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A Mycenaean Iliad

A linguistic reconstruction of the


opening one hundred lines of the
Iliad in Normal Mycenaean

Rob Wiseman
London, 2010
FOR M.S.J.H.

© Rob Wiseman, 2010


The author’s moral rights are asserted.

All care has been taken in the preparation of this work.


However, any errors are the responsibility of the author.

During 2010, any comments may be sent to


mycenaean_iliad@btinternet.com

This work is typeset in Gentium, available from


http://www.scripts.sil.org/Gentium. Please support the
work of the Summer Institute of Linguistics and its work
to support entholinguistic communities.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 1

S ome time ago, I found myself wishing for a substantial text in


Mycenaean Greek—one far longer than any of the surviving Linear B
tablets; sufficiently large and consistent for statistical analysis; and
robust enough for comparison with other texts from the same period. This
reconstruction is my response.
At one level, I feel rather ungrateful asking for more than has survived in
the Mycenaean palaces. The preservation of the six thousand odd Linear B
tablets that we do have is a minor miracle. Their translation in the 1950s and
the close analysis that has followed has yielded innumerable insights into
linguistics, religion, political organisation, social structures, economics and
many other details of Mycenaean life which would have been unrecoverable
by archaeology. Nonetheless, the scope of the Linear B corpus is extremely
limited. The 5,888 tablets are all archive records, and texts on 170 containers
record primarily their contents, provenance or owners’ names. We have not
a scrap of poetry, prayer, narrative, history, genealogy, law, correspondence
or any of the dozens of other uses that writing had in contemporary literate
civilisations. And, given the entirely administrative purposes that the
Mycenaeans had for Linear B, such texts are unlikely ever to emerge. From a
linguistic perspective—my own particular interest—the material we have is
impoverished. The stock of nouns and adjectives is limited, and many of the
verb forms are unattested, as are many prepositions and articles. The
grammatical forms of some terms are ambiguous, due to the syllabic nature
of Linear B.
A partial solution to these limitations is a linguistic reconstruction, and
that is what I have created here.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 2

THE CHOICE OF TEXT: THE ILIAD

The text I have used as the starting point for this reconstruction is the first
one hundred lines the Iliad.
This selection contains 728 separate words (including clitics), although
there are numerous duplications—mostly in the form of prepositions,
articles, conjunctions, but also names. The hundredth line proved a
convenient endpoint, as it coincides with the end of a paragraph, so the
selection is grammatically ‘closed’. This volume of text is large enough for
any meaningful statistical analysis. Given the uncertainties in our knowledge
of Mycenaean Greek, generating a longer reconstruction would add no
greater statistical reliability.
At one level, the Iliad is the obvious choice for this project. It is the oldest
surviving Greek text of any length, and thus the closest in age to the
Mycenaean scribes. It is clearly built on a bedrock of genuinely Mycenaean
material. For example, it describes a Bronze Age military expedition in the
Aegean on a scale that only Mycenae could have mustered. It accurately
describes the political organisation of Mycenaean Greece, as recovered by
archeologists. Individual people recorded in the Linear B archives bear
Homeric names, such as Achilles and Hektor (names that had dropped out of
use by Classical times). The Iliad also preserves details of Bronze Age Greek
warfare—such as the use of chariots—that had become obsolete by the
Archaic period, when the Iliad was first recorded in writing. Archeology has
also confirmed details of Mycenaean armor and weaponry. Details such as
Achilles’ gift of iron at the funeral games of Patroklus must also date to the
late Bronze Age.
However, the Iliad also poses problems at every level unlike any other
Greek poem. The product of oral bards, it was reinvented with each retelling;
modified to suit different audiences; expanded and edited to suit specific
occasions. Although the techniques of oral poetry could preserve
information, they did not guarantee that it was understood1. An oft-repeated
example is the use of chariots—a tool of warfare largely abandoned by the
time that the Iliad was transcribed. Chariots in the Iliad are described as
essentially troop transports; once the warriors arrived at the battle, they
dismount in order to fight hand-to-hand. There are only occasional
references in the Iliad to massed chariot formations (4:293–309). Even in
single passages, genuinely Mycenaean details sit alongside much later
material from the Archaic period. All of this means that we have no

1
A good example of the preservative power of poetry is in children’s nursery
rhymes. ‘Jack and Jill’—based on older material from Norse mythology—actually
describes the phases of the moon: a fact not recoverable from the text itself.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 3

confidence that even a single sentence dates reliably back to the Mycenaean
Period.
Another factor that created changes in the poem was the development of
the Greek language. The Iliad is composed in hexameter verse, with a pattern
of heavy and light syllables. (A light syllable comprises an open syllable with
a short vowel (cv); all others are heavy, including closed syllables (cvc),
syllables containing long vowels (cv̄) and diphthongs (cvy(c), cvw(c).)
Particularly corrosive on the structure of the evolving Iliad would have been
the loss of intervocalic –y-, -h- and (later) –w-. As these consonants dropped
out of Greek pronunciation, the neighbouring vowels came into contact,
coalescing to form either diphthongs or long vowels—so altering the metrical
structure of some passages. For instance, here is the development of the o-
stem genitives from Proto-Indo-European through to Attic–Ionic:
PIE Myc. Hom. Ion. Att.
*- ōsyŏ *- ŏhyŏ -ŏyŏ -ŏŏ -ọ̄
As earlier words ceased to fit the meter, the Homeric bards were forced to
substitute different terms—so introducing terms that dated from well after
the Mycenaean period. One example from the first one hundred lines is τόξον
‘bow’. The word is derived from the Iranian taχša—and so cannot date from
earlier than Greek contact with the Scythians or Persians in the seventh or
sixth centuries BCE. The term cannot be Mycenaean. The word τόξον was
presumably introduced because it could take a position in the metre that the
inherited term for ‘bow’, βιός, could not.
Even if the replacement terms were Greek rather than foreign, in many
cases, we cannot be certain that the term was used by the Mycenaean Greeks.
For example, Proto-Indo-European has just one marked athematic aorist, the
s-aorist, which survives as the σ-aorist in Greek. But later Greek also has a
number of other marked athematic aorists, including -κ-, -η-, -ην- and -θην-.
At what period each of these developed is uncertain, and some—such as the
last—are not attested at all in Linear B. Another example comes from the
contract verbs –αω, -εω, -oω. These are common in Ionic, but Aeolic and
Arcado-Cyprian use the -μι inflection instead—and we lack information on
the use of these forms in Mycenaean. While there is a temptation to ‘correct’
the text, and employ only forms that we are certain were actually used, it is
not clear that the result is any more authentic. In this reconstruction, I have
preferred to retain elements that developed later, unless there are clear
dialectical reasons for changing them.
One issue that is often raised as a problem with the Iliad is the artificial
nature of its language. It is mostly comprised of Ionic Greek, but with a good
mixture of Aeolic (and presumably Mycenaean, which is probably related to
it). The best examples are amongst the pronouns: for example, the singular
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 4

dative personal pronoun appears in no less than three forms in the first one
hundred lines: τοι, σοι and ὁι, all derived from the single PIE root *toi via
different Greek dialects; the corresponding plural form appears as both the
Attic σοῖσι and West Greek τοῖσι. Another example is τόν and ὅν, both from
PIE *tom, the singular accusative demonstrative pronoun. There are also
words which are impossible dialect hybrids. A commonly cited example is
κύνεσσιν (f. pl. dat.): the germination is typical of Aeolic, but the final –n is
specific to the Attic dialect of Ionic. In other terms in Homer, vowels are
occasionally lengthened or shortened to suit the metre. In order to resolve
these issues, and create a dialectically consistent text, the method I have
used in this reconstruction is to start with the word roots in Proto-Indo-
European, before Greek divided into its various dialects, then apply the suite
of phonological changes that characterised Mycenaean Greek. The result is a
text which is much more consistent, dialectically, then Homer.
I want to stress that what I am not attempting is to recreate some kind of
Ur-Iliad. Such a thing certainly never existed. The text we have was stitched
together from numerous smaller songs—although the linguistic unity of the
Homeric text points to it as the record of a single performer, rhapsodising on
a body of pre-existing material. The way that different parts of the Iliad have
been stitched together means that there was almost certainly never
Mycenaean epic on the scale we now have. The evolution of the material and
the Greek language means that it not possible to ‘peel back’ all of the layers
of post-Mycenaean material, as though they were layers of paint, to reveal
the ‘original’ underneath. Whatever material the Iliad was based on has now
been lost beyond recovery.

