


,

however it is not possible to assign to it any great


,

antiquity .

It should of course be remembered that the texts


, , ,

we possess at present are written in Semitic Baby


lonian or Assyrian Babylonian and Assyrian being

but slightly varying dialects of the same lan guage .

They are however mostly tra n s lations of earlier


, ,

Accadian documents and belong to the same period


,

as that which witnessed the foundation of the library


of A gan é We shall not be far wrong therefore i n
.
, ,

dat i ng them in the ir pre sent form about B C 2 000 . . .

The translations then made were copied by succes sive


generations of librarians and scribes the latest copie s ,

of which we know being those that have been brought


from the library of Kouy unj ik .

To the same early period belonged various other


literary compositions among which we may partie n
,

larize a long work on terrestrial omens comp i led for ,

Sargon of A gan é as well as the syllabaries gram


, ,

mars phrase books and vocabula ries and other bilin


,
-
,

gual tablets by mean s of whi ch a knowledge of the


old language of Accad was conveyed to the Bab y
lon ian or Assyrian scholar .

O n the other hand a series of tablets on evil


,

spirits which contained a totally different tra di tion


,
A SS YR IA N LI TE R A T UR E . 23

of the Creation from that in days goes back to the,

Accadian epoch ; and there is a thi rd account from


the City of On tha closely agreeing i n some respects
,

with the account handed down by Berosus which ,

must b e placed about the same date .

In spite of the indications as to peculiarities of


worship names of states and capitals historical allu
, ,

sions and other evidence it may seem hazardous to


,

many persons to fix the dates of original documents


so high when our only copies in many cases are
,

As syrian transcripts made in the reign of Assur


bani pal [in the seventh century B C ; but one or two
-
,
. .

considerations may show that this is a perfectly rea


son ab l e V iew and no other likely period can be found
,

for the original composition of the documents unless


we ascend to a greater antiquity In the first place
.
,

it must be noticed that the Assyr ians themselves state


that t h e documents were Copied from ancient Baby
lon i an copies and in some cases state that the old
,

copies were partly illegible even in their day Again .


,

in more than one case there is actual proo f of the


antiquity of a text We may refer for example to
.
, ,

a text an Assyrian copy of part of which is published


in Cuneiform Inscriptions v ol ii plate 5 4 Nos

,

. .
,
.

3 4. I n a collectio n of tablets discovered by Mr .

L oftus at Se n k e r e h belonging according to the


, ,

kings mentioned in it to about B C 1 600 is part of


,
. .
,

an ancient Babylonian copy of this very text the ,

Babyl onian copy being about one thousand years


older tha n the Assyrian one .
2h
1 B A B YL O N IA N AN D

Similarly a fragment of a Baby lonian transcript of


the Deluge tablet has recently been brought from
Babylonia and serves not only to fill up some of the
,

breaks in our Assyrian copies but als o to verify the


,

text of the latter .

It is unfortun ate that so many of the documents


embodying the Genesis traditions are in such a sadly
mutilated condition but there can be no doubt that
,

future exploration s will reveal more perfect copies ,

and numerous companion and Cxplanatory texts ,

which will one day clear up the di fficulties whi ch


now meet us at every step of our examination of
them .

So far as known contemporary inscriptio n s are


concerned we cannot consider our present resear che s
,

and discoveries as any thing like su fficient to give a


fair V iew of the literature of Ass yr ia and Babylonia ;
and however numerous and important the Genesis
legends may be they form but a small porti on of the
,

whole literature of the country


It is generally considered that the earliest in sc
.

ri
p
tions of any importance which we now possess belong
to the ti me of L ig Bagas kin g of U r who first
-
, ,

u n ited under hi s sway the petty kingdoms into .

which Chaldea was previously split up and whose ,

age is generally assigned to abou t three thousand


years before the Christian era .

The principal inscriptions of this period consist of


texts on bricks and on Signet cylinders and some of
,

the latter may be of muc h greater antiquity Passing .


A SS YR I AN LI TER A T UR E . 25

down to a time when the country was again divided


into the kingdoms of Karrak L arsa and Agan é we , , ,

find a great accession of literary material almost ,

every class of writing being represented by con


temporary specimens E ach of the principal c ities
.

had its library and education seems to have been


,

widely di ffused From Se n k e r e h the ancient L arsa


.
, ,

and its neighbourhood have come our oldest speci


mens of these literary tablets the following being ,

some of the contents of this earliest known library


.1 Mythological tablets including lists of the gods
, ,

and the ir man ifestations and titles .

2 Grammatical works lists of words and explana


.
, ,

tions .

3 Mathematical works calculations tab l es of cube


.
, ,

and square roots an d tables of measures


,
.

4 Works on astronomy astrology and omens


.
, ,
.

5 L egends and Short historical inscriptions


. .

6 Historical cylinde rs one of Kudur mabuk R C


-
.
,
.
,

1 800 ( i ) ( the earliest known cylinder ) bei n g in the



,

Britis h Museum .

7 Geographic al tablets an d lists of towns and


.
,

countries .

8 Tablets containing laws and l aw cases records


.
,

of sale and barter wills and loans,


.

Such are the inscriptions a single library of


B aby l onia has produced and beside these there ,

are numerous texts only known to us through l ater


,

copies but which certainly had thei r origi n as early


,

as this period .
26 B A B YL O N I A N AN D

Passing do w n from this p e riSd for some centuries ,

we find only detached inscriptions accompanied by ,

evidence of the gradual s hi fting of both political


power and literary activity fro m Babylonia to
Assyria .

In Assyria the first centre of li terature and seat


of a library was the city of Assur (Kileh Shergat ) ,

and the earliest known tablets date about B C 1 5 00 . . .

Beyond the scanty records of a few monarchs


nothing of value remains of this library and the ,

literary works contained in it are only known from


later copies .

A reviva l of the Assyrian empire began under


Assur n at sir pal king of Assyria who as cended the
- -
, ,

throne B C 885 He rebuilt the city of Calah ( Nim


. . .

roud ) and this city became the seat of an Assyrian


,

library Tablets were procured from Babylonia by


.

Shalmaneser son of Assur n at sir pal B C 860 during


,
- -
,
. .
,

the reign of Nabu bal idina king of Babylon and - -


, ,

these were copied by the Assyrian scribes and ,

placed in the royal library Rimmon n irari grand .


-
,

son of Shalmaneser B C 81 2 added to the Calah ,


. .
,

library and had tablets written at Nineveh Assur


,
.

n ir ari
,
B C 75 5 continued the literary work some
. .
, ,

mythological tablets being dated in his reign .

Tiglath P ile se r B C 74 5 enlarged the library and


,
. .
, ,

placed i n it various copies of historical inscriptions .

It was however reserved for Sargon who founded


, , ,

the last Assyrian dyn asty B C 72 1 to make the ,


. .
,

Assyrian royal library worthy of the empire Early .


A SS YR IA N LI TER A T UR E . 27

in his reign he appointed Nabu cinn prin cipal -


uq ub
z -

librarian and this o fficer set to work to make new


,

Copies of all the standard works of the day D uring .

the whole of his term of office copies of the great


literary works were produced the maj ori ty of the ,

texts preserved belonging to the earl y period pre


vions to Kh ammur agas .

With the accession of Sargon came a revival of


literature in Assyria ; education became more general ,

ancient texts were brought from Babylo n ia to be


Copied and the antiquarian study of early literature
,

became fashi onable .

Sennacherib son of Sargon B C 704 continued to


, ,
. .
,

add to his father s library at Calah but late in hi s


reign he removed the co ll ection from that city to


Nineveh ( Kouy unj ik ) where from this time forth
,

the national library remained until the fal l of the


empire.

E sarhaddon son of Sennacherib R C 681 further


, ,
.
,

increased the nationa l collection most of the works ,

he added being of a religious character .

A ssur bani pal s on of E sarhaddon the Sardana


- -
, ,

palus of the Greeks B C 670 was the greatest of the


,
. .
,

Assyrian sovereigns and he is far more memorable


,

on accoun t of his magnificent patronage of learning


than on account of the greatness of his empire or the
extent of his wars .

A ssur bani pal added more to the Assyrian royal


- -

library than all the kings who had gone before him ,

an d it is to tablets written in his reig n that we owe


28 B A B YL O NI A N AN D

almost all our know l edge of tlIe Babylonian myths


and early history beside ma n y other important
,

matters .

The agents of Assur bani pal sought ever ywhere


- -

for inscribed tablets brought them to Nineveh and


, ,

copied them there ; thus the literary treasures of


Babylon B or sipp a On tha A gan é U r Erech L arsa
, , , , , , ,

N ip ur an d various other cities were transferred to the


,

Assyrian capital to en rich the great collection there .

The fragments brought over to Europe give us


a good idea of thi s library and show the range of
the subj ects embraced by its collection of works .

Among the d ifferent clas ses of texts the Genesis ,

stories and si milar legends occupied a prominent


place ; these as they wi ll be further described in th e
c
,

present volume need only be mentioned here A


, .

compan ying them we have a series of mythologica l


tablets of various sorts varying from legends of the
,

gods psalms songs prayers and hymns down to


, , , , ,

mere allusions and lists of n ames Many of the se .

texts take the form of charms to be used in sickness


and for the expulsion of evil spirits ; some of them
are of great antiquity being older than the Izdubar
,

legends One fine series deals with remedies against


.

witchcraft and the as saults of evil spirits Izdubar is .

mentioned in one of these tab lets as lord of the oaths


or pledges of the worl d .

Some of the prayers were for use on special occa


sion s such as on starting on a campaign on the
c
, ,

occurrence of an eclipse & Astronomy and astro


,
.
30 A SS YRI A N LI TER A T UR E .

translations of Accadian texts and the like All , .

these tablets were copied from Babylonian originals .

In legal and civil literature the library was also rich ,

and the tablets serve to show that the same laws and
customs prevailed in Assyri a as in Babylonia There .

are codes of laws law cases records of sale barter


, , , ,

and loans lists of property lists of titles an d trades


of tribute and taxes & c
, , ,

.
,

In Geography the Assyrian s were not very ad


v an ced ; but there are lists of countries and their
productions of cities rivers mountains and peoples
, , , , .

Such are some of the principal contents of the


great library from which we have obtained our copies
of the Creation and Flood legends Most of the .
.

tablets were copied from early Babylonian ones which


have in most cases disappeared ; but the Copies are
su fficient to Show the wonderfu l progress in culture
and civilization already made by the people of Chaldea
long before the age of Moses or even Abraham .

Babylonian literatu re which had been the parent of


,

Assyrian writing revived after the fall of Nineveh


an d N e buc
, ,

h ad n e zzar and his successors made B aby l


the seat of a library rivalling that of Assur bani pal at - -

Nineveh Of this later development of B ab yloni


.

literature we know very little expl orations being still ,

required to bring to light its texts A few fragments .

only discovered by wandering Arabs or recovered by


,

chance travellers have as yet turned up but there is


, ,

i n them evidence enough to promise a rich reward to


future excavators .
CH A P T ER I I I .

CHAL DE AN L E G EN DS TRAN SMITTED THRO U G H


B ERO SU S A N D O THE R AN CI ENT

AU TH O R S .

B e rosu s an d h is cpyi
o sts . —Cory s tran slation — Ale x an d e r P olyh is

his te ac
.

tor — B abylon ia — O an n e s ,
. . h i g — Cre atio — B e lus — Ch al
n . n. .

d e an k in s —Xi suth rus — D


g el uge —Th e A rk — Re turn to B abylon
c
. . . .

A pollod o u r s. P ant ibiblon L aran h a . A byd e n us . Alorus, fi rst

k in g — Te n k i n
gs — Sisith r us — D el uge — A rme n ia -
Towe r of B abe l
cl
. . . . .

— Kron os an d Titan —D is p e rsion from H e sti a


e us — B abylon ian oo

c
. .

ni e — Towe r of B abe l — Th e Sib l — Titan an d P rome t


y h e us -
Da
m c
. . .

iu — T uh
as s. a t e — . Moymis — Kissare . an d A ssorus — Triad — B e l
. . .

Y
way of introduction to the native ver
sion s of the early legen d s left us by the
Babylonian s it is advisable to glance at ,

the principal fragments bearin g on them


which are found in the classical writers of Greece an d
Rome Severa l others might have been quoted but
.
,

their origin is doubtful and they are of less importan ce ,

for the subj ect in hand Those w h o wish to consu l t .


them may turn to Cory s Ancient F ragments ’

( 2 nd edition whose translations


,
as being ,

fa irly scholarlike and correct are here given without ,

alteration .
32 C HA L D E A N L E G EN DS .

B erosus from whom the principal ext racts are


,

copied lived as has already been stated about


, , ,

330 to 2 60 and from his position as a Babylonian


, ,

priest had the best means of knowing the Babylonian


,

traditions .

T he others are later writers who copied in the ,

main from Berosus most of whose notices may be ,

taken as mere abridgments of his statements .

Ex TR A CT 1 . F OMR A L E XA N DER P O L Y H I ST O R

B erosus in the first book of his history of Baby


,

lonia informs us that he lived in the age of Alex ander


, ,

the son of Phi lip And he mentio n s that there .

were written accounts preserved at Babylon wi th ,

the greatest care comprehending a period of above


,

fifteen myriads of years ; and that these writing s


contained hi stories of the heaven and of the sea ; of
the birth of mankind ; and of the kings and of the ,

memorable actions which they had achi eved .

And in the first place he describes Babylonia as a


country situated between the Tigris and the Eu
h rate s ; that it abounded with wheat and barley
p
and oc
, ,

ru s and sesame ; and that in the lakes were


,

found the roots called gongm which are fit for food , ,

an d in respect to nutrim ent similar to barley There .

were also palm tree s and apples and a variety of


-
,

fruits ; fish also and birds both those which are ,

merely of fli ght and thos e w hi ch frequent the water


, .

Those parts of the country which bordered upon


C HA L D EA N L E G EN DS . 33

Arabia were without water and barren ; but that ,

which lay on the other Side was both hilly and fertile .

At Babylon there was ( in these times ) a great


resort of people of various races who inhabited ,

Chaldea and lived in a law l ess manner like the


,

beasts of the field .

In the first year there appeared from that part of ,

the E rythr ae an sea which borders upon Babylonia ,

an animal endowed with reason by name Oannes , ,

whose whol e body ( according to the account of

C ANN E S AN D O TH R
E BA LON I AN M THO L O G I CAL
BY Y FI G UR E S
FRO M C L IND R
Y E .

Apollodorus ) was that of a fish ; under the fish s ’

h e ad he had another head with feet also below ,

similar to those of a man subj oined to the fish s ,


tail His voice too and lan guage were articulate


.
, ,

and human ; and a representation of him is preserved


even to this day .

This being was accustomed to pass the day amo n g


men but took no food at that season ; and he gave
,

them an insight into letters and sciences and arts of ,

every kind H e taught them to construct houses to


.
,

found temples to compile laws and explai n ed to


, ,

them the p ri ncipl es of geometrica l knowledge H e .

D
34 CH A L D EAN L E G EN DS .

made them distinguish the seeds of the earth and ,

Showed them how to collect the fruits ; in short he ,

instructed them in every thing whic h could tend to


soften manners and humani ze their lives From t hat .

time nothing material has been adde d by way of


,

improvement to his instructions And whe n t h e .

sun had set this being O annes used to re tire agai n


into the sea and pass the night in the deep for he was
, ,

amphibious After this there appeared other animals


.

like Oan n es of which Berosus proposes to give an


,

account when he comes to the history of the ki n gs .

Moreover Oa n nes wrote concerning the generation


,

of mankind of their different ways of life and of their


, ,

civil polity ; and the following is the purport of what


he said
There was a time in which there existed n othing
but darkness and an abys s of waters wherein ,

resided most hideous beings which were produced ,

of a two fold principle There appeared men some


-
.
,

of whom were furnished wi th two wings others with ,

four and with two faces They had one body but
, .
,

two heads ; the one that of a man the other of a ,

woman ; they were likewise in their several organs


both male and female O ther human figures were to
.

be seen with the legs and horns of a goat ; some had


horses feet while others united the hind quarters

of a horse with the body of a man resembling i ,

shape the hippocentaurs Bulls likewise were bred


.

there with the heads of men ; and dogs with four fold
bodies terminated in their extremities with the tails
,
CH A L D E AN L E G EN D S . 35

of fishes horses also with the heads of dogs me n ,

too and other animals with the heads and bodies of


, ,

horses and the tails of fishes In short there were


,
.
,

creatures in which were combined the limbs of every


species of animals In addition to these fishes
.
, ,

rept iles serpents with other monstrous animals


, ,

which assumed each other s shape and countenance ’


.

C O M POS I T E A N I MA L S FR O M C YL I ND ER.

O f all whi ch were preserved delineations in the


temple of B elus at Babylon .


The person who was supposed to have presided
over them was a woman n amed O mor ok a which in ,

the Chaldean language is Th alat th which in Greek


is interpreted Thalassa the sea but according to ,

the most true interpretation it is equivalent to Se


l ene the moon All things being in this situatio n
.
,

Belus came and cut the woman asunder and of on e


, ,

half of her he formed the earth and of the other ,

half the heavens and at the same time destroyed the


,

animals within her (or in the abyss)


All this (he says ) was an allegorical d e sc
.


ri

p
tion of nature For the whole universe consisting
.
,
36 CH A L D E A N L E GE N D S .

of moisture and animals being continually generated


,

therein the deity above mentioned (Belus) cut off


,
-

his own head upon which the other gods mixed the
blood as it gushed out with the earth and from
thence men were formed On this ac
, , ,

count it is that .

they are rational and partake of divine knowledge


, .

This Belus by whom they signify Hades (Pluto )


, ,

divided the darkness and separated th e heavens from,

the e ar th and reduced the uni verse to order B ut


, .

the recently created animals not being able to bear


-
,

the prevalence of light died Belus upon this ,


.
,

seeing a vast space unoccupie d though by nature ,

fruitful commanded one of the gods to take ofi his


,
'

head and to mix the blood with the earth and from
, ,

thence to form other men and animals which should


,

be capable of bearing the light B elus formed also .

the stars and the sun and the moon and the five
, , ,

planets ( Such according to Alexander Polyhistor



.
, ,

is the account which B erosus gives in his first book ) .

( In the second book was contained the history of


the t e n kings of the Chaldeans and the periods of ,

the conti nuance of each reign which consisted col


le c
,

t iv e ly of an hundred and twenty sari or four ,

hundred and thirty two thousand years reaching to


-

the time of the Deluge For Alexander enumerating .


,

the kings from the writi ngs of the Chaldeans after ,

the ninth A r d at e s proceeds to the tenth who is


, ,

called by them X isut h rus i n this manner) ,



After the death of A r d at e s his son X isuth rus ,

reigned eighteen sar i In his time happened the great


.
38 CH A L D E A N LE GE N D S .

Q
He therefore made an ope n in g in the vessel and ,

upon looking out found that it was stranded u pon


the side of some mo untain ; upon which he imme
d iat e ly quitted it with his wife his daughter and the
, ,

pilot. X i suth rus then paid his adoration to the


earth : and having constructed an altar o ffered
, ,

sacrifices to the gods and with those who had come


, ,

ou t of the vessel w ith him disappeare d ,


.

They who remain ed within finding that their ,

companions did not return quitted the vessel with ,

many lamentations and called continually on the


,

name of X i sut h rus Him they saw no more but


.

they could distingui sh his voice in the air and could ,

hear him admonish them to pay due regard to the


gods ; and he likewise i nformed them that it was
upon account of his piety that he was translated to
live with the gods and that his wife and daughter and
,

the pilot h ad obtained the same honour To this he .

ad ded that they should ret u rn to Babylonia and , ,

as it was ordained search for the writings at Sip


,

para which they were to make known to all man


,

kind moreover that the place wherein they then


,

were was the land of Armenia The rest hav in g


heard these words o ffered sac
.

rifices to the gods an d , ,

taking a circuit j ourneyed towards Babylonia


,
.

The vessel being thus stranded in Armenia some ,

part of it yet remains in the Gordy aean ( or Kurdish )


mountains in Armenia and the people scrape ofi the
'

bitumen with which it h ad been outwardly coate d


and make use of it by way of an antidote and amulet .
CH A L D EA N LE GEN D S . 39

In this manner they returned to B aby l on and when


they had foun d the writings at Sip p ara they built
cities and erected temples and B abylon was thus ,

inhabited again Syn od Chron xxviii ; Euseb


— . . . .

Chr on v 8. . .

B E RO SUS FR O M AP OL L O D ORU S ( C O RY p
, ,
.

Thi s is the history which B erosus has transmitted


to us H e tells us that the first king was A lorus of
.

Babylon a Chaldean he reigned ten sari


,

years ) ; and afterwards A lap arus and A me lon who ,

came from P an tibiblon ; then A mme n on the Chal


dean i n whose time appeared the Musar us O annes
, ,

the An n e d otus from the E rythr aean sea ( But .

Alexander Polyhistor anticipatin g the event has


, ,

said that he ap peared i n the first year but Apollo ,

dorus says that it was after forty sari ; A b yd e n us ,

however makes the second An n e d ot us appear after


,

twenty six sari ) Then succeeded Me galar us from


-
.

the city of P an tibiblon and he reigned eighteen sari ;


,

and after him D aon us the shepherd from Panti ,

b ib lon reigned ten sari ; in his time ( he says )


,

appeared again from the E rythr aean sea a fourth


A n n e d ot us having the same form with those above
, ,

th e sh ap e of a fish blended with that of a man Then


reigned E ue d orac h us ( or E ue d or e sc
.

h us ) from Panti
b iblon for the term of eighteen sari ; in his days there
appeared another personage from the E rythr ae an
sea like the former having the same complicate d
,

fo rm between a fish an d a man whose name was ,


40 CH A L D E AN LE GE N D S .

O d ak on ( All these .says Apollodorus related , ,

particularly and circumstantially whatever Oannes


had informed them of concernin g these A b y d e n us
has made no mention ) Then reigned A me mp sin us
a Chaldean from L aran c
.
,

h a; and he bein g the eighth


in order reigned ten sari Then reign ed O ti art e s a 1

Chaldean from L aran c


.
,

h a; and he ruled eight sari


, .

And upon the death of O tiar te s his son Xisuth rus


, ,

reigned eighteen sari ; in his time happened the great


Deluge So that the sum of all the kings is ten ; and
.

the term which t h e y collectively reigned an hundr ed


and twenty sari Sy 7zc

el Citr on xxxix ; E us eb
. . . . .

Chron v . .

B E RO SU S FRO M A B YD EN U S ( C O RY p
, ,
.

So much concerning the wisdom of the Chaldeans .

It is said that the first king of the country was


A lor us and that he gave out a report that God had
,
2
appointed him to be the shepherd of the people ; he
reigned ten sari ; now a sarus is esteemed to be three
thousand six hundred years a neros six hundred , ,

and a sossus sixty .

Afte r him Alaparus reigned three sari ; to him


succeeded A millarus from the city of Pan tib ib lon who ,

reigned thirteen sari ; in hi s time there came up fiom '

Th e n ative c
c
a oun t of th e D el uge s h ows th at th is na me mus t be
c cd O p
orre te to arte s, th e n ative n a me be in g U bara- Tutu
A c c
c
.

mm2
o on t itle of th e e arl
y A ad ian k in s i s
g sh e h e rd , p
p oi n tin
g to t h e c
fa t th at th e A c
c ad ian s h ad le d a as toral li fe be fore
p
t h e ir se ttle me nt an d organization i n th e B abylon ian plai
n.
CH A L D E A N LE GE N D S . 41

the sea a second A n n e d otus a demigod very similar ,

i n form to O annes ; after A mi llar us reigned Am


menon twelve sari ; who was of the city of Panti
b ib lon ; then Me galar us of the same place reigned
eighteen s ari ; then Daos the shepherd governed for
the space of ten sari he was of P an tib iblon ; in his
,

time four double shaped personages came u p out


-

of the sea to land whose names were Eue d ok us


, ,

En e ugamus E n e ub ulus and A n e me n tus ; after


wards in the time of Eue d or e sc
, ,

h us appeared another ,

A n od aph us
. After these reigned other kings and ,

last of al l Si si th rus so that in all the n u mber


,

amounted to ten kings and the term of their reigns


,

to an hundred and twenty sari ( And among other .

things not irrelative to the subj ect he continues thus


concerning the Deluge ) : After Eue d or e sc h us some
others reigned and then Sisith rus To him the
, .

deity Kronos foreto l d that on the fifteenth day of


the month D ae si us there would be a deluge of rain
and he commanded him to deposit all the wr itings
whatever which were in his possession in Sip p ara the
city of the sun Sisith rus when he had complied
.
,

with these commands sailed immediately to Armenia


, ,

and was presently inspired by God U po n the third .

day after the cessation of the rain Sisi th r us sent out


birds by way of experiment that he might j udge ,

whether the flood had subsided But the birds .


,

passing over an un bounded sea without finding any


place of res t ret urned ag ain to Sisith r us This b e
,
.

repeated with other bi rds An d when upon the third .


42 CH A L D E A N LE G EN D S .

trial he succeeded for the birfi then returned with


,

their feet stained with mud the gods translated him ,

from among men With respect to the vessel w h ich


.
,

yet remains in Armenia it is a custom of the inha ,

bi tan ts to form bracelets an d amul ets O f its wo od


Sy n c
.

el Ch r on xxxviii ; E us eb P r a ) E v an lib ix
. .
y . . . . . .

E useb Chr on v 8
. . . .

OF T O WE R or B A B EL ( C O RY p
TH E ,
.

They say that the first inhabitants of the earth ,

glorying in their own strength and size and despisi n g


the gods undertook to build a tower whose top
,

should reach the sky in the place where Babylon ,

now stands ; but when it approached the heaven the


winds assisted the gods and overturn ed the work ,

upon its contrivers and its ruins are said to be


,

still at Babylon ; and the gods introduced a diversity


of tongues among me n who till that time had all ,

spoken the same language ; and a war arose betwee n


Kronos and Titan The place in whi ch they b uil t
.

the tower is now called Babylon on account of the


confusion of tongues for confusion is by the H e ,

brews called Babel Euseb P r azp Evan lib ix ;


Syn c
. . . . . .

el C/zr m
. z xliv ; E u
. seb Ch r on xiii
. . . .

OF TH E D I SP E RSI O N ,
FR O M H E STU E U S ( C O R Y p ,
.

The priests who escaped took with them the imple


ments of the worship of the En y alian Z eus and c am e ,

to Se n aar i n Babylonia B ut they were again driven .

from thence by the introduction of a diversity O f


CH A L D E A N LE GE N D S . 43

tongues ; upon which they founded colonies in v a


rio n s parts each settling in such situations as chance
,

or the direction of God led them to occupy Jos — . .

A n t Ju
. d i c 4 ; Eus eb P r aep Ev an ix
. . . . . . .

OF TH E T O WE R B A B E L FR OM A L EX A N D E R P O L Y
OF ,

H I STO R ( C O R Y p ,
.

The Sibyl says : That when al l men formerly spoke


the same language some among them undertook to
erect a large and lofty tower that they might climb ,

up into hea ven But God sending forth a whirlwind


.

confounded their design and gave to each tribe a ,

particular language of its own which is the reason ,

that the name of that city is Babyl on After the .

deluge li ved Titan and Prometheus when Titan


undertook a war against Kronos Sy n c
,

— xliv ; Jos . . . .

A n t Jud i c 4
. E us eb P r wp E van ix
. . . . . . . .

TH E T H EO G ON IE S ,
FR O M D A MA SCI U S ( C O R Y p ,
.

But the B abylonians like the rest of the barba ,

rians pass over in silence the One principle O f the


,

universe and they constitute two : Tauth e and


,
l

A p as on making A p ason the husband of Taut h e and


,
2
,

denominating h e r the mother of the gods And .

from these proceeds an O nly begotten son Moy mis -


, ,
3

which I conceive is no other than the intelligible


world proceeding from the two principles From .

Assyrian , Tiamtu, th e d e e p Q
A ssyrian , A psu th e o c e an .

c
.
,

A ssyr ian , Mummu ,



ha os .

44 CH A L D E A N LE GEN D S
.

C
i
them also another progeny is d e riv e d Dache and
D ac
,

h us ;
1
and again a third Kissare and A ssorus
, ,

from which last thre e others proceed Anus (A n n ) , ,

and I lli n us (Elum) and Aus ( Hea) And of Aus


,
.


and Dauke ( Dav cin e lady O f the
-
,
is born
a son call ed B elus who they
, ,

the world the Demi urgus


,
.

A ssyr ian , L akh ma or L ak h vu; and L akh ama or L akh va .


46 B A B YL O N I A N M Y TH O L O G Y .

Babylonian mythology was IOc al in origin ; each

of the gods had a particular city which was the spe


c ial seat of his worship and it is probable that the
,

idea O f w eaving the gods into a system in which each ,

should have his part to play did not arise until after
,

the Semitic occupation O f the country Th e antiquity .

of this systematized mythology may ho wever be , ,

seen from the fact that two thousand years before


,

the Christia n era it was already completed and its ,

deities definitely connected into a system which re


mained with little change down to the close of the
kingdom .

I n early times the gods were worshipped only at


their original ci ties or seats the various cities or ,

settlements being independent of each other ; but it


was natural as wars arose and some cities gained ,

conquests over others and kings gradual ly united the


,

country i n to monarchies that the conquerors should


,

impose their gods upon the conquered Thus arose .

the system of different ranks or grades among the


gods Colonies again were sent out at times and
.
, , ,

the colonies as they considered themselves sons of


,

the cities they started from also considered their gods


,

to be sons of the gods of the mother cities Political .

changes in early times led to the rise and fall of v a


r i ou s town s and consequently O f their deities and ,

gave rise to numerous myths relating to the different


personages in the mythology In some remote age .

there appear to have been three great cities in the


country E rech Eridu and N i pur and their divi
, , , ,
B A B YL O N I A N M YTH O L O G Y . 47

Anu H e a and Bel were considered the great


ni t i e s
, ,

gods of the country Subsequent chan ges led to



.

the decli ne of these states but their deities still ,

retained their positio n to the end of the Babylonia n


system .

These three leading deities formed members of a



circle of twelve gods also called great These , .

gods and their titles are given as



1 A n n meaning the sky in Accadian kin g of ”
.
, ,

an gels and spirits lor d of the city of Erech , .

2 Bel Elum or Mul i n Accadian lord of the lo w er


.
, ,

world father of the gods creator lord of the city of


, , ,

N ip ur .

3 Hea
. god O f the house of water maker of
, ,

fate lord of the deep god of wisdom and knowledge


, , ,

lord of the city O f Eridu .

4 Sin the Moon god Acu or Agu in Accadian lord


.
,
-
, ,

of crowns maker of brightness lord of the city O f U r


, ,
.

5 Merodach
.

the glory of the Sun j ust prince
, ,

of the gods lord O f birth lord of the city of Babylon


, ,
.

6 Rimmon the Air god Mir mir in Accadian the


.
,
-
, ,

strong god lord of canals and atmosphere lord of the


, ,

city O f Muru
7 Samas the S un god U t uc
.

.
,
i in Accadian j udge -
, ,

of heaven and earth director of all lord of the citie s , ,

of L arsa and Si a ra
pp .

8 N in ip warrior of the gods d estroyer of the


.
, ,

wicked lord of the city of Nip ur


,
.

9 Nergal
.

illuminator of the great city ( H ades )
, ,

g iant king of war lord of the city of Cut h a ,


.
48 D AB YL O N I A N MYTH O L O G Y .

10
. Nusku holder ofthe golden sceptre the loftygod
, ,
.

1 1 B elat wife of Bel mother of the great gods


.
, , ,

lady of the city O f N ip ur .

12 Istar Gin gir in Accadian eldest O f heaven and


.
, ,

earth raising the face of warriors


,
.

Below these deitie s there was a large body of god s


forming the bulk of the pantheon and below these ,

were arra n ged the Igigi or 300 angels of heaven and


, ,

the Anunnaki or 600 ange l s O f earth B elow these


,
.

again came various classes of spirits or gen n called


Sedu V ad ukk u Ekimu Gallu and others ; some of
, , , ,

these were evil some good ,


.

The relationship of the various principal gods and


their names titles and O ffices wi ll ap pear from the
, ,

followin g remarks .

At the head of the Babylonian mythology stands a


deity who was sometimes identified with the heavens ,

sometimes considered as the ruler and god of heaven .

This deity is named Anu his sign is the simple star , ,

the symbol of divi nity and at other times the Maltese


,

cross In the philosophic theology of a later age


.
,

Anu represents abstract divinity and he appears ,

as an original principle perhaps as the origina l ,

principle of nature H e represents the universe as


.

the upper and lower regions and when these were ,

divided the upper region or heaven was called A n u ,

while the lower region or earth was called An at u;


A n at u being the female principle or wife of Anu .

Anu is termed the old god and the god of the whole ,

of heaven and earth ; one of the manifestations of


B AB YL O N I A N M YTH O L O G Y . 49

A n u was under the two forms L ak h muand L akh amu ,

whi ch probably correspond to the Greek forms Dache


and B achus see p ,
Thes e forms are said to have
.

spru n g out of the original chaos and they are fol ,

lowed by the two forms Sar and Kisar (the Ki ssare


and A ssorus of the Greeks) Sar means the upper .

hosts or expanse Kisar the lower hosts or expanse ;


,

these are also forms or manifestations of Anu and his


wife A n n is further called lord of the O ld city an d
.
,

bears the name of Alalu His titles generally indi .

cate height antiquity purity divinity and he may


, , , ,

be taken as the general type of divinity Anu .

was originally worshi pped at the city O f E rech ,

which was called the city of Anu and A n atu and the ,

great temple there was called the house of Anu ,

or the house of heaven .


A n at u the wife or consort of Anu , is generally only


,

a female form of Anu but is sometimes contrasted ,

with him ; thus when Anu represents height and


,

heaven A n at u represents depth and earth ; she is


,

also the lady of darkness the mother of the god Hea , ,

the mother of heaven an d earth the female fish god ,


-
,

and is O ften ident ified with Istar or Venus A n at u .


,

however had no existence in Accadian mythology


,
.

She is the product of the imagination of the S emites ,

whose grammar drew a distinctio n between the


masc uli ne and feminine genders .

Th ough L ak h ma re e rl
p p y re p re se n te d Ann or A n atu, h e so me time s
tak e s th e plac
e of th e Solar h e ro N in ip as h usband of G ula, th e

great
god d e ss .
50 B A B YL ON I A N MY TH O L O G Y .

Anu and A n at u had a numerous family ; among


their sons are numbered L ugal edin the ki n g of the
“ -
,

desert L atarak A h gula Kusu and the air god


,

,
-
, ,
-
,

whose name was Ramman or Rimmon in Accadian ,

Mirmir Rimmon is god O f the region of the atmo


.

sphere O r space between the heaven and earth he is


, ,

the god of rain of storms an d whirlwind of thunder


, ,

and lightning of floods and watercourses He was


,
.

in high esteem in Syria and Arabia where he bore the ,

name of Dadda ; in Armenia he was called Te ise b a .

Rimmon is always considered an active deity and was ,

extensively worshipped .

Another important god a son of Anu was the god of , ,

fire whose name was Gib il in Accadian The fire god


,
.
-

takes an active part in the numerous mythological tab


lets and legends and is considered to be the most potent
,

deity i n relation to witchcraft and spells ge n erally .

The most important O f the daughters of A n n was


n am ed Istar she w as in some respects the equivalent
of the classical Venus Her worshi p was at first sub
.

ordinate to that of A n n and as she was goddess of ,

love while Anu was god of heaven it is probable


, ,

that the first intention in the mythology was only to


represent love as heaven born but in time a more -

sensual view prevailed and the worship of Istar ,

became one of the darkest features i n Babylonian


mythology As the worship of this goddess increased
.

in favour it gradually superseded that O f Anu until


, ,

in time hi s temple the house of heaven came to be


, ,

regarded as the temple O f Venus .


B A B YL O N IA N M Y TH O L O G Y . 51

The planet Venus as the evening star was iden


, ,

t ifie d with the Istar of E rech while the morning ,

star was A n un it goddess of A gan é


,
.

Istar however was worshipped under a great


, ,

variety of forms E ach city each state had its own


.
, ,

special Istar and its own special worship of her In .

the syncretic age O f Babylonian theology these ,

various forms and modes of worship were amalga


mated together and epithets of the goddess which
,

were originally peculiar to particular localities were ,

applied to the single goddess of the state re li gion .

Thus accor di ng to the legends of one part of Baby


,

loni a Istar was t h e daughter of the Moon god


,
-
,

according to those O f another part of the country she


was the daughter O f Anu Hence in the mythology of
.

a later period she appears sometimes as the daughter


of the one deity sometimes as the daughter of the
,

other
.

A compan ion deity with Anu is H ea who is god ,

of the sea and of Hades in fact of all the lower r e


,

g ions
. In some of his attributes he answers to the
Kronos of the Greeks i n others to their Poseidon
, .

H ea is called god of the lower region he is lord of ,

the sea or abyss he is also lord of generation and


of all human beings and bears the titles lord of
,

wisdom of mines and treasures of gifts O f music


, , ,

of fisherme n and sailors and of Hades or hell It


, .

h as been supposed that the serpent was one of


his emblems and that he was the O annes of Berosus ;
,

but these conje ctures have not yet bee n proved .


52 B AB YL O N IA N M Y TH O L O G Y .

The wife of Hea was Dav kina the D av k e O f -

D amas c
,

ius who is the goddess of the lower r e


,

gions the consort of the deep and their principal


,

son was Mar ud uk or Merodach the B el of l ater ,

times .

Merodach god O f Babylon appears in all the


, ,

earlier inscriptions as the agent of his father Hea


he goes about the world collecting infor mation an d ,

receives commissions from his father to set right al l


that appears wrong He is called the redeemer of
.

mankind the restorer to life and the raiser from the


, ,

dead H e is an active agent in creation but is


.
,

always subordi nate to his father Hea In later .

times after B abylon h ad been made the capi tal


, ,

Merodach who was god of that city was raised to


, ,

the head of the Pantheon Merodach afterwards .

came to be identified with the classical Jupiter but ,



the n ame Bel the lord was only given to him in
,

,

times subsequent to the rise of Babylon when the ,

worship of the older Bel the Accadian Elum was , ,

falling into decay The wife of Merodach was Z irat


.

p e nit perhaps the Succoth B e n ot h of the Bible B e


,
.

sides Merodach Hea had a numerous progeny his


, ,

sons being principally river gods -


.