THE RECONSTRUCTION

I have reconstructed all 792 words using the same method. First, I have
identified the root form, stem vowels, affixes and grammatical terminations
in Proto-Indo-European (PIE)—the language from which evolved Greek and
most of the other European and Indo-Iranian languages. Then I have applied
the phonological changes that would have occurred to each sound and sound
combination, as would have happened in the development of Mycenaean
Greek. I have also applied well-understood alterations in grammatical form
(such as the displacement of dative forms by locatives in Proto-Greek or the
appearance of contract verbs). To take a concrete example:

13. g. ἄποινα ‘ransom’ pl. n. acc. > ‘ransom’: *n̥- ‘not’ & o-grade *kʷeyn-
‘pay, compensate’ > ‘ransom’: *n̥=kʷoyn-m̥ > Myc. *akʷoyna
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 5

This entry is for line 13, word g (that is, the seventh word in line 13): ἄποινα,
‘ransom’, in the plural neuter accusative. The PIE root is *kʷeyn- ‘pay,
compensate’, with the negative prefix, *n̥-. The word is in the o-grade, with
no theme vowel and, consequently (as the root ends in a consonant) the
normal accusative suffix -m takes its syllabic form, -m̥. In the development
from PIE to Normal Mycenaean, both syllabic resonants change, *m̥, *n̥ > a; all
of the other phonemes remain unchanged. The resulting word in Normal
Mycenaean is therefore *n̥=kʷoyn-m̥ > Myc. *akʷoyna. (The asterisk indicates
that the word is unattested; in this reconstruction, I have written terms in
PIE and attested Greek in italic, while terms in reconstructed Mycenaean or
Proto-Greek are printed in roman.) After the Mycenaean period, the
labiovelars shifted to the corresponding velars, resulting in the form attested
in Classical texts: apoyna (ἄποινα). I have not marked the accent, as this is not
reconstructible. Little of the PIE system of accentuation survived into Greek,
and there are substantial differences across those Greek dialects where we do
know the accent.
All of the elements that make up the word ἄποινα can be dated to the
Classical ‘Brugmannian’ PIE period. However, some words have elements
derived from different periods. For example, not all forms of the infinitive
are present in Linear B. They are a grammatical form that developed after
the break-up of PIE, and several varieties are attested in historical Greek,
such as -σθαι in the following example:

8. h. μάχεσθαι ‘fight’ pres. inf. mp.: root *magʰ- ‘to have power’: *magʰ-
e-stʰai > Myc. *makʰestʰay

Both the root and theme vowel (marked in italics) can be reconstructed to
the PIE period, but the medio-passive infinitive ending (marked in roman) is
specific to Greek, and it is unclear how old the form is. The combined form
*magʰ-e-stʰai never existed as a real word in PIE—I use it only to show all of
the parts that went into the construction of the final Mycenaean word,
*makʰestʰay.
There are also some words containing elements with no agreed
etymology. I have marked these in brackets {—}, as in the following:

65. g. ἐχώσατο ‘angered him’ 3sg. aor. ind. mid.: root unknown
*{gʰow}- : *(e)-{gʰow}-sa-to > Myc. *(e)kʰowsato

In this example, the root *{gʰow-} is unknown. The sigmatic aorist—which is


reconstructed for PIE—has undergone a shift specific to Greek. In the 3pl.,
the combination *-s-n̥t > *-sat-, which the Greeks reinterpreted as -sa-t-, and
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 6

from there the -sa- form spread to the other sigmatic aorists. Since the -sa-
forms are found in all the literary dialects, in both East and West Greek, it is
likely that this form was also present in Mycenaean. Finally, it is unclear
whether aorists were prefixed in Mycenaean with the hic et nunc augment e-.
In Homer, this element is not obligatory: in the first one hundred lines, it
appears in only 18 of the 67 aorists and derived participles.

LIMITATIONS ON THE RECONSTRUCTION

A surprising amount of the individual words in the Iliad can be reconstructed


with material dating back to PIE. But all reconstructions involve, by their
very nature, a degree of uncertainty. Although the phonological
development of the Greek dialects is now understood with considerable
certainly—arguably, better than any other ancient language—a language is
more than the sum of its sounds. There were innovations in grammar and
vocabulary between the time of Mycenae and historical Greek, and the
prehistory of these developments is normally impossible to recover. There
are also foreign importations and local innovations. These set the limit on
any reconstruction. We cannot have a completely authentic Mycenaean text,
but what is possible is a reconstruction that delineates the different types of
uncertainty.
Five types of words stand out from the rest, which can be securely
reconstructed from PIE. I have marked each of these with a different colour.
red words or elements with no satisfactory derivation from Proto-
Indo-European, and unattested in Linear B
purple words or elements for which I have no acceptable etymology, but
that are attested in Linear B: for example, basileus ‘chief’, wanax
‘king’, lawos ‘people, army’, kˢun- ‘together, with’, Achilleus and
Hera.
orange words not attested in Linear B, but common in all other major
Greek dialects, and must have been part of Pre-Greek, and would
therefore have been inherited by Mycenaean: for example φίλος
and μῦθος.
blue anachronistic terms or elements, for which no satisfactory
Mycenaean equivalent exists: for example, the word tokˢa ‘bow’
derived from Iranian; the post-Mycenaean patronymics -ίδεω and -
άδεω; the ε-augment on perfects and aorists, and the aorist marker
-tʰę̄n.
green names not attested in Linear B, which are not reflexes of PIE terms.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 7

SOURCES AND REFERENCES USED

The text of the Iliad that I used as my source material is Homer (1920) Homeri
Opera in five volumes Oxford: Oxford University Press. I checked the entire text
against the Perseus Project website (www.perseus.tufts.edu), along with the
grammatical form of every word.
For consistency, I have based all of the phonological and grammatical
reconstructions on just six sources:
Sihler, Andrew (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin. New York
& Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Watkins, Calvert (2000, 2nd edition) The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-
European Roots. Boston & New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Pokorny Julius (1959–69) Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch. Bern:
Francke.
Buck, Carl Darling (1955) The Greek dialects. London: Cambridge University
Press.
Woodward Roger D. (editor, 2008) The Ancient Languages of Europe. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Forston, Benjamin W. IV (2004) Indo-European Language and Culture: An
Introduction. Malden (Massachussetts), Oxford, & Carlton (Victoria):
Blackwell Publishing.

I have based all grammatical reconstructions entirely on Sihler. Roots are


based primarily on those in Watkins. When Watkins gives no root, I have
used Sihler next. In a few rare cases, I have referred to Pokorny—making
necessary adjustments for laryngeals and other developments that have
occurred in the half-century since publication. These few uses are all marked
‘Pokorny’ along with the page number. I have not referred to the page
numbers in Watkins; references to Sihler and Buck are all marked with § to
indicate the section number (as both Sihler and Buck do).
Cross-references within the reconstructed text are marked by ʆʃ, followed
by the line reference (so ‘ʆʃ24d.’ refers to line 24, word d: Ἀγαμέμνονι).
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 8

TRANSCRIPTION OF GREEK

α a Ƒ w κ k ο o υ u
β b ζ z λ l π p φ pʰ
γ g η ę̄ μ m ρ r χ kʰ
δ d θ tʰ ν n σ, ς s ψ pˢ
ε e ι i ξ kˢ τ t ω ǭ

In order to highlight the historical development of Greek from PIE, I have


used the roman vowels a, e, i, o, and u only to transcribe vowels; they do not
form the second half of diphthongs. I have always written diphthongs with w
or y following the vowel. In Mycenaean, where w and y precede a vowel, they
are pronounced consonantally. Spiritus asper is transcribed h.

αι ay
αυ aw οι oy
ει ey (true diphthong) ου ow (true diphthong)
ẹ̄ (spurious diphthong) ọ̄ (spurious diphthong)

MYCENAEAN PHONOLOGICAL INVENTORY

front centre back


high i, ī u, ū
middle e, ē o, ō
low a, ā

labial labiovelar dental palatal velar glottal


voiceless stops p kʷ t k
aspirated voiceless stops pʰ kʷʰ tʰ kʰ
voiced stops b gʷ d g
fricatives s† h
nasals m n ŋ
lateral liquid l
non-lateral liquid r
glides w y


before voiced consonants, s is pronounced [z], hence in later Greek
inscriptions [s] + [d] = [zd] (ΣΔ = Ζ).
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 9

PIE PHONOLOGICAL INVENTORY

front centre back


high i, (ī) u, (ū)
middle e, ē o, ō
low a, ā

labial dental palatal velar labiovelar


voiceless stops p t ḱ k kʷ
voiced stops b d ǵ g gʷ
aspirated voiced stops bʰ dʰ ǵʰ gʰ gʷʰ
fricatives s
nasals m n
lateral liquid l
non-lateral liquid r
glides w y

In PIE, the sonorants and laryngeals form syllabic and non-syllabic


allophonic variants.
laryngeal nasals liquids glides
ə₁/ə̥₁ m/m̥ r/r̥ y/i̯
ə₂/ə̥₂ n/n̥ l/l̥ w/u̯
ə₃/ə̥₃

MYCENEAN AMONGST THE GREEK DIALECTS

All of the Greek dialects derived from Proto-European. However, they


diverged at various points before Greek was recorded in writing—indeed,
some appear to have split before the Mycenaean period.
Any reconstruction of Mycenaean has to draw on evidence from other
dialects, in order to establish the most likely form. There is some
disagreement on the basic grouping of the Greek dialects. Traditionally, they
were divided into East and West, roughly as follows:
East West
Mycenaean, Arcado-Cypriot, | Doric, Northwest Greek
Attic-Ionic, Aeolic
In 1955, an new North-South classification was proposed by Ernst Risch:
South North
Mycenaean, Arcado-Cypriot, | Doric, Northwest Greek
Attic-Ionic Aeolic
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 10

For the purposes of this reconstruction, I have taken the closest relative of
Mycenaean to be Arcado-Cypriot, followed by the Ionic. I have removed the
specifically Aeolic forms in Homer, as its proximity to Mycenaean is unclear.
Within Mycenaean, two dialects detected, labelled Normal and Special
(reflecting their frequency in the Linear B corpus). They are distinguished by
four isoglosses (Woodward 2008, p51–52).
Normal Special
athematic dative singular ending -ei -i
reflexes of PIE *m̥, *n̥ o† a
reflex of PIE *e adjacent to a labial i e
reflex of PIE *ti si ti

only when adjacent to a labial

SUMMARY OF MAJOR PHONOLOGICAL CHANGES

The PIE inventory underwent a number of sound changes in the


development of Normal Mycenaean Greek (the few differences in Special
Mycenaean are shown in the notes below each table). The following show the
main changes—although for particular sound combinations, see Sihler.
V = any vowel C = any consonant other than a laryngeal
S = stop H = laryngeal N = nasal
R = resonant L = labial Lʷ = labiovelar

Vowels, laryngeals and vowel-laryngeal combinations


PIE Myc. PIE Myc.
a, ə₂e, ə₂o a ā, eə₂ >ā

e, ə₁e e ē, eə₁ >ē
i i ī, iə > ī (-ye final)
o, ə₃e, ə₁o, ə₃o o ō, oə, eə₃ >ō
u u ū, uə >ū

i in the neighbourhood of a labial
PIE *LoR/*RoL > G. *LuR/*RuL (§44)
PIE *SRiə₂ > PG *SRyă
PIE *-iə₃- > G. -yō- (§49)
̄ ̄
PIE *VN > PG *VN, *VLC > PG *VLC (§79.3)

Diphthongs
PIE Myc. PIE Myc.
ai ay au aw
ei ey eu ew
oi oy ou ow
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 11

Stops
PIE Myc. PIE Myc. PIE Myc.
p p t t‡
d d d d
bʰ pʰ/p† dʰ tʰ/t‡

k k ḱ k kʷ kʷ
g g ǵ g gʷ gʷ
gʰ k ǵʰ k gʷʰ kʷʰ


PIE *Cʰ₁VCʰ₂ > PG *C₁VCʰ₂ (dissimulation of aspirates, §138)

PIE *Cʰ₁VCʰ₂s/y > PG *Cʰ₁VC₂s/y

PIE *-ti- > Myc. *-si- (Normal Mycenaean)
PIE *Lʷu > Myc. *Cu, *uLʷ > Myc. *uL
PIE stop (final) > Myc. -ø

Sibilants
PIE Myc.
s h (initial and medial)
s (final, before or after a voiceless stop)
ø (before most consonants)
ø (before or after m, n, r, and l, with consonants then geminate)

Resonants and laryngeals


PIE Myc. PIE Myc. PIE Myc.
m m m̥C o† m̥(H)V am
n n n̥C o† n̥(H)V an
r r r̥C or, ro r̥(H)V or
l l l̥C ol, lo l̥(H)V ol
w w
y y
ə₁ e
ə₂ a
ə₃ o


o in Normal Mycenaean, a in Special Mycenaean
PIE *–m > Myc. *-n (final)
PIE *y- (initial) > Myc. *h-, *z-, *y-

Note that w was only lost in Greek dialects well after the Mycenaean period.
The semivowel y survived between vowels in Mycenaean (at least after short
vowels). However, after consonants, y led to palatalisation in two waves. The
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 12

second and more pervasive occurred before the Mycenaean period, with the
following outcomes (§198):
PIE Pre-Gr. Proto-Gr. Myc.
ky, ḱy, kʷy ky čč ss
gʰy, ǵʰy, gʷʰy kʰy čč ss
py py pč pt
bʰy pʰy pč pt
ty tˢy čč ss
dʰy tˢy čč ss
z
dy dy ̌̌ z
gy, ǵy, gʷy gy ̌̌ z
my ny ññ nn
ny ny ññ nn
ly ly ̃
ll ̃ ll
ry ry r̃r̃ rr
wy wy ẅẅ y(y)
sy hy yy y

Assimilation and the main outcomes of other consonantal clusters


In Greek, the combinations stop + stop, the initial consonant takes on the
voicing and aspiration of the following stop.
b + t, bʰ + t > pt p + tʰ, b + tʰ > pʰtʰ p + d, pʰ + d > bd
g + t, kʰ + t > kt k + tʰ, g + tʰ > kʰtʰ k + d, kʰ + d > gd
t+k > kk
t+p > pp
The main exception to this rule is the combination of apical stops: T + T > sT
Also, the combination of two stops of the same articulation results in the
introduction of an intervening -s-: T + T > TsT.

The combination of stop + s gives:


p + s, b + s, pʰ + s > ps
t + s, d + s, tʰ + s > ss (s after a consonant)
k + s, g + s > ks
ḱ + s, ǵ + s > ks

In the combination nasal + stop, the nasal is assimilated to the point of


articulation of the following stop:
m + k/g/kʷ/gʷ > ŋk/g/kʷ/gʷ
n + k/g/kʷ/gʷ > ŋk/g/kʷ/gʷ
n + b/p/pʰ > mb/p/pʰ
m + d/t/tʰ > nd/t/tʰ
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 13

NOUNS
This paper is not the place for a detailed discussion of the reflexes of the PIE
declension system in the Greek dialects: for that, see Sihler §§249–336. The
following table summarises the PIE declensions I have used as the starting
point of the reconstruction, organised by theme vowel (from §255ff.).

Singular nouns and adjectives


cons. o-stems eə₂-stems i-stems u-stems
Nom. *-s, *-ø *-o-s *-eə₂-ø *-i-s *-u-s
Acc. *-m̥ *-o-m *-eə₂-m *-i-m *-u-m
neut. *-ø *-o-m — *-i-ø *-u-ø
Gen. *-s, *-os, *-ī, *-osyo *-eə₂es, *-oy-s *-ow-s
*-es *-eə₂-os
Dat. *-ey **-o-ey *-eə₂-ey *-ey-ey *-ew-ey
> *-ōy
Abl. = gen. *-ōt, *-āt = gen. = gen. = gen.
Loc. *-i, *-ø *-o-y, *-eə₂-i *-ēy-ø *-ēw-ø
*-e-y
Instr. *-bʰi, *-mi, *-o-ə₁ *-eə₂-bʰi, *-i-bʰi, *-u-bʰi,
*-(e)ə₁ *-e-ə₁ *-eə₂-eə₁ (?) *-i-ə₁ *-u-ə₁
Voc. *-ø *-e-ø *-eə₂-ø *-ey-ø *-ew-ø

Plural nouns and adjectives


cons. o-stems eə₂-stems i-stems u-stems
Nom. *-es *-ō-s *-eə₂-es *-ey-es *-ew-es
*-o-y†
Acc. *-m̥s *-o-ms *-eə₂-ms *-i-ms *-u-ms
neut. *-ə̥₂ *-e-ə₂ — *-i-ə₂ *-u-ə₂
Gen. *-om (?) *-ō-m *-eə₂-om, *-y-om *-ow-s
*-osyōm *-eə₂-sōm†
Dat. *-bʰos, *-o-bʰos, *-eə₂-bʰos, *-i-bʰos, *-u-bʰos,
/Abl. *-mos *-o-mos *-eə₂-mos *-i-mos *-u-mos
Loc. *-su *-o-y, *-eə₂-su *-i-su *-u-su
*-o-ysu†
Instr. *-bʰis, *-ō-ys *-eə₂-bʰis, *-i-bʰis, *-u-bʰis,
*-mī̆s *-o-mī̆s (?) *-eə₂-mī̆s *-i-mī̆s *-u-mī̆s
Voc. *-es *-ō-s *-eə₂-ø *-ey-es *-ew-es

pronomial forms

The overwhelming majority of nouns and adjectives in the first one hundred
lines of the Iliad are first and second declension nouns. The following tables
summarise their reflexes, as well as where they differ across the dialects.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 14

o-stem declension (‘second declension’)