Nebo the god of knowledge and literature who


, ,

was worshippe d at the neighbouring city of B orsip pa ,

was a favourite deity in later times as was also his ,

consort Tasmi t t h e Hearer



Nebo whose name .
,

signifies the prophet was called Timkhi r in Ac



,

cadian and had his temple in the island O f D ilv un


, ,
54 B A B YL ON I A N M YTH O L O G Y .

of the country hi s worship became very widely spread -

and popular throughout the country .

N in ip god of hunting and war was another cele


, ,

br ate d son of Bel ; he was wors hi pped with his father


at N ipur N in ip was also much worshipped in
.

Assyria as well as Babylon ia his character as pre


,

siding genius O f war and the chase making him a


favourite deity with the warlike kings of Assyria .

O riginally he was a form of the sun god -


.

Sin the moon god h ad a son Samas the sun god


-
,
-
.

Samas is an active deity in some of the Izdubar


legends and fables b ut he is generally subordinate
,

to Sin In the Babylonian system the moon takes


.

precedence of the sun as b e fitt e d a nation of


,

astronomers and the Samas of L arsa was pro


,

bably considered a different deity from Samas of


Si pp ara .

Among the other deities of the Babylonians may


be counted Nergal god of Cuth a who like Nini p
, , , ,

presided over hunting and war and A n un i t the , ,

goddess of one O f the quarters of Si ppar a and of ,

the city of A gan é .

The following table will exhibit the relationship of


the principal deities as it had been drawn up by the
n ative writers on the cosmogony but it must be
noted that it belon gs to a late age of syn cretic philo
sophy when the scholars of A ssur bani pal s court
,
- -

were endeavourin g to resolve the old deities of


Accad into mere abstraction s and so explain the
,

myths which described t h e creation of the world .


B A B YL O N I A N M Y TH O L O G Y . 55

Tamtu or Tiamt u Absu( A p ason


( th e se a
) .
( t h e d e e p) .

Kisar ( Kis sare ) Sar ( A s sorus


)
( lowe r e xp an se
) .
( upp e r ex pa n se
) .

A n atu Elum, or B el . B e lti s .

( e art h) .

R immon G ibil H e a ( Sat urn ) I star ( Ve n us) .

( atmos ph e re ) .
( fire -
od
g ) .
( th e d e e p) .

H e a ( Saturn ) . D e v ki n a
( D avk e
) . E lum . B e ltis .

c
F
'

Me rod a h . Z irat -
p an it . Sin . N in gal . N in ip .

—L L — J— J
F
‘ ‘

n
‘ ‘

l r
Tasmit . Samas . I star .
C H A P TE R V

B A B Y L O N I AN LEG EN D O F TH E CREATI O N .

Mutilate d cd i i
on t on of table ts —L ist of s ubj ec D c
ts ip i -
es r t on of

m c
. .

c
ha os — Tiamat — G e ne ration of G od s —D a as. iu C mp s .— o arison

wit h G Three g
e n e sis.— re at
god s — D oub tful f
— Fifth table t
ra me n ts
g
c
.

— Stars — Moon Sun — A byss or h aos — Cre at ion of moon


-
Cre a
c c
. . . .

i
t on of an i mals — M on oth e i s m — H ymn to Me rod a h —Th e bla k
c
. . .

h e ad e d ra e or A d amite s — G ard e n of Ed e nTh e flamin g s word


cd
. . .

Th e fall .
-
Th e Sabbath — Sa
. re tr ee .
— H mn to th e Cre ator
y .

T is extremely unfortunate that the legend


of the Creation in days has reached us in
so fragmentary ac on d i t ion It is evident .
,

however that in its present form it is of


,

Assyrian not of Babylonian origin and was probably


, , ,

composed in the time of Assur bani pal It breathes - -


.

throughout the spirit of a later age its language and ,

sty l e show no traces of an Accadian original and the ,

colophon at the end implies by its silence that it was


not a copy of an older document N O doubt the .

story itself was an an cient one ; the number seven


was a sacred number amon g the Accadians who i n ,

vented the week O f seven days and kept a seventh ,


B A B YL O N I A N L E GEN D . 57

day Sabbath an d excavations in Babylonia may yet


,

bring to light the early Chaldean form of the legend .

But this we do not at present possess .

SO far as the fiagme n t s can be arranged they seem


'

to O bserve the follo wing order


1 Part of the first tablet giving an account of the
.
,

Chaos and the generation of the gods .

2 Fragment of subsequent tablet perhaps the


.
,

second on the foundatio n of the deep .

3 Fragment of tablet placed here with grea t


.

doubt possibly referring to the creation of land


, .

4 Part of the fifth tablet recording the creation of


.
,

the heavenly bodies .

5 Fragment of the seventh ? tablet recording the


.
,

creation of land animals .

These fr agments indicate that the series included


at least seve n tablets the writing on each tablet
,

being i n one column on the front an d back an d ,

probably including over one hundred lines O f text .

The first fragment in the story is the upper par t


of the first tablet giving the description of the void
,

or chaos and part of the generation of the gods


,
.

The translation is as follows


.1 At that time above the heaven was unnamed
,

.2 below the earth by name was unrecorded


.3 the boundless deep also ( was ) their generator .

.4 The c h aos O f the sea was she who bore the whole
of them .

.5 Their waters were co ll ected together i n one


pl ace an d,
58 B AB YL O N IAN L EG E N D

6 the flowering reed was n ot %ath e re d the marsh


.
,

plant was not grown .

7 At that time the gods had not been produced


.
,

an y one of them ;

8 By name they had not been called destiny was


.
,

not fixed .

.9 Were made also the ( great ) gods ,

1 0 the gods L ak h mu and L ak h amu were p ro


d uc
.

ed
(the first ) and ,

1 1 to growt h they
.

1 2 the gods Sar and Kisar were made next


. .

1 3 The days were long ; a long (time pas sed )


.
,

( and )
1 4 the gods Anu ( B e l and Hea were born O f)
.

1 5 the gods Sar and ( Kisar )


.

On the reverse of this tablet there are only frag


ments of the eight lines of colophon but the re stora ,

tio n of the passage is easy ; it reads



.1 First tablet of At that time above (name of
Creation series ) .

.2 Palace of Assur bani pal kin g of nati ons king


- -
,

of Assyria
3 to whom N e b O and Tasmit gave broad c
,

. ar s
4 ( his) seeing eyes regard e d the en graved charac
.

ters O f the tablets ;


5 this writing which among the kin gs who went
.

before me
6 none of them regarded
.
,

.7 the secrets of N s h e the literature of the library


,

as much as is suitable ,
O F TH E CR EA TIO N . 59

8 . on tab lets I wrote I engraved I explained


, , ,

and
9 . for the inspection O f my people withi n my
palace I placed .

T hi s colopho n will serve to show the val ue attached


to the documents and the date of the present copies
, .

The fragment of the obverse broken as it is is


, ,

prec i ous as giving the description of the chaos or


desolate void before the Creation of the world and ,

the fir st movement of creation This corresponds


.

with the first two verses of the first chapter of


Genesis .

.1 I n the beginnin g God created the heaven and


the earth .

2 And the earth was without form and void ; and


.

d arkness was upon th e face of the deep And the .

spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters .

O n comparing the fragment of the first tablet of


the Creation with the extract from D amasc i us we ,

do not fin d any statement as to there being two prin


c ip le s at first calle d Taut h e and A p ason and these ,

producing Moy mi s but in the Creation tablet the


,

first exi stence is called Mummu Tiamatu a nam e ,


meaning the chaos of the deep The compound

.

M ammu Ti amatu in fact combines the two names


Moy mis and Tauth e of D amasc
, ,

ius Tiamat u must


.

also be the same as the Th alat th of Berosus w hi ch ,

we are expressly told was the sea It should there


.
,

fore be corrected to Th av atth as M L e n orman t pro


pose d somc
, ,
.

years ago It is evident that according


.
,
60 B AB YL ON I A N L E GEN D

to the notion of the B ab yloman s the sea was the ,

origi n of all t hi ngs and this also agrees with the


,

statement of Genesis i 2 where the chaotic waters . .

are called t eh Om the deep the same word as the



, ,

Tiamat of the Creation text and the Tauth e of


c
D amas i us .

The Assyri an word Illummuis probably connected


with the Hebrew meh fimd h confusion its Accadian'

, ,

equivalent being Umun Besides the name of the .

chaotic deep called téhé m in Genesis w hi ch is as has


, ,

been said evidently the Tiamat O f the Creation te xt


, ,

we have in Genesis the word tot waste desolate or , , ,

for mless applied to this chaos The correspondence


,
.

between the inscription and Genesis is complete since ,

both state that a watery chaos preceded the creation


and formed in fac
,

t the origin and groundwork of the


, ,

universe We have here not only an agreement i


.

sense but what is rarer the same word used in both


, , ,

narratives as the name of this chaos and given also


in the account of D amasc
,

ius .

Next we have in the inscription the creation of the


gods L akh mu and L ak hamu; these are male and fe
male p e r son ific
at ion s O f motion and production and

correspond to the Dache and Dach as of D amas c


,

i us and ,

the moving r fiakh the wind or spirit of Genesis The


, ,
.

next stage in the creation was the production of Sar and


Kisar representing the upper expanse and the lower
,

expanse an d corresponding with the A ss or us and Kis


sare of D amasc
,

ius The resemblance in these names


.

is probably even closer than is here represented since ,


62 B AB YL O N I A N L EG E N D

the successive stages or forms Of the Creation is ,

striking and leaves no doubt about the source of the


,

quotation from the Greek writer .

The three next tablets in the Creatio n series are


absent there being only two doubtful fragments of
,

this part of the story Judging from the an alogy of


.

the Book of Genesis we may conj ecture that this part


,

of the narrative contained the description of the


creation of light of the atmosphere or fir mame n t of
, ,

the dry land and of plants One fragment which pro


,
.

bably belonged to this space is a small portion O f the


top of a tablet referring to the fixing O f the dry land ;
but it may belong to a later part of the story since it is ,

part of a speech to one of the gods This fragment .

1s

At that time the foundations of the caverns of


1 .

rock [thou didst make]


2 the foundati ons of the caverns thou didst call
.

[them]
3 the heaven was named
.

4 to the face of the heaven


.

5 th e n didst give
.

6 a man
.

There is a second more doubtful fragment which


also may come in here and like the las t relate to
, , ,

the creation of the dry land It is however given.


, ,

under reserve
1 The god Khir
.

2 At that time to the god


.

3 So be it I concealed thee
.
,
OF TH E GR EA TI ON . 63

4 .from the day that thou


5 angry thou didst speak
.

6 The god Assur his mouth opened and spake to


.
,

the god
7 Above the deep the seat of
.
,

8 in front of Bit Sarra which I have made


.
-

9 below the place I s trengthen


.

1 0 L et there be made also Bit L usu the seat


.
-
,

1 1 Withi n it hi s stronghold may he build and


.

1 2 At that time from the deep he r ai sed


.

1 3 the place
. lifted up I made
1 4 above
. heaven
1 5 the place
. lifted up thou didst make
16 . the city of Assur the temples of the
great gods
17 his father Anu
1 8 the god
. thee and o ver all which thy
han d has made
19 thee having over the earth which thy
, ,

hand has m ad e
20 . having Assur which thou hast called its
,

name
T hi s fragment is both mutilated and obscure and ,

it is more than doubtful whether it has anything to


do with the Creation tablets It seems rather to be
.

a local legend relating to Assur the O ld capital of


,

Assyria an d possibly recording the legend of its


,


foundation Bit Sarra or E Sarra the temple O f
- -
,

the legions was dedica t ed to N i ni p and forms part O f


the n ame of Tiglath P ile se r ( Tuc
, ,

ultz p al esd r a Ser


'

- - -
64 B A B YL O N I A N L EG E N D

vant of the son of Bit Sarra i t N ini p ) It seems-


,
)
.

to have denoted the firmame n t the legions or



,


hosts referring to the multitudinous spirits O f


heaven The Biblical expression the L ord of hosts
.

may be compared .

The next recognizable portion of the Creation


legends is the upper part of the fifth tablet which ,

gives the creation of the heavenly bodies and runs ,

parallel to the account of the fourth d ay O f creation


in Genesis .

This tablet opens as follows

Fifth Tablet o f Creation L egend .

Obverse .

1(Anu
.
) made suitable the mansions of the (s e v e n )
great gods .

2 The stars he placed in them the lamasi h e fix e d



.
, .

3 He a rranged the year according to the bounds


.

( or signs of the Z odiac Heb mazzar oth


) that h
, e d e .

fined .

4 For each of the twelve months three s tms h e


.

fixed .

5 From the day when the year issues forth unto


.

the close ,

6 he established the mansion of the god Nibir u


.
,

that they might know their laws (or bonds) .

Th e se ve n

h e e p ( or
s ox e n ) of th e he ro Tammuz ( Orion) of

hc
,

w i h th e first was t h e plough h an dle -



pe rh aps B e e ln as h O ne
n of

th e sh e p he rd of th e h eave n ly floc c
.
,

th e oth e rs was k or Ar turus .


O F TH E CR EA TIO N . 65

7That they might not err or deflect at all


.
,

8 the mansio n of Bel an d Hea he establishe d


.

along with himself .

9 He opened also the great gates i n the sides of


.

t h e world ;

1 0 the bolts he strengthened on the left hand and


.

o n the right .

1 1 In its centre also he made a staircase


.

1 2 The moon god he caused to beautify the thick


.
-

13 .H e appointed him also to hinder (or balance )


the ni ght that the day may be known
, , ,

1 4 (sayi ng) : Every month without break , O b


.
,

serve thy circle


1 5 at the beginning of the month also when the
.
,

n ight is at its h eight


1 6 (with) the horns thou an n oun c
.

. e s t that the

heave n may be known .

1 7 On the seventh day (thy ) circle (be gins to) fill,


.

1 8 but open in darkness w ill remain the ha l f on


.

the right
1 9 At that time the sun (will be ) on the horizon
.

(
O f heaven at thy rising
) .

2 0 ( Thy form ) determine and make a (circ l e ?)


.

2 1 ( From hence ) return ( and ) approach the path


.

of the sun .

2 2 ( Then ) wi ll the darkn ess return ; the sun wil l


.

change .

Th is is D r.

O ppe rt s re n d e ri n
g of hc
h is so
alin e w i mutilate d as to

make p
any atte m t at translation e x tre me ly d oubtful .

F
66 B A B YL O N I A N L EGEN D

23
. seek its r oatf
2 4 ( Rise and) set an d j ud ge j udgment
.
,
.

All that is l eft of the reverse is the latter half of the


last line of th e narrative and the colophon which
, ,

runs thus
the gods on his hearing
F
. .

ifth tablet of (the series beginning) At that time


above .

Property of Assur bani pa l king of nations kin g of


- -

Assyri a .

This fine fragment is a typical specimen of th e


styl e of the whole series and shows a marked stage
,

in the Creation the appointment of the heavenly orbs


, .

It parallels the fourth day of Creation in the firs t


chapter of Genesis wh ere we read : And God said
,

,

L et there be lights in the fir mame n t of the heaven to


divide the day from the night ; and let them be for
lights in the firmame n t of the heaven to divi de the
day from the night ; and let them be for signs and ,

for seasons and for days and years


, ,

1 5 And let them be for lights in the fir mame n t O f


.

the heaven to give light upon the eart h : and it was so .

1 6 An d God made two great lights ; the gr eate r


.

light to rule the day and the lesser light to r ule the
,

night he m ade the stars also .

1 7 And God set them in the fir mame n t of the


heaven to give light upon the earth ,

1 8 And to rule over the day and over the night


.
,

an d to divide the light from the darkness : and God


saw that it w as good .
68 B A B YL O N I A N L EGEN D

the word rendered to make suita“


ble comes fro m a

root which signifies pleasant or agreeable It ”
.

may be noted that the word y uad d z he arranged



'


or appointed i n the third line has the same root as
the Hebrew ma d d hzm which is used in the same con
'

nec
,


t ion Gen i 1 4 in the sense O f seasons ”
. . .

We next come to the creation of the heavenly orbs ,

and j ust as the book of Genesis says they were set


for sign s and seaso n s for days and years so the in
, ,

scription describes that the stars were set i n courses


to define the year The twelve conste l lations or
.

signs of the zodiac and two other bands of constell a


,

tions are referred to corresponding with the two sets


,

of twelve stars one to the north an d the other to the


,

south of the zodiac which according to D iod or us


Si c
,

ulus played a prominent part in Babylonian astro


nomy .

The god N ibiruappears in the astronomical tablets


as one of the stars Here however in the account
.
, ,

of the Creation he seems to be the deity who


,

specially presided over the signs of the zodiac and


the course of the year and in a hymn to the Creator
, ,

which will be translated further on he takes the ,

place of the classical F ate and determines the l aws


,

of the universe generally and of the stars in par


tic
,

ular It is evident from the O pening of the i n


.
,

scription on the first tablet of the great Chaldean


work on astrology and astronomy that the functions ,

of the stars were according to the Babylonians to act


not only as regulators of the seas ons and the ye ar ,
OF TH E GR EA TIO N . 69

but to be also used as signs as in Genesis i 1 4


,
.
,

for in those ages it was generally be li eved that


the heavenly bodies gave by their appearance an d
,

positions signs of events which were coming on the


,

earth
The passage given in the eighth line of the i n sc
.

ri
p
tion to the e ffect that the God who created the stars
,

fixed places or habitations for B el and Hea with him


se lf i n the heavens points to the fact that Anu god
, ,

O f the heavens was considered to be the creator of


,

the heavenly hosts ; for it is he who shares with B e l


and Hea the di visions of the face of the sky which ,

was divided into three zones S ummer was the .

season of B el autumn of A n n and winter O f Hea


, , ,

the season of spring not being recognized by the


Babylonians The new moon also was call ed Anu
.

for the first five days H ea for the next five and Be l
, ,

for the t hi rd .

The ninth line of the tab l et gives us an insight


into the phi losop hi cal beliefs of the early B ab y lo
n ian s . They evidently considered that the world
was drawn together out O f the waters an d rested or
‘ ,

reposed upon a vast abyss of chaotic ocean which


filled the space be l ow the world This dark infernal
.

lake was shut in by gigantic gates and strong fasten


ings which prevented the floods from overwhel mi n g
,

the world In the centre was a staircase which led


.

from the abyss below to the region of light above .

The account then goes on to describe the creatio n


of the moon for the purpose of beautifying the night
70 B A B YL O N I A N L EG E N D

an d regulating the c alendar Th e phases of th e .

moon are recorded : its commencing as a thin cres


cent at evening on the first day of the month and ,

its gradually increasing and travelling further into


the night It will be notic ed that it is regarded as
.


appointed in the language of the Bible to divide
, ,

the day from the night an d to be for a sign and ,



a season The expression j udge j udgment may
.

be compared with the expression of Genesis ( i .


that th e sun an d moon were set to rule over the
day and over the night An account of th e creation
.

O f the sun probably followed upon that of the creation

of the moon .

The creation of the moon however is pl aced first , ,

i n accordance with the general views of the B ab ylo


n i an s
,
who as was natural in a people of astro
,

n ome r s ,
honoured the moon above the sun eve n ,

making the sun god the son of the moon god


- -
.

The details of the creation of the planets and


stars which would have been very important to us
, ,

are unfortunately l ost no further fragment of thi s


,

tablet having been recovere d .

The colophon at the close of the tablet gives us ,

ho w ever part of the first line of the sixth tablet but


, ,

not enough to determine its subj ect It is probable .

that this dealt with the creation of creatures of the


water and fowls of the air and that these were the ,

creation of B el the compani on deity to A n n


, .

The next tablet the seventh in the series is pro


, ,

bably represented by a curious fragment which was ,


72 B AB YL O N IAN L EG E N D

kind and cattle after their kind and everythi ng that


, ,

creepeth upon the earth aft er his kind : and God saw
that it was good .

The Assyrian tablet commences with a statement


of the satisfaction a former creation apparently that ,

of the monsters or whales had given ; here referring ,

to Genesis i 2 3 I t then goe s on to relate the creation


. .

of living animals on land three kinds being disti n ,

g ui sh e d exactly
,
agreeing with the Genesis account ,

and then we have in the ninth line a curious reference


to the god N in si k u(one of the names of Hea) One
- - .


of Hea s titles was the lord O f mankin d and Sir

,

Henry Rawlinson h as endeavoured to show that E ridu ,

the city of Hea was identical with the Biblic al Garden


,

of Eden We may here n otice a tablet which refers


.

to the creation of man In this tablet K 63 the crea


.
, ,

tion of the human race is given to Hea and all the ,

references in other inscriptions make this his work .

As i n Genesis so in these cuneiform tablets the Creator


,

is made to speak and to address the obj ects which he


call s into existence .

The next fragment was supposed by Mr Sm ith to .

relate to the fall of man and to contai n the speech of


the deity to the newly created pair This however -
.
, ,

is ext remely doubtful as will appear from the revised


,

transl ation be l ow The fragment is in so broken a


.

condition that al most anything may be made out of


it I t is possible that nothin g more is intended by it
.

than instructions as to the construction of an image


of a household god or spirit and the correct mode of
worshipping it .
O F TH E C R E A TIO N .
73

K 3364 obverse .

( Many lines l ost ) .

1 The whole day thy god tho ushalt approach (or


.

invoke ) ,

2 sacrifice the prayer of the mouth the image


.
, ,

3 . to thy god a h e art engraved thou hast .

4 How lo n g to the image of the divinity


.
,

5 supp lication humility and bowi n g of the face


.
, , ,

6 fire
. dost thou give to him and bringest ,

tribute ,

7 and in reverence a lso with me thou goest


.

straight
8 In thy knowledge
. also beho l d ; in the tablets
( writi n g )
9 worship and blessing tho u exaltest
. .

1 0 Sacrifice and the preservatio n


.

1 1 and prayer for sin


.

1 2 the fear of the gods deserts thee ( P) not


1 3 the fear of the A n un n ac
.

. i thou completest
1 4 With friend and comrade speech thou makest
.

15 In the un d er world speech thou makest


.
-

propitious gen ii .

1 6 When thou speakest also he wil l give


.

1 7 When thou trustest also thou


18 . a comrade also
19 . thou t rustest a friend
2 0 ( In ) thy knowledge
. al so
74 B A B YL O N IA N L EGEN D

Reverse .

( Many lines lost ) .

1 . in the presence of beauty thou didst


speak
2 thy beauty
.

3 beauty also
. the fe mal e spirit
4 An age thou re v olv e st
. his enemies ?
5 h is rising
. he seeks the man
6 with the lord of thy beauty thou makest fat
.

7 to do evil thou shalt n ot approach him


.
,

8 at thy illness
. to hi m
9 at thy d i st re s
.

The next fragment is a smal l one ; it is the lo w er


corner of a tablet with the ends of a few lines Mr . .

Smith connected it with the legend of the fall of man ,

but the mention of the god Sar tuli elli the king of
- “ -
,

the illustrious mound would rather indicate that it



,

h as to do with the story of the Tower of Babel As .


,

however the fragment is too small and mutilated to


,

decide the ques tion it has been allowed to remai n i n


,

the place assigned to it by Mr Smith and not tmus


.
,

ferred to a later chapter .


Accordi ng to Sir H Raw linson the holy mound
.
,

is now represented by the ruins of Amran At any .

rate it stood on the site of the Tower of Babe l and


,

was dedicated to the god Anu Along with the ad


.

j o ining buildings among whi ch are to be numbered


,

the royal palace and the famous han ging garde n s it


formed a particular quarter of Babylon e n c
,

lose d ,
t

within its own wal l and known under the name of


76 B AB YL O N IA N L EGE N D

perfect state in which the text of ifii as been preserved ,

and the consequent obscurity of its reference and


meaning Dr O p pe r t has shown that it really contains
a hymn to the Creator Hea Before the commen c
. .

. e
ment of lines 1 5 1 1 1 9 2 7 and 2 9 on the obverse
, , , , , ,

there are glosses stating that th e divine titles com


me n c
i n g these lines all apply to the same deity .

These explanatory glosses show that even in the


Assyrian time the allusions in the original text were
not all intelligib le without the help of a commentary .

Obverse .

1 The god of (propitious ) L ife


.
( secon d ly )
2 who established light
.

3 their precepts
.

4 Never may they forsake (their) boundari es


.

5 The god of illustrious L ife thirdly he was


.
, ,

called the director of the bright (firmame n t)


, ,

6 the god of good winds the lord of hear ing and


.
,

obedience ,

7 the cr e ator of le an
. and fat the estab lisher of ,

fertility ,

8 who has brought to increase them that wer e


.

small at the outset .

9 I n the mighty thi ckets we have smelt hi s go od


.

wind .

1 0 May he command may he glorify may he


.
, ,

hearken to his wors hi ppers .

1 1 The god of the il lustrious Crown fourthly may


.
, ,

he quicken the d ust !


O F TH E C R E A TIO N . 77

12 . L ord of the illustrious charm who gives life to


,

the dead ,

1 3 who to the hostile gods has granted return


.
,

1 4 the homage they rendered he has caused the


.

gods his foes to submit to .

1 5 That they mi ght obey


. he has created man

16 .the mercifu l one with whom is life .

1 7 May he establish and never may his word be


,

forgotten
1 8 in the mouth of the b l ack headed race whom
.
-

hi s hands created .

1 9 The god of the i llustrious incantation fift h ly


.
, ,

may his foes be overthrown ( or answered ) with


hostile curse
2 0 H e who with his illustrious incantation has
.

removed the curse of the enemy .

2 1 The God the Heart knower who knows the


.

,

hearts of the gods who fly from the fear of him


,

2 2 the doing of evil they caused not to come


.

23 H e who establishes the assembly of the gods


.
,

(who kn ows ) their hearts ,

2 4 who subdues the disobedient


.

2 5 who d irects j ustice


.

2 6 who (defends ?) sovereignty


. .

2 7 The god of prosperous life (sixthly )


.
,
.

2 8 he who cuts off darkness


.

2 9 The god Suk h kh ab


. thirdly the flock ,

30 he who adds unto them


.
78 B A B Y L ON I A N L E GE N D

Reverse .

1 . the star
2 . may he seize that which has the head in the
tail a comet )
3 . since that in the mi d st of the sea b e
over
4His name accordingly (is ) N i bir u ( the passer
.

over ) the possessor


,

5 may he (confirm ) the precepts (or laws) of the


.

stars of heaven .

6 L ike sheep may he feed the gods


.

them
7 may he exorcise the sea its treasures may he
.
,

hedge in and summon


8 among men hereafter through length of days
. .

9 May he also remove mischief


. may b e ove r
come it for the future .

1 0 B ecause ( all ) places he made he pierced he


.
, ,

strengthened .

1 1 L ord of the wor l d is hi s name ca lled ( even )


.
,

father B el .

1 2 The names of the ange l s he gave to th e m


. .

1 3 H ea also heard and hi s liver (i e anger) was


.
,
. .

lulled ,

1 4 (sayin g) S ince that his men he h as quickened


.

by his n ame ,

1 5 he like myse lf has the name of Hea


. .

1 6 The bond of my comman d may he brin g to


.

them all an d ,
80 B AB YL O N I A N LE GEN D

the monotheistic party among th e anc i ent Baby


lon ian s and that the speech of Hea in lines 1 4 to 1 9
,

has been inserted by a poet who did not belong to it .

The various deities of the popular faith are all r e


solved i n to the one supreme God the maker of the ,

world and man who was worshipped at Babylon


,


under the names of B el the L ord an d Merodach
, ,

the sun god at Eridu under that of H ea and at


-
,

N ip ur under that of A n n The gods of the multi


.

tude are said to be only the fifty names of the


Creator To him is ascribed the regulation of the
.

stars the naming of the angels and the subj ection of


, ,

the subordinate demi gods and margi nal notes


-
,

expressly state that the several titles under whi ch


the Creator is addressed on the obverse of the tab l ets ,

all belong to one and the same divinity .

In the popular mythology the part of the Creator


was usually assign ed to Merodach Thus we find .

the latter deity addressed as follows in a mutilated


bilingual hymn (K 2 962 O bv ) .

1 [ King] of the land lord of the world


.
, ,

2 protector of heaven and earth


3 fi
. .

. rstborn of the god Hea ,

4 the restorer of heaven and earth


.
,

5
. mighty lord of mankind king of the ,

world .

6
. the god of gods ,

7 (lord ) of heaven and earth who hast no equ al


.
, ,

8 companion of A n n and Bel


.
,

9 the merciful one among the gods


.
,
O F TH E URE A TI O N . 81

10 . the merciful who rai se st th e dead to life ,

1 1 Merodach the kin g of heaven and earth


.
, ,

1 2 the king of Babylon the lord of Bit Saggil


. ,
-
,

1 3 the king of Bit Z ida t h e lord of the mighty


.
-
,

temple of life ,

1 4 heaven an d earth are thine ,


.

1 5 the circuit of heaven and earth is thine


.
,

1 6 the charm (to produce ) life is thine


.
,

1 7 the philtre of life is thine ,

1 8 the Illustrious King the mouth of the Abyss


.
, ,

is thine
1 9 mankind (even ) the men with the black heads
.
, ,

2 0 living creatures as many as are called by a


.
,

name as exist in the land


, ,

2 1 the four quarters of the world as many as


.
,

there are ,

2 2 the a n gels of the hosts of heaven and e ar th as


.
,

many as there are (are thine ) ,


.

I n these references to the names of the living


creat ures made by the Creator at the beginnin g of
the world we are irresistibly reminded of the passage
,


in Genesis ii .where we read that out of the
gro und God formed every beast of the field and
every fowl of the air and brought them to Adam
to see what he would call them and whatsoever
Adam called every living creature that was the ,

n ame thereof

.

O ne of the most curious statements made in these


hymns is that the race of men created by the deity
was b lack headed The same race of men is me n
-
.

G
82 B A B YL O N IA N L E GE N D

t i on e d elsewhere in the ancient literature of the ‘

Accad ians Thus in a hymn to the goddess Gula


.
,

the goddess is described as the mother who bore
the men of the black heads and in another hymn ,


the sun god is declared to direct the men of the
-

black heads S argon of Age n e is further described


.


as ruling over all the men of the black heads and ,

in imitation of this mode of expression Sennacherib



in later days speaks of having overcome all the

black headed race
-
The black headed r ace of Sen -

n ac
.

h e rib however was the Turanian population of


, ,

Elam and the adj oining districts on the east of Baby


lonia whereas it is plai n that the Accadian hymns
,

mean by the black headed race the Accadian people


-

itself It was over them that Sargon of A gané the


.
,

S emite boasts of having extended his sway though


, ,

according to an old geographical list it was Sumer or


S hinar rather than Accad wh ich was inhabited by ,


the people of the black face But after all there
- .

is no contradiction between the statements of Sen


n ac h e ri b and of the hymns The Accadians b e .

longed to the same race as the T uranian inhabitants


of Elam and spoke a similar language to theirs
,
.

Now we shall find in the account of the exploits of


D ibb ara which will be translated in a subsequent
,

chapter that the black r ce which is identified with


,
a
,

the Accadians is contras ted with the people of Syria


, ,

while in th e bilingual tablets the black race is simi


c
,

lar ly contrasted with the white ra e Hence it is .

clear that the white race was the same as the Syrians ,
84 B A B YL O N IA N LE GEN D

owing to the intermarriage of the sons of God with the


Adamites that the evils were spread which brought
down upon the world the punishment of the Deluge .

It was Sir Henry Rawlinson who further pointed


out that the Biblical Gzm Eden or Garden of Eden ‘

, ,

is Gan D uni yas (also called Gun duni) a name under


- -
,

which Babylonia is frequently known in the Assyrian


inscriptions Gan D un iy as signifies the enclosure

.
- ”

or fortress of the god D un iy as a deity whose n a


“ ”
,

ture and attributes are still obscure and who may have ,

been merely a deified monarch of the country Two .

of the four rivers of Parad ise are the two great rivers
that enclose the fruitful plain of Babylonia the Tigris , ,

and the E uphrate s The Euphrates was called Pur .


rat or the curving water in Accadian from its
,

shape ; the Tigris w as known under the nam e of


Masgugar the current Tiggar and I di kn a or
, ,

,

I d i k la from the latter of which comes the H i d d e k h e l


,

of Genesis with prefixed Accadian hid ,
river ,
.

Gihon is identified with the A rakh t u or Araxes the “


,

river of Babylon which flowed westward into the ,


desert of Arabia or Cush though Sir H Rawlinson ,


.

suggests its identity with the modern Jukh a which ,

runs past the site of E ridu while Sargon calls Elam ,



the country of the four rivers .

The tree of life w as well known to the Accad ians


1
chSin e owe ve r , a b ilin gual table t state s t at th e h p ron c
un iat ion of
Ac
cd ia hc
,

th e a n word for th e d e se rt h lay


w i on t h e we st s id e of th e

p
E u h rate s (wh e re U r w as built) was ad iana, it is po ibl th at
ss e

th e

G ard e n of E d e n ”
of Ge n e sis may be th e ultivate c d po t io of ed i
r n n na,

n e i h bou rh ood of Erid u


“ ”
th e d e se rt , i n th e g .
O F TH E UR E A TI O N . 85

and the Assyrian s after them and the bas reliefs of ,


-

Nineveh frequently present us with a representation


of it guarded on either side by a winged cherub who
,

has the he ad sometimes of a man sometimes of an eagle ,


.

The tree always assumes a conven tional form and since


it generally bears fir cones we may infer that the A c
,

c ad ian s brought the tradition of it with them from their

origi n al seat in the colder mountainous lan d of Media ,

where the fir was plentiful and identified it with the ,

S AC RE D TR E E , OR G R O VE ,
w un A TTE N D A N T C H ER U BIM ,

Y I C F RO M A SS R AN YL 1N D E R .

palm tree only after their settlement in Chald e a An


-
.

O ld name of Babylon or of a part of Babylon ,


was ,

Din Tir the li fe of the forest which may possibly


-
, ,

have some connection with the tree of li fe The spe .

ciel spot however in which the site of the tree of life


, ,

was loc alized was close to the city of Eridu now r e ,

presented by Dhib according to Sir H Rawlinso n .


,

where the solar hero Tammuz was supposed to have


received the death blow which obliged him to spend
-

one half the year in the lower world .

A fragmentary b ilingual hymn speaks thus of th e


sacred spot and of the tree of li fe that grew therein
,

1 I n Eridu a dark pine grew in an illustrious


.
,

place it was planted .


86 B A D YL O N I A N LE GE N D

2 Its (root) was of white c


. r S
y t al which spread
towards the deep .

3 The (shrine ?) of Hea (was) its pasturage in


.

Eridu a canal full of ( water )


,
.

4 Its seat (w as ) the (central ) place of this e ar th


5 Its shrine (was ) the couch of mother Zi c
. .

. um ,

( the mother of gods and men ) .

6 The (roo f) of its illustrious temple like a forest


.

spre ad its shade ; there (was) none who wi thin ente red
7 ( It was the seat ) of the mighty mother (Zi c
.

. um) ,

the begetter of A nn .

E ridu was the specia l seat of the wors h ip of Hea ,

and was often kn own as the good city .


The flaming sword which according to Genesis ,

guarded the approach to the tree of life is paralleled


by the flaming sword of Merod ach which is explai n ed ,

to be the lightn i ng It was with this sword which is


.

represented on the monuments as having the form of


a sickle like the swo rd of the Greek hero Perseus ,

that Merodach overthrew the dragon and the powers


of darkness A hymn put in to the mouth of Mero
.

dach thus speak s of it


,

The sun of fifty faces the lofty weapon of my ,

divini ty I bear ,
.

The hero that striketh the mountains the pro ,

pitious sun of the morning that is mi ne I bear , ,


.

My mighty weapon which like an orb smites in a ,

circle the corpses of the fighters I be ar ,


.

The striker of mountains my murderous weapon ,

of Anu I bear , .
88 D A B YL O N I A N LE GEN D

translated hereafter that is to say with the principle


,

of chaos and darkness called M ammu Tiamt u the “


, ,

chaos of the deep in the account of the creation


,

.

“ “
It is also described as the serpent of night the ,

“ " “
serpent of darkness the wicked serpent and the
, ,

mightily strong serpent epithets which show that it ,

was on the one hand the embodiment of moral evil ,

and on the other was primitively nothing more than


the darkness destroyed by the sun the bright power ,

SA C RE D T R E E , S a n a» Flo w n ; on men s mE n u) SE RP E N T m
F B B YL I C YL
,

B CK G U
A RO ND , RO M A N E A RL Y A O N AN I N D ER .

of day It is difficult not to compare the serpent of


.

Genesis with this serpent of Babylonian mythology .

N o Chaldean l egend of the F all h as as yet been found ,

but when we remember how few Chaldean legends


have been discovere d and that even for these we are
,

dependent on the selection and copies of Assyrian


scribes we need not be surprised that such should be
,

the c ase The Babylonian colouring of the history


.

in Genesis the fact that the rivers of Parad ise are


,

Babylo nian rivers and that the tree of life was fa


,

miliar to Babylonian art and tradition make it pro ,

bable that we shall yet discover the Chaldean version


of the Fall of Man as soon as the libraries of Baby lonia
O F TH E CR EA TIO N . 89

have been explored In deed this is made almost .


,

certain by the existence of an early Babylonian seal ,

now in the B ritish Museum on which a tree is r e p r e ,

sented with a human figure seated on either side of


it with the hands stretched out towards the fruit and
, ,

a serpent standing erect behind on e of them We kno w .

that the devices on these early se als were taken from


the popular legends an d myths It must be admitted .
,

however that the two figures seem both to be males


,
.

But if references to the Fall are few and obscure ,

there can b e no doubt that the Sabbath was an A o


cadian institution intimately connected with the
,

worship of the seven planets The astronomical .

tablets have shown that the seven day week was of -

Accadian origi n each day of it being dedicated to the


,

sun moon an d five planets and the word Sabbath


, , ,

itself under the form of Sabattu was known to the


, ,

Assyrians and explained by them as a day of rest
,

for the heart A calendar of Saint s days for the


.

month of the intercalary Elul makes the 7th 1 4 th , ,

1 9th 2 1 st and 2 8t h days of the lunar month Sabbaths


, ,

on which no work was allowed to be done The .

A ccadi an words by which the idea of Sabbath is de


n oted li terally mean a day on which work is um
,

,

lawful and are interpreted i n the bilingual tablets


,


as signifying a day of peace or completion of
labours The calendar lays down the following in
.

j unctions to the king for each of these sabbaths


A Sabbath : the prince of many nations
th e flesh of animals and cooked food may not eat .
90 B A B YL O N IA N L E GEN D .