Singular nouns
PIE Myc. Other dialects
Nom. m. *-o-s *-os -os
n. *-o-m *-on -on
Acc. m. *-o-m *-on -on
n. *-o-m *-on -on
Gen. m. (1) *-i (1) — (1) —
(2) *-osyo (2) *-ohyo (2) Hom. -oyo, -oo,
Att. -ọ̄, Thess. -oi
Dat. m. *-o-ey > *-ōy *-ōy Att. -ōY
Abl. m. *-ōt = gen., *-ō Dor. adverbs -ō
Loc. m. (1) *-o-y = gen., (?-oy, -ey) some Dor. adverbs
(2) *-e-y
Instr. m. (1) *-o-ə₁ *-e (?) some Dor. adverbs
(2) *-o-ə₁
Voc. m. *-e-ø *-e Att. –e

Plural nouns
PIE Myc. Other dialects
Nom. m. **-o-es > *-ōs *-oy† (from pron.) -oy
n. *-e-ə₂ *-ā -a
pron. *-oy
Acc. m. *-ō-ms *-ons Att. -ọ̄s,
Cret. Arg. -ōs, -os, oys
n. *-e-ə₂ *-ā -a
Gen. m. *-ō-m *-ōn -ōn
Dat. m. (1) *-o-bhos, (1) –opʰi (rare) (1) —
*-o-mos (2) *-oys (from n?) (2) -oys
(2) *-ōys (3) *-oyhi (from (3) Lesb. Ion. -oysi
loc. pron.)
Abl. m. (1) *-o-bhos, = dat. —
*-o-mos
Loc. m. (1) *-o-su? *-oyhi † —
pron. *-oysu *-oyhi —
Instr. m. (1) *-o-mis pl. dat. *-ōys —
Voc. m. *-oy *-ā† Att. –a

PIE reflex replaced in Greek.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 15

ā-stem declension (‘first declension’)


Singular nouns
PIE Myc. Other dialects
Nom. f. *-eə₂-ø *-ā -ā, Att.-Ion. -ę̄
m. = f. *-ās
Acc. f. *-eə₂-m *-ān -ān, Att.-Ion. –ę̄n
m. = f. *-ān -ān, Att.-Ion. –ę̄n
Gen. f. *-eə₂-es *-ās -ās, Att.-Ion. -ę̄s
*-eə₂-os
m. **āyo > *-āo Hom. -āo, -ę̄o,
Att. -ę̄o > -eō > -ǭ > -ọ̄
Dat. f. *-eə₂-ey *-āy -āy, Att.-Ion –āY, -ę̄Y
m. = f.
Abl. f. *-eə₂-es, = dat.
*-eə₂-os
Loc. f. *-eə₂-i *-āy -āy (some Dor. adv.)
Instr. f. *-eə₂-bʰi, = dat. *-āy some adv.
*-eə₂-eə₁
Voc. f. *-eə₂-ø *-ā Att.-Ion. -ā, -ę̄, Hom. -a
m. *-a -a

Plural nouns
PIE Myc. Other dialects
Nom. f. *-eə₂-es *-ay† Att. -ay, Boet –ae
others also *-as
m. = f. *-ay† *-ay
Acc. f. *-eə₂-ms *-ans Lesb. –ays, Ion. -ās,
Cret., Arc. -ans, -as
m. = f. *-ans
Gen. f. *-eə₂-om *-āōn Hom. -āon, -eōn, Att. -ōn
m. =f.
pron. *-eə₂-sōm *-āhōn
Dat. f. *-eə₂-bʰos, *-ays† (1) Att. -ais (2) from loc.
*-eə₂-mos Ion. -ę̄isi, Lesb. -aysi,
early Att. -āsi, -ę̄si
Abl. f. *-eə₂-bʰos, = dat. —
*-eə₂-mos
Loc. f. *-eə₂-su = dat. —
Instr. f. *-eə₂-bʰis, -apʰi = dat.
*-eə₂-mis
Voc. f. *-eə₂-es — —
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 16

There are only a handful of i- and u-stems in the first hundred lines of the
Iliad: μῆνιν, πρίν, μετόπισθεν and πολυ-φλοίσβοιο. Consonantal and
diphthongal roots are rather more common: βασιλεύς, ’Αχιλλεύς, ’Ατρεύς,
Πηλεύς, Σμινθεύς, βοῦς, Ζεύς, ναῦς. There is also a good number of words with
consonantal roots.

PRONOUNS

Personal pronouns
While derived from PIE, the pronouns are not all direct reflexes. For details
of their evolution, see Sihler §360ff. The third person pronouns are all based
on *au-t-, but are not reconstructible to the PIE period.

1sg 2sg.
nom. *eǵoə *egō *ti/tu *tu
acc. (encl.) *me *=me *te *te
(ton.) *me *eme *twe *twe
gen. (encl.) *mos *=meo *tos *teo
(ton.) *me-me *emeyo *tewe *tewe
dat. (encl.) *mey (?moy) *=moy *tey, *toy *toy
(ton.) *mebʰi *emoy *tebʰi *toy

1pl. 2pl.
nom. *we-i *ame(s) *yūs *u(h)me(s)
acc. (encl.) *nos — *wos —
(ton.) *n̥sme *a(h)me(as) *usme *u(h)mea(s)
gen. (encl.) *nos — *wos —
(ton.) *n̥som *a(h)meōn *usom *u(h)meōn
dat. (encl.) *nos — *wos —
(ton.) *n̥smey *a(h)mi *usmey *u(h)mi

In Attic, the 2sg. pronouns were replaced, *toy > soy, and so on throughout.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 17

Demonstrative pronouns
sg.
m. n. f.
nom. *so *ho *tod *to *seə₂/siə₂ *hā
acc. *tom *ton *tod *to *teə₂m *tān
dat. *tosmey **to-ei > *tōy *tosyeə₂sey *t(ohy)ā(h)i
gen. *tosyo *to(h)yo *tosyeə₂s *t(ohy)ās
loc. *tosmi **to-ei > *toy ?
(also *toy-si)

pl.
m. n. f.
nom. *toy *toy *teə₂ *tā *teə₂s *tās
acc. *tons *tons *teə₂ *tā *teə₂ms *tāns
dat. *toybʰ- **to-ey > *tōy *teə₂bʰ
gen. *toysom *to(y)on *teə₂som *to(y)on
loc. *toysu *toysi *teə₂su *tāsi

In Attic, all of the forms based on *to- and *teə₂- were replaced by ho and hā,
on analogy of the nominative forms. The forms I have treated as based on
Mycenaean *tā- mostly emerged in Attic Greek based on ay-.

Interrogative pronouns and Articles


The interrogative pronouns are all based on a PIE root *kʷe-/*kʷi-, although
the semantics are much changed in the daughter languages.
The indefinite articles of Classical Greek, ὅς, ἥ, ὅ are originally PIE
demonstrative pronouns: *yos, *yeə₂ and *yod.

VERBS

The verbal structure is rather more consistent than the nominal, with
dialectical variations due to a handful of phonological changes—most of
which occurred only after the Mycenaean period. In the eventive verbs
(imperfect, aorist and present), both the active and mediopassive endings are
fully reconstructible, while the theme vowels are unvarying across of the
Greek dialects, and so would have found in Mycenaean (§439):
sg. du. pl.
1 -o- -o- -o-
2 -e- -e- -e-
3 -e- -e- -o-
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 18

Active personal endings


Secondary Primary
PIE Myc. Other Gr. PIE Myc. Other Gr.
1sg. *-m *-n *-n *-oə₂ *-ō -ō
*-m̥ *-a *-a *-mi *-mi -mi
2sg. *-s *-s *-s *-si *-s -s
-ẹ̄s
3sg. *-t *-ø *-ø *-ti *si -ti, -si
-i
1du. *-we — — *-wos — —
2du. *-tom *-ton *-ton *-tə₁es (?) -ton
3du. *-tām *-tān *-tān *-tes (?) -ton
1pl. *-me *-men *-men *-mos *-mes -mes
2pl. *-te *-te *-te *-te *-te -te
3pl. *-nt, *-n̥t *-n *-n *-nti *-nsi -nti, -nsi
*-r̥, *-ēr — — *-n̥ti *-asi -ati, -asi

Medio-passive personal endings


Secondary Primary
PIE Myc. Other Gr. PIE Myc. Other Gr.
1sg. *-ə₂o *-mān *-mān *-ə₂or *-may -may
2sg. *-tə₂o *-so *-so *-tə₂or *-say, -say, -soy
*-soy
3sg. *-o *-ta *-ta *-or — —
*-to *-tor *-tay, -tay
*-toy -toy
1du. *-wedʰə̥₂? — — *- —
wosdʰə̥₂(?)
2du. *-teə₁? (?) -(s)tʰon *-ətoə₁(?) (?) -(s)tʰon
3du. *-tē (?) -(s)tʰān *-ətē (?) -(s)tʰon
1pl. *medʰə̥₂ -metʰa -me(s)tʰa *mosdʰə̥₂ *- -me(s)tʰa
mestʰa
2pl. *-dʰwo -(s)tʰwe -(s)tʰe *-dʰwo *- -(s)tʰe
(s)tʰwe
3pl. *-(ē)ro — — *-(ē)ror(?) — —
*-nto *-nto -nto *-ntor *-ntoy -ntoy
*-n̥to *-ato -ato *-n̥tor *-atoy -ntay
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 19

Imperfect and Aorist


The aorists and imperfects use the same theme vowels and endings as the
indicatives, and are often indistinguishable in form. In Classical Greek, were
invariably marked with the e- augment, but in earlier dialects, this was not
obligatory. For example, as I noted earlier, the augment appears in only 18 of
the 67 aorists and derived participles within the first one hundred lines of
the Iliad. In this reconstruction, I have marked the augment as possibly
anachronistic.
Aorists commonly see the theme vowel replaced. The only marked aorist
inherited from PIE is the sigmatic aorist, -σ- but Greek developed a number of
other extensions, including -κ-, -η-, -ην- and -θην-. It is not clear at what time
these developed, although the last is not attested in Linear B. In this
reconstruction, I have retained whatever aorist marker is used in Homer.
In the development of the sigmatic aorists from PIE, the 3pl. combination
*-s-n̥t > *-sat-, which the Greeks reinterpreted as -sa-t-. This -sa- form then
spread to the other sigmatic aorists. Since the -sa- forms are found in all the
literary dialects, in both East and West Greek, it is likely that this form was
also present in Mycenaean.

Perfect and pluperfect


There are only two perfects, one perfect participle and one pluperfect in the
first one hundred lines of the Iliad. The stem of perfects was formed with the
reduplicated root in o-grade (singular) or zero-grade (dual and plural). There
was a specific set of perfect endings, although in many cases, it is difficult to
reconstruct them in PIE. In both of the examples in this reconstruction, the
endings are problematic:
ἀμφιβέβηκας ‘surround; protect’ 2sg. perf. ind. act.: *ə₂mbʰi + *gʷe-gʷeə₂-ka
οἶσθα 2sg. perf. ind. act.: o-grade *weyd- ‘see’: *woyd-tʰa > Myc. *woystʰa
The only pluperfect in the selection, ᾔδη ‘he knew’, shows a typical Greek
pluperfect structure, with and augment and -e- inserted before the perfect
ending (-e in this case for 3sg. act.). So, from root *weyd- ‘know’, PG. *(e)-we-
wi̯d-e-e > Myc. *(e)wewidē.

Imperative
The imperative is formed by use of a specific suite of endings (§546),
although only four forms are used in the first hundred lines of the Iliad. The
2sg. act. are divided into two types: (1) *-e-ø, that is, the bare stem
comprising root and theme vowel; and (2) *-dʰi > Myc. *-tʰi for some thematic
verbs. The 2sg. midd. uses *-so > Myc. *-ho. There is one example of the –on
ending (κρήηνον, ʆʃ41g), but the origins of this form are unclear (c.f. §546.5).
Finally, there is one example, φράσαι (ʆʃ83f), where the indicative is used for
the imperative (c.f. §547.2).
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 20

Subjunctive and optative


The subjunctive is the same in all Greek dialects—a lengthening of the theme
vowel to ē or ō, presumably via duplication **-e-e- > ē and **-o-o- > ō. In the
case of athematic stems, the subjunctive is simply -e- or -o- (§535).
The optative can be derived from PIE *-yeə₁-/*-yə̥₁- for athematic stems (>
Myc. *-yē-/*-i-) and *-oy- for the thematic (> Myc. *-oy-).

Infinitive
The infinitives are the most diverse of the verb forms in this reconstruction:
seven types for only fourteen verbs. As a group, infinitives are verbal
nouns—that is, they have a verbal stem, but the endings are drawn from the
nouns. In the case of Greek, the endings are from either endingless locatives
(-ø) or datives (-ay) (§552). Considering just the forms found in the first one
hundred lines:
active athematic stems: from the n-stem loc. -en: PG. *-e-sen > Myc. *-ehen
active thematic stems: from the dat. -ay, PG *-n-ay, *-e-n-ay, *-wen-ay, *-men-
ay (alongside -men)
middle stems: PG. *-(e)stʰay
There is considerable variation amongst the Greek dialects in their use of
infinitives. For example, -ναι is shared by Attic-Ionic and Arcado-Cyprian,
and so was presumably also used in Mycenaean. By contrast, -μεναι is West
Greek, while -μεν is Lesbian, and so presumably neither would have been
found in Mycenaean. The Attic-Ionic -ειν (< *-ehen < *-e-sen) is attested in
Linear B tablets as –Ce-e.

VOCABULARY

As I noted earlier, one of the limitations to this reconstruction is vocabulary.


The problem can be divided into two parts.
The first problem is the nature of all poetic language—but especially
Homeric Epic. It is marked by a vocabulary which is elevated from everyday
use. In part, this is the result of the poet needing to use words that will fit the
meter of the poem. But it is also part of the poetic art. So there are terms in
the Iliad that are found only in Epic verse. Some of these differ from normal
Greek in the matter of a lengthened vowel or an added consonant—these are
easily detected when we can compare the development of the word with its
evolution in other languages. But other words are terms found exclusively in
poetry. The former I have I have decided to alter to their regular Greek
forms, where I can establish what the historically correct form would have
been. But the latter, Epic-only forms I have usually retained, as it is unclear
to me what terms the Mycenaeans might have used in their place.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 21

The second problem is dialect. The Greek dialects not only had different
pronunciation and slightly different grammar, but they also had different
preferences in the selection of some words. For instance, Cypriot—almost
certainly the closest attested relative of Mycenaean—has agor ‘eagle’ for Att.
aetos; hals ‘wine’ for Att. oynos; mutha ‘voice’ for Att. phōnē; owaron ‘oil’ for Att.
elayon; pesson ‘mountain’ for Att. oros. In almost every case, it is impossible to
guess what word the Mycenaeans might have used in place of what is in
Homer. The only exceptions are a few pronouns and prepositions, where we
have direct evidence from the Arcado-Cypriot dialects.
Attic & Ionic Arcadian & Cyprian Mycenaean
ἀν/ἀνά ὀν *on(a)
ἀρ ὀρ *or
εἰ εἰ, ἠ *ē
ἐν ἰν *in
καί κάς *kas
πρός πός *pros
Also, Aeolic κε and κεν are ἄν in Attic-Ionic and Arcadian: I have used *an(a).

NAMES

There are twenty names used in the first one hundred lines of the Iliad. Of
these, eight have no secure etymology and are not attested in Linear B. In the
analysis, I have marked all unreconstructible roots in bracket marks {—}.
These are all marked as green in the reconstructed text.

Ἀργος Argos *{Arg}-


Ἀτρεύς Atreus *{Atr}-ew-
Κίλλα Killa *{Kīll}-
Λητώ Lę̄to *{Lāt}-ow-
Ὄλυμπος Olumpos *{Olump}-
Πρίαμος Priamos *{Priam}-
Σμινθεύς Sminthews *{Sminth}-ew-
Τένεδος Tenedos *{Tened}-

There are two (or possibly three) names without clear etymology, but may be
attested in Linear B. I have marked these in purple in the reconstructed text.

Ἀχιλλεύς Akʰillę̄us *{Akʰil}-ew- attested as a-ki-re-u.