The garments of his body he may not change .

White robes he may not put on .

Sacrifice h e may not offer The king may not ride .

i n his chariot .

In royal fashion he may not legislate A revie w .

of the army the general may not hold .

Medicine for his sickness of body he may not apply .

The antiquity of this text is evident not only from


the fact that it has been translated from an Accadian
original but also from the word rendered prince
,

,

Ms n on m n Ar u cw x o TH E SE R P E N T, ON AN A s s r mm C YL I ND E R , I N

TH E P oss e ss i o n or D R. S
. W L W
EL S xLL ums , N E WH A V E N .


which literall y means a sheph erd an d takes us ,

back to the early times when the Accadian monarchs


still remembered that their predecessors had be en
only shepherd Chieftain s -
.

B efore conc l uding t hi s chapter it must be noted ,

that the word tra n s l ated the sea in lines three and ,

seven of the reverse of the hymn to the Creator is ,

Tiamt u which as we have seen was the name applied


, , ,

to the deep upon which the Babylonians believed


,

tha t the earth rested and out of which it had been


,

brought into existence .


92 O TH E R B A B YL O N IA N A C CO UN TS

the inhabitants of Assyria and y lon ia It was CB ab .

but one out of many whi ch h ad slowly grown up


among the people and been finally thrown into a
,

literary form The story of the Creation transmitted


.

through Berosus ( se e chapter iii pp 34 for ex


ample supplies us with an account which di flc
. .

rs e u
'

t ir e ly from th e cuneiform account i n the last chapter as

well as from the Genesis ac count and some fragme n ts ,

of tablets from Kouy unj i k belonging to the library


of Assur bani pal give a copy mutilated as usual of a
- -
, ,

third version which has however points of agreement


, ,

with the account of Berosus This legend of which .


,

the following is a translation is stated to be copied ,

from a tablet at Cut h a .

L egen df o Cr eation fr om Cutlza table t .

( Many lines lost at commencement ) .

1 . his lord the crown of the gods


,

2 . the spe armen of his host the spearmen of ( his )


,

host
3 . lord of those above and those below l ord of the ,

a n gels
4 who drank turbid waters and pure waters did
.

not drink
5 who with his flame as a weapon that host e n
.
, ,

closed ,

6 has taken has devoured


.
,
.

7 O n a memorial stone he wrote not he dis close d


.
-
,

not and bodies and produce


,
O F TH E O R E A TI O N . 93

8 inthe earth he caused not to come forth and I


.
,

approached him n ot .

9 Warriors with the bodies of birds of the desert


.
,

me n
10 .with the faces of raven s ,

1 1 these the great gods created


.
,

1 2 in the earth the gods created their city


. .

1 3 Ti amtu gave them suck


.
,

1 4 their life
. the mistress of the gods created .

1 5 In the midst of the earth they grew up and


.

became strong and


,

1 6 increased
. in number ,

1 7 Seven kings brethren were made to come as


, ,

begetters ;
1 8 six thousand i n number were their armies
. .

1 9 The god Banini their father was king t heir


.
,

mother
2 0 the queen was Me lili
.
,

2 1 their eldest brother who went before them


.
,

Me man gab was his name ,

2 2 their second brother Me d ud u was his name


.
,

2 3 their third brother


. pakh was his n ame ,

2 4 their fourth brother


. dada was his n ame ,

2 5 the ir fifth brother


. tak h was his name ,

2 7 their sixth brother


. rur uwas his n ame ,

2 8 their seventh brother


.
( rara ) was his
n ame .

C O L U MN I I .

( Many lin es lost ) .

the evil curse


O TH E R B A B YL O N I A N A CCO UN TS

2 The man his will turne d


.

3 on a
. l arranged .

4 O n a ( tablet ) the evil curse ( which ) in b l ood


.

he raised
5 ( I wrote and the children of) the generals I
.

urged on .

6 Seven (against seven in ) breadth I arranged


.

them .

7 ( I established ) the illustrio us (ordinan ces


.

8 I prayed to the great gods


.

9 Istar
. Zamama An n uit
, , , ,

1 0 Nebo
. and Samas the warrior ,

1 1 the son of (the moon god ) the gods that


.
-
,

( before me ) .

12 he did not give and


1 3 thus I said i n my heart
.
,

1 4 that Here am I and


.
,

1 5 may I not go
.
( beneath ) the ground .

1 6 may I not go
. may the prayer
1 7 go when
. my heart ,

1 8 may I renew the iron in my hand may I take


.
, .

1 9 The first year in the course of it


.

2 0 on e hundred and twenty thousand soldiers I


.

sent out and among them


,

2 1 not on e returned
. .

2 2 The second year in the course of i t n inety


.
,

thousand I sent out and not one returned


, .

2 3 The third year in the course of it sixty


.
,

thousand seven hundred I sent out and not one re ,

turned .
96 O TH E R B A B YL O N I A N A CC O U N TS

20I established the illustriou s, ordinances


.

2 1 I prayed to (the great ) gods


.
,

2 2 Istar.
( Z am am a An nu it ) , ,

2 3 Nebo .
(and the Sun god the warrior ) -
, ,

2 4 the son (of the Moon god the gods who go


.
-
,

before me ) .

C O L UMN I V .

( Several li nes lost at commencement ) .

1 . Thou 0 king ,
v iceroy shepherd or any one
, ,

else ,

2 whom God shall call to rule the kingdom


.
,

3 this tablet I made for thee this record stone I


.
,
-

wrote for thee ,

4 in the city of Cut h a in the temple of Gallam


.
, ,

5 in the sanctuary of Nergal I leave for thee ;


.
,

6 this record stone see and


.
-
, ,

7 to the words of t hi s record sto n e lis ten


.
-
,

8 do n ot rebel do not fail


.
, ,

9 do not fear and do not curse


.
, .

1 0 Thy foundation may he establis h !


.

1 1 As for thee in thy works may he make splen


.
,

dour .

1 2 Thy forts shall be strong


.
,

1 3 thy canals shall be full of water


.
,

1 4 thy papyri thy corn thy silver


.
, , ,

1 5 thy furniture thy goods


.
, ,

1 6 and thy instruments shall be multiplie d


.
, .

(A few more mut ilated lines ) .


OF TH E CR E A TI O N . 97

SA C RE D TR EE , A TTE N D A N T FG IU RE S A N D EAG L E -I I E A D E D ME N , F RO M TH E

s E AL OF A Sr R xAN CH I E F, I
N N TH C E N TU R Y B C.
.

This is a very obscure inscription the first colum n , ,

however forms part of a relation similar to that of


,

Berosus i n his history of the Creation the bei n gs who


were killed by the light and those with men s heads,

and bird s bodies and bird s heads an d men s bodies


,
’ ’
,

agr e e w i th the composite monsters of Berosus while ,

the goddess of chaos Tiamt u who is over them is the


, , ,

same as the Th alat th of the Greek writer It may .

be remarked that the doctrine of the Gre ek philo


sopher Anaximander that man has developed out
, ,

of creatures of various shape and once like the fish ,

was an inhabitant of the water is but a reminiscence ,

of the old Babylonian l egend


The re l ation in the third column of the i n sc
.

ri
p
tion is difficult and does not correspond with an y
,

known incident The fourth column contains an


.

ad dress to any future king who should read the


11
98 O TH E R B A B YL O N IAN A CC O U N TS

inscription whi ch was deposited in the temple of


Nergal at Cuth a .

It is possible that thi s legend was supposed to be


the work of one of the mythical kings of Chaldea ,

who describes the condition and hi story of the world


before hi s time .

The war carried on against the monstrous crea


tions of Tiamt u described in this myth was but one
, ,

version of the war waged against Tiamt u or Chaos , ,

herself by the sun god Merodach The most famous


-
.

form taken by the story of this war was that which


described the attack of the seven wicked spirits or ,

storm demons against the moon and their final


-

d i sc
, ,

omfit u re by the bright power of day This .

attack was a primitive attempt to account for lunar


eclipses dressed up in poetry an d may be compared
, ,

with the Chinese belief that when the moon is


eclipsed it has been devoured by the dragon of night .

Simil arly the Egyptians told how Set or Typhon


pursued the moon the eye of Horus how it waned
, ,

week by week as he struck it and finally passed into ,

ec lipse when he b l inded it altogether According .

to Hindu legend the immortal head of the serpent


,

demon R a hu cut O ff by Vishnu who had been


,

informed by the sun and moon of his theft of the


drink of immortality incessantly pursue s the t w o
,

informers in order to devour them and a Scandi ,

navian myth makes the sun and moon to be always


pursued by two wolves SkOll and Hati the latter of
,
'

whom also ca ll ed Managarmr or dog of the moon


, ,
1 00 O TH ER B A B YL ON I A N ACCO UN TS

15 .In city after city they set th eir returning feet .

1 6 The raging wind which (is ) in heaven fiercely


.
,

hath been bound to them


1 7 The fle e c
.

.
y rain clouds (are they
-
) which i n

heaven estab lish cloudy darkness .

1 8 The lightning of the tempest the raging


.
,

tempests which in the bright day


1 9 establish gloom are they
.
,
.

2 0 With evil tempest baleful wi nd they began


.
, ,

2 1 the storm O f Rimmon that was their might


.
, ,

2 2 at the right hand of Rimmon did they march ;


.

2 3 from the foundations of heaven like lightnin g


.

( they darted ) ,

2 4 (like ) a sea monster to the river in front they


.
-

marched .

2 5 In the wide heavens the seat of A n n the ki ng


.

2 6 with evil purpose did they abide and a rival


.
,

they had not .

2 7 Then Be l of this matter heard and


.

2 8 the word sank into his heart


. .

2 9 With Hea the supreme adviser of the gods he


.

took coun sel and


,

30 Sin ( the moon ) Samas ( the sun ) and Istar


.
, ,

( Venus ) in the lower part of heaven to direct it he


had appointed .

3 1 With Anu the lordship of the hosts of heaven


.

he made them share .

32 The three of them those gods his chil dre n


.
, ,

33 n ight and day he had estab lis hed


. that they
break not apart ,
O F TH E CRE A TIO N . 1 01

34 he urged them
. .

35 Then those seven the evil gods


.
, ,

36 in the lower part of heaven commencing


.
,

37 before the light of Sin fiercely they came


.
,

38 the hero Samas and Rimmon ( the god of the


.

atmosphere ) the warrior to their quarters returned an d


3 9 Istar with An n the king a noble seat
.

4 0 chooses and i n the government of heaven is


.

gl orious .

C O L U MN I I .

The second column which is much mutil ated at ,


the beginning goes on to describe the trouble of
,


the moo n god how night and day in ec lipse in the
-
, ,

s eat of his dominion he sat not B ut .

ME RO D A CI I D E LI V I ER N G TH E MO O N -GO D F RO M TH E E VI L SP I R I TS
F RO M A B B YL I C YL I
A O N AN N D E R.

1 . The wicked gods the messengers of Anu their


king
2 devising with wicked heads assisted one another
. .

3 Ev il they plotted together


. .

4 From the midst of heaven li ke the wind on


.

man ki nd they swooped .


1 02 O TH E R B A B YL O N IA N A CC O UN TS

5Bel the eclipse of the hero Si n


.

6 in heaven saw and


.

7 the god to his messenger the god Nusku


.

( Nebo ) said :

8 “
My messenger Nebo my word to the deep
.
, ,

car ry
9 the news of my son Sin who in heaven is
.

grievously eclipsed
1 0 to the god Hea in the deep repeat
. Then .

1 1 Nebo the word of his lord obeyed and


.
,

1 2 to Hea in the deep descended and went


. .

1 3 T o the prince the supreme councillor the


.
, ,

l ord the lord of mankind


, ,

1 4 Nebo the message of his lord i n that quar t er


at on c
.

e repeated .

1 5 Hea in the deep that message heard and


.
,

2 8 hi s lips he bit and with outcry hi s mouth he


.
,

filled .

2 9 Hea his son the god Merodach c alled and the


.
,

word he spake
30 Go my son Merodac
.
,
h!
31 the light of the sky my son Sin who in heaven
.
, ,

is grievously eclipsed ,

32 (in ) his eclipse from heaven is departing


. .

33 Those seven wicked gods serpents of death


1
.
, ,

having no fear ,

This is th e A ssyrian tran slat ion . Th e A c


cd i
a an ori gi n al h as m
si

l
py me n of d e ath ”
Th e li gh t n in gs are still re gard e d as se r e nts by p
c
.

th e Ca na d ian I n d ian s wh o all th e th un d e r th e ir h iss in g ( B ari n g- G ould ,

Curiou Myth s s ,

n. p .
OF TH E CREA TIO N . 1 03

34 those seven wicked gods who l ike a whi rlwind


.
,

35 (destroy ) the life of mankind


.
,

36 against the earth like a storm they come down


. .

37 In front of the b ri ght one Sin fiercely they came


.
,

38 the hero Samas and Rimmon the warrior to


.
,

their quarters (returned) ,

39 ( Istar with An u the king an il lustrious seat


.
, ,

chooses and in the d ominion of heaven is glorious )


,
.

Most of the remainder of the legend consisting of ,

some forty lines is unfortunately l ost owing to a


, ,

fracture of the tablet What is left however shows


.
, ,

that Merodach the bri l liance of the sun for such
, ,

is the meaning of his name who always appears in ,

the Accadian hymns as a kind of B abylon ian Prome


theus and universal ben efactor comes to th e help of ,

“ “
the labouring moon an d awe goes before him

,

.

Dressed in glistenin g armo ur of unsoiled cloths and



broad garments he enters the gate of the palace

, ,

a ki ng the son of his god who like the bright one


, , , ,

the moon god sustains the life of the l an d and there


-
, ,

wi th a helmet of light like the fire upon hi s head ”
,

successfully overthrows th e seven powers of darkness .

The poem concludes with a prayer that they may


n ever descend into the l and an d trav e rse its borders , .

In this story which d iffers again from all the others


, ,

Bel is supposed to pl ace in the heaven the Moon ,

Sun and Venus the representative of the stars The


, ,
.

details have n o anal ogy with the other stories and ,

this can only be considered a poetic al myth of the


Creati on .
1 04 O TH E R B A B YL O N I A N A CC O UN TS

This legend is part O f the sixt e enth tablet of the


series on evil spirits ; but the tablet contains other
matters as well the legend apparently being only
,

quoted in it There is another remarkable legend of


.

the same sort in praise of the fir e god on another tablet -


,

of this series published in Cuneiform Inscription s ”
,

v ol iv p
. 15 . The whole of this series concerns the
. .

wanderings of the god Merodach w h o goes about the ,

world seeking to remove curses an d spells and in ,

every di fficulty applying to his father Hea to learn


how to combat the influence of the evil sp irits to ,

whom all misfortunes were attributed .

The seven evil spirits illustrate well the way i n


which a moral signification may come to be attached
to what was originally a purely physical myth They .

are frequently mentioned i n the li terature of ancient


Accad Thus the twenty third book on eclipses of
.
-
,

the moon of the great work on astronomy compiled


,

for Sargon of Age n e states that “


When the moon
,

shall d escribe a section (in) the upper circle (of its


revolution) the gods of heaven and earth bring about
,

dearth of men (and ) their overthrow ; and (there is )


eclipse inundation sickness (and) death ; the seven
, , ,

great Spirits before the moon are broken Else .

where an Accadian hymn which has an interlinear


, ,

Assyrian translati on attached to it speaks as follows ,

of these dreaded spirits


1 Seven (they ) are seven they (are )
.
,
.

2 In the abyss of the deep seven they (are)


. .

3 The splendours of heaven (are ) those seven


. .
1 06 O TH ER B A B YL O N IA N A CC O UN TS

5 . In the high places of the e arth have they their


n ame .

6As for them in heave n and earth wide is their


.
,

habitation .

7 Among the gods their couch they have not


. .

8 Their name in heaven (and) earth exists not


. .

9 Seven they (are ) ; i n the mountain of the sun


.

set do they rise .

1 0 Seven they (are ) ; in the mountain of the sun


.

rise did they set .

1 1 In the deep pl aces of the earth did they rest


.

their feet .

1 2 O n the high places of the earth do they l ift


.

up their head .

1 3 As for them goods they know not in heaven


.
, ,

and
( ) earth are they not learned .


Merodach is then ordered to fetch the laurel the ,

baleful tree that breaks in pieces the incubi the n ame ,

whereof Hea remembers i n his heart i n the mighty ,

enclosure the girdle of Eridu in order that the seven


, ,

evil Spirits may be driven away Can this lau rel tree .
-

be the tree O f the knowledge of good and evil ? It



must be remembered that Hea w as the lord O f wi s
dom and under the form of a fish as Oannes or H ea
,

Khan was supposed to have ascended from the Per


sian Gulf and taught the primitive Babylonians the
,

elements of culture and civilization .

At the head of the seven evil spirits st ood Tiamt u ,

the representative of chaos and darkness O ne of the .

most remarkable Babylonian legends yet discovered is


O F TH E CR EA TIO N . 1 07

one which tells of the prim aeval struggle between


Ti amt u and Merodach between light and darkness or
,

good and evil and which does but embody in a new


,

shape the conception which found expression in the


myth of the war against the moon The tablets which .

contain this legend are unfortu n ately in a very frag


mentary condition .

The first of these is K 4 832 too mutilated to ,

tran slate ; it contains speeches of the gods before the


war .

The second fragmen t K 34 73 contains also , ,

speeches and shows the gods preparin g for battle


, .

It is so terribly broken that translation is impossible ,

an d all that can be made out is a line here and

there .

The third fragment K 3938 is on the same sub


, ,

j cet ; some l ines of thi s give the following general


meanin g :
1 winged thu n derbolts
.

2 fear he made to carry


.

3 their sight very great


.

4 their bodies may he destroy and


.

5 he raised ; it was suitable the strong ser


.
,

pent
6 U d gallu
. m U rbat and the god
,

7 days arranged five


.
,

8 carrying weapons unyielding


.

9 her breast her back


.
,

1
A c
ons te llation w h rose h e liac
h ic ally in Mar c
hc
s van or O cb
to e r.

Th e word me ans D og of d e ath



.
O TH ER B A B YL O N I A N A CC O U N TS

10 flowing
. and first
1 1 among the gods collected
.

1 2 the god Kingu subdued


.

1 3 marching i n front before


.

1 4 carrying weapons thou


.

1 5 upon war
.

1 6 hi s hand appointed
. .

There are many more Sim ilar broke n lines and on ,

the other Side fragments of a speech by some being


who desires Tiamt u to make war .

All these fragments are not su fficiently complete to


allow us to translate them with certainty or even to ,

ascertain their o rder .

The fourth fragment K 344 9 relates to the making


, ,

of weapons to arm the god who should meet in war

the dragon .

This reads with some doubt on account of its


mutilation
1 The scimitar he had made the gods saw
.

2 and they saw also the bow how it had been


.

stored up .

3 The work he h ad wrought ( on his shoulder )


.

4 he raised and A n n in the assembly of the gods


.

5 kissed the bow ; it (he addressed )


.
,

6 and he sp ake of the bow thus (an d said)


.

7 The illustrious wood I have draw n out once


.

and twice ,

8 thrice also her punishment the star of the bow


.
,

in heaven ( shall e ffect )


9 and I have made (it ) the protection (of manki nd )
.
110 O TH E R B A B YL O N I AN A CC O UN TS

10 H e created the evil wind th e hostile wind the


.
, ,

tempest the storm


, ,

1 1 the four winds the seven winds the whir lwin d


.
, , ,

the unceasing wind .

1 2 He sent forth also the wi nds he had created


.
,

seven of them ;
1 3 into the midst of the sea ( Ti amt u) they were
.

launched to disturb they came after him


,
.

1 4 He lifted up the weapon the thunderbolt his


.
, ,

mighty weapon ;
1 5 in a chariot that swee ps away all in front
.
,

which gi ves rest he rode ,


.

1 6 He fixed it and four yoke thongs on its pol e he


-
.

hung ,

17 the unyieldin g the overwhelmi ng he , ,

that pursues her .

18 . with their sting bringing poison


19 . sweeping a w ay knowle d ge
20 . destructi on and fighting .

( Several other fragmentary lines ) .

Reverse .

1 . U n prevailing ( )
is thy troop ; may thy arms
strike their bodies !
2 I also sta n d firm an d with thee make battle
.
,
.

3 Ti amt u (the sea) on hearing this


.

4 as before used spells she ch anged her resolution


.
,
.

5 Ti amt ualso raised herself ; warily she asce n ded


. .

6 At the roots fully she grounded (her) found s


.

tions .
O F TH E CREA TIO N . 111

She told over the spell ; she determined return


7 .

(to chaos ) ,

8 and the gods for the war asked for themselves


.

their weapons .

9 Then Ti amtu attacked the prince of the gods


.
,

Merodach ,

1 0 who had made charms as for combat for the


.

conflict in battle .

1 1 Then B el made sharp his scimitar ; he smote


.

her .

1 2 The evil wind that seizes behind from before


.

hi m fled .

1 3 And Ti amt uopened her mouth to swall ow him


. .

1 4 The evil win d he made to descend so that she


.

could not close her lips ;


1 5 the force of the wind her stomach filled and
.
,

1 6 she was sickened in heart and h e r mon t h it


.
,

distorted .

1 7 She bit the shaft (of the sword ) ; her stomach


.

failed ; 1

1 8 her inside it cut asunder it conquered the heart ;


.
,

1 9 it consumed her and her life it ended


.
, .

2 0 H er death he completed over her he fixes (it )


.
, .

2 1 When T iamat their leader he had conquered


.
,

2 2 her ranks he broke her assembly was scat


.
,

t e re d
23 . and the gods her helpers who went beside her
24 . return ed in fear they fled back behind them
, .

25 . They fled and feared for their li fe .

1
Comp are Je r li 34
. . .
1 12 O TH ER B A B YL O N IAN A C C O UN TS

26 . They are companions in flight powerless ,


.

27 . He trampled on them and their weapons he


broke .

28 . L ike a scimitar are they laid and as in dark ,

ness they sat .

2 9 ( They seek ) their quarters they are full of


.
,

grief ;
30 what was left they take away they p u
. ll back ,

like a r e pe ,

MER O D AC R , OR B EL , A R ME D FO R TH E C FLI C
ON T WI T] ! T II E

D RA GO N ; F RO M A SS Y I
R AN C r L IN D E IL

31 and elevenfold o ffspring from fear they produce .

32 .
( Through ) the flood the demons go (all of
them
33 He laid the hostility his hand
.
,

34 part of their O pposition under him


.

35 and the god Kin gu again


.

Again the main di fficulty arises fiom the frag '

mentary state of the documents it being impossible ,

even to decide the order of the fragments I t ap .

pears however that the gods have fashioned for them


, ,

a scimitar an d a bow to fight the dragon Tiamt u and ,


1 14 B A B YL O N IA N L E GE N D or CR EA TIO N .

in all essential points with the dragon conquered by


Michael That the dragon originally symbolized the
.

sea is one proof out of many that the Acc ad ians were
a seafaring people well acquainted with th e terrors
,

of the deep when the waves conspire with the storm


,

clouds those seven evil spirits to throw all nature


, ,

once more into its primeval anarchy .

I
F GH T B W
ET E EN B EL A ND TH E D RA GO N ,

F RO M B B YL I C YL I
A O N AN ND ER
C H A P TE R V II .

TH E SI N O F TH E G O D ZU .

G od Z u— c
O bs urity of le ge n d — Tran slation —Sin of Zu
c
. . . .

A n ge r of th e god s — p
S ee h es of A r m to R immon — R immon

s

c
.

ans we r — S
. p ee h f A mt
o N e bo — An s we r of N e bo — L ugal- tu
r o . rda . .

Ch ange s to a bir d — Th e Z ubird — B ird of rey —L u gal-t u p


rd alord . of

n d a — P rome th e u
A ma s .

M O NG the legends of the gods com ,

panion stories to the accounts of the


Creation and Deluge one of the mos t ,

curious is the legen d of the sin com


mi tt e d by the god Z u .

Thi s legend stands quite alone its incidents and ,

its principal actor being other wi se almost unknow n


fiom cuneiform sources
'
Only one copy of the story
.

has at present been detected and this is in so muti ,

lated a condition that it cannot be connected with


an y other of the legends It belongs to the same .

cycle of myths as the myth of the exploits of D ibb ara ,

which wi ll be given in the n ext chapter .

Th e prin cipal actor in the legend is a god named


Z u the name being found in all the three cases of
,
1 16 TH E SI N O F TH E G OD ZU
.

an Assyrian noun Z u Za and Zi Analogy wou l d , , ,

lead us to infer that the name had been borrowed by


the Assyrians from the Accadi ans as well as the ,

story with which it is connected .

Mr Smith compared the legend with that of the


.

mutilation of U ranus by his son Kron us and with ,

the history of the outrage of Ham on his father Noah ;


but its real anal ogue is the myth of Prometheus the ,

benefactor of me n who stole the fire of heaven for


,

their sake and brought upon himself the anger and


,

punishment of Z eus It contains two difficult words .


,

a r ts i and ter e ti The first is ambiguous meaning


p .
,
“ “
either oracles or shrines but since it is coupled
” ”
,

with d up simi tablets of destiny it is probably t o


-
, ,


be rendered oracles Ter eti is very obscure .

.

The sun god is called the l ord of tereti and the


- “
,

w ord occur s in the hymn to the Creator Rev 1 7 ,


.

( p
. where also it is u n ited with p ar tsi ,

“ “
command or oracle ”
It may signify lots

. .

The tablets O f destiny stolen by Z u for the , ,

benefit apparently of manki nd formed the vault O f


, , ,

the palace of the under world We may compare the -


.

books which are to be ope ned on the day of j udgment


in Dan vii 1 0 and Rev xx 1 2
. .
,
. . .

The tablet containing the account of the sin of


Z u K 34 5 4 in the Museum collection originally
, , ,

contained four columns of text each column having ,

about sixty lines of writin g The first and fo urt h .

columns are almost entirely lost there not bein g ,

eno ugh a n ywhere to translate from The mutilation .


1 18 TH E SI N O F TH E G OD ZU .

12 . L et me too seize the table ts of destiny of the


gods ,

13 . and the ter eti of the gods all of them let me


k indle ,
14 may my throne also be estab lished let me lift
.
,

up the oracles ,

1 5 l et me urge on the whole of all of them even


.
,

the an gels .

1 6 So he li fted up his heart in opposition


.
,

1 7 in the lower part of the forest where he was


dream ing he kept his head away from the day .

1 8 When Bel pours out the bright waters


.
,

1 9 spread out also on the throne his crown was


.

placed ,

2 0 the tab l ets of doom hi s hand took


.
,

2 1 the attribute s of B el he seized he laid ho l d of


.
,

the oracles .

2 2 Zn fled away and a rugged mountain concealed


.

( him ) .

2 3 He Spread darkness and made a commotion


.
,

2 4 The father their king the ruler Bel


.
, ,

25 . ou t poured the gl ory of the god s .

26 .

27 Anu his mouth opened he speaks ,

28 . and says to the gods his son s


29 . Whoever will let him slay Zu and
, ,

30 . among all men may hi s name be renowned .

31 .
( To Rimmon ) th e powerful firstborn the son
of A n n
TH E SI N O F TH E G OD Z U . 1 19

32 . his will also to him he declares


33 . To Rimmon the po werful firstborn the s on of

Anu
34 . will to him he declares
hi s .

35 ( O mighty ) Rimmon companion may thy


.
, ,

power of fighting never fail


36 ( Slay ) Z u with thy weapon


. .

37 ( May thy name ) be renowned in the assembly


of the great gods ,

38 a rival have thy brothers


39 may they supply and build of brick ( thy ) altars
.
,

4 0 in the fo ur regions may they establish thy


.

stronghold .

4 1 May thy stron gho l d be exal ted to become a


.

42 They sha ll cry


. in the presence of the gods
and blessed be thy n am e .

4 3 Rimmon answered the speech


.
,

44 to hi s father Anu a wo rd he speaks ;


.

4 5 My father to an impenetrable mountain do


.
,

thou consign (him ) .

4 6 L et Z u never associate among the gods thy


.

sons .

4 7 The tablets of destiny his hand took ;


.

4 8 the attributes of Bel he seiz e d laying hold of


.
,

the oracles ,

4 9 Z n fled away and a rugged mountain concealed


.

( him ) .

50 the opening of ( his ) mouth


51 like mud
120 TH E SI N O F TH E G OD ZU .

the gods sweep away


I will not go he said .

( Sixteen lines lost here part on th i s


,
column part ,

on Col umn III ) .

C O L U MN I I I .

1 . Zn fled away and a rugged mountain concealed


( him ) .

2 the openin g of hi s mouth


tector of heaven and earth
3 . li ke mud
4 . the gods sweep away
5 . I wi l l not go he said .

6 . To Nebo the powerful the eldest son of

I star ,

7 . his will ) to him a lso dec lares


( A nn

8 O mighty Nebo companion may th y power of


.
, ,

figh ting never fail !


9 ( Slay ) Zu with thy weapon
. .

1 0 May ( thy name ) be renowned in the assembl y


.

of the great gods ,

11 . among the gods thy brothers a rival


have
1 2 May they supp l y an d buil d ( thy ) altars ;
.

1 3 in the four regions may they estab l ish thy


.

stronghold .
TH E SI N O F TH E G OD ZU .

4 No father gave him life or with him ( asso


c
.

i t d)
a e .

5 No noble who knew him (helped h im)


. .

6 O f the resolution of his heart the resolution he


.

(changed ) not .

7 I n h is own heart the resolution (he kept)


. .

8 Into the likeness of a bird was he trans


.

formed ;
9 into the likeness of the divine storm bird ( or
.

Zu bird ) was he transformed .

1 0 The face of his wife w h o has faced ?


.

1 1 The wife of the Divine Zu bird the son of the


.
,

divine Zubird ,

1 2 in companionship he mad e sit


. .

1 3 The goddess Enna the lady of T ige nn a


.
, ,

1 4 in the mountain he brought back


. .

1 5 A woman fashioned was her mother according


.

to lik eness made ,

1 6 the g od dess of perfumes a woman fashioned


.

was her mother according to likeness m ad e .

1 7 Her hair was white crystal ;


.

1 8 Her navel was pure with silver and gol d


.
,

1 9 brightness was fixed in the womb ;


.

2 0 in the womb dwelt perfecti on


Many lin es are lost here and the story re c
.

om

me n c
,

e s on reverse .

1 a turban he pl aced on his head


2 ( when ) from the nest of the god Zu he cam e
. .

This Z u bird is plainly the same as the god Zu of


TH E SI N O F TH E GO D ZU . 1 23

the former legend and his nature is shown by a pas


,

sage i n the annals of A ssurn azi rp al ( Cune if orm I n


sc v ol i p 2 2 col ii 1 who says that



ri ti on s
p ,
. . .
,
. . .

his war riors like the divine Zu bird upon them


darted.

T hi s bird is called the cloud or storm bird -
,

the fle sh e at in g bird the lion or giant bird the bird


-
, ,

of prey the bird with sharp beak ; and it is not d i ffi


,

cu l t to see what the deified bird really was It was .

clearly the storm cloud which appears in A ryan folk


-
,

lore under the varying forms of the eagl e the wood ,

pecker an d the robin redbreast the bird of Thor ;


, ,

while in Chinese mythology the storm bird is de -


scribed as a bird which in flying obscures the sun , , ,

an d of whose quil ls are made water tuns The roc ”


-
.

of the Arabian Nights with its wings of ten thou ,


sand fathoms in width and its egg which it Was a sin in


, ,

Aladdin to wish to take from the place where it hung ,

is but an echo of the Chinese storm bird ; and the -

identity of the Chaldean Zu with the latter is demon



st r at e d by its Accadian name which signifies the ,

bird of the divine storm cloud Just as Prometheu s


-
.

brought the lightning from heaven to earth and ,

su ffered the penalty of ench ainment to a desert rock ,

so too the storm bird of Accad stole the secrets of


, ,
-

the gods and was punished by e x ile from them an d


, ,

tr ansformation into a bird When once the storm .

cloud had been likene d to a bird it was easy enough ,

to identify it with an actual bird of similar name


which swooped upon its prey with Sh ar p beak That .

t h e lightning which darte d from the bosom of the


1 24 TH E SI N O F TH E G OD ZU .

black tempest really formed the Gtable t s of destiny


was a ready conclusion to a people who read the
fu t ure in the message sent through the lightnin g
from heaven to earth Even the Hebrews saw in the
.


L ugal t urd a it may be

thunder the voice of God .
-
,

added was the patron of the city of Amarda or


,

Marad an d is said to have been the deity worshipped


,

by Izdubar .

In the story of the o ffence of Zn there is another


instance of the variations which cons t an tly occur in t h e
Ass yrian inscriptions with respect to the relationship
of the gods Nebo is usually called son of Meroda h
. c
,

but in this inscription he is called son of A n n The .

part that he plays in it is due to the fact he


was ide n tified with th e m eridian sun

.

126 TH E E X P L O ITS OF D I B B AR A
.

b e for e h i m, and seven gods who foglow hi m in hi s de


structive course The latter are the seven evil spiri ts
.

in a new form .

The point of the story in these tablets appears to


be that the people of the world had o ffended Anu
,

the god of heaven and accordingly that deity ordered


,

D ib b ara to go forth and strike the people with the


pest It is evident here that exactly the same views
.

prevailed in Babylonia as among the Jews visitations ,

from pestilence or famine being always supposed to


be sent by the deity in punishment for some sin I n .

fact the account of the pestilence inflicted upon the


,

Israelites on account of David s Sin in numberi ng the ’

people is a striking parallel to the Accadian legend


which follows The angel of the pestilence seen by
.

D avid with his sword drawn may be compared


, ,

with D ibbara the Accadia n personification of the


,

pest .

The whole of this series of tablets may be described


as a poetical picture of the destruction caused by a
plague sweeping over district after district and de
, ,

st ro i n g everythin g before it
y .

The fragment which appears to come first in the


series is a very mutilated portion of a tab l et con ,

t ain i n g p arts of three columns of writing


,
Only a .

fragment of the first column is perfect enough to


translate and the characters on this are so worn
,

that the tran slation cannot be other than doubtful .

It seems to read
1 A g ains t the paling he struck and
.
TH E E XP L O I TS OF D I B B A R A . 127

2 . the fifth time he smote above and be l ow


seeki ng
3 seven
.

4 The words of the account of the seven gods all


.

of the m Anu had heard .

5 He
. them also to D ib bar a the warrior of
the gods : May thy hands go
5 w henever the people of the nations their shame
.

[or alli ance ] have destroyed .

7 I have set thy heart also to make darkness


. .

8 The people of the black heads to ruin thou shalt


.

strike with the desolation of the god Ner ;


9 may thy weapons ( overthrow ) them and may
.
,

thy hands go .

1 0 As for them
. their weapons .

1 1 He said to D ibb ara


.

The speech of A n n which fol l ows is written in


characters so broken and indistinct as to make any
attempt at translation impossible .

The next fiagme n t is of a d i fle re n t character but


'
'

appears from its style to belong to the same series .

1 he
2 . spake to him and he explained
3 . spake to him and he l earned
4 Anu at the doing of Hea shouted for j oy and
.

5 the gods of heaven and earth as many as exist


.

whosoever thus answered ;


6 h is command which was like the command of
.

A n n whosoever appointed
1 28 TH E E XP L OI TS O F D I B B ARA .

7
. exten di ng from the h O I I Z O ll of heaven to
'

the top Of heaven


8 . he looked and his fear he saw
9 . Anu who over him
10 . of Hea his calami ty made
11 . a fierce lord to later days to
12 . seed of mankind
13 triumphantly the net he broke
to heaven he had asc
.

14 . e n d e d sh e thus,

15 . peop l e he had pl a ced


16 . the illness which was on the b od y of
the pe ople he h ad placed
17 the illness the goddess of K arrak made
to cease .

The next portion of the l egen d is a con siderab l e


part of one of the tablets probably the fourth all
, ,

four co l umns of writin g being represented T here .

are many curious points in this tablet beside the ,

special purpose of the legend such as the peopl es


,

enumerated in the fourth column the action of the


gods of the various cities & c
,

.
,

C O L UMN 1 .

1 Bel
. hi s yokes an d
2 ( i n his ) heart he says :
.

3 D ib b ar a is crouching at his gate amo ng the


.
,

corpses of chi efs an d slaves ;


4 D ibb ara is crouching at hi s gate ; thou knowest
.

his seat .

5 Babylon their foes besieged and


.
,
1 30 TH E E X P L OI TS O F B I R B AR A .

25 and their treasures


. th ou openest and dost ,

sweep into the river .

2 6 The spell Merodach saw and angrily


. spoke ,

2 7 his heart was t aken ,

2 8 an unsparing curse in hi s mouth was formed


.
,

29 the river he did not


.

C O L UMN II .

Many lines lost .

1 . that city which the lord O f the earth


2 a whirlwind he did not ( make )
.

3 without Samas his tower thou crossest the


.
,

land thou givest


4 of E rech the seat of A n n and Istar
.
,

5 the city of ( the handmaids ) Samk h at i and Khari


.

mati the choirs O f


,

6 Istar Death they fear ( and ) they are delivered


. .

into thy hands


7 The Suti ( Arab nomads ) with the Suti are
.

placed in
8 they are slain ; the te mple of Anu t h e pries ts
.
,

the festival makers ,

9 who to make the pe ople of Istar worship their


.
, ,

manhood devo ted ,

1 0 carryi ng swords carrying razors d u


.
p,e and , ,

knives ,

1 1 who to rej oice the glory of Istar trusted


.
,

1 2 O fierce high priest the bo w ing down of the


.
,
-

face over them thou hast made .


A
TE E E XP L O I TS OF D I B B A RA . 1 81

1 3: 2,T heirfoundations also their shrines ,

1 4 Istar cried out and was tro ubled over the city
.

of Erech

c
,

1 5 the enemy she str ikes an d l ike corn on the


.

face of the waters Sh e s atters .

1 6 D welling i n his
. Bit Parra -

17
. she res ts not from the war .

1 8 The enemy whom thou hast stricken ob eys


.

not
1 9 The great god answered the speech
.

2 0 The city of D uran to streams of blood


.

2 1 the peopl e who dwell in the midst O f it l ike


.

r eeds are trembling) ;


(
before the waters their al lian ce
2 3 and
. thou dost n ot
. .

2 4 to the S uti
i
.

I n my city Duran d ge uprightly


do n ot
27. I do not give and
2 8 t h e up right people I leave
.