Homer has both single and geminate λ
Ἥρα/Ἥρη Hēra *{Hēr}- attested as e-ra
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 22

Πηλεύς/Πηληύς Pę̄leus/Pę̄lę̄us *{Kʷēl}-ew- possibly attested as


pe-re-qo-ta (Pēlekʷʰontas) &
qe-re-qo-ta (Kʷēlekʷʰontas)

Two more names are probably based on the word for ‘gold’ kʰrusos, attested
in Linear B (ku-ru-so). The term itself is probably a Semitic loanword.

Χρύση Kʰrūsę̄ *{Kʰrūs}-


Χρύσης Kʰrūsę̄s *{Kʰrūs}-

Six names are clear reflexes of PIE roots.

Ἀγαμέμνων Agamemnon zero-grade *meǵə₂- ‘big’ (*m̥gə́ ₂- > aga-)


& reduplicated *men- ‘remain’ >
*memn- ‘resolute’:
*m̥gə́ ₂ + *memn-ōn-ø > Agamemnōn

Ἅϊδης Hades *n̥- ‘not’ & zero-grade *weyd ‘see’:


*n̥=wid-eə₂-s > Myc. *Awidās

Ζεύς/Διός Zeus, God *dyew- ‘shine’ > ‘sky’ > ‘god’:


zero-grade *di̯w-o-s > Diwos
e-grade *dyew-s > Zeus

Θέστορ Thestor *dʰes-tor ‘he who places (offerings)’

Κάλχας Kalkhas *gʰeleǵʰ- ‘copper? bronze?’


zero-grade *gʰelǵʰ-eə₂-s > kalkʰās

Φοῖβος Pʰoibos (Bright) *bʰeygʷ- ‘shine’:


o-grade *bʰoygʷ-o-s > Myc. *pʰoygʷos

The name Ἴλιος (Ilios) is doubtless related to Wilusas attested in the Hittite
archives, and I have used the root *{Wili}- (although this borrowing must
post-date the second palatalisation, otherwise we would have Wili-os >
x
Willos). Rather less certain are the ethnonyms Ἀχαιοί (Achaeans) and Δαναοί
(Danaans). There has been much dispute about a connection between the
Ἀχαιοί and the land or people called either Aḫḫiya or Aḫḫiyawa in the Hittite
archives. There is also a single Linear B reference in Knossos2 of a hundred

2
Tablet Kn C914
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 23

sheep and goats sent to a-ka-wi-ja-de, which has been read to mean the
mainland Greeks. I have used the root *{Akʰay-w}- as it gives the correct form
for the Homeric declensions, and could plausibly be the basis of the Hittite
terms. There has been much unsuccessful conjecture on Δαναοί. The only
plausible external reference appears on a number of Egyptian monuments: in
particular the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III (c. 1350 BCE). It contains a
list of ‘countries of the north of Asia’, including the geographically-close
Kft(y)w (Keftiu, Crete) and Tɩ̓nꜢy, (Tanaya or Tinay) which has been read as
Danaya. Assuming the association of Danaans and Tanaya is correct, I have
used *{Danay}-, as it provides the correct declension for Homer, along with
related names, such as Δανάη, Danaē, the Mother of Perseus.
Finally there is the god Ἀπόλλων (Apollo)—also written Ἄπλουν in
Thessalian and Ἀπέλο̄ν in Doric and Pamphylian. I have taken his name to be
a corruption of the Anatolian deity Apulianus—recorded as one of three gods
guaranteeing a treaty between Alaksandu of Wilusas (Ilion) and the Hittite
king, Muwatalli II, c.1280 BCE3. The derivation would be something like:
Anatolian Apulianus > *Apolionos > Apollonos (pre-second palatalisation, and
explaining the geminate -λλ-).
Reflexes of the roots *{Akʰay-w}-, *{Danay}-, and {Apoli}- are all marked
green in the reconstructed text.

SMALL TERMS: PARTICLES, PREPOSITIONS, ETC.

Being short, prepositions and particles can be difficult to reconstruct using


the comparative method. Their meanings are also particularly susceptible to
change. I have treated the following terms as PIE reflexes:
ἀλλὰ alla ‘otherwise’ (adv.) *ə₂ely- ‘other’: *ə₂ely-ə̥₂ > PGr. *alya >
Myc. *alla (c.f. §71.6)
ἀν/ἀνά ana ‘along’ (prep.) Arc.-Cypr. ὀν, so Myc. *on(a)
ἀπὸ apo ‘from’ (prep.) *apo > Myc. *apo (Peters §7.25)
ἄρα/ἄρ/ῥα ara ‘then’ (partic.) *r̥ > Myc. *oro/or/ro (Arc.-Cypr. ὀρ)
(Pokorny p62)
γe ge (partic.): *ge (encl.) > Myc *=ge (Peters §7.28)
γὰρ gar ‘for’ (partic.) *ge (encl.) + *r̥ > Myc. *gor or *ger
δέ de ‘and’ (conj.) *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de (Peters §7.27)

3
Apulianus is presumably related to the Luwian plague-god Aplu—who was
borrowed from Hurrian sources further east. Aplu may in turn be the Babylonian
Nergal, the son of (‘aplu’) the chief god Enlil. All these points match the character
of Apollo: son of the chief Greek god Zeus; a god of plague; and a god that fights
on the side of the Trojans.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 24

δὴ dē ‘now’ (partic.) *deə₁ > *dē


εἴ ẹ̄ ‘if’ (conj.) *ē > Myc. *ē (Att.-Ion. εἴ, Arc.-Cypr.
εἰ, ἠ) (Pokorny 281–286)
εἴτε = εἴ+τε ẹ̄te ‘either’ (adv.) *ē=kʷe > Myc. *ē=kʷe
ἐν, ἐνὶ en, eni ‘in’ (prep.) *en (encl.) > Myc. *in=, Myc. ini
(pre-cons.) (Arc.-Cypr. ἰν) (Peters
§7.25)
ἐπι epi ‘on’ (prep.) *ep-i (loc. sg.) > Myc. *ipi
(*e > Normal Myc. *i adjacent to
labials) (Peters §7.25)
ἐς es ‘into’ (prep.) *en- ‘in, on’: *en-s (§406.3)
> Myc. *ens (> later Gr. ēs > es)
ἢ ę̄ ‘or’ (conj.) *wē > Myc. *wē (Peters §7.24)
ἢν ę̄n ‘if’ (conj.) *ēn > Myc. *ēn, pre-vocalic (Att.-
Ion. εἴ, Arc.-Cypr. εἰ, ἠ)
καὶ kay ‘and’ (conj.) Arc.-Cyp. kas: Myc. *kas (Buck)
κατὰ kata ‘down’ (prep.) *kata or *km̥ta > Myc. *kata (Peters
§7.25)
κε/κεν ke/ken (partic.) *kem (encl.); equivalent to Arc.-
Cypr. an/ana, so Myc. *an/ana
μάλα mala ‘very’ (adv.) zero-grade *mel- ‘strong, big’:
*ml̥-m̥ (acc.) > Myc. *mola
μετὰ meta ‘amid’ (prep.) suffixed root *me-ta- > Myc. *meta
μή mę̄ ‘not’ (conj.): *mē > Myc. *mē (Peters 7.24)
νῦν/νύ nun/nu ‘now’ (adv.) *nūn (encl.) > Myc. *=nūn
ὁμοῦ homọ̄ ‘together’ (adv.) o-grade *semə₁- ‘same’: *somə₁-ō
(loc. of place) > Myc. *homō
οὐ/οὐκ ọ̄/ọ̄κ ‘not’ (adv.) ‘not’: from the phrase *ne ə₂oyu kʷid
‘not (in) life; not ever’ > *oyu kʷid >
*oyu & *oyukid > Myc. *oyuk(i)
(Att.-Ion. ou, ouk(i), c.f. Peters §7.24)
οὐδε = ọ̄+de ọ̄de ‘but’ (partic.) Myc. *oyu-de
παρὰ para ‘beside’ (prep.) zero-grade *per- ‘in front of’ > ‘near’
(development unclear): *pr̥-m̥? >
Myc. *pora
ποτέ pote ‘at some time’ (partic.) *kʷo-kʷe > Myc. *kʷokʷe
πρὶν prin ‘before, until’ (adv.): zero-grade *per- ‘forward, before,
in front of’, but development
unclear: *pr̥-m? > Myc. *pron
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 25

πρίν prin ‘soon’ (adv.) zero-grade *per- ‘forward, before’,


but development unclear: *pr-i-m
(on analogy of *kʷim?) > Myc. *prin
τε te ‘and’ (partic.) *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe (Peters
§7.24)

A number have derivations that are possible, but suspect:


ἔνθα entʰa ‘then’ (adv.) uncertain: possibly *en- ‘in, on’,
with suffix possibly related to adv.
loc. *-dʰi (adv. of place) or *-dʰen
(abl. of place) (for -θα, West Greek
normally has -θε or -θεν): *en-dʰ-m̥ >
Myc. *entʰa
ἐπεὶ epey ‘after that’ (conj.) root presumably from interrog.
pron.*kʷe- but development
unclear: *(e)-kʷe-i (loc.?) > Myc.
*ekʷey?
περ per ‘very’ (partic.) uncertain root, but probabkly *per-
‘front’ > ‘chief, first, foremost’: *per-
> Myc. *per= (encl.)
πως pǭs ‘somehow’ (partic.) possibly extended *kʷos > Myc.
*kʷōs
ὣς ǭ ‘so, thus’ (adv.) uncertain root, possibly demon.
pron. sg. *so- or *swō-: *so-s > Myc.
*hos (Pokorny p.884)

The following terms I have regarded as partly or wholly unreconstructible,


and marked them in red in the reconstructed text:
δή dę̄ (particle of exactness) unknown root: *{dē}: > Myc. *dē
ἕνεκα heneka ‘because of’ (prep.) unknown root: *{heneka}
ἔτι eti ‘yet still’ (adv.) unknown root: *{eti}
ἔπειτα epẹ̄ta ‘then’ (adv.) from ἐπί ‘on’ + εἶτα ‘then’ < *{ēta}
ἦ ę̄ ‘truly’ (adv.): unknown root *{ē} > Myc. *ē
ἠδέ = ἦ+δέ ę̄de ‘and’ (conj.) unknown root *{ē} + *de > *=ēde
ἤτοι = ἦ+τοι ę̄toi ‘truly’ (partic.) *{ē} > Myc. *ē; *toy pron. sg. m. dat.:
> Myc. *toy (not replaced in East Gr.
σοι in this case): > Myc. *ē=toy
μὲν men (emphatic partic.) unknown root *{men} > *Myc.
*men (also *mēn)
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 26

TRANSCRIBING TO LINEAR B

In the Linear B transcription, words are written with either vowels (V) or
open syllables (CV)—except for fourteen specialised signs. (I have not used
any of the unconfirmed signs4). I have used the normal transcription
conventions for Linear B.

-a -e -i -o -u
ø- a e i o u
d- da de di do du
j- (i̯) ja je — jo —
k- (g, k, kʰ) ka ke ki ko ku
m- ma me mi mo mu
n- na ne ni no nu
p- (b, p, pʰ) pa pe pi po pu
q- (kʷ, gʷ) qa qe qi qo —
r- (r, l) ra re ri ro ru
s- sa se si so su
t- (t, tʰ) ta te ti to tu
w- (u̯) wa we wi wo —
z- za ze — zo —
a₂ (ha) a₃ (ai) au
dwe dwo
special ta₂ (tya) twe two
ra₂ (rya) ra₃ (rai) ro₂ (ryo)
nwa pte pu₂ (phu)

There is some disagreement on the exact writing conventions in Linear B. I


have used the following rules. In consonant clusters, the following sounds
are dropped: (1) s in word-initial position; (2) s, m, n, l, and r in syllable-final
position; and (3) w before any consonant. Gemination is not shown. All other
consonant clusters are written with empty vowels, employing either (1) the
first vowel of the consonant cluster, or (2) the preceding vowel in the case of
final syllables.
Vowels are never written long5. I have assumed that diphthongs aw and

4
Bennett’s numbers *18, *19, *22, *34, *35, *47, *49, *56, *63, *64, *65, *79, *82, *83,
*86 and *89.
5
The usual example of do-e-ro = δοῦλos ‘slave’ is unsatisfactory: the usual etymology
is PIE *dos-el-o-s. The Mycenaean reflex would then be Myc. *do(h)elos, with later
*oe > ọ̄ —hence do-e- in Linear B does not automatically indicate a long vowel.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 27

ow are written out using two separate vowels: (C)a-u- and (C)o-u-. Words
beginning with aw I have written with the special character au. By contrast,
the diphthongs of –y I have written entirely as the initial vowel only (even
when the vowel is at a clitic boundary). Where a word begins with ay-, I have
written a₃.
There is much disagreement about clitic boundaries in Linear B, although
it is clear that most pronouns and prepositions were gathered up into clitic
chains or attached to tonic nouns. Where I have been uncertain about the
position of boundaries, I have used the symbol ≈ rather than the usual =.
As in the reconstructed text, I have coloured the text where there is
uncertainty in reconstruction—although in a number of cases, only the
vowel or the consonant may be uncertain, not the entire syllable.
To illustrate how all of these rules are applied to the reconstructed text,
here is Line 36—in the original Greek, Latin transcription, reconstruction and
Linear B transcription.

Ἀπόλλωνι ἄνακτι, τὸν ἠΰκομος τέκε Λητώ: ORIGINAL

Apollǭni anakti, ton ę̄ükomos teke Lę̄tǭ: TRANSCRIPTION


Apollōni wanaksi ton ehukomos teke Lātow RECONSTRUCTION

a-po-ro-ni wa-na-ki-si to e-u-ko-mo te-ke la-to-wo LINEAR B

36. a. Ἀπόλλωνι ‘to Apollo’ sg. n. dat.: name *{Apoli}- : *{Apoli}-ō-n-i (loc.
n-stem, §286.5) > Myc. *Apollōni b. ἄνακτι ‘to the king’ sg. m. dat.: unknown
root, *{wanak-t-} (attested in Myc. wa-na-ka): *wanakt-i (loc.) > Myc.
*wanaksi (dat.) c. τὸν ‘the’ artic. (< pron. m. sg. acc.): *tom > Myc. *ton d.
ἠΰκομος ‘lovely-haired’ adj. sg. f. nom.: *esu- ‘good’; uncertain root *{kom}-
‘hair: *esu-{kom}-o-s > Myc. *ehukomos (ἠΰ- is Epic for ἐϋ-) e. τέκε ‘bring
from’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: *tek- ‘to give birth to’: *tek-e-t > Myc. *teke f. Λητώ
‘Leto’ sg. f. nom.: name {Lāt}-ow-: *{Lāt}-ow-ø > Myc. *Lātow
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 28

ABBREVIATIONS

1 first person imperf. imperfect tense


2 second person ind. indicative
3 third person inst. instrumental
abl. ablative Ion. Ionic
acc. accusative loc. locative
act. active voice m. masculine (gender)
adj. adjective midd. middle/medio-passive voice
adv. adverb Myc. Mycenaean Greek
Aeol. Aeolic n. neuter (gender)
aor. aorist nom. nominative
Arc. Arcadian obl. oblique
art. article opt. optative
athem. athematic part. participle
Att. Attic partic. particle
Boet. Boeotian pass. passive voice
comp. comparative perf. perfect tense
Cret. Cretan PG Proto-Greek
cons. consonant(al) pl. plural
Cypr. Cyprian plup. pluperfect
dat. dative prep. preposition
Dor. Doric pres. present tense
du. dual pron. pronoun
encl. enclitic red. reduced
Ep. Epic reduplic. reduplicated
f. feminine (gender) rel. relative
fut. future tense sg. singular
G Greek subj. subjunctive
gen. genitive Syrac. Syracuse
Hom. Homer(ic) voc. vocative
Imper. imperative vocal. vocalic
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 29

THE FIRST ONE HUNDRED LINES OF THE ILIAD


A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 30

μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος


οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί᾽ Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε᾽ ἔθηκε,
πολλὰς δ᾽ ἰφθίμους ψυχὰς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν
ἡρώων, αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν 4
οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι, Διὸς δ᾽ ἐτελείετο βουλή,
ἐξ οὗ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε
Ἀτρεΐδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν καὶ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς.
τίς τ᾽ ἄρ σφωε θεῶν ἔριδι ξυνέηκε μάχεσθαι; 8
Λητοῦς καὶ Διὸς υἱός: ὃ γὰρ βασιλῆϊ χολωθεὶς
νοῦσον ἀνὰ στρατὸν ὄρσε κακήν, ὀλέκοντο δὲ λαοί,
οὕνεκα τὸν Χρύσην ἠτίμασεν ἀρητῆρα
Ἀτρεΐδης: ὃ γὰρ ἦλθε θοὰς ἐπὶ νῆας Ἀχαιῶν 12
λυσόμενός τε θύγατρα φέρων τ᾽ ἀπερείσι᾽ ἄποινα,
στέμματ᾽ ἔχων ἐν χερσὶν ἑκηβόλου Ἀπόλλωνος
χρυσέῳ ἀνὰ σκήπτρῳ, καὶ λίσσετο πάντας Ἀχαιούς,
Ἀτρεΐδα δὲ μάλιστα δύω, κοσμήτορε λαῶν: 16
Ἀτρεΐδαι τε καὶ ἄλλοι ἐϋκνήμιδες Ἀχαιοί,
ὑμῖν μὲν θεοὶ δοῖεν Ὀλύμπια δώματ᾽ ἔχοντες
ἐκπέρσαι Πριάμοιο πόλιν, εὖ δ᾽ οἴκαδ᾽ ἱκέσθαι:
παῖδα δ᾽ ἐμοὶ λύσαιτε φίλην, τὰ δ᾽ ἄποινα δέχεσθαι, 20
ἁζόμενοι Διὸς υἱὸν ἑκηβόλον Ἀπόλλωνα.