Five othe r broken lines .

C OL UMN III .

Many lines lost .

the house he had built


this he di d and I,

t h e d ay he brought me my fate I
h i m hi s amp
,
c a lso he caused to destroy
A fie rward s may they de stroy an d to an other ,
1 32 TH E E XP L O ITS OF D I B B A R A .

O wa rrior D ibb ara the e stab lished also in


6 .
,

Gutium ,

7 the unestab lished also in Gutium


.
,

8 who sin against thee also in Gutium


.
,

9 who do not Sin against thee also in Gutium


.
,

10 the destroyer of the clothes of the


god of Gutium ,

11 the mover of th e head of the king .

Two other mutilated lines .

C O L UMN IV .

1 . May the planet Mercury cause his splendour to


wane ;
2to his resolution s
. is he bound
3 he rej oices not the mouth of hi s ( worshippers )
.

4 who the structure


.

5 to the seat of the kin g of the gods may he


.

urge and
6 The warrior D ibb ara heard it also
.
,

7 the word (which) the god Itak spake to him


.

8 and thus spake the warrior Dibb e r s


.

9 Sea against sea


. Sub art u ( Syria )
,

Sub art u Assyria against Assyria


, ,

1 0 Elam against Elam


.
,

1 1 K oss a
. ean against Koss aean ,

1 2 Sutu against Sutu


.
,

1 3 Gutium against Gutium


.
,

1 4 L ullub u against L ullub u


.
,

1 5 countr y against countr y house against house


.
, ,

man against man ,


1 34 TH E E XP L OI TS OF D I B B A R A .

a voice also the whole of y ou



9

9 I also in the first sin


5

q in heart I cried out and


like a flock of sheep may
°
9

9 without the planting of boundaries against


.

1 0 like the spoili ng of the country steadfast and


.

1 1 in the mouth of the high noble


.

1 2 and the place


.

Fifteen lines much broken here .

28 the lan d of Accad its stre n gt h


2 9 May one slay seven l ike
.

30 his cities to ruins and mounds thou dost


.

reduce
31 his great spoil thou dost s poil to the midst
.
,

32 . the gods of the country thou re mov e st


afar O ff

33 the god Ner an d the God Se rak h thou di


cd
.

re te st

34 the countries their prod u t ion s


. c ,
t h e sea thou
35 its interior they destroyed
.

Four mutilated lines here .

Reverse .

For years unto l d the glory of the gr eat


1 .

lord the god


2 When D ib b ar a had cried out and to sweep the
.

countries
3 had set
. his face
4 Itak his adviser had quieted him and stayed
.
TH E E X P L OI TS OF D I B B A R A . 1 35

5gathering together his forces to the glorious


.

one of the gods Merodach the son of ( Hea)


,
.

6 In the hour of n ight he sent him and when


.
,

in th e y e ar
7 Not any
. one
8 an d sent not down against
9 hi s
. . also D ib b ar a received before
10 . Itak who goes before hi m the i llustrious ,

god
11 are all of them laid with him
. .

1 2 Any one who speaks of the warrior D i b b ara


.

1 3 and that song shall glorify i n his place thou


.
,

wilt keep (his) canals ,

14 never may he fall


1 5 the heaven s have caused the borders of ( his )
.

regions to increase .

1 6 Whoever the glory of my heroism sha ll recount


.
,

1 7 an adversary never may he have .

1 8 The musician who shall sing shall not die by


.
,

the chastisement ;
1 9 h igher than king and prince may that man
.

ascend .

2 0 The tablet writer who stud i e s i t ( and ) flees from


.

the host ile shall be great in the land


,
.

2 1 If i n the places of the people the established


.
,

place my name they proclaim


,

2 2 their ears I open


. .

2 3 In the house the place where their goods are


.
,

p laced if I D ibb ara am angry


,

2 4 may the seven gods turn h i m aside


.
,
1 36 TH E E XP L OITS O F D I B B A RA .

25 . may the chas tis ing sword n ot touch him whose


face th e n e stab li sh e st .

26 That song for ever may they establish and may


.

they fix the part


2 7 may all the world hear and glorify my heroism ;
.
,

2 8 may the men of all nations see and ex alt my


.
,

n ame .

Fifth tablet of the exploits of the god ( D ibb ar a) .

Here we see a picture of O riental feeling with


re ference to natural phenomenon or disaster to man
kind I t is supposed that some deity or angel stands
.

with a sword over the devoted pe ople and sweeps


them into eternity .

The first fragment shows the anger of Anu at the sin


of some doomed race and his command to D ib bar a to
,

take his weapon slay the people and desolate the la rid
, ,

like the god Ner This god Ner was one of the myt hi
cal kings O f Babylon who reigned after the flood an d ,

is mentioned as ha v ing a terrible name and being


with Etana a dweller in Hades The allusion to hi m.

in this passage seems to imply that he was believed to


have once rescued Babylon from a hostile attack .

The next fragment exhibits the goddess of Karrak


as healing the illness of some of the people bei ng ,

mentioned as struck with disease .

In the next and largest fragment the story become s


a little more connected ; it comme nces with a d e s rip c
tio n of preparation for battle and goes on through
,
1 38 TH E E XP L OI TS O F D I B B A RA .

Tidal or rather according to th e reading of the


, ,


S eptuagint Tur gal the great Son
,
-
.

The fourth column next describes a prophecy


of D ibb ara that there should be internal war among
the peoples of the Persian Gulf of Syria Assyria , , ,

Elam Gutium Lullub u and the Kos saaan s from all


, , ,

which troubles benefit should come to the Accadians


or northern Babyloni ans The Koss aeans or Cassi in .

habited the n orthern part of E lam and under Kham ,

muragas conquered Babylonia and founded there a


dynasty which lasted a long time L ullub u lay .

northward of Mesopotamia and Nizir .

Then according to hi s wish Dibb e rs sends the go d


Itak his servant with the seven warrior gods to
, ,

devas tate and Itak sweeps over the country and


,

destroys it .
1

The last tablet deals in generalities pointing out


the actio n of D ibb ara when his praise was neglected ,

and telling all the glories and good that Should come
to those who should celebrate this deity in song O n .

the spread of a plague it is evident that the Baby


lon i e n s had no better means of arresting it tha n to
pray and praise the supposed terrible deity of the
scourge that he mi ght sheathe his sword of anger
,
.

The antiquity O f the legend is evident from the


1 I tak h ad his worsh i ppe rs as we ll as D ibb ara . Th us an A c
cdi a an
se al i n th e po ses ss ion of D r. H uggins be ars a le ge n d stat in g th at it
Ruru-lukh , th e se rvan t of I tak , th e stree t -trave rse r

b e longe d to “

c
.

p
Th e god is re re se n te d on th is se al as a man in a flou n e d d re ss , to

wh om a k id is b e in g offe re d , an d is sy mbolize d by two an imals on e of


c c
wh i h look s lik e a lo ust, th e oth e r like a monk e y .
TH E E XP L OITS O F D I B B ARA . 1 39

geographical names which occur in it A geographic al


.

list which seems based on an Accadian original is the


only other document which speaks of Ph oe nicia or ,

rather a part of Phoe n icia under the name of Khi k h i


,

and the fact that no reference is made to the Hittites


shows that the poem is earlier than the sixtee n th
century B C when the Hittites first rose into power
. .
,

in western Asia Sub ar t u is derived from the Acca


.

dian subar high applied by the Accadians to the


“ ”
,

highlands of Aram or Syria .


C H A PTER I X .

B AB Y LO N IAN FAB LE S .

Fables — Common in th e East — D cp i


e s ri t on — P owe r of s e e p c
hi n

c
. .

ani mals — Story l


of th e e ag e — Se r e nt - Sa mas
.
— Th e e agle p t. . augh .

— Eats th e se r e nt — A n e r of B ird s — Etan a — Se ve n od s — Third


p
g g
c
.

c
. . .

l
tab e t — S ee hp of e agle — Stor
y of th e fox -
H is u nn i n
g
— J ud g
c
. .

me nt of Samas — H is h
s ow of sorrow.— H is pu i hm n s e nt .— Spe e
h f o

fox — Fable
. of th e horse an d c— Th y c
x. e on sort toge t her — Sp c
. h ee

of th e ox .— H is good fortune — Con tras t with th e h orse —H un tin


g
c c
. .

th e ox .
— S e e h of th e h orse — O ffe rs to re oun t
p story — Stor
y of

I star — Furt he r table ts


. .

OM E I NE D with these stories of the gods ,

trad i tions of the early history of man and ,

accounts of the Creation are fragment s ,

of a series in which various animal s speak


and act As these resemble the beas t fab l es of other
.
-

races more especial ly the African they may be con


, ,

v e n ie n t l
y classed under the general hea d ing of

Fables The idea that ani mals can speak or have
.

,

s poken in some former age of the world even occurs ,

in Genesis where we have a speaking serpent ; in


,

Numbers where B alaam s ass reproves hi s maste r ; and ’

in the stories of Jotham and Jc


,

ash where the trees ,

are made to talk ; as also in the I zdubar l egends where ,

the trees a n swer Hea bani -


.
14 2 B A B YL O N IA N FA B L E S .

the fragments of the story owing t ot h e ir mutilated con


dition they must therefore be translated as they come .

K 252 7 .

Many lines lost at the commencement .

1 The serpent in
.

2 I gave a command
.

3 to the e agle
.

4 Again the nest


.

5 my nest I have left in


.

6 the assembly ? of my people


.

7 I went down an d entered


.

8 the sentence which Samas h as pronounced on


.

9 . the ear of corn which Samas thy field the


earth
10 . this thy fruit
11 . in thy fiel d let me not
12 . the doin g of evil the goddess Bahu ( Gu la )
13 . The sorrow of the serpent [ Samas saw and]
14 . Samas opened his mouth and a word he spoke :
15 . Go along the way pass
,

16 . he covered thee
17 . open also h is heart
18 . he placed
19 . birds of heaven
Reverse .

1 . The eagle with them


2 . the god ? h ad known
3
. he descended the flesh he
,
B A B YL O N I A N FA B L E S
. 14 3

4 . to cover the
5 . to the midst at his entering
6 . the cutting off of the feathers of his wings
7 . his claws ? and his pinions to
8 . death by hunger and thirst
9 . for the work of Samas the warrior the ser ,

pent
10 he took also the serpent
.

1 1 he open ed also his heart


.

1 2 seat he placed
.

1 3 peace the birds of heaven


.

1 4 May the eagle


.

1 5 with the you n g of the birds


.

1 6 The eagle opened his mouth


.

Five other mutilated lines .

O n another fragment are the followin g

Obverse .

fierce to him also


the god my father
li ke Etana thy death
li ke thee
the god E tana the king
they stripped him in

Reverse .

Within the gate of Anu B el ( and H ea )


,

they are established


within the gate of Sin Samas Rimmon and
, , ,

I opened
144 B A B YL O N IAN FA B L ES
.

5 . its I devas tated


6 . in t h e mi d st
7the ki ng
.

8 the god also


.

9 I overshad owed the throne


.

1 0 I took
. also
1 1 to the great one a l so I have explained
.

1 2 The eagle to him also even to Etana


.

1 3 his. the mouth


1 4 may thy city submit
.

The next fragment K 2 606 is curious as con


, , ,

taining an account of some early legendary story


in B abylonian history This tablet formed the thi rd
.

in the series and from it we gain part of the title of


,

the tablets .

K 2 606 .

god had pl aced


th e
of the city he had fix ed its brickwork
he had shep h erded them
Etana gave them
corn
the seven spirits of earth
they took their couns el
the world
all of them the angel s
they
I n those days als
and a sceptre of crys tal
the bowi ng down of the world
14 6 B A B YL ON I A N FA B L E S .

8 . the people of the birds


9 The eagle his mouth opened and
Why d
.

10 . o I go
11 the god Etana his mouth O pened and
.

Such are the principal fragments of thi s curious


legend According to the fragment K 2 5 2 7 the
.
,

serpent had committed some sin for which it was


condemned by the god Samas to be eaten by the
eagle ; but the eagle declined the repast .

After this some one whose name is lost baits a


, , ,

trap for the eagle and the bird going to get the,

meat falls into the trap and is caught Now the


,
.

eagle is left until dying for want of food it is glad


,

to eat the serpent which it takes and tears open, .

The other birds then interfere but the tablet is ,

too mutilated to allow us to discover for what


purpose .

The other fragments concern the buildin g of some


city Etana being king and in these relations the
, ,

eagle again appears ; there are seven spirits or angels


principal actors in the matter but the whole story is ,

obscure at present and a connected plot cannot be


,

made out .

This fable has evidently some direct connection


with the mythical history of Babylonia for Etana is ,

mentioned as an ancient Babylonian monarch in the


Izdubar legends He seems to be the Titan of t h e
.

Greek writers who lived after the Deluge an d made


,

war against Kronos or Hea short ly aft er the confusion


of tongues The city built by E tana may be the city
.
B A B YL O N IAN FA B L E S . 147

mentioned in Gen xi 4 as built at the same time as


. .

the Tower of Babel If the Sibyl can be trusted


.

Titan was a conte mporary of Prometheus in whom ,

we may perhaps see the I n n in n a of the cuneiform


inscription That Etana w as closely associated with
.

the story of the Deluge appears plain from the


fact t hat he ruled at Suri p p ak the home and ki ngdom
,

of the Chaldean Noah The legend of E tana seems


.

in the fable to be put into the mouth of the eagle .

II S TO RY O F TH E Fox
. .

The n ext fable that of the fox was ascribed to an


, ,

author called L al M erodach the son of Eri Turn un


-
,
-

na but the fragments are so disconnected that they


,

must be give n without any attempt at arrangement .

K 364 1 .

C O L U MN I .

1 . he had raised life


2 . thou in that day also didst establish
3 . thou knowest plots ( and) the making of snares

4of . chains his com mand he ,

5 from the time the fox approaches he urged me ;


.

let not
6 in treading d own
. he had established on
my feet ,

7 again by command is the fecundity of li fe


. .

8 Samas by thy j u d gment is ru l er ; never may


.

he go forth ;
14 8 B A B YL O N IA N FA B L ES .

9
<
need be with the makin g of snares let them
9 if.
,

put to death the fox .

10 The fox on hearing thi s raised h is he ad in the


.
,
.

presence of Samas and wee ps .

1 1 To the presence of the splendour of Samas h i s


.

t ears went :
1 2 by this j udgment 0 Sam as thou do st not mak e
.

me fecund .

( Columns II and. I II . lost ) .

C O L U MN I V .

I went to my forest I turned not b ack afte r him


,

and in peace I came not forth and the sun se e s ,

As for thee never may man imprison ( the e ) ,


,

s ince in the pride of my heart and the stre ngth


face thou goest straight before (me ) .

May I confine thee and not send ( thee ) aw ay .

May I take hold of thee and thou l ac e rate not

7
. May I s e ize thee an d not tear ( t h e e ) to
pieces .

8
. May I te ar thy limbs to pieces an d ( not )

The fox weeps


9
.

1 0 he bowed his face


.

1 1 I went and
.

Five other mutil ated lines .


1 50 B AB YL O N I AN FA B L ES .

C
The fourth fragment contains on ly five legible
lines .

1 . was placed also right (and left)


2 . their shepherd w as prostrate
3 . let it not be
4 . they guarded and did not th row down
his spoil

5 the fox in the trap


The last fragment is a small scrap at the end of ,

which the fox petitions Samas to spare him .

The incidental allusions in these fragments show


that the fox was even then considered cunning and ,

the animal in the story was evidently a watery speci


men as h e brings tears to his assistance when ever
,

anyt hing is to be gained by it H e had offended .

Samas by some means and the god sentenced hi m to


death a sentence which he escaped through powerful
,

pleading on his own behalf .

II I F A B L E O F TH E H O RSE A N D Ox
. .

The next fab le that of the horse and the ox is a


, ,

single tablet with only two colu mns of text The .

date of the tablet is in the reign of Assur bani—pal -


,

and there is no statement that it is copied from an


ear lier text There are altogether four portions of
.

the text but only one is perfect enough to be worth


,

translatin g This largest fragment K 34 5 6 contain s


.
, ,

about on e third of the story


-
.
B AB YL ON I AN FA B L E S . 151

K 34 5 6 .

( Severa l lines are l ost at the commencement ) .

1 the river
2 of food
. rest
3 full flood
. the Tigris
4 they restrained
. they had the face
5 the water lily
.
-
not i n the neighbour
hood
6 the high p l ace
. appearance
7 the valley
. the mo untain (was perish
in g) ,
8 at the appearance
. the timid fled (not) ,

9 a boundless place
. he t urned
1 0 in the side
.

1 1 of the waste
. earth was free within it ;
1 2 the tribes of cattle rej oiced in companionship
.

and friendship ,

1 3 the ox and the horse made friendshi p


.
-

1 4 their maw rej oiced when to friendship


.

1 5 it inclined and their heart was glad ; they


.
,

made agreement together .

16 The ox O pene d his mouth and speaks ; he says


.
,

to the horse glorious in war :


1 7 I am pondering now upo n the good fortune at
my hand .

1 8 At the beginni n g of the year and the en d of


.

the year I dream (or ponder) of fodder .


152 B A B YL O N IA N FA B L E S .

19 .The abundant floods h ad <>b e e n d ried


up the ,

waters of the canals were reduced ,

2 0 the water lil y had d rooped it was su ffering the


.
-
,

summer heat
-
,

2 1 the valleys were stony my mountain was


.
,

perishing ,

2 2 the high places had perished the s ambata


.
,

languished ,

2 3 at the sight of my b orn the timid fled not


. .

2 4 A boundle ss place is portioned for his


.

2 5 the man
. who knew ceased
2 6 he smote the ropes
. an d waited

2 7 and the horse


.

2 8 cut O fi thyself thy


'

2 9 he as cen d s also
.

Here the ox describes the state of the country


during the d rought of summer and makes a league ,

with the horse apparently for the purpose of sharin g


,

with him the same pastures Most of the spe eche s


.
,

however made by the two animal s are lost or only


,

present in smal l fragments and the sto ry t acom,

menees on the reverse with the end of a speech from


the horse .

1 fate
.

2 strong brass ?
.

3 as with a cloak I am clothed


.

4 over me a child not suited


.

5 king high priest l ord and prince do n ot see k


.
, ,

the plain
1 54 B A B YL O N IA N FA B L ES .

31In addition to the stories vfli i c


. h thou hast told

32 open first (that of) Behold Istar the noble
.

( Colophon )
Palace of Assur bani pal king of nations ki ng (of
- -
, ,

A ssyria) .

It appears fiom these fragments that the story de


'

scribed a time when the an imals associated together ,

and the ox and horse fell into a friendly conversation .

The ox commencing the discussion praised hi mself ;


, ,

the answer of the horse is lost but where the story ,

recommences it appears that the ox obj ects to the


horse drawing the chariot from whi ch he himself is
hunted and the hors e ultimately O ffers to tell the ox
,

a story the ox choosing the story called B ehold
,

Istar probably some story of the same character as


,

that of I st ar s descent into Hades



.

It is uncertain if any other tablet followed this ; it


is however probable that there was one containing
, ,

the story told by the horse Although there is no .

indication to show the date of t hi s fable the fact that ,

it is not stated to have been copied from an O lder


d ocument seems to show that it is not earlier than
the tim e of Assur bani pal T he loss of the tablet
- -
.

containing the story of Istar told by the horse to the ,

ox is unfortunate The last fable is a mere fragment


, .

similar to the others containing a story in which the


,

calf speaks There is not enough of it to make it


.

worth translation .
C H A P TE R X .

FRA G ME N TS O F MI SCE L L AN E O U S TEX TS .

A tarpi — P un ish me n t of world — Rid d le of wise mam— N ature an d

unive rsal p re se n cf
e o air — Sin uri — D ivin ing by fr a t ur e of re e dc
cd
.

c
. .

Th e foun dlin g — Towe r of B abe l — O bs u rit


y of le e n d — N ot n oti
g e

c
. . .

by B e rosus — Fr agme n tary t able t — D e s r


. t u i t on of Towe r — D is
. p e rsion .

-Si
te of th e Towe r — Me an in g of B abel - Ch e d or-laome r — Th e d e
c
. . .

u tion
str of Sod om an d G omorrah .

N U MB E R of stories of a similar character


to those of Genesis though not directly ,

connected with the latter have been in ,

cluded in this chapter together with two ,

fragments which probably relate the one to the Tower ,

of Babel the other to the destruction of the cities of


,

the Plain The first and principal text is the story of


.

A t arp i or A t arp i n isu


,
A t ar pi the man ,
This .

story is on a tab let in six columns and there is only ,

on e copy of it It is terribly mutilated very little


.
,

being preserved except Column I I I but there are .


,

numerous repetitions throughout the text The in .

scription has ori ginally been a l ong one probably ,

extending to about 4 00 l ines of writing and the text ,


156 FRA GME N TS O F

differs from the genera lity O f th ese inscriptions bein g ,

very obscure and diffic ult In consequence of this.

and other reasons only an outline of most O f the story


,

is given here .

We are first to l d of a quarrel between a mother


named Ziban it and her daughter and that the mother ,

shuts the door of the house and turns her daughter ,


adrift the words of the original being the mother to
,

the daughter opens not her door The doings O f a.


man named Z amu have some connection with the



a ffair his descending into the street on getting
,

somethin g being mentioned immediately before the


expulsion of the d aughter ; and at the close we are
told of A tarp i sometimes called A t arpi nisu or A t arpi
,
-
,

the man who had his couch be side the river of the
north and was pious to the gods but took no notice
, ,

of these things When the story next O pens we find


.
,

t h e god B el calli ng together an assembly of the gods


his sons and relating to them that he is angry at the
,

si n of the world stating also that he will bring down


,

upon it disease tempest distress madness burning


, , , ,

and sickness This is followed by the statement that


.

these things came to pass and A tarp i then invoked


,

his god Hea to remove these evils F or a whole year .


,

it would seem he interceded for the people and at


, ,

last Hea answered and announced hi s resolve to de


,

stroy the people After this the story reads :


.

1 ( Hea called ) his assembly (by the river ) of the


.

north ; he sai d to the gods his sons :


2 I made them
15 8 FR A OME N TS O F

25 . favour was shut up good , was not given .

This will serve to show the styl e of the tablet .

The instrument of punishment was apparently a


famine from want of rain
Here the story is again lost and where it r e c
.

,
om

menees Hea is making a speech directing another ,

person to out something into portions and place ,

seven on e ach side and then to build brickwork ro und


them After this comes a s ingle fragment the c
,

on

n ec
.
,

tion of which wi th the former part is obscure .

1 Se ated was the goddess


.

2 to her face also he gave


.

3
. Ann opened hi s mouth and speaks ; he said to
( Nusku )
4 Nusku open thy gate ; thy weapons (take)
.

5 in the as sembly O f the great gods when


.

6 their speech ?
.

7 Anu sent me
.

8 your king sent


.

At present no satisfactory story can be made out


O f the detached fragments of this tablet but it evi ,

d e n t ly belon gs to the mythical portion of Babylonian


history and it is impossible not to compare the um
,

successful intercession of the righteous man A tarp i


with the pleadings of Abraham on behal f of the cities
of the plain .

The next text is a single fiagme n t K 2 4 07 be , ,


MI SUE L L AN E O US T E X TS . 159

l onging to a curious story of a wise man who puts a


riddle to the gods .

K 2 4 07 .

( Many lines lost ) .

The clothing of the god


What in the house is (fixed)
What in the secret place is
what is in the foundation of the house
what on the floor of the house is fixed ,

6 . what the lower part


7 . what by the sides of the house goes down
8 what in the ditch of the house broad n igzts tsz
' ’

9 . what roars like a bu ll what brays like an ass


, ,

10 . what flutters like a s ail what b l eats li ke a


,

sheep ,

11 what barks like a d og


.
,

1 2 what growls like a bear


.
,

1 3 what into the fundament of a man enters what


.
,

into the fundament of a woman enters .

1 4 Then L ugal g irra ( Nergal ) heard the wise word


.
-

the son of the people


1 5 asked an d all the gods he urged (to solve it)
.
,

1 6 L et your so l ution be produced that I may


.
,

bring back your answer .

After this there is a mut ilated passage containi n g


the names titles an d actions of the gods who con
, ,

sider the riddle I t is evident that it is air or wind


.
1 60 FRA O MEN TS O F

which the wise man means in his riddle for this is ,

everywhere and in its sounds imitates the cries of


,

animals .

Next we have another single fragment about a


person named Sin uri who uses a divining r od to
,

ascertain the meaning of a dream .

1 Sin uri with the cut reed pondered


.

2 with his right hand he broke it and Sin ur i speaks


.
,

an d thus says
3 Now the plant of Nusku the shrub ? of Samas
.
,

art thou .

4 Judge thou j udgest (or divinest ) divine con


.
, ,

cerning this dream ,

5 which in the eveni n g at midnight or in th e


.
, ,

morning
6 has c ome w h ic
,

. h thou kn ow e st b ut I do not kn ow
, , .

7 If it be good may its good not be l ost to me


.
,

8 if it be evil may its evil not happen to me


. .

There are some more obscure and broken lines but ,

no indication as to the story to which it belongs .

A specimen O f early Babylonian folklore may fit ly


be added here It is a bilingual fragment which
.

treats of a foundling who was picked up in the


streets and finally became a great scholar U n .

fortunately both the beginning and the end of the


story are wanting .

1 H e who father and mother had not


.
,

2 w h o his father (and ) his mother knew not


.
,

3 in the gutter (was ) his going in the street (h is )


.
,

e n tering .
1 62 FR A GME N TS OF

which he thought might be dist orted representations


of the event In these and some others of the same
.

MR N ENO AG E D 1s B e xt n mo C
o m mas ; F RO M B BY I
A L O N AN Cm N D RR .

characte r figures have their hands on tall piles as if


, ,

erecting them ; and there is a god always represented


near in much the same attitude There is no proper .
MIS CE L LA N E 0 U S TE X TS . 1 63

proportion between the supposed structure and the


men and no stre ss can consequently be laid on the
,

representations The Babylonian origin of the story


.

is however self evident According to Genesis man


, ,
-
.
,

k ind after the flood travelled from the east that is ,

from Kh arsak kurra “


the mountain Of the East
-
, ,

now E lw e n d where the Accadians be lieved the ark


,

to have rested to the plain of Shin ar or Sumir B oth


,
.

Alexander Polyhistor and A by d e n us state that the


building of the Tower of Babel was known to Baby
lonian history Babel in fact being the native form
, , ,

of the name which the Greeks changed into Babylon .

The legend of Etana given in the last chapter seems


to i mply that the T ower was supposed to have been
b ui lt under the superintendence of thi s mythical hero .

However that may be a fragme n t of the native story


,

of its construction was discovered by Mr Smith and .


,

though shockingly mutilated is su fficient to show what


,

the Babylonians themselves believed on the matter .

It is evident from the wording of the fragment that


it was preceded by at least on e tablet describing the ,

si n of the people i n building the tower The frag .

ment preserved belongs to a tablet contai ning from


four to six col umns of writing of which portions of ,

four rem ai n The principal part is the begi n ning of


.

Column 1 .

C O L U MN 1 .

1 . them the father


2 . the thought of h is heart was evil ,
1 64 FR A GME N TS O F

3 . he the father of al l the gods had re

p ud i at ed ;
the thought of hi s heart was evil
4 .
,

5 of Babylon he h astens to the


mission
6 [sma ll ] and great he confounded
.

mound .

of Babylon he h astens to the


mission ,

8 [small ] and great he con founded ( on ) the


.

mound .

9 The ir walls all the day he founded ;


.

1 0 for their destruction (punishment ) in th e nigh t


.

11 he did not leave a remainder .

1 2 In his an ger also (his ) secret counse l h e pours


.

out
1 3 [to] confound (their ) speeches he set hi s face
. .

1 4 He gave the command he made strange thei r


.
,

counsel
15 . the going he inspec ted it .

16 . he took (selecte d ) a shrine .

There is a small fragment of Column I L but the ,

connection with Column I is not apparent . .

C O L UMN I I .

1 Sar tuli elli ( the king of the il lustriou s m oun d


.
- -
,

A n u) destroys ( or punishes ) .

2 In front had Anu l ifted up


.

3 to Bel e sir his father


.
-
1 66 FR A G ME N TS O F

In the first part we have t h e® an ge r of Bel the ,

father of the gods at the sin of those who were


,

building the walls of Babylon and the mound of



tower or palace This mound is termed the illus
.

trious and the god Anu who destroyed the builders



,

is accordingly called Sar tuli ellz the king O f the



'

- -
,

illustrious mound Since the Acca d ian name of the


.


month Tisri our O ctober was the month of the
, ,

illustrious moun d it would appear that the con


,

struction of it was believed to have take n place at the


time of the autumnal equinox The b uilders were .

punished by the deity and the wall s that had been


,

set up in the day were destroyed at night Prof . .

D elitzsch has draw n attention to a possible reference


to this legend in an Accadian hymn in which the poet

says to Merodach found during the day destroy ,

during the night It is plai n from the first lines


.

that the whole attempt was directed against the gods ;


i n fact that like the gi ants and Titans in Greek
,

mythology whose as sault on Z eus is probably but an


,

echo O f the old Babylonian tale conveyed to Greece


through the hands of the t n i c
,

i an s the builders of ,

the Tower of Babylon intended to scale the sky .

They were however confoun ded on the mound as


, , ,

well as their speech ( tammasle ) It is interesting to .


find the very same word signifying to con found ”

used in the Babylonian as in the Hebrew account ,

namely bd lal or rather bd ld lz We may also notice


,
.

that the Hebrew writer once ( Gen xi adopt s the . .

polytheistic language of the A ccadian scribe ; the


MIS CE L L A N E O US TE X TS . 1 67

L ord being made to say “


L et us go down and there ,

confound their language .

The last column shows that the winds fi n ally de


t r oy e d the impious work of the Babylonians This .

fully accords with the legend reported by Alexander


Polyhistor For a time B abylon was given over to
.

the god of lawlessness ; but at last the gods repented

V I EW O E TH E BI B S NmRU D , TH E S U PP O SE D s un or TH E TO W E R or BBL
A E .

of the ev il they had done and order was once more ,

restored The shrine mentioned i n the sixteenth line


.

of the first column may receive some light from the


fact that the Acc ad ian n ame of Nisan or March was
the month of the U pright al tar or of the altar of ,

Bel and that Nisan corresponded with the vern al


,

equinox j ust as Tisri did with the autumnal equinox .

The etymology of the name of Babel from balbel ,



to confound suggested in Genesis is one of those

,

popu l ar etymol ogies or plays on words of which


1 68 FRA GME N TS O F

the O ld Testament writers are s o fond Thus for .


,

instance the name of Joseph is connected first with


,

“ “

d s ap h to take away and then wi th y d sap h t o
,

ad d (

Gen xxx 2 3 . and. the n ame of t h e
,

Moabite city Dibon is changed in to Dimon by Isaiah



( xv .9 ). to indicate th at its waters shall be full of
blood Hebrew d am Babel is the Assyrian B ab ili
,

.
-


the gate of God ( or as it is occasionally w ritten ,

Vi ew or T n E B um . MO U R D AT B B YL
A O N , TE E I
S TE or Tn E

TE E P L E or B EL .


in the plural B ab ili Gate of the go d s
,
-
which was
the Semitic translation of the old Accadian name O f
the town Ca d i mirra with the same meanin g This
-
.

is not the only instance in which the original


Accadian n ames of Babylonian cities were literally
translate d into Semitic Babylonian after the Semitic
conquest of the country It is possible that the .

name h ad some reference to the building of the


Tower Babylon was first made a capital by Kha m
.

muragas the leader of the Coss aean dyn as ty a


, ,
1 70 FR A G ME N TS O F


O perations here are given in the Journal of the
Royal Asiatic Society vol xviii an d Rawlinson s ”
,
. .
,

Ancient Monarchies p 5 4 4 Sir Henry dis,


. .

covered by excavation that the tower consisted of


seven stages of brickwork on an earthen platform ,

each stage being of a different colour This is ex .

plained by the fact that it was devoted to the seven


planets The height of the earthen platform was not
.

ascer taine d but the fir st stage whi ch was an exact


, ,

square was 2 72 feet each way and 2 6 feet high the


, , ,

bricks being blackened with bitumen ; thi s stage is


supposed to have been dedicate d to the planet
Saturn The second stag e was a square of 2 30
.

feet 2 6 feet high faced with orange coloured bricks ;


, ,
-

supposed to have been dedicated to Jupiter The .

third s tage 1 88 feet square and 2 6 feet high


, , ,

faced with red bricks was probably dedicated to ,

Mars The fourth stage 1 4 6 feet square and 1 5 feet


.
, ,

high was probably dedicated to the Sun and is


, ,

thought by Sir H Rawlinson to have been originally


.

plated with gold The fift h stage is supposed to have


.

been 1 04 the sixth 62 and the seventh 2 0feet square


, , ,

but the top was too ruinous to decide these measure


ments Thes e stages were probably dedi cated to
.

Venus Mercury and the Moon Each stage of the


, ,
.

building was not set in the centre of the stage on


which it rested but was placed 30 feet from the front
, ,

and 1 2 feet from the back The ruin at present rise s .

1 5 4 feet above the level of the plain and is the ,

most imposin g pile in the whole country According .


MISCE L L A N E O U S TE X TS . 1 71

to Nebuchadnezzar it had been bui l t to the height of


4 2 c ubits by a former king who however had not

,

completed its sum mi t and it had long been in a


,

ruinous condition when Nebuchadnezzar undertook


to restore and fin ish it Prof Schrader imagines
. .

that the long period during which it had remained


an unfinished ruin caused the growt h of the legend
which saw in it a monument of the overthrow of
human presumption th e diversity of languages in
,

Babylonia being su fficient to account for the locali za


tion of the confusion of tongues in the country .

Sir Henry Rawlinson now proposes to place the


Tower or tul ellu at the ruins now called Amr an ,

within the city of Babylon itself Here he thinks .

were the temple of A n n on the site of the ruined


,

Tower a chapel dedicated to Nebo an altar of Mero


, ,

dach the royal palace ( now represented by the mound


,

of the Kasr ) and the han ging gardens all enclosed by


, ,

a common wall The quarter of Babylon thus e u


.

closed h e would identify with the Calneh of the Bible ,

principally on the ground that the Septuagi n t render



i n g of Isaiah x 9 is Have I not taken the region above
.
,

Babylon and Chalanne where the tower w as built ? ”

A third site has been claimed for the Tower on the


Babil or Muj e llib e h mound on the north side of Baby
lon This represents the famous temple of Belus or
.

Bel whose great festival marked the begi nning of the


,

year and the vernal equinox B ut there is no evi .

d ence to support this third O pinion .

In the Babylonian and Assyrian sculpture s there


1 72 FR A GME N TS O F

are occasionally representations of towers similar in


style to the supposed Tower of Babel ; one of these
is given on the stone of M erodach Baladan I oppo .
,

site p 2 36 of Mr Smith s Assyrian Discoveries
. .

another occurs on the sculptures at Nineveh re pr e ,

senting the city of Babylon ; this tower however , ,

cannot represent the B orsipp a pile since it consists of ,

only five stages .

Besides the Tower O f Babel the destruction of ,

Sodom and Gomorrah by fire from heaven may also


have been known to the Accad ians We learn from .

Genesis xiv that the cities of the plain were amon g


.

the conquests of Ch e d or laome r and his alli es and



,

there is some reason for thinking that the hi story of


Ch e d or laome r s campaign may have been deri ved

-

from the Babyl onian state archives At all events .

Amraphel or A mar pe l the king of Sumir is men tion e d


, ,

first although Ch e d or laome r was the paramount


,
-

sovereign and the leader of the expedition The .

expedition must have taken place during the period


when as we learn from the inscriptions Babylonia
, ,

was subj ect to the monarchs of Elam though sub ord i ,

nate princes were ruling over the states into which it


was divided at the time Though the name of Ch e d or
.

laome r has not been found L aome r or L agamar ,

appears as an Elamite god and several of the Elamite ,

kings bore names compounded with Kudur a ser


vant as Kudur Nan k h un t e the servant of the god
,
” “ -
,

N an k h un t e Kudur Mab ug the servant of Mab ug


,
” “ -
, ,

and the like Arioch king of E llasar which probably


.
, ,
1 74 FRA GME N TS O F MISCEL L A N EO US TE X TS.

Their feet and hands QEmb r ac


12 .
( ) ( i t e d ) .

13 .

14 . Their body it consumed .

15 . as for the city its foundations it de


,

filed .

16 . with ( gl ory ?) and bre adth his mouth h e


filled .

17 This man the voice ( of the thunder ) called ; t h e


thunderbolt descended ;
1 8 during the day it flashed ; grievously ( it fell)
. .

Here the fragment breaks ofl It is possible that


'

the person referred to in line 1 7 was the pious man


who like L ot escaped the destruction that
neighbours .
IZ D U B AR ST RA N G L IN G A L I ON . U LP U
FR O M KH O R SA B AD SC T RE .
1 76 TH E I Z B UB A R L E GE N D S .

son i fie d form of the sun god The two last characters


-
.

of the name however when used as a compound ideo


, ,

graph denoted the under lip and the first cha -

r ac
, ,


t e r symbolizes wood ”
.

Mr Smith be lieved that Izdubar was the Biblical


.

Nimr od and w as almost incli n ed to think that this


,

was the way i n which the name ought to be p h on e ti


cally rendered One passage however in which the
.
, ,

last syllable is followed by the syllable m seems to


imply that the final letter was r .

The originally solar character of the hero was still


remembered at the time when the great Epic of the
Accadians was put together As was pointed out by .

Sir Henry Rawlinson shortly after Mr Smith s first .


discovery of it it is arranged upon an astronomical


,

principle its twelve books or tablets corresponding


,

with the twelve sign s of the Z odiac through which ,

the sun passes in his yearly course Thus the eleventh .

tablet which contai n s the episode O f the Deluge


, ,

answers to A quarius the eleventh sign of the Z odiac ,

and the elevent h month of the Accad ian year called



the rainy ; and the sixth tablet describing his ,

courtship by Istar answers to Virgo the sixth sign of


,

the Z odiac and the sixth Accadian month called that


,

of the errand of Istar It is in the second month


.
,

that of the d irecting bull and under the sign of



,

Taurus that Hea bani half man half bull is brought


,
-
,
-
,
-
,

to Izdubar in the second tablet ; the lion is sl ai n by


I zdubar und er the Z o d iacal L eo and the lamentation ,

he makes over the corpse O f hi s friend and seer Hea


TH E I Z B UB AR L EG E N D S . 1 77


bani is made in the dark month O f Adar as it was ,

termed at the end of the year L ike the autumnal


, .

su ,
n too Izdubar sickens in the eighth book corre
,

s on d i n with the month of October an d o n ly recovers


p g ,

hi s heal th an d brilliance af ter bathing in the waters of


the eastern ocean at the beginning of the new year
If anythin g were needed to confirm the solar c
.

ha
rac te r of Izdub ar and his history it would be afforded
,

by a comparison with the legends of the Greek solar


hero Herakl es L ike much else of Greek mythology
,
.
,

the twelve adventures of H erakles were brought to


Greece from Babylonia through the hands of the
Phc e nic ian s and it has long been recognized that
,

Herakles is but a form of B aal Me lk ar th the sun god ,


-

O f Tyre . H ea bani reappear s in Cheiro n the centaur


-
, ,

the friend and instructor O f Herakles and j ust as Hea ,

bani was created by Hea Cheiron was said to be the


,

son of Kronos who is identified by Berosus with Hea


,

in the account of the Deluge The lion slain by


.

Izdubar is the lion of Nemea slain by Herakles ; the


win ged bull made by Anu is the famous bu ll of Krete ;
t h e tyrant Kh umb ab a is the tyrant Geryon the gems
borne by the trees of the forest beyond the gateway
of the sun are the apples of the Hesperides ; and the
dead ly sickness of I zdubar hi mse lf is but the fever of
He rakles caused by the poisoned tunic of Nessus
,
.

A very slight inspection of the Epic is sufficient to


show that it has been pieced together out of a number
of previously existing and indepen d ent materials .

Thus the hi story of the Deluge which is itse l f but an


,

N
1 78 TH E I ZD UB A R L EGEN D S .

episode somewhat violently foisted into the legend of


Izdubar in order to preserve the astronomical
arrangement of the Ep ic may be shown to have con
,

sisted of at least two older poems on the subj ect ; and


a careful examination of other portions of the Epic
brings the same fact to l ight elsewhere .

As ho wever there is clear proof that the Epic w as


, ,

originally composed in Accadian our present text ,

being merely the Semitic translation of the Accadian


original it must have existed in the form in which we
,

now have it before the age of Sargon and the extine


tion of the Accad ian lan guage in Chaldea We shall .

not be far wron g therefore in ascribing its composition


, ,

to about 2 000 or a li ttle earlier


,
The older lays .

or poems out of which it was formed must therefore


date before this period There see ms to have been a
considerable number of them eac
.

h incident in the
,

cycle of ancient Accadian mythology having been the


subj ect of various poems Many of these originated
.

in d ifferent parts of the country so that a long period


,

of time must be allowed for their growth and sub se


quent reduction to a literary form B ut as the legends .

they celebrated were traditions in the country before


they were embodied in poems and committed to
writing we must go back to quite a remote epoch for
,

their first startin g point


-
.

The e arliest evidence we have of them is in the


carvings on early Babylonian cylindrical seals .

Among the earliest known d evices on these seals we


have scenes from the legends of Izdubar and from ,
1 80 TH E IZD UB A R LE GEN D S .

scribed on twelve tablets of which there are remains


,

of at least four e di tions Al l the tablets are in frag


.

ments and none of them are complete ; but it is a


,

fortunate circumstance that the most perfect tablet is


the eleventh which describes the Deluge this being
, ,

the most important of the series In the first chapter .

the successive steps in the discovery of these legends


have been already described and we may now there ,

fore pass on to the description and translation of


the various fragments All the fragments of our
.

present copies belong to the reign of Assur bani p al - -


,

king of Assyria in the seve n th be n t ury B C From


,
. .

the mutilated condition of many of them it is im


possible at present to gain an accurate idea of the
whol e scope of the legends and many parts which ,

are lost have to be supplied by conj ecture ; the


order even O f some of the tablets cannot be deter
mined and it is uncertain if we have fragments of
,

the whole twelve in what follows Mr Smith . .

has however conj ecturally divided the fragments into


, ,

groups corr espondin g roughly wi th the subj ects of


the tablets Each tablet when complete contained six
.

col umns of writing and each column h ad generally


,

from forty to fifty li nes of writing there being ,

in all about lines of cuneiform text The .

divisions adopte d by Mr Smith will be seen by the


.

following s ummary which exhibits our present know


,

ledge of the fragme n ts .

P ar t L — c
I n tr od u tion .

Tablet I .
— Number of lines uncertain probably ,
TH E I Z B UB A R L E GE N D S . 1 81

about 2 40 F irst column in itial line preserved


.
,

second column lost thir d column twenty six lines ,


-

preserved fourth column doubtful fragment inserted


, ,

fifth and sixth column s l ost .

Probable subj ects : conquest of B abylonia by the


Elami tes birth and parentage of Izdubar
,
.

P ar t I L — Meetzng of H ea ban i an d I zd ubar


'

-
.

Tablet II N umber of li n es u n certain probably


.

,

about 2 40 First and second columns lost thi rd and


.
,

fourt h col umns about ha lf preserved fifth and sixth -


,

columns lost .

Tablet III Number of lines about 2 70 First


c
. .

ol umn fourteen lines preserved second third fourth , , , ,

and fifth co l umns nearly perfect sixth co l umn a ,

fr agmen t .

Probable subj ects : dream of Izdubar Hea bani ,


-

invited comes to Erech and expl ains the dream ,


.

P ar t [ IL — D estr c
u tion of the tyr an t Khumbaba .

Tab l et I V umber of lines probably about 2 60


.
—N .

About one third of first second and third column s


-
, , ,

doubtfu l fragments of fo urth fifth and sixth , ,

columns .

Tablet V Number O f l ines about 2 60 Most of


— . .

first co l umn and part of second column preserved


, ,

thi rd fo urth and fifth col umns l ost fragment of


, , ,

six th column .

Probab l e subj ects : contests with wil d anim al s ,

Izdubar an d Hea bani sl ay the tyrant Kh umb aba


-
.
1 82 TH E I ZD UB A R LE GE N D S .

P ar t [ 17 — A d ven tur es
f . o I star .

Tablet VI N umber of lines about 2 1 0 Most of


— . .

first column preserved second column nearly perfect , ,

third and fourth columns partly preserved fifth and ,

sixth columns nearly perfect .

Tablet V II N umber of l ines probably about 2 4 0


— . .

First li ne of first column preserved seco n d colum n ,

lost third and fourth column partly preserved fifth


, ,

an d sixth columns conj ecturally restored from tablet


of descent of Istar into Hades .

Probable subj ects : Istar l oves Izdubar her ,

amours her ascent to heaven destruction of her


, ,

bull her descent to Ha d es


,
.

P ar t V —
f
I llness an d wand er ings o I zd ubar .

Tablet VI I l N umber of lines probably abou t


— .

2 70 . Conj ectured fragments of first second and , ,

third col umn s fourth and fifth columns l ost con


c
, ,

j e t ure d fragments of sixth column .

Tablet I X N umber of lines about 1 90 Portions


— . .

of all six columns preserved .

Tablet X N umber of lines about 2 70 Porti ons


— . .

of all six colu mns preserved .

Probable subj ects : discourse to trees dreams ill , ,

nes s of Izdubar death of Hea bani wanderings O f


,
-
,

Izdubar in search of the hero of the Deluge .

P ar t VI — D es m ption of D eluge, and cc


luion s on .

Tablet X I .
— N umber of lines 2 94 . All six columns
nearly perfect .
184 TH E IZ D UB A R LE G EN D S .

previous history of Izdubar forfn in g the in trod uc ,

tion to the story In the subsequent portions of the


.

history there is very little information to supply the


loss of this part of the inscription ; but it appears
that the mother O f Izdubar was named D an n at ,

which signifies the powerful lady



His father is .

not named in any of our present fragments but he is ,

referred to in the thi rd tablet He was no doubt a .

deity possibly the Sun god who is supposed to inter


,
-
,

fere very much in his behalf When Izdubar t h e .


,

old god of fire after first becoming a form of the


,

solar deity was finally personified and regarded as a


,

mighty leader strong in war an d hunting he


, ,

t urned into a gia n t one O f the mythical monarchs


,

who had ruled in Babylonia i n long past days and -


,

h ad subdued the many petty kingdoms into which the


valley of the E uphrates was then divided .

The centre of the empire of Izdubar is laid i n



the region O f Shinar or Sumir E rech the lofty, ,

being the chief seat of his power an d thus agrees ,

with the site of the kingdom of Nimrod according to ,


Genesis x 8 9 1 0 where we read : And Cush begat
.
, , ,

Nimrod : he began to be a mighty one in the earth .

He was a mighty hunter before the L ord : wherefore


it is said even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before
,

the L ord And the beginning of hi s kin gdom was


.

Babel and Erech an d Accad and Calneh in the


, , , ,

lan d of Shinar We cannot overlook the fact that


.

the character of I zd ubar as hunter leader and king , , ,

corresponds with that of Nimrod Cush the father of .


,
TH E I ZD UB A R LE GEN D S . 1 85

Nimrod may be identified with Cusu Cusi or Cus the


Accadia n deity of s unset and night The word in A c
, , ,

“ “
cadian signified rest and darkness an d is trans ,

lated by the Assyri an n akhu to rest and n ukkuor



,

nu rest This latter word is identical with the



kh .

Biblical Noah It is very possible therefore that


.
, ,

Cush the father of Nimrod has noth ing to do with


, ,

Cush or Ethiopia the son of Ham the two being set


, ,

side by side in Genesis merely on account O f the simi


lari ty of their names In this case all the ethnol ogical
.

di fficulties occasioned by the belief that the Accadians


of Babylonia were Cushi t e s an d connected with Egypt ,

or E thiopia will be avoided It is curious to find the


Christian writers identifying Nimrod with Ev e c
.
,

h ous ,

the first king of Babyl on according to B erosus after , ,

the flood .

The next passage in Genesis after the one de


scribing Ni mr od s dominion may also refer to Nimrod

,


if we read with the margin Out of that land he ,

went forth to Assyria instead of Out of that land ,

went forth Assur These verses will then read


.


( Genesis x 1 1. 1 2 ) ,
Out of that land he went forth
to Assyria an d builded Nineveh and the suburbs of
, ,

the city an d Calah and Resen between Nineveh and


, , ,

Calah : the same is a great city It must be r e ”

membered however that A ssur was regarded by the


, ,

As syrians as their supreme god and eponymous



founder and that in Micah v 6 the l and of Assur
,
.
,

and the land O f Nimrod seem to be contrasted with
one another But it is possib l e to consider the two
.
1 86 TH E IZD UB A R L EGE N D S .


expressions in the latter passage t o be both app lied
to the same country .

After the date of the later books of the O ld Testa


ment we know nothing of Nimrod for some time ; it
is probable that he was fu lly mentioned by B erosus
in hi s history but his account of the giant hunter has
,

been lost The reason of this appears to be that a


.
,

belief had grown up among early Christian writers


that the Biblical N imrod was the first king of Baby
l onia after the Flood an d l ooking at the list of Berosus
,

they found that after the Flood according to him


Ev e c h ous first reigned in Babylon ia and at once
assumed that the Ev e c
,

h ous of Berosu s w as the Nim


rod of the Bible ; but as Ev e c h ous has given to him
the extravagant reign of four ners or years ,

and his son and successor Ch omasb e lus four ners


, ,

and five sosses or ,years this identi fication gives


,

little hope of our finding an historical Nimrod .

It is possible that thi s identificatio n of N im


rod with Ev e c h ous made by the early c
,
h r on olo
gists has caused them to overlook his name and true
,

e poch in the list of Berosus and has thus lost to us


,

his position i n the series of Baby l onian sovereigns .

B elonging to the first centuries of the Christian


era are the works of vari ous Jewish and Christian
writers who have made us familiar with a number of
later traditions concerning Nimrod Josephus d e c
,

lar .

that he was a prime mover in b uil ding the Tower of


Babel an enemy of God and that he reigned at
, ,

Babylon during the dis pe r sion L ater writers mak e .


TH E IZD UB A R L EGEN D S .

O ne of the most curious about Nimrod


th e oTi e s ,

suggested in modern tim es was grounded on the,


B ook of N ab at e an Agriculture This work is a .

comparatively modern forgery pretending to be a ,

literary production of the early Chaldean peri od .

In this work Nimrod head s a list of Babylonian ki n gs



called Can aan ite and a writer in the Journal of
,

Sacred L iterature has argued with considerable force


in favour of these Canaanites being the Arab s of B e


r osu s who reign ed about B C 1 5 5 0 to 1 300 Th e
,
. . .

southern half of Arabia is known as Cush in the Old


Testament lik e the O pposite coast of Africa and as , ,

Nimrod is called a Cushite in Genesis there was a ,

g reat temptation to identify him with the leader


of the Arab dynasty This idea however gained
.
, ,

little favour and has not been held by any sec


,

ti on of in quirers as fixing the position of Nimrod .

The discovery of the cuneiform inscripti ons threw a


new li ght on the subj ect of Babylonian history and ,

soon after the decipherment of the inscriptions atten


tion w as directe d to the ques tion of the identity and
age of Nimrod Sir Henry Rawlinson the father
.
,

of Assyrian discovery first se ri ously atte mpted to


fix the name of Nimrod in the cuneiform in sc
,

ri
p
tions and he endeavoured to find the name in that
,

of the second god of the great Chaldean triad ( See .


Rawlinson s Ancient Monarc hi es vol i p

,
. . .

The names of thi s deity are really E nu Elum and , ,

Bel and he was evidently worshipped at the dawn of


,

B abylonian his tory an d is in fact represented as one


,
TH E I Z B UB A R G
L E EN D S . 1 89

of the creators of the worl d ; time moreover has , ,

shown that the cuneiform characters on which the


identification was grounded do not bear the phonetic
values then supposed .


Sir Henry Rawli nson also suggested ( Ancient
Monarchies p 1 36) that the god Nergal was a d e ifi
, .

cation of Nimrod Nergal however which means


.
, ,

literally the illuminator of Hades was a god of the ,

lower world and even if Nimrod was deified under


,

the name of Nergal this does not explain his position


or epoch .

Canon Raw linson brother of Sir Henry in the


, ,

first volume of his Ancient Monarchi es p 1 5 3 ”
,
.
,

and following makes some j udicious remarks on the


,

chro n ologica l position of Nimrod and suggests that ,

he may have reigned a century or two before B C . .

2 2 86 ; he asserts the historical character of his rei gn ,

and supposes hi m to have founded the Babylonian


mon archy but does not himself iden t ify him with
,

any king know n from the inscriptions At the ti me .

when this was written the conclusions of


'

Cano n Rawlinson were the most satisfactory that


had been advanced since the discovery of the cunei
form inscriptions Since this time however some
.
, ,

new theories have been started with the idea of ,

identifying Nimrod ; one of these brought forward ,

by Professor O pp e r t makes the word a geographica l


,

te rm but such an expl anation is evidently quite


,

ins u fficient to account for the traditions attache d to


the name .
1 90 TH E I Z B UB A R LE G EN D S .

Another theory brought forw afd by the Rev A


H Sayce and Josef Griv c
. .

. l Transactions of Society ,

of Biblical Arch aeology vol ii part 2 p 2 43 and vol


,

. .
,
.
,
.

iii part 1 p 1 36 identifies Nimrod with Merodach


.
,
.
, ,

the god of Babylon ; partly on the ground of the


si milarity of name Merodach being Amar ut uc
,
i or -

Amar ud in Accadian partly because Merodach the


-
,

patron deity of Babylon stood in the same re l ation to


-

that city that Asshur did to Assyria ( see Micah v 6) .


and partly since we find Merodach called a hero

like Nimrod in Genesis and assigned four divine ,

dogs as though he were a hunter These dogs are


Uc mu the despoil er A c c
.

eu

ulu the devourer
“ ” ”

Ic
, ,

sud a the capturer and I lt e b u the carrier away


“ “ ”
.
,

Merodach it must be remembered is always r e p re


, ,

sented as a man and is armed with weapons of


,

war
Mr Smith first fancied that Nimrod might be
.

Kh ammuragas whom he identified with the first


,

Arab king of B erosus as thi s line of kings appeared


,

to be connected with the Coss ae ans This identification .

failing afte r the discovery of the D eluge tab let


,

1 872 he conj ectured that the hero whose name is


,

provisionally read Izdubar is the Nimrod of the


Bible a conj ecture which h as sin ce been adopted by
,

several other scholars .

The supposition that Nimrod was an ethnic or


geographical name which was at one tim e favoured
,

by Sir Henry Rawli nson and has since bee n urged ,

by Professor O p pe rt is quite un tenable for it would


, ,
192 TH E I ZB UB A R L EGE N D S .

perhaps to the general admission of the iden tity O f


,

the hero Izdubar with the traditional Nimrod ; but


this result can be firmly established only when more
evidence is before us than that w hi ch we have at
present .

At the time of the opening of the Epic the great ,

city of the south of Babylonia and the capital of thi s


,

part of the country was U ruk called in Genesis


, , ,

E rech Erech was devoted to the worship of An n


.
,

the god of heaven and his wife the goddess A n at u


, , ,

as well as of I star the Phoe nician Ashtoreth or


, ,

Astarte the myth O f whose love for the Sun god


,
-

D umuzi or Tammuz the A donis of Greek story is


, ,

alluded to in the course of the poem The wors hi p .

of A n at u however was subsequent to the Semitic


, ,

occupation of the country since the necessity of pro


,

v id in g a fem ale deity by the side of every male one


was n ot felt until the Accad ians whose language was
unac
,

quainted with genders were succeeded by the Se


,

mites with their nouns either m asculine or feminine .

Here may provisionally be p laced the first fragment


of the Izdubar legends K 32 00 This fragment con
,
.

sists of part of the third column of a tablet which is ,

probably the first ; and it gives an account of a


conquest of Erech by its enemies The fragm ent .

reads z
1 his
. he left
2
. and he goes down to the river ,

3
. in the river his ship is made go od .

4
. he is and he weeps bitterly
TH E I Z D UB A R LE GEN D S . 1 93

5 placed the city of Gan gan n a which had


,

( su ffered ) destruction .

6 their samarz (were ) she asses


'

7 their r abur i (were ) great wild bulls .

8 L i ke cattle the people fears


.
,

9 like doves the slaves mourn


. .

1 0 The gods of Erech the lofty


.

1 1 turned to flies an d brood in swarms


. .

1 2 The spirits (sed u) of Erech the lofty


.

1 3 t urn ed to cocks and went forth in outposts


. .

1 4 F or three years the city of Erech does the


.

enemy besiege ,

1 5 the great gates were thrown down and trampled


.

upon ,

1 6 the goddess Istar before its enemies could


.

not l ift her head .

1 7 B el his mouth opened and speaks


.
,

1 8 to Istar the queen a speech he makes


.

19 in the midst of N ipur my hands


have placed ,

20 . my country ? Babylo n ( Din tir) the -

house of my de light ,

2 1 my
. I gave my b an d s .

22 . he was favourable to the sanctuaries

24 . the great gods .

H ere we have a graphic account of the condition


of Erech when the enemy overran the country and
, ,

th e first question which occ urs is who were these ,

conquerors ? Conj ecture is idle in the want O f evi


o
1 94 TH E IZ D UB A R LE GE N D S .

dence They may have been the Semitic successors


.

O f the Accadians they may have been the Medes of


,

Berosus or they may have been tribes who belong


,

only to the realm of mythology Mr Smith believed . .

that they were the subj ects of Kh umb ab a the tyrant ,

whose death is related in the fourth book of the E pic ,

and who ru l ed over the land of Elam .

The name of Kh umbab a or Kh ub ab a as it is , ,

occasionally written is probably a compound of


,


Khumba or Kh umb ume the name of one of

, ,

the chief E l amite gods Many other Elamite n ames.

compounded wi th Khumba are mentioned in the


inscriptions : Khumba sidir an early chie f; Khumba
-
,

un d asa an Elamite general opposed to Sennache rib ;


,

Khumba n igas an Elamite monarch opposed to Sargon


-
,

Tu l khumb a an Elamite city 85 0


-
, ,
.

The notice of foreign dominion and particularly ,

of Elamite supremacy at this time may perhaps , , ,

form a clue from which to ascertain the approximate


age O f the poems as we have them We know that .

myths are localized in the country of those who han d


them down to posterity and as signed to an age which
,

has made an impression on their narrators There .

must have been some reason for the legendary siege


and capture of Erech some actual event around which
,

the story of Izdubar h as entwined itself .

L ooking at the fragmen ts of Berosus and the no


tices of Greek and Roman authors we may ask ,

whether there is any epoch of conquest and foreign


dominion which can be fixed upon as representing
1 96 TH E I Z D UB A R L E GEN D S .

an d seals of the age of L ig bagas show that the legend


-

of Izdubar was already popular and we must accord,

i n gly seek a still older period in which to place its


origin and attachme n t to a particular historical event .

Hen ce it may well be that the siege of Erech the ,

memory of which is prese rved in the first book of the


Izdubar E pic was the w ork of those foreign invaders
,

whom the Babylonian historian has termed Median .

Now it is not improbable that the Median dynasty


was really Elamite ; or at all events belonged to the
same race as the primitive inhabitants of Elam .

This race was closely allied to the Accad ians ; and it


was spread over the whole ran ge of country which
stretched from the southern shores of the Caspian to
the Persian Gulf The P rotome d e s as they are
.
,

sometimes called were not conquered and supplanted


,

by Aryan invaders from the east till the ninth century


B C
. . It was in their country that Kh arsak kurra -
,


the Mountain of the East was localized whereon
,

the Accadians and their kinsfolk in Elam and Media


believed the ark to have rested after the F lood and ,

which they regarded as the cradle of their race It .

was therefore pre eminently the land mad a in


- “
,

A ccadian and from this mad a there is every reason


,

to think the name of Media has been derived Con se .

quently the Medians of Berosus the inhabitants of


, ,

mad a the land



of the east need not have been
,

more than one of the many Elamite swarms that


from time to time descended into the fertile plains of
Babylonia and not unfrequently O btained a settlement
,
TH E IZD UB A R L EGE N D S . 1 97


there S uch were the Accadians or Highlanders
.
,

themselves ; such too the two Cassite or Coss aean


, ,

dyn asties which we learn from the monuments long


hel d sway over Chaldea .

An early Babylonian cylinder which came from ,

Erech and originally belonged to a member of the


royal family of that city presents us with a curious ,

picture of a rude nomad tribe apparently arriving i n

MI G RA n ox o r E A S T E R N TB l B E ; F RO M EA R LY B B YL I
A ON AN Ci L i Nn E R .

B abylonia The chief marches in front armed with


.

bow and ar rows and wearing the same kind O f boots


,

with turned up ends as distinguished the Hittites in


-

ancient times and are still worn in Asia Minor and


Greece .They indicate that the wearer came from a
cold an d mountainous country The ani mals skins .

which compose the dresses of his three retainers also


point to a similar conclusion Besides the retainers .
,

the w ife of the chief is depicted as well as two slaves ,

who carry some O bj ects on their shoulders U n fort u


n sc
.

n at e l
y no light is cast upon the group by the i ri
p
tion which simply states that the cylinder belonged
,
TH E IZ D UB A R L EG E N D S .

to Gibil dur ( or
“ -
cum ) the brother of the N Zi
e -
,

king of Erech the librarian thy servant ,


Al l we ,

can gather from it is that the famous library of Erech ,

which furnished Assur bani pal and his scribes with - -

the original texts of the Izdubar E pic was already in ,

existence and that the office of librarian was con


,

s id e re d honourable enough to be borne by a brother

of the reigning monarch .

If the legendary siege of Erech is n ot to be referred


to the epoch O f the Me di an conquest it may have ,

fal len at the time when the image of the goddess


Nana was carried away from Erech by the Elamite
king Kudur n an kh un d i 1 635 years before the cap
-
,

ture of Shushan the capital of Elam by the As , ,

syrians ( about B C and consequently about


. .

B C 2 2 80
. . A fragment which refe rs to this period i n
.


Cuneiform Inscriptions v ol iii p 38 relates the ”
,
. . .
,

destruction wrought in the country by the Elamites ,

and makes Kudur n an kh un d i follow one of the other -

monarchs of an Elamite dynasty and exceed his pre


d ec e ss or s in the inj ury he did to the country .

Putting together the detached notices of this


p erio d the following may approximately represent
,

the chronology the dates being understood as round


,

numbers .

B C 2 75 0 Elamites ( Medes ) overrun Babylonia


. .
, .

B C 2 2 80 Kudur n an kh u
. .
, n d i ki ng O f E Lam ravages
-
, ,

Erech .

1 800 Kh ammuragas conquers Babylonia


, .

Although the d ates transmitted through ancient


2 00 TH E I ZD UB A R L E GE N D S
.

which was modern as compared with that of Baby


lonia in spite of the assertion of Sargon who boasts


, ,

of havin g been preceded on the throne by 35 0


kings .

Of the latter part of the first tablet of the Izdubar


E pic we have as yet no knowledge .
C H A PTE R XII .

MEE TI N G O F H E A -B A N I AN D IZ D UB AR .

D re a m of I zd ubar — . H e a-b an i .
—H is wi sd om
y life .
— H is solitar .

I zd ubar s p e tition —

Z a d u —Kh arimtu an d Samkh at — Te m t H e a
i p
c
. .

ban i —Migh t an d fame of I zd ubar — p


S ee h fH o e a- b an i .— H is j our

c c
. .

ne
y to E re h — Th e mid an n u or t i e r
g .
—Fe stival at E re h .
— D re a m
of I zd u p
bar — Frie n d s h i w ith H e a-ban i
. .

N this chapter are included the fragments


of what appear to be the second and
third tablets or books I n this section of .

the story Izdubar comes prominently for


ward and meets with Hea bani The notice of his
,
- .

mother D an n at appears in one of the tablets give n


in this chapter .

Izdubar in the Babylonian and Assyrian sculptures


, ,

is alwa y s represented with a marked physiogno my ,

and his peculiarities can be seen by noticing the


photograph from a Babylonian gem at the beginning
of the book the e n graving from an Assyrian sculpture
,

in the last chapter and the e n g raving in page 2 4 9


,
2 02 ME E TIN G O F H E A -B A N I

showing Izdubar and H ea bani Struggling with wi ld


-

animals In all these cases and in every other


.
,

instance where Izdubar is represented he is indicate d ,

as a man with masses of curls over his head and a


large curly beard The type is so marked and so
.

distinct from either the Assyrian or the Babylonian


one that it is hard to say to what race it should be at
te ched.

The deity of Izdubar was L uge l turda the god who -


,

was changed into the bird of storm accordi ng to the


old myth from which it may be supposed that he was
,

a native of the district of Amarda or Marad where ,

that god was wors h ipped This district Mr Smith


thought was probably the A mord ac c
. .

ia or Mard o ma of
Ptolemy but its situation is un certain
,
.

The fragments of the second and third tablets


assume by their notices that Izdubar was already
known as a mighty hunter and it appears a li ttle
,

later that he claimed descent from the old Babylonian


heroes as he calls X isut h r us the Chaldean Noah hi s
, , ,

father .

T A B L ET I I .

A single fragment which Mr S mi th be lieved to .

belong to this tablet has been found ; it is K 3389 ,

and contains part of the third and fourth columns O f


writin g It appears from this that Izdubar was
.

then at E rech and had a curious dr eam He thought


,
.

he saw the stars of heaven fall to the ground


and in their descent they struck upon his bac
,

k He .
2 04 ME E TI N G O F H E A -B A N I

19 . like the claws of a li on were his claws ,


.

20 . the strength in me
21 . he slew
22 . me
23 . over me
24 . corpse
The first part of this fragment appears to recount
the honours o ffered by Izdubar to any one who sho uld
interpret the dream These included the ennob ling
.

of his family his recogn ition in assemblies h i s


, ,

being invested with j ewels of honour and his wives ,

being increased A description of the dream of


.

the hero much mutilated follows The conduct


N e b uc
.
, ,

Of h ad n e zzar in the Book of Daniel with ,

reference to his dreams bears some resemblance to ,

that of Izdubar .

After this fragment we have again a blank in the


story and it would appe ar that in this interval
,

application was made to a nondescript creature n amed


Hea bani that he would go to the city O f Erech and
-

interpret the dream O f Izdubar .

Hea bani appears from the representation s on seals


-
,

an d other obj ects on which he is figured to have ,

been a satyr or faun H e is always drawn with the


.

feet and tail of an ox and with horn s on his head


, .

H e is said to have lived in a cave among the w ild


animals of the forest and was supposed to possess
,

wonderful knowledge both of nature and human


affairs In appearance he resembles the se zrzm or
' '

.

hairy demons half men half goats who inhabited the


, , ,
AN D I ZB UB A R . 2 05

deserts and were a terror to passers by Reference -


.

is made to them i n L ev xvii 7 2 Chron xi 1 5 Is


. .
,
. .
,
.

xiii 2 1 xxxiv 1 4 from which we learn that worship


.
,
.
,

w as p ai d to them and tha t they were supposed to be


,

specially connected with the neighbourhood of Baby


lon Hea bani was angry at the request that he
.
-

should abandon his solitary life for the friendship of


Izdubar and where our narrative reopens the god
,

Samas is persuading him to accept the o ffer It may .

be added that the name Hea bani signifies Hea -

created me from which we may infer that the mon


,

ster was believed to have originally asce n ded like


Oannes out of the abysses of the sea .

C O L UMN IV .

ni e

on my back

3 . And Samas opened his mouth


4 . and spake and from heaven said to him
5 and the female Samkh at thou shalt
choose
6 they shall array thee in trappings of d ivinity
.

7 they shall give thee the insignia O f royalty


.

8 they shall make thee become great


.

9 and Izdubar thou sha l t call and incline him


.

t owards thee

1 0 and Izdubar shall make friendship unto thee


.

1 1 he shall cause thee to recline on a grand couch


.

1 2 on a beautiful couch he shal l seat thee


.
06 MEE TI N G O F H E A -B AN I

13 . he will cause thee to sit ofla comfortable seat


a seat on the left
1 4 the kings of the earth shall kis s thy feet
.

1 5 he shall enrich thee and the men of Erech h e


.

s h all make silent before thee


1 6 and he a ft er thee shall take al l
.

1 7 he shall clothe thy body in raiment and

18 . Hea bani heard the words of Samas the warrior


-

1 9 and the anger of h i s heart w as appeased


.

20 was appeased
H ere we are still de aling with the hono urs w h ich
Izdub ar promises to the interpre te r of his dream ,

and these seem to show that Izdubar had some power


at Erech at thi s t ime ; he does not however appear
, ,

to have been an independent king and it is probab l e


,

that the next two column s of this tablet now lost , ,

contai n negotiations for bringing Hea bani to Erech -


,

the subj ect bein g continued on the third tablet .

T A B LE T I II .

This tab l et is far better preserved than the two


previous ones ; it gives the account of the successful
mission to bri ng Hea bani to E rech opening w ith a
-
,

broken accoun t of the wisdom of H ea bani -


.

C O L UMN 1 .

knows all things


and d ifi cult
wi sdom of all thi ngs
2 08 ME E TIN G O F H E A -B A N I

Daughter of a warrior w ife O f


,

their might the god heard and


Aruru strong and great thou Aruru has t
, .

again making his strength one day his heart


,

17 he changed and the city of Erech


1 8 Aruru on hearing this the strength of A n n
.
,

made i nthe midst


1 9 Aruru put in her hands she bowed her breas t
.
,

and lay on the ground


20 . Hea bani she made a warrior begotten of
-
,

the seed of the soldier N i n ip


21 covered his body retiring in com ,

p ani on sh i
p like a woman ,

2 2 the feature s of his aspect were concealed like


.

the corn god


2 3 possessing knowledge O f me n and countries i n
.
,

clothing clothed like the god Ner


2 4 with the gazelles he ate food in the night
.

2 5 with the beas ts of the field he consorted in the


.

day
2 6 with the creeping things of the waters his
.

heart delighted
2 7 Z aidu catcher of men
.

2 8 i n front of that field co n fronted him


.

2 9 the first day the second d ay and the third in


.

the front of that field the same ,

30 the courage of Z aidu d r ied up before him


.

31 and he and his beast entered into his house and


.
AN D I Z B UB A R . 2 09

fear dried up and overcome


hi s courage grew before him
hi s face was terrib l e

C O L UMN III .

1 . Z aidu O pened his mouth and spake an d said to

My father the first l eader who shall go


1 n the land of

like the sol dier of A n n


shall marc
.

h over the country


and fi rmly with the beast
and firmly his feet in the front of the fie l d
I feared an d I did not approach it
he filled the cave which he had dug

I ascended on my hands to the


I did not re ach to the

and said to Z aid u


Erech Izdubar
,

ascend his fie l d
hi s m ight
thy face
the might of a man

like a chief
field
three lines of directio n s .
210 MEE TIN G O F H E A -B A N I

25 . Accordi ng to the advice of his father


26 . Z aidu went
27 he took the road and in the mi dst of Erech
halted
28 Izdubar
29 . the first leader who shall go
30 . in the land O f
31 . l ike the soldier of A n n
32 . shall march over the country
33 . an d firmly with the beast

34 . and firmly h is feet


35 . I feared an d I did not approach it
36 . he filled the cave which he had dug
37
38 . I ascended on my hands
39 . I w as not able to re ach to the covert .

40 Izdubar to him also said to Z aidu


.

4 1 go Z aidu and with thee Kh ar imt u and


.
,

khat take ,

4 2 and when the beast


. in front of the field
4 3 to 4 5 directions to the women how to entice
.

Hea bani
-
.

46 . Z aidu went and with him Kh arimtu and Sam ,

khat he took and ,

4 7 they took the road and went along the path


.
,
.

4 8 On the third day they reached the land where


.

the flood happened .

4 9 Z aidu and Kh ari mt u in their pl aces sat


.
,
2 12 ME E TIN G O F H E A -B A N I

36 to the temple of Elli t ard flsi the seat of Anu


.
-

and Istar ,

37 the dwellin g of Izdubar the mighty giant ,

38 who also like a bull towers


. over the
chiefs .

39 She Spake to him and before her speech


.
,

4 0 the wisdom of his heart flew away and


.

appeared .

4 1 Hea bani to her also said to Kh ari mt u


.
-

4 2 I j oin to Samk h at my companionship


.
,

4 3 to the temple of Elli tar d u


. si the seat of
-

and Istar ,

4 4 the dwelling of Izdubar the mighty giant


.
,

4 5 who
. also like a bull towers over the
chiefs .

4 6 I will meet hi m and see h is power


.
,

C OL UMN V .

1 I will b ring to the midst of Erech a tiger


.
,

2 and if he is able he will destroy it


. .

3 In the desert it is begotten it has gre at


.
,

s tre n gt h ,

before thee
everything there is I kn ow
Hea bani went to the midst of Erech
-

the chiefs made sub mis sion


in that day they made a festival
city
daughter
AN D IZD UB A R . 2 13

11 . mad e rej oicing


12 . becoming great
13 . mingled and
14 . I zdubar rej oicing the people
15 went before him
A prince thou b e c
.

16 . ome st glory thou hast

17 fills h is body
18 . who day and night
19 . destroy thy terror
20 . the god Samas loves hi m and
21 . and H ea have given inte l ligence to
ears
22 . he has come from the mountain
23 . to the midst of E rech he w ill ponder
dream
24 Izdubar hi s d r eam reveal ed and said to
.

mother
2 5 A dream I dreamed in my sleep
.

26 . the stars of heaven


27 struck upon my back
28 . of heaven over me
29 . d i d not rise over it
30 . sto od over
31 . him and
32 . over him
33 .

34 . princess
35 . me
36 . I know
37 to Izdubar
2 14 MEE TIN G O F H E A -B AN I

38 . of heaven
39 . over thy back
40 . over thee
41 . did not rise over it
42 . my
43 . thee
There is one other muti lated fragment of this and
the next column with part of a relation respecting
beasts and a fragment of a conversation betwee n I zd u
bar and his mother .

The whole of this tablet is curious and it certainly,

gives the successful issue of the attempt to bri ng


Hea bani to Erech and in very fragmentary con di tion
-
,

the dream of the monarch .

It appears that the females Samk h at and Kh ari mtu


prevailed u pon H e a bani to come to E rech and see the
-

expl oits of the giant Izdubar and he declared that h e


,

would brin g a AI id an nu most probably a tiger to


, ,

E rech in order to make trial of the strength of I zd u


,

bar and to see if he could destr oy it


,
.

The Mid an n u is mentioned in the Assyrian texts


as a fierce carnivorous animal allied to the lion and
leopard ; it is called Afid an n u Min d i n u and Man d in u
, ,
.

I n a li st of animals it is associated with the d umamu


or cat .

In the fifth column after the description of the


,

festivities which followed the arrival of Hea b ani -


,

there appears a break between lines 1 5 and 1 6 some ,

part of the original story being probably omi tted


here The Assyrian copy probably is here de
.
C H A RTER X III .

D ESTRU CTIO N O F TH E TY R A N T KH UMB AB A .

My th ic
al ge ograph y — Fore st re
gion .
—Kh umbaba — . Conversati on .

P e tition to Samas — Journ e y to fores t — D we lling of Kh umbab a


c
.

E n tran e to fore st —. Me e ting with Kh umbaba — D e ath of Kh u


. mbaba .

— I zd ubar king
.

HE wretchedly mutilated condition of the


fragments that belong to the two next
tablets or b ooks of the E pic makes it
impossible to ascertain their correct
order and arrangement The arrangement given .

here accor di ngly must be regarded as merely pro


, ,

vi sional It may however be taken as certain that


.
, ,

they all form part of the fourth and fifth tablets and ,

relate the contest between I zdubar and Kh umb ab a .

Kh umb ab a the Komb ab os of the Greeks was the


, ,

prototype of Geryon H e dwelt far away in the


.

forest of pines and sherbin cedars where the gods ,

and spiri ts had their abode It was consequently in .


, ,

the cold region of the Accadian O lympus now Moun t ,

E lw e n d that he was placed by the O ld mythology


, ,

an d the simi larity of his name to that of the Elamite


D E STR UC TIO N OF KH UMB AB A . 2 17

god Khumba or Kh umbume makes it possible that


he was originally identica l with the latter I n this .

case the antagonism between Kh umb aba and Izdubar


would have been merely a reflectio n of the an
t agon i sm that existed between the inhabitants of
B abylon ia and the subj ects of the Elamite empire .

Mr Smith eve n thought that the overthrow of Khum


.

baba might have been an echo of the overthrow of


some Elamite dynasty by a Chaldean one .

In the c ase of the fourth tablet Mr Smith believed .

that he had found fragments of all six columns but ,

some of these fr agments are useless until we have


further fragments to complete them .

T A B L ET I V .

C OL UMN I .

mu
thy
me return
,

the birds shal l rend hi m


in thy presence
of the forest of pine trees

al l the batt l e
may the birds of prey surround him
that his carcass may they destroy
,

to me and we will appoint thee ki ng ,

thou shalt direct after the manner of a


2 18 D E STR UC TIO N O F TH E

[ Izdubar ] opened his mout h and spake ,

and said to Hea bani


-

he goes to the great palace


the breast of the great queen
knowledge everythi ng he knows
,

establish to our feet


his hand
I to the great palace
the great quee n
( Probably over twenty lines l ost here ) .

C O L UMN II .

1 enter
2 he raised
3 . the or n aments of her
4 . the ornaments of her breas t
5 and her cro w n I divided
6 . O f the earth he opened

7 he . he ascended to the city


8 he went up to the pre s ence of Samas h e mad e
.

a s acri fice
9 he buil t an altar
. In the pre se nce of Sam as
.

he li fted his hands


1 0 Why hast thou establi s hed Izdub ar in thy
.
,

heart thou h as t given hi m protection ,

1 1 when the son


. and he go e s
1 2 on the remote path to Kh umb aba
1 3 A battle he knows not he will c
. .

on fion t
'
.
,

1 4 an expeditio n he knows not he wi ll ride t o


.
,
2 20 D ES TR UC TIO N OF TH E

13 . for Izdubar to enter


14 . in the gate of the house

C O L UMN III .

the corpse O f
1 .

2 to .

3 to the rising of
.

4 the angels
.

5 may she not return


.

6 him to fix
.

7 the expeditio n which he kn ows not


.

8 may he destroy also


.

9 O f whi ch he knows
.

1 0 the road
.

Five more mutil ated lines the rest O f th e ,

being los t .

This fragment shows I zdub ar sti ll in voki n g t h e


gods for hi s coming expedition U nder the n ext
c
.

column Mr Smith pl a ed a fragment the positi on an d


.
,

mean ing of which ar e quite unknown .

C O L UMN I V U N C ERTA I N
.
— a

1 . he w as heavy
2 . H e a bani w as
-

3 . H e a bani strong n ot ri sing


-

4 . When
5 . with th y song ?
6 . the sis ter of the g ods fii thful
7 . wanderi ng b e fixed to
TYR AN T KH UMB A B A . 221

8 .the sister of the gods lifted


9 and the daughters of the gods grew
.

1 0 I Hea bani
.
-
he lifted to
Somewhere here should be the story now lost of
t h e start ing of Izdubar on his expe d itio n ac c
,

om a
p
ni ed by hi s friend Hea bani -
The sequel shows they
.

at the pal ace or residence of H ea bani whi ch -


,

is surrounded by a forest of pine and cedar the whole ,

being enclosed by some barrier or wall with a gate ,

for entrance Hea bani and Izdubar O pen this gate


.
-

where the story reopens on the fifth col umn .

C O L UMN V .

1 . the sharp weapon


2 . to make men fear him
3 . Kh umbaba poure d a tempest out of his mouth

4 . he heard the gate of the forest [O pen]


5 . the sharp weapo n to make men fear hi m [ he
took]
6 .and in the path of his forest he stood and
[w ai ted ]

7 .Izdubar to him also [ said to Hea bani] -

Here we see Kh umb ab a waiting for the in truders ,

but the rest of the column is lost ; it appears to have


pri ncipally consisted of speeches by Izdubar and
H ea-bani on the magnificent trees they saw and the ,

work before them A single fragment of Column V I


. .
,

containing fragments of six lines shows the m still


,
2 22 D E S TR UC TI O N O F TH E

at the gate and when the next thb le t No


, ,
. V .
,
opens ,

they had not yet entered .

T A B L ET V .

The fifth tablet is more certain than the last ; it


appears to r e fer to the conquest of Kh umbab a .

O nly fiagme n ts of thi s tablet which O pens wi th a


,

description of the retreat of Kh umbab a have as yet ,

bee n di scovered .

C O L UMN 1 .

1 H e stood and surveyed the forest


.

2 of pine trees b e perceived its height


.
, ,

3 O f the forest he perceived its approach


.
,

4 in the place where Kh umb ab a went his


.

was placed ,

5 on a straight road and a good path


. .

6 H e saw the land of the pine trees the seat of


.
,

the gods the sanctuary of the angels


, ,

7 i n front ? of the seed the pine tr ee c arr i e d its


.

fruit ,

8 good was its shadow full of pleas ure


.
, ,

9 an excellent tree the choice of the fore s t


.
, ,

10 . the pine heaped


11 . for one k as pu (7 miles )
12 . cedar two thi rds of it-

13 .

14 . like it
2 24 D E STR UC TIO N O F TH E

C OL UMN 11 .

( F ive li nes mutilated ) .

6 . they pass e d through the forest

7 . Kh umb aba
he did not come
8 .

9 he did not
.

( Seven l ines lost ) .

1 7 heavy
.

1 8 H ea bani O pened his mouth


.
-

19 . Kh umb ab a in
20 . one by one an d .

( M any other broken lin e


s ) .

There ar e a few fragments O f Columns I I I I V


c
,

w hi li
,

an d V an d a small portion of Column V I


.
,
.
,

reads
1 cedar to
2 . he p laced and
3 . 120 H e a bani -

4 the head of Kh umb aba

5 his weapon he sharpened


6 . tablet of the story of fate of
It appe ars from the various mutilat ed fiagme n t s '

O f this tablet that Izdubar and H e a bani conq ue r and -

slay Kh umbaba and take his goods but m u h is , c


wanted to connect the fragments .

The conclusion of this stage O f th e story an d


triumph of Izdubar are given at the commen c e ment
T YR A N T KH UMB A B A . 2 25

of the sixth tablet The conquest O f Kh umb ab a


.

gave Izdubar the crown and attributes of his fallen


rival who seems to have been a sun god and this
,
-
,

caused Istar who already appears as the bride of the


,

the m yth of Tammuz to woo the triumphant


,
C H A PTE R

TH E AD VEN TU RES O F I STA R .

Tri um ph of I zd ubar — . I star



s love — H e r f
of e r of marriage — H er

p romi se s . — I zd ubar s ’
an swe r Tammuz — A mours of I star - H is
c
. . .

re fusal - I star a ange r —



As e n d s to H e ave n Th e b u
ll — Slain by
-

c
. . . .

I zd ubar — I star s

u rse —I zd ubar ’
s trium h — Th e fe ast — I star e
p ’

c cp
. .

p
d es air H e r d e s e n t to H ad e s — D es ri tion — Th e se ve n gate s
-

c
. . . .

Th e urses —A ts u- sun amir th e S hin x — Re le ase of I star — Th e d og


. p . .

of th e d awn — Lame n t for Tammuz .

N this chapter are inc l uded the sixth


and seventh tablets which both pri ,

marily refer to the doings O f Istar .

T A BL ET V I .

The sixth tablet is in better condition than any of


the former ones and allows of something like a con
n ec
,

te d transl ation .

C OL UMN 1 .

hi s weapon he made bri ght hi s weapon


,
.
22 8 TH E AD VE N TURE S OF IS TA R .

20 may thy (horse) be strong without ceasing in


.
, ,

the chariot ,

2 1 may (thy steed ) in the yoke never have a rival


. .

( Izdub ar ) O pened his mouth and spe aks ;

( he says ) to the princess I star :

to thee thy possession


body and rottenness
baldness and famine
I keep back the instru m en ts

instruments of royalty
storm
30 . he poured
31 . I lingered
32 . I t ook thee
33 . caused to enter
34 the door afterwards
. ended w in d
showers
35 palace
. the hero
36 mouth
. check her
3 7 that sign
. carry her
38 body glorious
. carry her
39 grand
. tower of stone
4 0 they have dwelt (in ) the land of the enemy
.

4 1 may she
. her lord
4 2 never may he w oo thee for ever
.

4 3 never may a god prais e thee


.

4 4 I took also the torch ?


. I loved thee
TH E AD VE N T UR E S OF ISTA R . 229

C OL UMN II .

1 . Rest thee and


2 . as for T ammuz the lover of ( thy ) youth
3 . year after year thou hast wearied him with thy
love .

4 . Allala the eagle also thou lovest and


5 . thou didst strike him and his wi n gs thou didst
,

break ;
6 he stood in the forest he begged for wings
.
, .

7 Thou lovest also a lion lusty in might


.
,

8 thou didst tear out by sevens his claws


. .

9 Thou l ovest also a horse glorious i n war


.
,

1 0 he yielded himself and thou didst weary his


.

love overmuch .

1 1 For seven k aspu (fourtee n hours) thou didst


.

weary his love without ceasing ,

1 2 troubled and thirsting thou didst weary him


. .

1 3 To his mother Silele thou didst send him


.

wearied with thy love .

1 4 Thou lovest also the shepherd Tabulu


.
,

1 5 of whom continually thou didst ask for thy


.

stibium .

1 6 E very day he propitiated thee with o fferings


.
,

1 7 thou dids t strike him and to a hyena thou


.

d i dst change him ;


1 8 his own village drove him awa y ;
.

1 9 his dogs tore his wounds


. .

2 0 Thou lovest a l so I sullan u the husbandma n of


.

thy father ,
2 30 TH E AD VE N T UR E S O F I S TA R .

21 who continually was subj e%t to thy order ;


.

2 2 each day had he made bright thy dish


. .

2 3 The eyes thou didst take from him an d didst


.

put him i n chains


llan u c
,

2 4 (saying) : 0 I su
. ut th y h an d eat (thy ) eyes
, ,

2 5 And thy hand thou didst bring out and thou


.

didst strike ?
2 6 I sullan u says to thee
.

2 7 As for me what dost thou ask of me ?


.

2 8 My mother thou art not beautiful and I eat not


.
, ,
.

2 9 The food I have eaten is plentiful even pain


.
,

and waking ;
30 trembling and faintness overcome me
.

3 1 Thou didst hear also this


.

32 thou didst strike him ; to a pillar thou di dst


.

change him ,

33 thou didst place him also in the mi d st of th e


.

land
34 that he rise n ot up that he go n ot
.
,

35 And as for me dost thou love me and like to


.
,

him wilt thou [serve me]

36 . When Istar (heard) this ,

37 Istar was an gry and to heaven she ascended ;


38 . I star went also to the presence of A n n her
father ,

39 to the presence of A n at u her mother


. sh e went
an d says

4 0 My father Izdubar hates me and


.
, ,

Li te rally , h
a t i ng h ung up .

2 32 TH E A D VE N T URE S OF IS TAR .

to Ann her father


I will strike
I will break
of noble names
reducer
of foods
of him
( Some line s l o s t

C O L UMN IV .

( Some lines l ost ) .

1 warriors
2 . to the mi dst
3 . three hundred warriors
4 to the midst
5 slay Hea ban i -

6 . in two divisions he parted in the mi d st of it


7 . two hundred warriors made the bull of ,

A nn
8 . in the third d ivision h is horn s
9 . Hea bani struck ?
-
his might
10 . and Hea bani pierced
-

11 . the bull of A n n by his he ad he took hold

12 . by the thickness of hi s tail

13 . opened his mouth and spake


H e aban i , an d

14 . says to Izdubar
15 . My friend we have strengthen e d
,
TH E A D VEN T UR ES OF IS TA R . 2 33

when we overthrow
My friend I see
,

an d the might

may I destroy
( Three lines lost ) .

han ds to Rimmon and Nebo

Hea bani took hold


-
the bu ll of

by his tail

C O L UMN V .

And Izdubar like a


the hero and ( his friend )
in the vicinity of the middle of his horns
from the city they destroyed the heart ,

to the presence of Samas


they had gone to the presence of Samas
he p laced at the side the bu lk

8. And I star ascended over the fortress of Erech


the lofty ,

.9 she destroyed the bull she uttere d a curse


,

1 0 Woe to Izdubar who has overthrown me has


.
,

slain the b ull of Anu .

1 1 Hea bani a l so heard this speech of I star


.
-
,

1 2 and he cut off the member of the bull of A n n


.

an d be fore her he l aid it ;


2 34: TH E E
A D V N T UR ES OF ISTAR .

13 And what of it ? since I conquered thee when


.

him also Izdubar)


1 4 I caused thee to listen to ;
.

1 5 its skin also I have hung up at thy side


. .

1 6 Istar gathered her maidens


.

1 7 Samkh ati and Kh ar imat i


1
,

1 8 over the member of the h ull of A n n a


.

mourning she made .

1 9 Izdubar called on the people the mul titude


.
,

2 0 all of them
.

2 1 with the thickness of his horns the young


.

men were glorious ,

2 2 30 manehs of crystal (was ) their substance


.
,

2 3 the sharpness of the points was de stroyed


.
,

2 4 6 gurs its mass altogether


. .

2 5 For the food of his god L ugal tur d a he cut it up ;


.
-

2 6 he seethed it and hangs it up in the rising of


.

h is fire ;
2 7 in the river E uphrates they washed their h an ds
. .

2 8 They had been taken and gone


.

2 9 through the street of Erech riding


.
,

30 the assembly of the warriors of Erech


.

trust in them .

31 Izdubar to the inhabitants of Erech


.

32 . a proclamation made .

C OL UMN VI .

1 . If anyone is of ab ili ty among the c h iefs ,

2 . if any is noble among the men ,

Joy an d “
c
Sed u tion .
2 36 TH E A D VE N TUR E S O F I S TA R .

4 . Z aidu ( shall accomplish ) the wish of his


heart
with the female Samkh at
5 . h e brought . .

6 . thee the femal e Samkh at will expel thee


,

7 (homage ) they did not perform


.

8 assemble thou a great assembly


.

9 the strong one has caused thee to be


struck even thee ,
.

10 . good s of the house of thy fulness


After many li n es destroye d the story recommences ,

in the fourth col umn .

C O L UMN I V .

[
1 To.Hades the country whence none return ]
I turn myself ,

2 I spread like a bird my hands


. .

3 I descend I descen d to the house of darkness


.
, ,

the dwelling of the god I rk alla


4 to the house out of which there is no exit
.
,

5 to the road from which there is no return


.

6 to the house from whose entrance the light is


.

taken ,

7 the place where dust is their nourishment and


.

their food mud .

8 Its c hi efs also are l ike birds covered with


.

feathers ;
9 the light is never see n in darkness they dwell
.
,
.

1 0 In the house 0 my friend which I w ill enter


.
, , ,

1 1 for me is treasured up a crown ;


.
TH E AD VE N T URE S OF IS TA R . 2 37

12 .with those wearing crowns who from days of


old ruled the earth ,

1 3 to whom the gods Anu and Bel have given


.

n ames of rule .

1 4 Water
. they have give n to quench the thirst ,

they drink limpid waters .

1 5 In the house 0 my friend which I will enter


.
, , ,

1 6 dwell the lord and the unconquered one


.
,

1 7 dwell the priest and the great man


.
,

1 8 dwell the worms of the deep of the great


.

gods ;
1 9 there d w ells Etana there dwells the god Ner
.
, ,

2 0 (there dwells ) the queen of the lower regions


.
,

Allat ,

2 1 the mistress of the fields the mother of the


.

queen of the lower regions before her submits ,

2 2 and there is not any one that stands against


.

her in her presence .

2 3 I wi ll approach her and she will see me


.

24 . and she wi ll bring me to her


H ere the story is again lost Columns V and V I
, . .

bein g absent It would seem that Hea bani is here


.
-

te lling his friend how he must die and descend into the
house of Hades Mr Smith however thought that
. .
, ,

in the third co l umn some one is Speaking to Istar ,

trying to persuade her not to descend to Hades wh il e ,

in the fo urth co l umn the goddess who is su ffering all


,

the pangs of j eal ousy and hate revels in the dark,

details of the description of the lower regions and ,

dec lares her determination to go there .


2 38 TH E AD VE N TUR ES OF IS TA R .

If this view is correct this part of the legend would


,

be connected with the beautiful story of the Descent


of Istar into Hades which describes how the goddess
descended into the lower world i n search of her
husband Tammuz the Sun god who had been slain
,
-
,

by the boar s tusk of winter



Tammuz became .


Adonis the Ph oenician ad on az lord among the
'

, ,

Greeks to whom the story of Aphrodite and Adonis


had been carried by the t n ic
,

i an s The sto ry is .

one which meets us in the mythologi es of many races


and nations throughout the world and has grown ,

each case out of the winter sleep of the sun and his -

resurrection in the sprin g Its last echo in our own


.

European folkl ore may be heard in the tale of the


Sleeping Beauty A calendar found among the bank
.

ing records of the Egib i firm in Babylonia notes on


the 1 5 th day of the month Tammuz or June an “

eclipse of the Moon apparently in reference to the


,

descent of the Moon goddess Istar into Hades The


-
.

legend survi ves in a changed form in the Talmud


oma S n he d ri m 60a H ere it is said that
( Y a ) .

after the Captivity the elders of the nation headed ,

by Ezra and Nehemiah besought God that the demon


,

of l ust might be delivered into their hands In spite .

of a prophetic voice which warned them of the con


sequences of their request it was persisted in and , ,

the demon was given up to them an d imprisone d .

B ut before three days were over the whole course of ,

the world was thrown into disorder N 0 eggs even .

were to be had and the Jewish elders were obliged


,
2 40 TH E A D VEN TUR E S O F IS TA R .

20 . above the living the dead sh fillexceed in numbers .

21 . The keeper opened hi s mouth and speaks ,

22 . he says to the princess Istar


23 . Stay lady thou dost not glorify her
, , ,

24 . let me go and thy name repeat to the queen


Allat .

25 . The kee per descended and says to A llat


26 . This water (of life) thy sister Istar (comes to
seek ) .

27 The queen of the great vaults (of heaven )


2 8 Allat on hearing this says
.

2 9 L ike the cutting off of the herb has (Istar )


.

descended (into Hades ) ,

30 like the lip of a deadly insect


. she has
3 1 What will her heart bring me (Le matter to
. .

me ) what will her anger (bring me ) ?


,

32 (Istar replies
. This water with (my husband )
33 lik e food would I eat like beer would I drink
.
, .

34 L et me weep over the strong who have l eft


.

their wives .

35 L et me weep over the handmaids who (have


.

lost) the embraces of their husbands .

36 Over the only son let me mourn who ere his


.
,

days are come is taken away .

3 7 ( Allat says Go keeper o pen thy gate to her


38 bewitc
.
,

. h her also according to the ancient rules .

39 The keeper went and opened his gate


.

4 0 Enter 0 lady l et the city of Cuth a receive


l
.
, ,

thee
1
A gre at ne cp li
ro o s se e ms to h ave e xiste d i n Cuth a .
TH E A D VEN TUR E S OF IS TA R . 2 41

41 . l et the pal ace of Hades rej oice at thy presence .

42 The first gate he caused her to enter and


.

touched her he threw down the great crown of her


,

head
43 W
.

. h y 0 keeper h ast thou thrown down the


, ,

great crown of my head ?


4 4 Enter 0 lady of Allat thus is the order
.
, , .

4 5 The second gate he caused her to enter and


.

touched her he threw away the earrings of her ears


,
.

4 6 Why keeper hast thou t h rown away the ear


.
, ,

rings of my ears ?
4 7 Enter 0 lady of Allat thus is the order
, ,
.

4 8 The third gate he caused her to enter and


.

touched her , h e threw away the necklace of her 1

neck.

4 9 Why keeper hast thou thrown away the neck


.
, ,

lace of my neck ?
5 0 Enter 0 lady of A ll at thus is the order
.
, , .

5 1 The fourth gate he caused her to enter and


.

touched her he thr ew away the orna m ents of her


,

breast .

5 2 Why keeper hast thou thrown away the orn a


.
, ,

ments of my breast ?
5 3 E nter 0 lady of All at th us is the order
.
, ,
.

5 4 The fifth gate he caused her to enter and


.

t ouched her he threw away the gemmed girdle of


,

her waist .

5 5 Why keeper hast thou throw n away the


.
, ,

ge mm ed gi r dl e of my waist ?
L ite rally p rec
iou
s stone s .

R
24 2 TH E AD VE N TURE S O F I S TA R .

56 .Enter 0 lady of Allat th us is the order


, ,
.

5 7 The sixth gate he caused her to enter and


.

touched her he threw away the bracelets of her


,

hands and her feet .

5 8 Why keeper hast thou thrown away the brace


.
, ,

lets of my hands and my feet ?


5 9 E nter 0 lady of Allat thus is the order
.
, , .

60 The seventh gate he caused her to enter and


.

to uched her he threw away the cover in g robe of her


,

body .

61 Why keeper hast thou thrown away the cover


.
, ,

ing robe of my body ?


62 E nte r 0 l ady of A llat thus is the order
.
, ,
.

63 When for a long time I star into Hades had


.

descended ,

64 Allat saw her and at her presence was arro


.

gant ;
65 Istar did not take coun sel at her she swore
.
,
.

66 A l lat her mouth opened and speaks


.
,

67 to N amtar (the pl ague demon ) her messenger


.
-

a command she addresses


68 Go N amtar [take Istar from] me and
.

69 take her out to


. even Istar
70 diseased eyes ( strike ) her with
.
,

71 diseased side ( strike ) her with


.
,

72 diseased feet ( strike ) her with


.
,

73 diseased heart ( strike ) her with


.
,

74 diseased head ( strike ) her with


.
,

75 str i ke her the whole of her [ strike with disease]


.
,
.

76 After Istar t h e lad y [into Hades had descended ]


.
,
2 44 TH E AD VEN TUR ES OF IS TA R .

13 Go Atsu sun amir towards the gates of Hades


.
-

set thy face ;


1 4 may the seven gates of Hades be o pened at
.

thy presence ;
1 5 may All at see thee and rej oice at thy
.

presence ;
1 6 when she shall be at rest in her heart and her
.
,

liver be appeased .

1 7 C onj ure her by the name of the great gods .

1 8 Raise thy head s to the roaring stream set thy e ar,

1 9 may the lady (Istar ) overmas ter the roarin g


.

s tream the waters in the midst of it may she drink


,
.

2 0 Allat on hearing thi s


.
,

2 1 beat her bre ast she bit her thumb


.
, ,

2 2 she turn ed again a request she asked not


.
,

2 3 Go Ats u sun amir may I imprison thee in the


.
,
-
,

great prison ,

2 4 may the garbage of the foundati ons of the city


.

be thy food ,

2 5 may the d rmn s of the city be thy drink



.
,

2 6 may the darkn ess ofthe dungeon be thy dwe ll ing


.
,

2 7 may a s take be thy seat


.
,

2 8 may hun ger and thirst strike thy o ffspring


. .

2 9 A llat her mouth opened and speaks


.
,

30 to N amtar her messenger a com man d she


.

addresses
3 1 GO Namt ar str ike the firmly fix e d pa la e
.
, ,
-
c ,

32 the ashéflm adorn with stones of the dawn


.
,

1
Lite rally “
ston e stak e s or

c
ones ,

th e s
ymbols of th e god d e ss

Ash erah . Of 1. Ki ngs vii . 1 5 -2 2 .


TH E AD VE N T UR ES OF IS TA R . 24 5

33 bid the spirits of earth come forth on a throne


.
,

of gold seat ( them ) ,

34 unto Istar give the waters of life an d bring


.

her before me .

35 N amtar went he struck the firmly fix e d pa l ace


.
,
-
,

36 the ash ér zm he adorned wi th stones of the


'

dawn ,

37 he brought forth the spirits of earth on a ,

throne of gold he seated ( them ) .

38 To Istar he gave the waters of li fe and took


.

her.

39 The first gate he passed her out of and he


.
,

restored to her the covering robe of her body .

4 0 The second gate he passed her out of and he


.
,

restored to her the brace l ets of her hands and her


feet.

4 1 The third gate he passed her out of and he


.
,

restored to her the gemmed girdle of her waist .

4 2 The fourth gate he passed her out of an d he


.
,

restored to her the ornaments of her breast .

4 3 The fifth gate he passed her out of and he


.
,

resto red to her the n ecklace of her neck .

4 4 The sixth gate he passed her out of and he


.
,

restored to her the earrings of her ears .

4 5 The seventh gate he passed her out of an d he


.
,

restored to her the great crow n of her head .

4 6 Since thou hast not paid (he says ) a ransom


.
,

for thy deliverance to her Al lat ) so to her agai n


,

turn back
4 7 for Tammuz the husband of ( thy ) youth ;
24 6 TH E AD VE N TUR ES OF IS TA R .

48 the glistening waters pour over ( him) the drops


.
,

( sprink l e upon him );


4 9 in splendid clothing dress him wi th a ring of
.
,

crystal adorn ( him ) .

5 0 May Samk h at appease the grief (of Istar )


.
,

5 1 and Kh arimat give to her comfort


.
,
1
,
.

5 2 The precious eye stones also she destroyed not


.
-
,

5 3 the wound of her brother ( Tammuz) she heard


.
,

she smote ( her breast ) she even Kh arimat gave her , , ,

comfort ;
5 4 the precious eye stones her amulets she com
.
-
, ,

man d e d not ,

5 5 (saying) : 0 my only brother thou d ost no t


.
,

lament for me .

5 6 In the day that Tammuz adorned me w ith


.
,

a ring of crystal with a bracelet of emeralds together


, ,

with hi mself he adorned me ,

5 7 with himse lf he adorned me ; may men mourners


.

and women mo urners


5 8 on a bier place ( him ) and assemble the wake
.
, .

Th is remarkable te xt shows Istar fulfilling h er


threat and descending to Hades but it does not ap ,

pear that she had as yet accomplis hed her vengeance


against Izdubar .

At the O peni ng of the sixth tablet we h ave the

1
Tillili , th e A c
cdi a an na me of Kh ari mat is h e re use d Tillili was
c
.
,

th e wi fe of th e Sun - god Alala symbolize d by th e e agle , whi h w e are

told was “
th e s mbol of th e sou
y th e rn

or

me rid ian s un Wh
” '

at

c c
.

Sir H . Rawlinson all s th e mon oth e ist i p arty among th e B ab ylon ian s
re solve d Tillili into Anatuan d Alala in to A n u ,
248 TH E A D VEN TURES OF ISTAR .

” .
ah me his l ady ! Re ference is made to the worship
,

of Tammuz which was carried on within the Temple


,

itself at Jerusalem in Ezek viii 1 4 Amos viii 1 0


,
. .
,
.
,

( where we shou l d trans l ate as at the mourning for
the only son Tammuz) and Z ech xii 1 0 1 1 ,
. .
,
.

Tammu z is the Semitic form of the Accadian Dumu zi -

“ ”
which sig nifie d in that language the only son .

B o w aas r n n MO U N D AT Wa nn a ( Es s e n ) , I
S TE or me TE MP L E or I sm s .

The struggle with a bu ll on the part of I zdubar and


Hea b ani represented on the Babylon ian cylinder
-
,

figured on the next page and numerous similar re ,

presentations refer to the struggle with the bull


,

created by An u to avenge the slight ofie re d to Istar


'

It would appear from the broken fragments of


Column IV that Hea bani laid hold of the bull by
.
-

the head and tail while Izdubar k illed it a nd H ,


TH E AD VEN T URE S OF ISTA R . 24 9

bani in the en graving is repre sented ho l ding the bu ll


by its head and tail .

At the close of the sixth tab l et the story is again


lost only portions of the third and fourth columns
,

of the next tablet being preserved but light is thrown ,

on thi s portio n of the narrative by the remarkab l e


tablet describing the descent of I star into Hades .

I t is po ssible that this tablet formed an epis ode in


the sixth tablet of the Izdubar l egends .

Thi s tablet containing the descent of I star into

I U ZD B A R AN D B E A-B A N ! i n C FL I C
ON T w rr n TH E L I O N AN D BU LL.

Hades was fir st noticed by Mr Fox Talbot in the .

“ ”
Transactions of the Roya l Society of L iterature ,

but his attempt at a translation was a failure Mr . .

Smith subsequentl y published a short notice of it



in the North B ritish Review an d afterwards a ,

“ ”
translation of it in the Daily T elegraph Prof . .

Schrader brought out a monograph upon it i n 1 874 ,

and both M L e n orman t and D r O p pe rt have worked


. .

at it The most recent translation is one made into


.

Italian by M L e n orman t in a publication entitl ed


.
2 50 TH E AD VE N TUR E S OF IS TA R .

I l mito di Adone Tammuz f879 upon the basis


-
, ,

of the one made by Dr O pp e r t . .

The story of the descent of Istar into Hades is


one of the most beautiful myths in the Assyrian
inscriptions ; it h as however received so much atten
, ,

tion and been so fully commented upon by various


,

s cholars that li ttle need be said on the subj ect here


,
.

It is evident that we are dealing with the same


'

goddess as the Istar daughter of An n in the I zd u


, ,

b ar legends although she is here called daughter of


,

Sin (the moon god ) -


.

The description of the region of Hades is most


graphic an d v i vidly portrays the su fferings of the
,

prisoners there Atsu sun amir created by Hea to


.
-
,

deliver Istar is described as a composite animal


, ,

half bitch and half man with more than one head , ,

and corresponds with the two dogs of the Hindu


Rig Veda which have four eyes and broad snouts
-
, ,

an d guard the road to the abode of Y ama the king

of the de parted They are also said to move among


.

men feasting on their l ives as the messen gers of


, ,

Y ama ; and as the o ffspring of Saram a the dawn , ,

they are called Serame y as whi ch Prof Max Mii lle r ,


.

com par es with the Greek Herm es At any rate the .


,

same conception of a dog of the dawn whi ch guards


the approach to the realm of Hades is found in the
Greek Kerberos with his fifty heads (or three heads ,

accordin g to later writers ) as well as in the dog of ,

Geryon named O rthros or the dawn who seems to ,

be identical with the Vedic Vri t ra the demon of


C H A PTER X V .

I L L N E SS AN D WAN D ERI N G S OF I Z D UB AR .

H e a-ban i and th e tree s — I llne ss of I zd ubar — D e ath of H e a-ban i


cpi
. . .

J ou
rn e
y of I zd ubar — H is d re am — S or on me n — Th e D e se rt of

cH Wat
. .

Mas — Sid uri and Sabitu— N s- ea th e p ilot — er of d e ath


c
. . .

Mua — . Th e on ve rsation . — Xisuth rus .

F the three tablets in this section the ,

first one is very uncertain an d is put ,

together from two separate sources


the other two are more complete and
satisfactory .

T A B L E T V III .

It is again uncertain if any of this tab let has been


discovered ; provisionally some fragments of the first ,

second third and sixth columns of a tablet w hi ch


, ,

may belong to it are placed here but the o n ly frag ,

ment worth translating at present is one given in Mr .

Smi th s Assyrian Discoveries p 1 76 In some


“’

,

. .

portions of these fragments there are references to


the story of Kh umbab a but as the fragment appears
,
I ZD UB A R . 253

to refer to the ill n ess of Izdubar it probably belongs


here.

2 . Hea bani ( his mouth opened and spake and )


-

3 . said to
4 . I went
5 . in the
6 . the door
7 . of
8 an d 9
1 0 in
.

11 . Hea bani
-

12 . wi th the door thy


13 . the door on its sides does not
14 . the creation of her ears they are not
15 . for twenty k asp u ( 1 4 0 miles ) I climbed up

16 . as far as the pine tree a shrub I had seen

17 thy tree has not another


1 8 Six gars ( 1 2 0 feet ) is thy height two gars ( 4 0
.
,

feet ) is thy breadth


1 9 thy street thy blackness
.
, thy rain
2 0 I made thee I raised thee in the city of N ip ur
.
,

21 . yea I kn ew thy d oor li ke t h is


2 54 IL L N E SS AN D WA N D E R IN G S
and this
I raised i ts face I ,

I will fill thy bank

for he took
the pine tree the cedar
, ,

i n i t s cover

thou also
may take
in the collec tion of everything
a great destruc tion
the whole of the trees
in thy land of the tree manubani
thy bush ? is not stron g
thy shadow is not great
and thy sme ll is not agr eeable

38 . The manubani tree w as an gry

39 . m ade a li keness ?
40 . like the tree

The second thi rd fo ur th an d fift h colum n s


, ,

to be entirely absent the insc ription


,

a fragment of the sixth co l umn .

CO L Um I I .

( Many lines lost ) .

The dream which I saw


the tops of the moun tai n
2 56 ILL N ESS AN D WA N D E RIN G S
8 and in the struggle his g 8i ng he stayed

. .

9 . He spake an d said to hi s friend


10 . My friend thou dost not ask me why I am
nake d ,

11 thou dost not inqu ire of me why I am spoil ed


c
.
,

1 2 be ause the god pas sed over wherefore my


.
,

limbs are hot .

1 3 My friend I saw a third dream ;


.

1 4 that dream which I saw entirely disappeare d


. .

1 5 They prayed ; the god thunders on the ground


. .

1 6 He burnt up the exit of the d ar kness ;


.

1 7 the lightning struck ; a fire was kind l ed ;


.

18 . they took away ; it rained death


. .

1 9 The glow also ( disappeared ) the fire sank


.
, ,

20 they struck ; it turned to a palm tre e


.
,

2 1 in t he desert also thy l ord took ( his ) path


.

2 2 And Hea bani his dream considered ; he said


.
-

to Izdubar
23 Samas thy lord the creator ,

The fourth and fifth columns of this tablet are


lost This part of the legend ap pears to refer to the
.

illness of I zdub ar .

C O L UMN VI .

1 . My friend the dream whi ch is not


2 . the day he dreamed the dream the end ,

3 . H ea bani lay down a lso one day


-

4 . which H ea bani on ( his ) bed


-

5 . the third d ay and the fourth day whi ch


OF I Z D UB A R . 2 57

6. the fifth and sixth and seventh ( days )


, ,

7. the eighth ( and ninth and tenth days )


,

8 . when H e aban i was sick


-

9. the eleventh and twe lfth ( days )


10 . Hea bani on ( his ) bed
-

11 . Izdubar read also


12 . Did my friend de fend me
13 . whenever in the midst of fight
14 . I turn to battl e and
15 . my friend who in battle

It must here be noted that Mr Smith s grounds for


.

maki n g this the eighth tablet were extremely doubtful ,

and it is possible that the fragments are of different


tablets ; but they fill up an evident blank in the story
here and they are consequently inserted pendin g fur
,

ther discoveries as to their true positio n .

In the first column Hea bani appears to be address


-

ing certain trees and they are supposed to have the


,

power of hearing an d answering him Hea bani .


-

pra i ses one tree and sneers at anoth er but from the ,

muti lation of the text it does not appear why he acts


so We may conj ecture he was seeking a charm to O pen
.

a door he mentions and that according to the story


,

this charm was known to the trees The fr agment of .

the sixth col umn shows Hea bani unable to interpret


-

a dream while Izdubar asks his friend to fight


, .

After thi s happened the violent death of Hea bani -


,

whi ch added to the misfortunes of Izdubar but no


fragment of thi s part of the story is preserved .

s
2 58 I LL N ESS AN D WA N D E R IN G S
IX TA B L ET .

This tablet is in a somewhat better state than the


others and all the narrative is clearer from this point
, ,

not a sin gle column of the inscription being entirely


lost The ninth tablet commences wi th the sorrow
.

of Izdubar at the death of Hea bani -


.

C OL U MN I .

Izdubar over Hea bani his friend


1 .
-

2 bitterly weeps and traverses the dese rt


.
, .

3 I have no j udgment like Hea bani here ;


.
-

4 sickness entered into my stomach ;


.

5 death I feared and traverse the desert


.
,
.

6 To the maj esty of X i suth rus son of U bara tutu


.
,
-
,

7 th e road I am taking and quickly I go ;


.
,

8 to the lowlands of the mountains I take ( my


.

y ) at night .

9 . a ( dream ) I saw and I feared , .

1 0 I ( bow ) on my face to Sin ( the moon god ) I


.
,

pray ,

1 1 and into the presence of the gods came


.

supplication
1 2 Grant thou ( health ) to me even unto me !
.
,

13 . dream .

1 4 ( Through ) the dream ( sent by ) Sin ( my )


.

had been gladdened .

1 5 Precious stones
. to his hand .

1 6 He pulled out
. hi s girdle
1 7 like a
. their he struck
1 8 he struck
. he smote he broke ,
2 60 IL L N ESS AND WA N D ER IN GS
O
11 . He took his counsel an d approached before
them .

12 The scorpion man of his female asked


.
-

1 3 Who has gone to us with his body the flesh of


.

the gods ?
1 4 To the scorpion man his female answered
.
-

1 5 His going (is ) that of a god but hi s feeble gait


.
,

is
( ) that of a man .

1 6 The scorpion man of the hero asked


.
-
,

17 of the gods the word he recounts


18 . di s tant road
19 u p to the presence
of which the passage is d ifi c
.

20 . ult .

21 . thy thou puttest on .

22 . mountains situated .

23 . thou puttest on .

The rest of this column is lost In it Izd ubar .

converses wi th the monsters and where t h e third,

column begins he is tellin g them his purpos e of seek


i n g X isuth rus .

C O L UMN I I I .

( 1 and 2 lost ) .

3 He Xi sut h rus my father


.

4 who has been estab l ished a lso in t h e assembly


.

( of the gods )
5 death and life [are known to him]
. .

6 The scorpion man opened hi s mouth ( and


.
-

spake ) ;
7 they say to Izdubar
.
OF I Z D UB A R . 2 61

8 .Izdubar was not


9 of the mountain
.

1 0 for twelve k asp u ( 84 mile s ) [is the j ourney ]


.

1 1 on the boundary of the field did he carry hi m


.

self and (there is ) no li ght


,
.

1 2 To the ris ing sun


.

1 3 to the setti ng sun


.

1 4 to the settin g sun


.

1 5 they descended
.

In thi s mutilated passage the monster describes


,

the j ourney to b e taken by Izdubar ; there are now


many lines wanti ng until we come to the
,

C O L UMN I V
I n (hi s)sickness
in di fficulty an d
in lamentation an d
again thou
the scorpion man
-

(said ) to Izdubar
Go I zdubar
the mo untain s of Mas
the mountains the path (of the
,

may the women


the great gate of the land
Izdubar
for a memorial
the ro ad of the sun
1 kaspu (h e went)
2 62 I L L N E SS A N D WA N D E R I N G S
16 on the boundary of the field
.

1 7 he was not able ( to look behi nd h i m) .

1 8 2 k asp u ( he went )
.

This is the bottom of the fou rth column there are


five lines lost at the top of the fifth column and then ,

the n arrati ve reopen s ; th e text is however , ,

lated and doubtful .

C O L U MN V .

s u he
6 4 .
( p
k a went)
7 on the boundary ( of the field )
.

8 he was not able (to look behind him )


. .

9 5 k aspu (he went)


.

1 0 on the boundary of the field


.

1 1 he was n ot able (to look behind him )


. .

1 2 6 k asp u he went
.

1 3 On the boundary of the field did he carry


.

self (and there is no light) .

1 4 He was not able (to look behind h im)


. .

1 5 7 k asp u (he went)


.

1 6 on the boundary of the field was it situated and


.

not
1 7 he was not able to look behind him .

1 8 8 k aspu li ke a
. he mounts up ;
1 9 on the boundary of the field (did he carry him
.

self and) there is no light .

2 0 He was not able to look behind him


. .

2 1 9 k asp u he went
. to the north
22 his face
2 64 I L L N E SS A N D WA N D ER I N G S
C OL UMN VI .

( About six lines lost ) .

1 the pine tree


.

2 its nest of stone


.

3 not sweeping away the sea


. j et stones
4 like the tree of Elam and the tree of the prince
.

emeralds
5 a locust
.

6 j e t stone ka stone
.
,
the goddess
7 like bronze and
. he c arried
8 like . obstacles
9 which. the sea
1 0 it has and
.
,
may he raise
1 1 Izdubar [ saw this ] in his travelling
.
,

on this sea he carried


1 3 C O L O P H O N The women Si d uri and
. .

(who on the shore ) of the sea dwelt


14 tablet of the series When the hero
Izdubar saw the fountain .

This tablet brings Izdubar to the region of the


sea coast but h is way is then barred by two women
-
, ,

one named Sid uri and the other Sab itu His further .

adventures are gi ven on the tenth tablet which ,

O pens

T A B L ET X .

1 . Sid ur i and Sabi t u (who in the land beside the


OF IZ D UB A R . 2 65

dwe lt and
it was the moon it was the moon
,

a covering of fire ye accomplish .

I zdubar approached and


the ulcer covering (his ) ski n
he h ad the brand of the gods on (his)
there is shame of face on
to go on the distant path his face (was set) .

Sab i t u afar off pondered ,

she counselled to her heart (this) plan .

Withi n herself also she (considered)


What is this message
May n o one come straight in ( hi s path ) .

When Sab it u saw him she entered ( her gate ) ;


her gate she entered and e n tered her
And he Izdubar had ears to ( hear her ) ;
he had struck his hands and made

19. Izdubar to her also even said ( to Sab it u


2 0 Sab i t uwhat didst thou see (that )
.

2 1 thy gate thou h arrest


.

2 2 I force the door


.

The rest of thi s colum n is lost but it must have


,

described the meetin g of Izdubar with a boatman



named D r Hea or L ig Hea called Nes Hea the
- -
,
-


lion or dog of Hea in Assyrian In the second

.

col umn they commence a j ourney by water together


in a boat B ut little of this column is preserved ;
.

two fragments only are given here .


2 66 I L LN ESS AN D WA N D ER I N G S '

C O L UMN II .

1 . he the word of hi s friend


2 . the word of Hea bani -

3 . I traverse (the desert) .

4 . in
( ) the dust he had
5 (the friend whom I have loved declared )
.

lovingly ; Hea bani the friend whom I have loved


-

made
6 ( I am not as he ) and would we had never
.

gone u p
7 ( I did not make ) the fortress of
.

(
8
. Izdubar to ) her also speaks even to
,
Sabit
9 (Agai n ) O Sabit what is the way to X is ut h r us ?
.

1 0 Explain the tokens of it to me ; yea explain


.
,

the token s of it to me .

1 1 If it be suitable the sea let me cross


.
,

1 2 if it be not suitable the desert let me traverse


. .

13 Sabit to him also speaks even to Izdubar


.
,

1 4 T here was no crossing (of the sea ) 0 Izdubar


.
, ,

at any time ,

1 5 and no one from remote times onwards has


.

crossed the sea .

1 6 From crossing the sea Samas the hero I the


.

mother prevented ; (yet) Samas crossed whoever ,

1 7 his mouth the passage its road ,

1 8 and the well of the waters of death which


.

extend before it
2 68 IL L N E SS AN D WA N D ERIN GS

C O L UMN II I .

1 . my friend whom I have loved made


2 . I am not as he and would we had never gone

3 I zdubar to him also speaks , even to


. U r -
Hea ;
4 Again , U r Hea , what (is the way to Xi suth rus ?)
.
-

5what are its signs explain to me ; yea exp lain


.
,

( to me its signs ) .

6 If it be suitable the sea let me cross ; if it be


.

not sui table the d esert l et me traverse .

7 Ur. Hea to him also speaks even to ( I zdubar )


-
,

8 Thy hand Izdubar it prevents


.
, ,

9 thou hidest among the precious stones thou


.

1 0 the precious stones ( are ) a hi di ng pl ace [or


.
-

canopy] and they are not


1 1 Take Izdubar an axe in ( thy b an d s )
.
, ,

1 2 go down to the forest and a cleari ng of five gar


.

( make ) .

1 3 Bury and make a tumulus ca rry


.

1 4 Izdubar on his hearin g this


.
,

1 5 took the axe in his hand


.

1 6 he w ent down to the forest and a clearin g of five


.

g ar
( made )
1 7 he buried and made a tu m u lus he carried
1 8 Izdubar and U r Hea rode ( in the ship ) ;
.
-

1 9 the ship the waves took and they


.
OF I Z B UB A R . 2 69

20 a j ourn ey of one month and fift een days


. . On
the third day in their co urse
2 1 .

U r Hea a l so reached the waters of death

C O L UMN I V .

1 . U r- Hea
to him also speaks even to I zdubar ,

2 The tablets O Izdubar


.

3 The waters of death s mi te ; never mayest thou


.

enter the dome of the house ( of the abyss) .

4 The second time the third time and the fourth


.
, ,

ti me go O Izdubar
,

5 the fifth sixth and seventh time go O Izdubar


.
, , ,

6 . the eighth ninth and tenth time go O I zdubar


, , ,

7 . the eleventh and twe lfth time go , 0 Izdubar

8 on the one hundred and twentieth time I zd u


.

bar fini shed


9 an d he struck the middle of it
.

1 0 Izdubar seized the


.

1 1 on his wings an embankment he compl eted


.

X i suth rusover hi m afar O ff pondere d ,

he coun selled (this ) p lan within his heart .

With hi mself also he considered


Why is the hiding pl ace of the ship
-

and the pi lot


the man who went also is not ; and
I ponder and I do not
,
2 70 I L L N E SS AN D WA N D E R IN G S
19 I ponder and I do not
.
,

2 0 I ponder an d I d o not
.
,

Here there is a blank the extent of which is un ,

certain and where the narrative recommences it is


,

on a small fragment of the third and fourth columns


of another copy It appears that the lost lines
.

record the meeting between Izdubar and a female


being named Mu seri ina namari or the Waters O f
-“ - -
,

dawn at daylight In the account of the Deluge


.

,

I z n n nA R , Co n r os xr s Fxo c U H
n as , A N D R- EA TN TnE B O AT

r no u A N EA R LY B B YL I C YL I
A O N AN N D E R.

Ma seri ina namari is mentioned as bringin g the


- — -

black clouds from the horizon of heaven I t was .

here beyond the circular boundary of the earth


, ,

on the shores of the ocean which surrounded it that ,

Izdubar is now supposed to be .

It is curious that whenever I zd ub ar speaks to this


,

being the name Mua is used while whenever I zd u


, , ,

bar is spoken to the full name Mu seri ina namari


,
- - -

occurs Where the story r e opens Izdubar is in


.
-

forming Mua of his first connection with Hea bani -

and his o ffers to him when he desired him to come to


Erech .
2 72 IL L N ESS AN D WAN D E R IN G S

C O L UMN V .

1 . Izdubar opened hi s mouth and said to Mn


2 . my presence ?
3 . not strong
4 . my face
5 . lay down in the field ,

6 . of the mountain the h yaan a of,

field ,

7 Hea bani my friend


.
- the same .

8 N 0 one else was with us we ascend e d


.
,

mountain
9 W
.

e took it and the city we destroyed


. .

1 0 We conquered also Kh umb ab a who in the


.

forest of pine trees dwelt .

1 1 Again why did his fingers lay hold to s lay the


.

li ons ?
1 2 Thou wouldst have feared and thou w ou l ds t
.

not have all the difficulty .

1 3 And he did not succeed in slaying the same ;


.

1 4 his heart failed and he did not strik e


.
,

over him I wept ,

1 5 he covered also my friend like a corpse in a


.

grave ,

1 6 lik e a lion ? he tore ? hi m


.

1 7 like a lioness ? p l aced field


1 8 he was cast down to the fac
.

. e of the earth
1 9 he broke ? and destroyed hi s defence ?
.

2 0 he was cut off and given to pour out ?


.
OF I Z B UB A R . 2 73

21 Ma seri ina namari on hearing this


.
- — -

Here the record is agai n mutilated but Izd ubar ,

further informs Mua what he did i n conj unction with


Hea bani Where the story reopens on Column V I
-
. .

Izdubar relates part of the ir a d venture with Khum


baba .

C O L UMN V I .

taking
to thee
thou art great
all the account

5 . forest of pine trees


6 . went night and day
7 . the extent of Erech the lofty
8 . he approached after us
9 . he opened the land of forests
10 . we ascended
11 . i n the midst like thy mother
12 . cedar an d pine trees
13 . with our stren gth
14 . sil ent
15 . he of the field
16 . by her side
17 . the E uphrates
Here again our narrative is lost and where we ,

again meet the story I zdubar is conversing with


Xis uth rus The conversation is contained in the
.

broken fifth column of K 3382 first noticed and ,

copied by Mr Pinches. .
2 74 IL L N ESS AN D WAN D ERIN G S

C OL UMN V
1 . Mua
2 . my
3 . they are not like .

4 . be fore me .

5 . traverse d the desert .

6 . the glare of the d e sert .

7 . the same .

8 . the mountain .

9 . we destr oy .

10 .
( among ) the roya l tree
they dwell .

11 . lions.

12 . times to come .

13 . were s lain the same ,


.

14 . over him I wept .

15 . burial .

16 .

17 the de sert .

18 over me ; thou hast gone ro un d


I turned bac
.

19 . k ; the ship I
2 0 ( my friend ) whom I have loved dec lared
.

l ovingly ; H ea bani my frien d ( made )


-

2 1 ( I ) am not as he and would we had never


.
,

gone up ; I did n ot make a fortress

22 Izdubar to hi m also speaks even to Xi suth rus


.
,

2 3 Thus may I go and X i suth rus afar ofi who


'

.
,

has conversed wi th hi m may I see ,


.
2 76 I L LN ESS AN D WA N D ER I N GS
If ever hatred is in
4 .

5 If ever the river makes a (great ) flood


. .

6 ( If ever ) r e v ilin g within the mouth


.

7 the face that will bow before Samas


.

8 from of ol d is not
.

9 Spoiling and death together


.

1 0 of death the image they guarded not


.

1 1 The man or servant on approaching ( death )


.
,

1 2 the spirits of the earth the great gods are they


. .

1 3 The goddess Mamme t u maker of fate to them


. .

their fate brings ,

1 4 she has fixed death and life ;


.

1 5 of death its days are not known


. .

C P I
O M O S TE Fro un as ( SCO R P I ON MEN ) ; FRO M AN

A ss r R uN G u n man .

This statement closes the tenth tab l et and leads to


the next question of Izdubar and its answer which ,

includes the story of the Flood .

The present division of the l egends has its own


peculiar difficulties i n the first place it does not
appear how Hea bani was killed Possibly he fell in
-
.

an attempt to slay a lion .

The land of Mas or desert of Mas over whi ch


Izdubar travels in this tablet is the desert on the
OF I Z D UB A R . 2 77

west of the E uphrates and the name reminds us of


,

the Biblical Mash who is called a son of Aram i n


Genesis x 2 3 ; on the sixth column the fragments
.

appear to refer to some bird with magnificent


feathers l ike precious stones seen by Izdubar on his
,
C H APTER X V I .

TH E STO RY O F TH E FL O O D AN D C O N CL U SI O N .

E le ve nth table t — Th e god s — Sin of th e world — Command to build


th e ark — I ts on te nts — Th e b u c
ildi ng — Th e Flood — D e stru tion of c
c
. .

pe opl e. -
Fe ar of the god s —E n d of D eluge — N izir — R s tin of ark
g
c cificc
. . . .

- Th e bird s — Th e d e s e nt from th e ark — Th e sa r e, ove n an t,

c
.

an d rain bow p
S ee h e s of god s — Tran slation of A d ra- Kh as ia— Cue r

c
. .

of I zd ubar — H is re t urn — L ame nt ove r H e a-ban i — Re s urre tion of

cp
. . .

H ea ban i — B urial of warr ior — A ge and om osit ion of th e D e luge

c
, .

p
table t - Com arison with G e n e s is — Sy rian n ation - Co n ne tion of

cc fd c
. .

le ge n d s — P oin ts of onta t. —D uration of D lugc


e — Mount o e s e n t.

E ly c
.

— Te n e n e ration s. i i ar t es
g
-
.

HE eleventh tablet of the Izdubar series


is the one which first attracted attention ,

and is cer tainly the most important on


account of its con taining the story of
the Flood This tablet is the most perfect in the
.

series scarcely any line being entirely lost A new


,
.

fragment of it belonging to another edition of the


,

story has been recently brought to the museum


,

Mr H ormuzd Rassam
. .
2 80 TH E S TO R Y OF TH E FL O O D

the minister of the city of Kis h e declared what he ,

had ( in mind ) 1

1 9 his mini ster heard and proclaimed attentively


.

2 0 Man of Sur ip p ak son of U bara tutu


.

, ,

2 1 build a house make a Ship to preserve the sleep


.
,

of plants ( and ) living beings ;


2 2 store the seed and vivify li fe
.
,

2 3 cause also the seed of life of every kind to go


.

up into the midst of the Ship .

2 4 The ship which thou shalt make


.
,

2 5 600 cubi t s ( shal l be ) its measure in length


.
,

2 6 60 cubits the amount of i ts breadth and i ts


.

height .

27 and on the dee p cover it even it with a , ,

roof
2 8 I understood and say to Hea my lord
.

2 9 The building of the ship whi ch thou co mmandest


.

thus ,

30 . I shall have made ,

31 . the sons of the host and the ol d men .

32 ( Hea O pened his mouth and ) speaks and says


.

to me his servant :
33 . thou shalt say unto them ,

34 . he has rej ected me an d


35 . it is upon me
36 . like caves
may I j udge above and below
38 . close the Ship
Thi s last ci f u d
se nte n e s o n f
only in th e ragme nt di sc ove re d by Mr .

Rassam .
AN D C O N CL USI O N . 2 81

39 . at the season which I will make known to


Y011 ,

40into it enter and the door of the Shi p turn


. .

4 1 Into the mi dst of it thy grain thy furni ture


.
, ,

thy goods ,

4 2 thy wealth thy woman slaves thy handmaids


.
, , ,

and the sons of the host ,

4 3 (the beasts ) of the field the wil d animals of the


.
,

field as many as I would protect


, ,

4 4 I will send to thee and thy door shal l guard


.
,

45 . his mouth opened and speaks and


A d rakh asis 1
,

4 6 says to Hea his lord


.

4 7 No one a shi p has made


.

4 8 in the lower part of the ship has shut U p


.

49 . and may I see the ship .

50 . in the lower part of the ship


5 1 the b uildin g of the ship which thou command
.

est me ( thus ) ,

5 2 which i n
.

C O L U MN II .

s tr ong
on the fifth day it rose .

In its circuit 1 4 in all (were ) its gir ders .

1 4 in all it contained above it


I placed its roof it ,
I enclosed it .

O r : H e th e n intellige ntly
1
.
2 82 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

I rode in it the sixth tim ! ; I divided its pas


6 .

sages the seventh time ;


7 its interior I di vi ded the eighth time
8 L eaks for the waters within it I c
. .

. ut off .

9 I saw the rents and the wanting parts I added


. .

1 0 3 sari of bit umen I poured over the outside


1
. .

1 1 3 s ar i of bitumen I poured over the ins ide


1
. .

1 2 3 sari of men c arryi n g baskets who carried on


.
,

their heads food .

1 3 I added a saros of food whi ch the people shou l d


.

eat ;
14 . two sari of food the boatmen Shared .

15 . To I sacrificed oxe n
16 . I ( established ) each day
17 I ( established ) beer food an d wine ;
, ,

18 .
( I collected them ) like the waters O f a river ,

and
(
19I col l ected ) li ke the dust of t h e earth and
c
.
,

2 0 ( in the shi p ) the food with my hand I pla e d


. .

2 1 ( Through the help of ) Samas the


.

of the Ship was accomplis hed .

22 they were strong and


2 3 the tackling of the Ship I cau
. s ed to bri n g

above and below .

24 .

they went in tw o thi rds of i t .

All I possessed I collected it all I pos se ssed


25 .
,

I collected it in silver ,

2 6 all I possessed I collected it in gold


.
,

1
Th e fragme n t brough t to En lan d b
g y Mr Rassm
. re ad s 6
.
2 84 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

45 . Nergal the mighty r e mof e s the wicked


r
,

46 . Nin ip goes in front he casts down


, ,

47 . the spirits of earth carried destruction ,

48 . in their terror they shake the earth ;


49 . of Rimmon his flood reached to heaven .

50 . The darkened ( earth to a waste ) was t urn ed ,

C O L U MN III .

1 the surface of the earth like


.

covered ,

2 (it destroyed all ) l iving beings from the fac e of


.

the earth ;
3 the raging (deluge ) over the pe ople r e ached to
.
,

heaven .

4 B rother saw not h is brother men d id not n e w


.
,

one another In heaven


.

5 the gods feared the whir l wi n d an d


.

6 sought a refuge ; they as cended to the h e aven


.

of Anu .

7 The gods like do gs were fixed in a h e ap d id


.
,

they lie down .

8 Spake Istar lik e a chil d


.
,

9 the great goddes s uttered her speech


.

1 0 Al l to clay are t urn ed and


.

1 1 that which I in the presence of the gods pro


.

p h e si e d
( even evil has happened ) .

1 2 As I prophesied in the presence of th e go ds


.

evil
1 3 to evil (were devoted ) all my peopl e the trouble
.
,

I prophesied thus
AN D C O N OL USI ON
’ ’
. 2 85

14 . I the mother have begotten my people and


15 . like the young of the fishes they fill the sea .

And
16 .the gods because of the spirits of earth are
weepin g with me .

1 7 The gods on seats are seated in lamentation ,

1 8 covered were their lips for the comin g evil


. .

1 9 Six days and n ights


.

2 0 passed the wind the whirlwind (and ) the


.
, , ,

storm overwhelmed
,
.

2 1 O n the seventh day at its approach the rain


.

was stayed the raging whi rlwind


,

2 2 which had s mitten like an earthquake


.
,

2 3 was quieted
. The sea began to dry and the
.
,

wind and deluge ended .

2 4 I watched the sea making a noise


.
,

2 5 and the whole of mankind was turne d to clay


.
,

2 6 like reeds the corpses floated


. .

2 7 I O pened the window an d the light smote


.
,

upon the fortress of my nostril s .

2 8 I was grieved and sat down ; I weep


.
,

2 9 over the fortress of my nostrils went my tears


. .

30 I watched the regions at the boundary of the sea


.
,

31 towards all the twelve points of the compas s


.

( there was ) no land .

32 In the country of Nizir rested the Ship ;


.

33 the mountain of Nizir stopped the Ship and


.
,

to pas s over it it was not able .

34 The fir st day the secon d day the mountain


.
, ,

of Nizir stopped the Ship .


2 86 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

35 The third day the fou rth day the mountain


.
, ,

of Nizir stopped the ship .

36 The fifth day the Sixth day the mountai n of


.
, ,

Nizir st e p pe d the Ship .

37 O n the seve n th day at its approach

38 I sent forth a dove an d it left The dove


. .

went it returned and


, ,

39 a resting place it did not fin d and it came


.
-
,

back .

4 0 I sent forth a swallow and it left The swallow


. .

went it returned and


, ,

4 1 a resting place it did not find and it came


.
-
,

back .

4 2 I sent forth a raven and it left


. .

4 3 The raven went and the carrion on the water


.
,

it saw and ,

4 4 it di d eat it swam and turned away it di d


not c
.
, , ,

ome back .

4 5 I sent ( the animals ) forth to the four winds I


.
,

sacrificed a sacrifice ,

4 6 I buil t an altar on the peak of the mountain


1
.
,

4 7 by sevens vessels I placed


.
,

4 8 at the bottom of them I spread ree ds pines


.
, ,

and j uniper .

4 9 The gods smelt the savour the gods smelt


.
,

the good savour ;


1
Th e word used h e re c p
is ziggurrat, whi h i s e m loyed to d e n ote th e
towe rs atta c
hd t
e o B abylon ian te m les p
Th ese towers we re ommonly
. c
use d as obse rvatories .
2 88 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

14 as thou didst not con sider a deluge thou


.

madest .

1 5 The doer of sin bore hi s sin the blasphemer


.

bore his blas phemy .

1 6 Never may the j ust prince be cut off never may


.
,

the faithful (be destroyed) .

1 7 Instead of thy making a deluge may lion s ,

come and m en be d imin ished ;


1 8 instead of thy making a de l uge may hy a
. enas ,

come and men be diminished ;


1 9 instead of thy making a deluge may a famine
.
,

happen and the country be (destroyed) ;


2 0 instead of thy making a deluge may pestilence
c
. ,

ome and men be destroyed .

2 1 I did not reveal the j udgment of the gods


. .

2 2 To A d rah as is ( X i suth rus) a dream I sent and


.
,

the j udgment of the gods he heard .


2 3 Again a l so B e l considers (li ter ally again con


.
, ,

sideration was considered ) ; he approaches the midst


of the ship .

2 4 H e took my hand and caused me to as cend up


.
,

2 5 he caused ( me ) to ascend ; he u n ited my wife


.

to my side ;
2 6 he turn ed unto us and fixes himse lf in covenant
.

with us ; he approaches us
2 7 Formerly A d rakh asi s (was ) mortal but
.

,

2 8 again also A d rakh asis and h is wife to live as


.

gods are taken away and ,

2 9 A d r akh asis also dwells in a remote place at the


.

mouth of the rivers .



AN D C O N O L USI ON .

They took me and in a remote place at the


30 .
,

mouth of the rivers they caused me to dwell .

3 1 Ag ai n also as for thee whomsoever the gods


.

have chosen also ,

32 for th e health which thou seekest and askest


.
,

33 the b ulwarks shall be mounted six days an d


.

seven nights ,

34 li ke one who sits i n the vicinity of his nest


.
,

35 a way li ke a storm shall be laid upon him


. .

36 A d r ak h asi s to her also says even to hi s


.
,

37 I . announce that the chie f who has sought


health
38 . the way like a storm shall be l ai d upon him .

39 . His wife to him also says even to A d rak h asis


afar off :

40 . Turn him and let the man be sent away ;


,

41 . by the road that he came may he return in


peace ,

42 . thro the great gate going forth let him return


to hi s country .

43 . A d r ak h asi s to her also says even to his ,

44 . The pain of the man pain s thee ,

45 . mount the bulwarks ; his baldness pl ace on his


head .

46And the day when he had mounted the side of


.

the ship ,

4 7 she mounted his baldn ess she p l aced on his


.
,

head .
2 90 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

48 And the day when he h afimounted the side of


.

the Ship ,

4 9 first the sabusat of his b aldness


5 0 second the mussu/c
.
,

. at third the r ad bat fourth


, ,

she O pened his s iloe man ,

5 1 fifth the sibu she placed Sixth the bas sat


.
, ,

C O L U MN V .

seventh in the outlet she turned


1 . hi m an d . let
the man go free .

2 . Izdubar to him also says even to Xi suth r us


afar ofi
'

3 . In this way thou wast compassionate over


1

q uickly thou hast begotten me and thou hast


4 .
,

set eyes (on me ) .

5 X i sut h rus to him also says even to Izdubar


. .

6 thy baldness ,

7 . I separate d thee ,

8 thy baldness
9 se cond the mussu/c
.
,

at third the r ad be t

1 0 fourth I opened thy zi lc


.
, ,

. aman ,

1 1 fifth the sibu I placed sixth the Masai


.
, ,

1 2 seventh in the opening I turn ed thee


. .

1 3 Izdubar to him also says even to Xi suthr us


.

afar off
14 . X i s uth rus whither may I go ?
2 92 TH E STO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

he cast off h is illness afid the sea carried it


32 .
,

away health covered his Skin


, ,

33 the hair of his head was restored the hair


.
,

clothing the covering of his loins .

34 That he might go to his country that he might


.
,

take his road ,

35 the hair he did not cast off but alone he was


.
,

alone .

36 Izdubar and Nis Hea rode in the shi p


.
-
,

37 where he had placed them they rode .

38 H is . wife to him also says even to X i suth rus a far


ofi

39 . Izdubar goes away he is at rest he per


, ,

forms
40what thou hast given ( him to do ) and returns
.
,

to his country .

4 1 And he even Izdubar lifted up the oar


.

4 2 the ship touched the shore .

4 3 X i s uth r us to h im also says even to Izdubar


.

4 4 Izdubar thou goest away thou art at rest t hou


.
, , ,

p e rfor me st
45what I gave thee ( to do ) an d thou re turne st
.
,

to thy country .

4 6 L et the story of my preservation be revealed


.
,

0 Izdubar ,

4 7 and let the j udgment of the gods be related to


thee .

4 8 This account
. like
4 9 its renown
. like the A murd in tree
C O N C L USIO N

AN D . 2 93

5 0 if he takes the whole of it in the hand .

g
.

51 . To Izdubar he revealed this 1n hi s hearin ,


and

52 . he bound together heavy stones

C O L UMN VI .

1 they dragged it and to the deep


.

2 he even Izdubar took the animal


.

3 he cut the heavy stones


.

4 one homer he po ured out in libation to it


. for
his ship .

5 Izdubar to h i m also says even to Nis Hea the


. -
,

boatman
6 O Nis Hea the whole of this even the whole of
.
-
, ,

the story ,

7 of which a man in his heart shall take its story


.
,

8 may he brin g it to the midst of Erech the lofty


.
,

may he complete ( it ) l i ke
9 Splendour w hi ch is d iminished
( )
1 0 May I record and return to perform my ven
c
.

gean e

11 . F or 1 0 k asp u
miles ) they j ourneyed the
( 70
stage for 2 0 k as u 1 4 0 miles ) they made hostility ;
, p (
1 2 Izdubar saw a well which the waters were ex
ci
.

av at n
g.

13 .He turned to the bright waters and sme ll s


t h e waters ; grant me thy image
14 the men he approached an d ( their ) goods
h e t ook away
2 94 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

15 .at his return they tore th e hair .

1 6 Izdubar approached
.

1 7 over the fortress of hi s nostri ls coursed his


.

tears and he says to Nis Hea the boatman


,
-

1 8 What is it to me Nis Hea that my hands rest ?


.
,
-
,

1 9 Wh at is it to me that my heart lives ?


.

2 0 I have not done good to my own self ;


.

2 1 and yet the lion of the earth does good ( to


.

himself) .

2 2 Again for 2 0 k aspu ( 1 4 0 mi les ) a l one I t ake


.

the way and ,

2 3 when I had opened the


. I heaped up th e
tackling ,

2 4 the sea against its long wall I urged


. .

2 5 And he left the ship by the Shore 2 0 kasp u


.
,

( 1 4 0 miles ) they j ourneyed the stage .

2 6 For 30 k as p u ( 2 1 0 miles ) they performed the


.

labour they came into the midst of Erech the loft y


, .

27 Izdubar to him also says even to Nis H ea t h e


.
,
-

boatman
2 8 Ascend Nis Hea over the fortress of Erech go ;
.
,
-
,

2 9 the foundation stone is scattered the bricks of


.
-
,

its interior are n ot made ,

30 and its foundation is not laid to thy height


.

3 1 1 same ( is ) thy city 1 same the plantati ons 1


.
, ,

s ame the boundary of the temple of Nantur the house

of Istar ,

32 3 s ar i together the city of Erech


.
2 96 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

The destruction of the earth has seized thee


18 . .

1 9 N in azu of darkness the mother of darkness of


.
, , ,

darkness ,

2 0 her illustrious stature as his mantl e covers


.

him and,

2 1 her feet like a deep well beget [or darken]


.

hi m .

This is the bottom of the first column The next .

column has lost all the upper part : it appears to have


contained the remainder of this lament an appeal t o ,

one of the gods on behalf of Hea bani and a repetiti on


-
,

of the lamentation the third person being used in


,

stead of the second The fragments commence i n


.

the middle of this


1 his wife whom he hates he strikes
.
,

2 his child whom he loves he kisses ;


.

3 his child whom he has hated he strikes


.
,

4 the destruction of the e arth takes him


. .

5 N in azu of darkness the mother of darkness of


.
, ,

darkness !
6 Her i ll ustrious stat ure as a mantle covers
.

her feet like a deep well beget him


7 . .

8 L o ! Hea ba n i from the earth to


.
-

9 The plague ( l emon did not take him fever did


.
-
,

n ot take him the earth took h im


, .

1 0 The restin g place of Nergal the unconquered


.
-

did not take him the earth took him


, .

The place of the battle of heroes did not str i ke


him the earth took him
,
.
AN D C O N OL USI ON . 2 97

12 . ni son of the goddess N in sun for


Lo ! 1

hi s servant H ea bani wept ; -

1 3 to the house of Bel alone he went


. .

14 “
Father Bel a gad fly to the earth struck me
.
,
-
,

1 5 a deadl y wound to the earth struck me


.
,

C O L UMN III .

Hea ban i who to rest (was not a d mi tted )


1 .
-
,

2 the plague demon did n ot take him (the


.
-
,

earth took h i m)
3 the resting place of Nergal the unconquered
.
-

did not take him (the earth took him ) ,


.

4 In the place of the battle of heroes they did


.

not (strike him the earth took him ) ,


.

5 Father Bel a j udgment did not take hi m


.
,
.

6 F ather Sin the gad fly (struck him ) ;


.
,
-

7 a deadly wound (to the earth struck him )


. .

8 Hea bani who to rest (was not admitted )


.
-

9 the plague demon did not take hi m (the earth


.
-
,

took him )
1 0 th e resting p lace of Nergal (the unconquered
.
-

did not take h im) .

( About 1 2 l i nes lost containing a repetition of this ,

passage ) .

2 3 The plague demon


.
-

1
B ri ks ch ave be e n found at Wa ka E c
r hb or re e ari n
g th e na me of

a ci e rtan kin g Sin -k ud ur, wh o cll h im lf th


a s se e son of h
t is sa me
god d e ss , and d es c
ib
r es h imse lf as th e build e r of th e te m le of An n at p
E c reh .
2 98 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

24 . the resting place of Nergal the unconquered


-

( di d not take him )


2 5 the place of the battle of heroes did not (take
.

him ) .

2 6 F ather Hea
.

2 7 To the warrior Merodach


2 8 Heroic warrior ( Merodach)
.

2 9 he created him the word


.

30 the Spirit
.

31 To his father
.

32 the heroic warrior Merodach (son of Hea )


.

33 created him the word the earth opened and


.
, ,

34 the spirit (or ghost ) of Hea bani like dust from


.
-

the earth (arose )


35. and thou e x plain e st ,

36 he po ndered and repeated this


.

C O L UMN IV .

1 Tell my frien d tell my friend


.
, , , ,

2 the secrets of the earth which thou hast seen


.
,

te ll (me ) .

3 I ca n not tell thee my friend I cannot tell


.
, ,

thee
4 (how ) c
,

. an I tell thee the secrets of the earth


which I have seen
5 . I sit weeping
6 . may I sit and may I weep
7 . of growth and thy heart rej oiced
8 . thou grow e st old the worm en t ered
,

9 . of youth and thy heart rej oiced


300 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

pure water drinks .

He who in battle is slain thou seest and I see , .

His fa t her ( and ) his mother ( support ) his head ,

( and ) his wife addresses the corpse .

His friends in the field (are standing) ,

thou seest an d I see .

His Spoil on the ground is uncovered ,

of his spoil he has n o oversight .

Thou seest and I see .

His te n der orphan s long for bread ; the food


which in the tents is plac e d is eaten .

13 . The twelfth tablet of the legends of Izdubar .

14 . L ike the ancient copy written and made clear .

X i sU Tun us on NO AH AN D I zD UB AR ; r non AN EA RL Y
B A B Y LO N rAN C LIY N D ER.

This passage closes the great Epic of the ancient


Chaldeans which even i n i ts present mutilated form is
,

of t h e greatest importance in relation to the civilization ,

manners and customs of that early people The mai n


,
.

feature i n t his part of the Izdubar legends is the


description of the Flood in the eleventh tablet which ,

evidently refers to the same event as the Flood of


Noah in Genesis .
AN D C O N O L USI O N . 30]

The episode of the Flood has been introduced into


th e Izdubar E pic in acc ordance with the principle
upon which it has been formed The eleventh tablet .

or book a n swers to the sig n of Aquarius and the



month called the rainy by the Accadians and it

,

was therefore rightly occupied by the story of the


Flood The compiler of the Epic seems to have used
.

for this purpose two independent poems relating to


the event ; at least it is otherwise di fficult to account
for the repetitions observable in certain lines which
sometimes d iffer slightly from one another as well as ,

for certain inconsistencies which the skill of the com


piler has not bee n able entirely to remove Thus ac .


cor di ng to I 1 3 the Deluge was caused by all the
,

great gods ; according to II 30 by Samas only ; .


,

according to IV 4 5 by B el There is little doubt


.
, ,
.

that many i n dependent versions of the history of the


Deluge were current in a poetical form ; indeed a
fiagme n t of one of these containing the original A c
,

cadian text along with the Assyrian translation has


been preserved and the versio n found in B erosus
,

d iffers in several notable points from the version em


bodi ed in the great Chaldean Epic .

The fragment of the variant version of which the


Accadi an text has been preserved is as follows :
.1 then li ke a bowl of sacrificial wi n e the
mountai n
.2 country to country ran together .

.3 T h e female slave to her mother


- i t had
caused to ascen d .
302 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

4 The freeman from the h ouse of his fecundity it


.
d

h ad caused to go forth .

5 The son from the house of his father it had


.

caused to go forth .

6 The doves from their cotes had fled away


. .

7 The raven on its wing it had caused to ascend


. .

8 The swallow from his nest it had caused to


.

depart .

9 The oxen it had scattered the lambs it had


.
,

scattered .

1 0 ( It was ) the great days when the evi l spirits


.

hun t
1 1 The universe they subj ected unto themselves
. .

1 2 Among the bricks of the foundations ( they


.

deal t destruction ) .

1 3 The earth like a potsherd ( they shattered )


. .

14 Bel and B eltis the supreme ones the mighty


.

tablets (of destiny consulted ) .

1 5 The foot to the earth they did not ( put )


. .

1 6 The highways of the earth they did not ( tread )


. .

If we compare the Babylonian account of the


D eluge contained in the E pic with the account in
Genesis we Shall find some differences between them ;
but if we consider the di fferences that ex isted between
the two countries of Palestine and Babylo nia these
variations do not appe ar greater than we should
expect Chald e a was es sentially a mercantile and
.

maritime country well watered and flat while Pales


, ,

tine was a hilly re gi on with no great rivers and the ,

Jews were shut out from the coast the maritime ,


304 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

two di fferent accounts of the t od generally known


as the Elohistic and Je h ov i st ic
,

and as M L e n orman t ’

, , .

has observe d it is with the union of the two in our


,

present Hebrew text rather than with either one of


them alone that the Babylonian version corresponds .

The repetitions observable i n the Hebrew text are


not to be fou n d i n the cuneiform text .

G e ne s m
hi
c
Elo s t.

1 . A n n oun m e e nt of th e

D e luge vi . 1 1 -1 3 . vi. 5 -8 . i 12 -23


. .

2 . Comma d n to b uild th e

vi . 1 4-1 6 i 20-2 7
Wh at
. . .

3 . was to e n te r th e

ark vn . 2, 3 . i 4 1 -43
. .

Size of th e ark i 25, 2 6


pe c
. .

S h of Xi
e suth rus i 4 5 —5 2
. .

Th e b uild in g of th e ark vi . 22 vn . 5
ci
. . .

Th e oat n g wit hi n and

w it ou h
t w it h bit ume n 1 1. 1 0, 1 1 .

Food tak e n i n th e ark ii 1 2 -2 0


cmi g f h c
. .

Th e o n o t e Flood vn . 10 ii 1 4 , dz
uc
. . .

D e str i f h
t on o t e pe ople iii 2 45. .

D uration D e luge
of th e

A ss uaging of th e wate rs
O e n ing of win d ow
p
A rk res ts on a moun tain vi ii. 4 .

Se n di ng fort h of th e bird s viii . 6-12 .

O rd e r to le ave th e ark

Build in g th e altar and


cfic
sa ri e

Th e savour of th e ofie fing


A d e luge n ot to h appe n
again ix 1 1
. . viii . 2 1, 2 2 . iv 1 5 -2 0
. .

Th e Cove n an t ix 9-1 1
. .
AN D C O N OL USI ON
'
. 305

G an e sis
Elo hi st .

22 Th e rain bow a pled ge of

c
.

th e ove n an t i x 1 3-1 7 iii 5 1 , 5 2


c
. . . .

23 Th e D e lu e ause d b th e
.
g y
sin of me n vi. 1 1 -1 3 . vi . 5 -7 . i v 14 , 1 5
. .

24 . N oah saved by h is righ t


u
e o sne ss vi . vn . 1 . iv 1 6
. .

25 Th e tran slation of th e
patria c
.

h (i r n Ge n e sis of

E no c
h) v. 24 . iv 2 8-30
. .

On e of the first points that strike us on comparing


the Bibli cal and cuneiform accounts together is that
they both agree in representing the Flood as a punish
ment for the sins of mankind This agreement is .

rendered remarkable by the absence of such a m oral


cause in the legends of a de l uge current among other
nation s ; it is wanting even in the version of the
Babyloni an account given by Berosus Equally r e .

markable is the agreement of the two accounts in the


narrative of the sending forth of the birds two of ,

whi ch the raven and the dove are the same in both
, ,
.

Some of the actual phrases and words found in Genesis


are also found in the c uneiform tab l et ; though some
times they are mo di fied as when Genesis says of the ,

entrance of Noah into the ark : The L ord shut him


in whereas in the Babylonian narrative the closing
of the door is ascribed to X isuth r us h imself .

Positive di scre pancies however occur between the , ,

tw o records Thus they di ffer as regards the size of


.

the ark According to the cuneiform account its


.
,

length and bre adth were in the proportio n of te n to


x
306 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

one and the height and brea d th were the same ; but
the Bible makes the proportion as six to one and ,

d escribes the height as being thirty cubits and the


breadth fifty The version of the story given by
.

B erosus on the other hand agrees ln this matter


, ,

neither with Genesis nor with the tablet from Erech .

It measures the ark by stadia and not by cubits ,

makes the proportion of its length and breadth as


five to two and says nothing of the height
,
.

Another di fference may be foun d in the description


of the patriarch who escape s the Flood Xisuth rus is .

a king who enters the ark with his servants people , ,

and pilot while in the Bible only Noah and his family
,

are saved So too no reference is made in the Baby


.
, ,

lon ian account to the distinction between the clean


and unclean animals mentioned by the Je h ov ist ,

though seven was a sacred number amon g the Baby


lonians The most remarkable difference however
.
, ,

between the two accounts is with respect to the


duration of the Deluge O n this point the inscription
.

gives seven days for the Flood and seven days for the ,

resting of the ark on the mountain while the Elohist ,

puts the commencement of the F lood on the 1 7th day


of the second month (Marc h e sv an ) an d its termination
on the 2 7t h day of the second month in the following
year making a total duration of one lunar year and
,

eleven days T his exactly accords with the climatic


.

conditions of B abylonia where the rains begin at the ,

end of November The Euphrates and Tigri s then


.

begin to rise the country is inundated in March the


, ,
308 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

It is interesting to find refe rences i n the Je h ovi sti c


account to the sacred Babylonian number seven an d
the seven day week Just as Xi suth r us set vessels by
-
.

seven s on the altar of sacrifice so Noah o ffered clean ,

beasts and fowls which had been taken by sevens


into the ark And the narrative of the sending out
.
-

of the birds contains a clear reference to the seven


day week which was known from very early times
,

to the Accadians who had named each day after one


of the seven planets The Sabbath also which oc
,

.
,

curred on the 7th 1 4 th 1 9th 2 lst and 2 8th days of


, , ,

the lunar month was rigorously observed by them


,
.


They called it a day of completion of labours or ”
,

a day unlawful to work u pon and a sort of saints ,


” ’

calendar for the month of the intercalatory Elul says



that u pon it the shepherd of many peoples may not
eat the flesh of bir d s or cooked fruit The gar .

ments of his body he must not change White robes .

he may not put on Sacrifice he may not o ffer The


. .

king i n his chariot may not ride He may not legis .

late i n royal fas hion A place of garrison the general


.

by word of mouth may not appoint Medicine for .

the sickness of the body one may not apply The


very word Sabattu or Sabbath was used by the
Assyrians and a bilingual tab l et explains it as a
,

day of rest for the heart .


One striking difference between the descriptions of


the Deluge given in the O ld Testament and in the
Epic of Izdubar is due to the fact that the Hebrews
were an inland peopl e whereas the Accadians were a
,
AND C O N CL USIO N . 309

maritim e or rather fluv iati le one H ence it is that


, .

while the ark is called in the Babylonian version a “

ship it is called tébc



,
i /z that is “
a co ffer in Genesis
, , .

I n Genesis too nothing is said about launching the


, ,

ark testing its seaworthi ness or entrusting it to a


, ,

pilot However the narrative in Genesis preserves a


.
,

recollection of the bitume n for which the Babylonian


plain was famous and like the c uneiform narrative
,

states that the ark was pitched .

Some of the other differences observab l e in the


tw o accounts are evidently due to the O pposite
re ligious systems of the two countr ies but there is ,

again a c urious point in connection with the close of

the Chalde an legend : this is the translation of the


hero of the F l ood .

In the Book of Genesis it is not Noah but the


seventh patriarch E noch who is tran slated three
. ,

generations before the F l ood .

There appears to have been some connectio n


or confusion between E noch and Noah in ancient

tradition ; both are holy men and Enoch is said like , ,

Noah to have predicted the Flood


,
.

It is a curious fact that the dynasty of gods with ,

which E gyptian mythical history commences r e ,

sembles in some respects the list of antediluvian


kings of Babylonia given by Berosus as we ll as the
l ist of ante d iluvian patriarchs i n Genesis .

T h is dynasty has sometimes seven sometime s ten ,

reigns and in the Turin Papyrus of kings , which


,

gives ten reigns there is the same name for the


,
3 10 TH E STO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

seventh and tenth kings both being called Horus , ,

and the seventh king is stated to have reigned 300


years which is the length of life of the seventh p a
,

triarch E noch after the birth of his son .

Here are the three lists of Egyptian gods Hebrew ,

patriarchs and Chal dean kings


,
.

P atriarc
h s. Ch ald e an Ki n
g s.

Adam . A lorus .

Seth . A lap arus .

E nos . A lme lon .

Cainan . A mme n on .

Mahalaleel . A me galarus .

Jared . D aon us ( Dun


. i n

the inscriptions )
c
.

Enoch . ZEd ora h us .

Methuselah . A me mp sin .

L amech . O t iar t e s ( O p ar t e s ) .

Noah . X i s ut hr us .

It is we l l known that Enos like Adam signifies , ,

man ; hence some writers have supposed that the


list of Noah s ancestors was originally counted from

Enos so that L amech Noah s father would have been


, ,

the seventh in descent There is moreover a curious


.
, ,

resemblance between the names of the descendants of


Seth and those of the descendants of Cain Me t h use ,

lah indeed being apparently more correctly wri t ten


, ,

Methusael (Gen iv whi ch is the Assyrian Mum


. .


s a zli Man of God Now L amech the descendan t

, ,
312 TH E S TO R Y O F TH E FL O O D

E uphrates and Tigris ; the cities of Babylon L a ,

rancha and Sipp ara were supposed by the Baby


,

lon ian s to have been founded before the Flood .

Suri p pa k was the city of the ark the mountains east ,

of the Tigris were the resting place of the ark Baby -


,

lon was the site of the tower and U r of the Chaldees


,

the birthpl ace of Abraham These facts and the further


.

statement that Abraham the father and first leader


,

of the H ebrew race migrated from U r to Harran i n


,

Syria and from thence to Pa l estine are all so much


, ,

evidence in favour of the hypothesis that Chaldea was


the original home of these stories and that the Jews ,

received them originally fro m the B abylonians ; but


on the other hand there are such striking differences
i n some parts of the legends particularly i n the names
,

of the patriarc h s before the Flood that it is evi


dent further information is required before we c
,

an

determine how or when they were received by the


Jews .

T o p ass now to the twelfth tablet of the Izdub ar


Epic a curious fragment has been prov ision ally plac
, ,

,
ed

by Mr S mith in the fourth column in which Izdubar


.
,

appe ars to call on his cities to mourn with him for his
friend This tablet is remarkable for the number of
.

cities mentioned as already existing in the time of


m
Izdubar Co bining this notice with other early i n
sc
.

r i t i on s the statements of Berosus and the notice of


p ,

the cities of Nimrod i n Genesis we get the follow ,

ing list of the oldest known cities i n the Euphra tes


valley
AN D C O N OL USI ON . 31 3

H Babylon and its Sippara .


( Sephar
suburb v ai m)
.

s
n B or si p p a . Kisu ( or Kis ) .

Cut h a
o
e . Gan gan n a .

-
s
u L arsa . A mar d aor Mar ad .

Sur i pp ak ,
ca l led
n
o Ur
L aran c
h a by Nisin or Karrak .

B erosus . A gan é .

6 . Eridu . D uban or Duran .

7 N i pur . A b n unn a or Mul


8 E rech
. .

9 . Calneh . 1 9 Zir gh ul
. .

To these we may so add the great cities


al of

As syri a
20 . Assur the primi
,
23. Resen ( A ssyrian

tive capital . Res eni -
the ,

21 .
Nin uaor N in e v e h . head of the
22 . Calah . sprin g ) ”

So far as the various statements go all these cities ,

and probably many others were in existence i n the


ti me of Nimrod and some of them eve n before the
,

Flood ; the fact that the Babyloni ans four thousand


years ago believed their cities to be of such an
ti q uity shows that they were not recent foundations
, ,

and the attainments of the people at that time in the


arts and sciences prove that their civilization had
already known ages of progress The legendary epoch .

of Izdubar must be considered at present as the com


me n c e me n t of t h e united monarchy in Bab l onia and
y ,
31 4 S TO R Y O F FL O O D AN D C O N CL USIO N .

as mark ing the fir st of the serie sof great conqu ests in


>

Western Asia ; but how far back we have to go fro m


our earliest known monuments to reach this era we
cannot now tell .

Every nation has its hero and it was onl y n atura l


,

that when the Accadian kings of U r at last succeeded


in establi shing an united empire throughout Baby
loni a the l egends of the national hero should b e
,

col oured by the new conception of impe rial unity .


3 16 C O N CL USIO N .

of the Hebrew language or Noah th e As syrian , ,

nukhu rest ; ,
but besides these cert ain names

, ,

appear as proper names also in Babylonia amon g ,

them Cainan L amech and L aban, ,


.

Cainan is found as the name of a Babylonian town


Kan nan ; the inhabitants of which were sometimes
-

called Kan un ai which must not be confounded with


,

the name of the Canaanites or lowlanders origi ,


n ally the i nhabitants of the coastland of Ph oe nicia

and then by extension of all Palestine


, , .

L amech has already been pointed out by P almer



( Egyptian Chronicles vol i p in the name
of the deified Ph oenician patriarch D iamic
. .
, .

h this
name is found in the cuneiform te xts as D umugu and
L amga two forms of the Accadian name of the
,

moon .

Th e two wives of L amech Adah and Z illah seem , ,

to be the Assyrian ed h utu or ed itata darkness and



,

tszllatu the sh ades of night ;



and t h e names of hi s
'

two sons Jabal and Jubal are but varying forms of



the Assyrian abil son Dr O p p e r t long ago
. .

pointed out that thi s Assyrian word was the origin of


the name Abel which has been as similate d in spe ll

ing to a Hebrew word sign ifying mere breath .

Some of the names of the patriarchs after the Flood


are found as names of towns in Syria but not i n ,

Babylonia ; among these are Reu or Ragu Serug , ,

and Harran .

L aban on the other hand as was first noticed by


, ,

Dr Delitzsch is mentioned in a list of gods given in


.
,
CON CL USI ON 31 7


a cuneiform tab l et (published in the Cuneiform In
c
s ri t ion s of We ster n Asia
p iii,
66

.
,

The name of A bramu or Abram is found i n the


Assyrian inscriptions in the time of E sarhaddon .

After the captivity of the ten tribes some of the I s ,

r ae li t e s prospered in Assyria and rose to positions of


,

trust in the empire Abram was one of these he was


.
,

Muon am m s
,
arm on U a or r un C an v as s .

su k ul u rabu or great atten d ant of E sarhadd on ,

and was eponym in Assyria 677 V arious other


,
.

Hebrew names are found in Assyria about thi s time ,

inc l udin g Pekah Hoshea and several compounded


, ,

with the two Divine names Elohi m an d Jehovah ,

show ing that both these names were in use among


the I sraeli tes. The presenc e of proper names
founded on the Genesis stories l ike Abram and the, ,

use at this tim e of these forms of the Divine nam e ,


31 8 CO N OL USI ON .

should be taken into con sideration i n d iscussing the


evidence of the antiquity of Genesis .

U r now represented by the mounds of Mugheir on


, ,

the western bank of the Euphrates to the south of


B abylon was the capital of th e earliest Accadian
,

dynasty with which we are acquainted It was .

specially devoted to the worship of the moon god -


,

the ruin s of whose temple have been discovered


there U r was the birthplace of Abraham in whom
.
,

we must see one of those Semitic intruders who


settled among the Accadians and afte r adoptin g ,

their culture and civilization finally succeeded in


overcoming and s upplanting them It is probable .

that it is called Ur Cas d i m U r of the Cas d i m in


, ,

Genesis only proleptically since Casd im appears to be


,

the representative of an Assyrian word meaning



conquerors — a suitable epithet for the Semiti c

tribes after the ir conquest of Babylonia The Greek .

n ames Chaldean and Chaldea are of much later


date being derived from the Kald ai a small tribe
, ,

settled on the Persian Gulf and first mentioned in the


ninth century D C who under Merodach Baladan ( B C
. .
,
-
. .

72 1 709) possessed themselves of Babylonia an d h e


-

came so integral a portion of its inhabitants as to


give their name to the whole of them in classic al
times .

Some of the Genesis names are found at a com


paratively early date the first which appears on a
,

contemporary monument being Ishmael In the .

reign of Kh ammuragas among the witnesses to some


32 0 C O N O L USI ON .

6
. She launched me on the river which did not
drown me .

7 The river carried me to Akki the irrigator it


.
,

brought me .

8 Akki the irrigator in tenderness of bowels


.

lifted me up ;
9 Akki the irrigator as his child brought me up
.
,

1 0 Akki the irrigator as his woodman set me


.
,

1 1 and i n my woodmanship Istar loved me


. .

1 2 4 5 ? years the kingdom I rule d


.
,

1 3 the pe ople of the black heads I governe d I


.
,

1 4 over rugged countries in many chariots of


.

bronze I rode ,

1 5 I governed the uppe r countries


.
,

1 6 I ru l ed ? over the chiefs of the lower countrie s


. .

1 7 To the sea coast three t imes I advanced Dil ,

vu n ( in t h e Persian Gulf ) submi tted

1 8 D uran kigal bowed & c


,

.
,
85 0 . .

After this follo w s an address to any king who


should at a later time notice the inscription .

This myth is but a repetition of the oft told story -


,

how the hero of noble birth is born in secret is ex ,

posed to death but is rescued and brought up in a


,

humble sphere of life un til the tim e comes when hi s


true origin and characte r are reve aled and he becomes
,

a mighty prince and conqueror The l egend was .

tol d of Perseus i n Greece of Rom ulus in Italy of


, ,

Cyrus in Persia B ut j ust as Cyrus w as a r e al per


.

so mage u po n whom the legend was faste ned so too ,

Sargon was a real personage who founded the great


,
CO N CL USI O N . 32 1

library of and extended his conq uests as far


A gan é,
as the island of Cyprus which he conquered in the
,

thi rd year of his reign .

The most hazardous of the theories put forwar d


in the preceding chapters is the one which identifies
Izdubar with Nimrod and makes him reign i n the
,

legendary period of Babylonian history Thi s theory .

i s fo unded on several plausible but probably merely ,

superficial grounds ; and if any on e ac cepts Mr .

Smi th s view on the point it will be only for similar


reasons to those which caused him to propose it ;


namely because failing this we ha v e no clue what
, , ,

ever to the age and position of the most famous hero


in O rien tal tradition .

We mus t never lose sight of the fact that apart ,

from the more perfect and main parts of these texts ,

both in the decipherment of the broken fragments


and in the various theories proj ected respecting them ,

the Assyrian scholar must change his opinions many


times an d no doubt an y accession of new material
,

would change again our views respecting the parts


affecte d by it These theories and conclusions how
.
,

ever although not al ways correct have on their way


, , , ,

as sisted the inquiry and have led to the more ao


,

c urate knowle d ge of the texts ; for certainly in cunei


form matters we have often had to advance through
error to truth .

In adopting Mr Smi th s theory for the position of


.

Nimrod one thing is certainly clear : he is placed as


,

low in the chronology as it is possible to make him .

Y
32 2 C O N OL USI ON .

The stories and myths gfi e n in the fore gomg


pages have probably very different values ; some
, ,

are genuine traditions some compiled to account


for natural phenomena and some pure romances


, .

At the head of their hi story and traditions the


Babylo n ians placed an account of the creation of the
world ; and although different forms of this story
,

were current in certain features they all agreed


, .

B eside the account of the present animal s they ,

related the creation of legions of monster forms


which disappeared before the human epoch and they ,

accounted for the great problem of hu manity the —

presence of evil in the world b y making out that it


proceeded from the ori ginal chaos the spirit of con ,

fusion an d darkness which was the origin of all


,

things and which was even older than the gods


,
.

T he principal story of the Creation given in ,

Chapter V substantially agrees as far as it is pre


.
, ,

served with the Biblical account According to it


,
.
,

there w as a chaos of watery matter before the Crea


tion and from this all things were generated
,
.

We have then a considerable b l ank the contents ,

of which we can only conj ecture and after this we


,

come to the creation of the he aven ly orbs .

The fifth tablet in the series re l ates how God


created the constellations of the stars the signs of the,

zodiac the planets and other stars the moon and the
, ,

sun After another blank we have a fragment


.

which relates to the creation of wild and domestic


animals ; it is curious here that the original taming of
32 4 CO N CL USI O N .

sometimes Gan duni so similar to Gan eden ( the


-
,
-

Garden of Eden ) and other considerations all


, ,

tend towards the view that it is the Paradise of


Genesis .

There are evidences of the belief in the tree of


l ife which is one of the most common emblems on
,

the seals and larger sculptures and is eve n used ,

as an ornament on dresses ; a sacred tree is also seve


ral times mention ed in the legends and hymn s but at ,

present there is no direct connection known between


the tree and the Fall although the gem engravin gs
,

render it very probable that there was a legend of


this kind like the one in Genesis .

In the history of B erosus mention is made of a


composite being half man half fish named Oannes
, , , ,

who was supposed to have appeared out of the


sea an d to have taught the Babylonians all their
learning The Babylonian and Assyr ian sculptures
.

have made us familiar with the figure of Oannes and ,

have so far given evidence that B erosus has truly


described t h is mythological figure ; but it is a curious
fact that the legend of Oannes which must have been
,

one of the Babylonian stories of the Creation has not ,

yet been recovered In fact as previously noticed


.
,

( p
. there is only one fragment which can be at
all referred to it and thi s has been accidentally pre
,

served among a series of extracts from various


Accadian works in a bilingual re ad ing book compiled -

for the use of Assyrian students of Accadian The .

fragment is as follows
O A N N ES
. FRO M N I MR O U D SC U P
L T U RE .
32 6 CO N C L USI O N .

the sto ry of the sin committed by the god Zu and ,

the other the story of A t arp i .

Berosus in his history has given an account of ten


Chaldean kings who reigned before the Flood and the ,

close of this period is well known from the descriptions


of the Deluge in the Bible the Deluge tablet and the
, ,

work of the Greek writer According to Berosus


.

several of the Baby lonian cities were b uilt before the


Flood and various arts were known including writin g
, , .

T he enormous reigns given by Berosus to his ten


kings making a total of
,
years force us to dis ,

card the idea that the details are historical although ,

there may be some foundation for his statement of a


civilization before the Deluge The details given
.

the inscriptions describing the Flood leave no doubt


that both the Bible and the Babylonian story describe
the same event and the Flood becomes the starti ng
,

point for the modern world in both histories Accord .

ing to Berosus 86 kings reigned for years after


the Flood down to the Median conquest If these .

kings are historical it is doubtful if they formed a


,

continuous line and they could scarcely cover a longer


,

period than year s The Median or E lamite


.

conquest took place about 2 700 and if we allow, ,

the round number years for the previous


period it will make the Flood fall about B C 4 700
,
. . .

I n a fragmentary inscription with a list of Babylo n ian


kings some names are given which appear to belong
,

to the 86 kings of B erosus but our information about


,

t h is period is so scanty that nothing can be said


C O N C L USIO N . 32 7

about this dynasty and a suggestion as to the date


,

of the Deluge must be received with more than the


usual grain of salt
We c
.

an see however that there was a civilized


, ,

race in Babylonia before the Me di an Conquest the ,

progress of which must have received a rude shock


when the co untry was overrun by the uncivili zed
Eastern borderers .

Among the fragmentary notices of this semi


m ythical period is the portion of the inscription de
scribing the b uilding of the Tower of Babel and the
dispersion .

It is probable from the fragments of B erosus that


the in c ursions and dominion of the Median Elamites
l asted about two hundred years during which the ,

country su ffered greatly from them .

The legends of Izdubar or Nimrod commence with


a description of the evils brought upo n Babylonia by
foreign invasion the conquest and sacking of the city
,

of Erech being one of the incidents in the story .

Izdubar a famous hunter who cl ai med descent from


, ,

a long line of kings reaching up to the time of the


,

Flood now comes forward ; he has a dream and after


, ,

much trouble a ha lf human creature named Hea bani


- -

is pe rsuaded by Z aidu the hunter and two females


, , ,

t o come to E rech and interpret the dream of Izdubar .

H e a bani having heard the fame of Izdubar brings t o


-
, ,

E rech a mid an n u or tiger to test his strength and ,

Izdubar slays it After these things I zdubar and


.
,

Hea bani become friends an d havi ng invoked the


-
, ,
32 8 C O N OL USI O N .

gods they start to attack th% tyran t Kh umb ab a


, .

Kh umbab a dwelt in a thick forest surrounded by a ,

wall and here he was visite d by the two friends who


, ,

slew him and carried off his s poils .

Izdubar was now proclaimed king and extended ,

his authority over the Babylonian world his court and ,

palace bein g at E re ch The goddess Istar daught r


.
,
e

of A n u accordi ng to one myth of Bel according to ,

another of Sin the moon god according to a thir d


, , , ,

who had loved the shepherd T ammuz the Sun god ,


-
,

fell i n love with Izdubar He refused her ofie r s


'

.
,

and the goddess an gry at his answer ascended to


, ,

heaven and petitioned her father A r m to create a bull


for her to be an instrument of her vengeance
,
Anu .

complied and created the bull on which Izdubar and


, ,

Hea bani collec ted a band of warriors and went agai nst
-

it Hea b ani took hold of the ani mal by its head and
.
-

tail while Izdubar slew it


,
.

Istar on this cursed Izdubar and descended to ,

Hades to attempt once more to summ on unearthly


powers against the hero She descends to the infernal.

regions which are vividly described and passin g


, , ,

through their seven gate s is ushered into the prese nce,

of the queen of the dead The worl d of love goe s .

wrong in the absence of I star and on the petition of ,

the gods she is once more brought to the earth ,

ultimate ly A n atu her mother satisfyin g her ven


e an c
, ,

g e b
y striking Izdubar with a loathsome di s

ease .

Hea bani the friend of Izdubar is now ki lled and


-
, , ,
330 C ON CL USI ON

The details of this story a nd especially the ao


,

counts of the regions inhabited by the dead are very ,

strikin g and illustrate in a wonderful manner the


, , ,

religious views of the people .

It is worth while here to pause and consider the ,

evidence of the existence of the legends recounted


i n the preceding pages from the close of the mythical
period down to the seventh century
We have fir st the seals : of these there are some
hundreds in E uropean museums and among the ,

earl iest are many spec imens carved with scenes from
the Genesis legends ; some of these are a good deal
older than B C 2 000 others may be ranged at various
. .
,

dates down to 1 5 00 .

With three exceptions which are of Assyrian


,

origin all the seals engraved in the present volume


,

are Babylonian O ne very fine and early example is


.

photographed as the frontispiece of the book The .

character and style of the cuneiform legend which


accompanies this shows it to be one of the most
ancient specimens ; it is engrave d on a h ard j asp er
cylinder in bold style and is a remarkable example
,

of early Babyl onian art Many other similar cylinders


.

of the same period are known ; the relief on them is


bolder than on the later seals on which from about ,

B C 1 600 or 1 700 a change in the inscriptions b e


. .
,

comes general .

The numerous illustrations to the present work ,

which have been collected from these early Baby


l onian seals will serve to show that the legends
,
C O N C L USIO N . 33 1

were well known and formed part of the literature


,

of the country before the second millennium


After 1 5 00 the literature of B abylonia is
,

unknown and we lose sight of all evidence of its


,

legends for some centuries I n the meantime Egypt


.

supplies a few notices bearing on the subj ect which ,

serve to show that knowledge of them was still kept


up. Nearly thirteen hundred years before the
Christian era one of the Egyptian poems likens a
hero to the Assyrian chief Kazar t u a great hunter
, , .

Kazar t u probably means a strong or powerful


“ ” ”

on e ,
and it has already been suggested that the
reference is to the hero Nimrod A little later in .
,

the period exten di ng from 1 000 to 800 we have ,

in Egypt several persons named N amur ot which ,

seems to be an echo of the name of the mighty


hunter .

O n the revival of the Assyrian empire about ,

990 we come again to numerous refere n ces to the


,

Genesis l egends an d these continue through almost


,

every reign down to the close of the empire The .

Assyrians carved the sacred tree and cherubim on


their walls they depicted in the temples the struggle
,

between Merodach and the dragon they decorated ,

their portals with the figure of Izdubar strangling a


lion and carved the struggles of Izdubar and Hea
,

bani with the lion and the bu ll even on their stone


vases .

Just as the sc ulptures of the Greek temples the ,

pain tings on the vases and the car ving on their ge m s


332 CON CL USI O N .

were taken from their myths and l egends so the ,

series of myths and legends belonging to the valley of


the Euphrates furnished materials for the sculptor ,

the engraver and the painter among the ancient


, ,

Babylonians and Assyrians .

In thi s way we have continued evidence of the


exis tence of these legends down to the time of As
sur bani pal
- -
,
673 to 62 6 who caused the present
,

k nown copies to be made for his library at Nineveh .

Search in Babylonia would no doubt yield much


, ,

earlier copies of all these works but that search has,

not yet been instituted and for the present we have


,

to be contented with our Assyrian copies L ooking .


,

however at the world wide interest of the subj e cts


,
-
,

and at the important evidence which perfect copies of


these works would undoubtedly give there can be no ,

doubt that further progress will be made in research


and discovery and that all that is here w rit te n
,

will on e day be superseded by newer texts and full er


and more perfect li ght .
B e lus, 36, 44 . Creat ion of moon , 65 .

B e rosus, I , 32 . of stars, 64 .

B ira N imrud , 1 67 . of sun, 70 .

B orsippa, 31 3 Cure of I d ubar z 2 91


c
. .
,

Bull, d e stm tion of, 2 31 . Cush 1 85


, .

Cuth a, 2 3, 92 , 2 99, 3 13 .

Cainan 31 6
c
.
,

Calah 31 3 D a h e , 44 , 60
c
. .
,

Calne h 75 31 3 , , . Da hu s, 44 , 60 .

Cara in d as 1 8
-
, . D wain s, mon th , 4 1 .

Casd im, 3 1 8 D aily Te le gra ph 6


c
. .
,

Ce d ars 2 1 6 D amas ius, 4 3


Ch ald e an acc
. .
,

oun t of d e lu e
g , 6 . D ann at, 2 07 .

as trology , 2 0 . D aonus, 39 .

d yn as tie s, 1 95 . D aos , 4 1 .

Ch ange in Assyrian la guage n 17 D ate of N imrod , 302


c44
. .
,

Ch ao 60 s, . D av e, .

Ch e d or-laome r , 1 72 . D avk in a, 5 2 .

Ch ro ology 1 8 1 98 1 99
n D e ath of H e a- ban i, 2 76
c
.

Clay re c
.
, , ,

ord s 1 6 ,
. D e litzs h D , r. , 31 6 .

Comi g of d e luge 2 79
n D e luge , 1 , 4 , 5 , 37, 4 1 , 1 77, 301
Comp arison of ac c n ts of c
.
,

ou re ation table t, 9 .

pred ic
,

66- 69 te d 2 79
cmm c
. .
,

of d e lu e
g , 2 84-2 89 o m en e e n t of, 2 83
Composite c uc
. .

re ature s 34 35 93 97 d i w
e str t on ro ugh t by, 2 84
Conc
. .
, , , ,

lusion 2 95 e n d of, 2 85
c
cu t
. .
,

Co que st of B abylon 1 9 1 95
n varian t a o n s of, 301
of Ere c cmp
. .
, ,

h 1 98 o arison w it h G e n e sis , 302


c
. .
,

of Kh umbaba 2 24 &
Co ste llati o s c
. .
,

n re ation of 64
n le n gt h of, 306
c
. .
, ,

Co te nts of library 2 8 30
n - D es e n t to H ad es , 2 39
c
.
, .

Cop ie s of te xts 305 , . D ip i


es r t on of H ad es , 239 .

Co y tran slations of 31 43
r , ,
- . of I zd ubar lege n d s , 1 80- 1 83 .

C e ation 1 7 1 1 5 6 92 32 3
r , , , , , , . D ibbara, 1 1 .

Cre atio of animals 71


n ex ploits of 12 5
c
. .
, ,

of man , 36, 72 , 81 93 , . D omesti ani mals, 32 3 .


IN D E X .

D ragon , 1 1 2 , 1 1 3 . H e a, 5 1 , 1 06, 1 77 .

D re ams of I zd ubar 2 04 , 2 5 8 H e a-bani, 6, 2 04 , 2 05


cm c
. .
,

H e a-ban i o es to Ere h 2 06 , .

Eagle , 1 1
H e rak le s, 1 77
°

Eagle -h e ad e d me n, 97 .

H p
e s e rid e s , 1 77 .

agle , fable of, 141 .

H itt ite s, 31 1 .

Ed e n , 3, 72 , 84 , 31 1
fable
.

H orse an d e x, of, 15 0 .

Elamite s , 1 8, 1 38, 1 96 .

En e uboulus, 4 1
I llin us, 4 4
.

En e ugamus , 4 1
I sh mae l 31 8
c
.

, .

En o h 309
, .
I star 1 1 4 9 5 1 1 37 2 2 6 .
, , , , ,
En os , 31 0
love s I zd ubar 2 2 7
c
.

.
,
Ere h 130 1 92
, , , 313 .

amours of, 2 2 9 .

Erid u, 4 6, 72 , 80, 85 , 1 05 , 31 3
an ge r of, 2 30
.

ct t
.

Esar h ad d on , 2 7
d es H ad e s , 2 39
.
en o .

Etan a, 1 1 , 1 4 1 , 1 4 6
c
in H ad e s, 2 43
.

Eue d o us, 4 1
urn
c
of, 2 45
.
re t .

Eue d orah u 39 s,
I tak 1 2 5
c
1 38
.

c
.
, ,
ue d ore s
hu 41 s, .

I zd ubar 5 175, &


c
.
, ,

p
Evil s irits, le ge n d of, 99, 1 04 .

le ge n d s, 6, 1 1 , 2 1 , 1 75 , & .

xp
E e d iti on to A ssyria, 7 .

same as N imrod , 1 76 .

Exp loits of D ibba a 12 5


r , .
p a e tage
r n 1 83
c
, .

e ploit of
x s 1 84 , &
Fables , 1 40
cqu
, .

on e rs Kh umbaba 2 17
Fall, 8, 72 , 75
.
,

love d by I star, 2 2 7
.

Fi lli ng t h e
c
.

ark , 2 82
ci st ru k w ith d ise ase , 2 5 3
.

First 57
cpi
.

table t of th e re at on , .

me e ts s or on me n , 2 5 9
Flaming
.

sword , 86 .

me e ts Sab ituan d Sid uri , 2 65


Folk -lore , B abylon ian , 1 60 .

me e ts N is H e a 2 65 -

Forest of Kh umbaba, 2 2 2 , 2 72
, .

se e s X isuth rus , 2 69
Fox , fable of, 14 7
.

h e ars th e stor
y of th e flood
Fox Talbot, Mr .
,
2 49 .

2 79
c
.

G angan n a, 1 93, 313 u d re of h is illne ss, 2 90


c
.
.

G e n e rati on of th e
god s, 61 .
re t rns u to Ere h 2 94 , .

G e nes is , 1 , 3 , 304 mourns for H e a-ban i, 2 95


c12
.
.

stories , 15 5 .
au h
t or of Epi , .
336 IND E X .

J a e d 31 1
r , . Me rod a h c 1 90
, .

J e wi h t ad itio
s r n s, 303 Me th use lah 31 0 31 5
c
.
.
, ,

Moon re ation of 65
, , .

Karrak 2 5 1 2 8, 313
, , . Moymis 43 , .

Kazartu, 331 . Mummu-ti amatu 5 9 , .

Kh ammuragas 1 9 1 90 , , ,
Miille r Prof Max 2 5 0
,
.
,
.

Kh arsakk alama 2 99 Mu se ri in a-n amari or Mua


- -

c
. ,
,

Kh umbaba, 2 1 6 dz , . 6m , 2 83 .

Kissare 44 ,
. Myth ology, 4 5 .

Kisu, 2 99 31 3 , .

Kouy unj ik 2 1 3 , , . N abubalid in a, 2 6 .

Kud ur-mabuk 2 5 , . N ame s in G e ne sis, 2 95 .

N aram- Sin , 1 9 .

L aban , 3 1 6 N atural h is tory , 2 9

c
. .

L ame h 3 1 0 31 6 N e bo, 5 2 , 1 2 0
c
, , . .

L ame nt of I zd ubar 2 95 N e bu h ad ne zzar, 30, 1 71


cp
. .
,

L an g u
age of in s ri tions, 1 7, 2 1 .
N e r, 1 4 1
c
.

L aran h a, 4 0, 31 3 . N e rgal, 4 7, 5 4 .

L arsa, 2 5 , 31 3 N e s-H e a or U r-H ea, 2 65


c
.

L ayan i , Sir A H 2 2 68, 2 91 , &


c
. . .
, .

L e ture on th e d e luge , 5 . N imrod , 1 76, 1 84-1 86, 32 1 .

L e norman t , M F . .
, 5 9, 2 4 9, 307 . N ine ve h , 313 .

L ibrarie s, 1 5 . N in ip , 4 7, 5 4 .

L ibrary of A ssur-b an i- al, 2 7


p N in sun , 2 97 .

L ig B agas , 2 4 , 1 95
- . N ipur, 3 13 .

L ite rature , B abylon ian an d Assy N is- Sin , 1 4 1 .

rian , 1 3 N izir , 4 , 1 3 7, 2 85 , 307


c
.

L o al myth ology, 4 6 . N oah , 3 1 6 .

L ot, 1 74 . Nusk u, 48 .

L ugal-turd a, 1 2 1 , 12 4 , 2 02 , 234 .

O an n es 1 2 , 33, 39, 40, 1 06,


c 40
,

Mamme tu 2 76 Oda on ,

c c35
.
, .

Man re ation of 72
, , . Om oro a, .

Mas mountain of 2 5 9
, , ,
2 61 , 2 76 . O ppe rt , P rof .
, 65 , 76, 2 4 9, 31 6 .

Me d ia 1 96 , . O rion , 64 .

Me galarus 39 , . O tiarte s , 4 0 .
A Catalogue of A meri an an d Foreign B ooks P ubli /zed c c
c
or
Im p orted by M E SSR S SA MPSO N L ow Co an
pp c
. .

be b ad on a li ation .

St D un stan H ous e, Fetter L ane, Fleet Str eet



s L on d on ,
c
.
,

O tober , 1 889 .

as ummit from the { fat of 3500135


U LI P B SH E D BY

SAMPSON LOWMAR STON , SEARLE ,


RIVINGTON ,

Low s Stan d a r d Novels , p age 1 7



.

Low s Stan d ar d B ook s for B oy s , p age



1 8 .

Low s Sta n d ar d Se ri e s, p age 1 9


W
.

Se a Stor i es , by C L A R R SSEL L , . K U p age 2 6 .

A L P H A B ET I C A L L I ST .

A B E E Y an d P arson s, Quiet lz f e From d rawings th e motive .

b y A us t in D o son 4 to b
W W p
.
,

A bn ey ( de .
) a n d C u nn i ng /2am P i on eer s f
o tlze A l s . .

Wi h h
t p otograv u re p ort ra t s of gu I mp 8v o, g lt t op 2 1 s i i
c
id es

W
. . .
,

A d am ( G M e r er ) an d A n A lgon q ui n M ai d en
'
e t/ze r ala
C
. . .

c
8v o, sr
c Wk
row n .

A l ott or f
o th es la te [ M i ss L o u i s a M ay A l ot t
cp Cl h
.

A un t Jo

s S ra -b ag

ch
ot , 2 s
ih C i
. .

E g t ou I ll
ust rat e d , 2 s ; lot gi lt, 3s 6d
Jc c
s ns . . . .

a k an dJ i ll llust rate d , 2 s ; I ot g i t , 3s 6d l h l
B
. . . .

J 5
ch
o o
C i
s y s . s .

Jimmy s rus e in th e i n a ore ,



P f
lustrate d , lot , 2 s ; g lt e d ges, Il . i
3s 6d
ch
. .

i
L ttle Me n b
D ou le vol , 2 s ; lot , gi t e d ge s, 3s 6d l
c c i
. . . . .

l W
L i tt e ome n 1 v ol , ot , 2 s large r d , g lt l h .

Wd
. . .

i l W
L tt e ome n e d ed e d ge s , 3s 6d
c i
is . . .

O ld as i one d G r
f h lO
il
t h , g lt e d ge s , 3s 6d
ch
2s ;
B
. . . .

Rose i n loom 2s ; lot gi lt, 3s 6d


C h
. . . .

h
S aw l St ra s p lot , 2 :
l P c Cl h
.

h ot , gi lt ed ge s , 3s 6d
c Il
Si v e r i t e rs
ch i
. . .

U n d e r th e L i la s lust rate d , 2 s ; lot g lt , 5s


xp i c ch i
. .

W k
.

or : a Story o f E is 1 v ol , lot , g lt
q l B
er en e . .

I t s Se u e , i
e gi nn n g A ga n is e d ge s . 3s 6d i
Y
. . . .

L ife , L e tter s an d j our n als B y ED N A H D H EN E . . C .

Cr 8v o, 6s
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Se e also L ow s Stan d ard Se rie s



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A [ d en PV L ) A d tu fj
o i mm y B ro wn , w r i tten by h i msel
f.
c
ven res
c
. .

I llus trate d Small rown 8m lorh 2 s


p c
.
. , ,

Tr vi ng tofind E ur o e lllus . .
, row n 8vo, 55 .
Sam p son L ow , M ar ston £9 Co “
.

s

c
A ger ( j ) E . G
ngli slzme n i n tb e Fr en h R e volu
. t i on , r 8v o,
7s 6d c c . . .

A mate ur A ngler s D ay s i n D ove D ale : Tli r ee Ii eeks H olid ay



’ ’

in 1 884. By E M 6d ; b oard s , 1 s . ; large p ap


Wi h
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A n d ersen Fai ry Tales An e nt ire ly n e w T ran s lat i on t


c
. .