ἔνθ᾽ ἄλλοι μὲν πάντες ἐπευφήμησαν Ἀχαιοὶ


αἰδεῖσθαί θ᾽ ἱερῆα καὶ ἀγλαὰ δέχθαι ἄποινα:
ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ Ἀτρεΐδῃ Ἀγαμέμνονι ἥνδανε θυμῷ, 24
ἀλλὰ κακῶς ἀφίει, κρατερὸν δ᾽ ἐπὶ μῦθον ἔτελλε:
μή σε γέρον κοίλῃσιν ἐγὼ παρὰ νηυσὶ κιχείω
ἢ νῦν δηθύνοντ᾽ ἢ ὕστερον αὖτις ἰόντα,
μή νύ τοι οὐ χραίσμῃ σκῆπτρον καὶ στέμμα θεοῖο: 28
τὴν δ᾽ ἐγὼ οὐ λύσω: πρίν μιν καὶ γῆρας ἔπεισιν
ἡμετέρῳ ἐνὶ οἴκῳ ἐν Ἄργεϊ τηλόθι πάτρης
ἱστὸν ἐποιχομένην καὶ ἐμὸν λέχος ἀντιόωσαν:
ἀλλ᾽ ἴθι μή μ᾽ ἐρέθιζε σαώτερος ὥς κε νέηαι. 32
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 31

Monin aweyde Tʰeha Pelewadeohyo Akʰilēwos


olomenān, hā=murwia Akʰaywoys algya etʰēke,
polewas=de ipʰtʰimons psūkʰans Awidāy proyapse
hērōwōn, awtons=de welōra tewkʰe kunsi 4
oywonoyhi=kʷe pansi, Diwos=de ekʷeleeto gʷōlā,
eks=hohyo dē tā≈prōwata dwiahistātān erisante
Atrewidā(s)=kʷe wanaks andrōn kas diwos Akʰilews.
kʷis=kʷe ar=spʰōwe tʰehōn eridey ksuneyēke makʰestʰay; 8
Lātows kas Diwos huyos: yo=gor gʷasilēwi kʰolotʰēns
noswon ona stroton orse kakān, olekonto=de lāwoy,
oyu=eneka ton Kʰrūsān aekʷīmase arwātēra
Atrewidās: yo=gor elutʰe tʰowans ipi≈nāwas Akʰaywōn 12
lūsomenos=kʷe tʰugatra pʰirōns=kʷe apirwasia akʷoyna,
stipʰmota hekʰons in=kʰehrsi (h)wekagʷolohyo Apollōnos
kʰrūseōy ona skāptrōy, kas lisseto pantas Akʰaywons,
Atrewidā=de molista duwō, kosmētore lāwōn: 16
Atrewidāy=kʷe kas alloy ehuknāmides Akʰaywoy,
umi≈men tʰehoy doyen Olumpia dōmata hekʰontes
ek=pirsay Priamohyo polin, ehu=de woykade hikestʰay:
pawida=de emoy lusayte pʰilān, ta=de akʷoyna dekestʰay, 20
yazomenoy Diwos huyon hwekagʷolon Apollōna.

entʰa≈alloy≈men pantes ipihupʰāmāsa Akʰaywoy


aydestʰay=kʷe iherēwa kas aglowa dekstʰay akʷoyna:
alla≈oyuk=Atrewidāy Agamemnoni hwande tʰūmōy, 24
alla≈kakōs apʰiyē, kroteron=de ipi≈mūtʰon ekʷelle:
mē=te geron kowilāys egō pora≈nāusi kikʰēō
wē=nūn dwātunonta wē usteron autʰis ihonta,
mē=nū=toy oyu=kʰroysmēhi skaptron kas stipʰma tʰehohyo: 28
tān=de egō oyu=lūsō: prin≈min kas gēras ip=eysi
ameterōy ini=woykōy in=Argēyi kʷēlotʰi patrās
histāmi ipoykʰomenān kas emon lekʰos ansiowosyan:
allā≈itʰi mē=me eretʰize twawoteros hōs ana nehēay. 32
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 32

ὣς ἔφατ᾽, ἔδεισεν δ᾽ ὃ γέρων καὶ ἐπείθετο μύθῳ:


βῆ δ᾽ ἀκέων παρὰ θῖνα πολυφλοίσβοιο θαλάσσης:
πολλὰ δ᾽ ἔπειτ᾽ ἀπάνευθε κιὼν ἠρᾶθ᾽ ὃ γεραιὸς
Ἀπόλλωνι ἄνακτι, τὸν ἠΰκομος τέκε Λητώ: 36
κλῦθί μευ ἀργυρότοξ᾽, ὃς Χρύσην ἀμφιβέβηκας
Κίλλάν τε ζαθέην Τενέδοιό τε ἶφι ἀνάσσεις,
Σμινθεῦ εἴ ποτέ τοι χαρίεντ᾽ ἐπὶ νηὸν ἔρεψα,
ἢ εἰ δή ποτέ τοι κατὰ πίονα μηρί᾽ ἔκηα 40
ταύρων ἠδ᾽ αἰγῶν, τὸ δέ μοι κρήηνον ἐέλδωρ:
τίσειαν Δαναοὶ ἐμὰ δάκρυα σοῖσι βέλεσσιν.

ὣς ἔφατ᾽ εὐχόμενος, τοῦ δ᾽ ἔκλυε Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων,


βῆ δὲ κατ᾽ Οὐλύμποιο καρήνων χωόμενος κῆρ, 44
τόξ᾽ ὤμοισιν ἔχων ἀμφηρεφέα τε φαρέτρην:
ἔκλαγξαν δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ὀϊστοὶ ἐπ᾽ ὤμων χωομένοιο,
αὐτοῦ κινηθέντος: ὃ δ᾽ ἤϊε νυκτὶ ἐοικώς.
ἕζετ᾽ ἔπειτ᾽ ἀπάνευθε νεῶν, μετὰ δ᾽ ἰὸν ἕηκε: 48
δεινὴ δὲ κλαγγὴ γένετ᾽ ἀργυρέοιο βιοῖο:
οὐρῆας μὲν πρῶτον ἐπῴχετο καὶ κύνας ἀργούς,
αὐτὰρ ἔπειτ᾽ αὐτοῖσι βέλος ἐχεπευκὲς ἐφιεὶς βάλλ᾽:
αἰεὶ δὲ πυραὶ νεκύων καίοντο θαμειαί. 52

ἐννῆμαρ μὲν ἀνὰ στρατὸν ᾤχετο κῆλα θεοῖο,


τῇ δεκάτῃ δ᾽ ἀγορὴν δὲ καλέσσατο λαὸν Ἀχιλλεύς:
τῷ γὰρ ἐπὶ φρεσὶ θῆκε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη:
κήδετο γὰρ Δαναῶν, ὅτι ῥα θνήσκοντας ὁρᾶτο. 56
οἳ δ᾽ ἐπεὶ οὖν ἤγερθεν ὁμηγερέες τε γένοντο,
τοῖσι δ᾽ ἀνιστάμενος μετέφη πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς:
Ἀτρεΐδη νῦν ἄμμε παλιμπλαγχθέντας ὀΐω
ἂψ ἀπονοστήσειν, εἴ κεν θάνατόν γε φύγοιμεν, 60
εἰ δὴ ὁμοῦ πόλεμός τε δαμᾷ καὶ λοιμὸς Ἀχαιούς:
ἀλλ᾽ ἄγε δή τινα μάντιν ἐρείομεν ἢ ἱερῆα
ἢ καὶ ὀνειροπόλον, καὶ γάρ τ᾽ ὄναρ ἐκ Διός ἐστιν,
ὅς κ᾽ εἴποι ὅ τι τόσσον ἐχώσατο Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων, 64
εἴτ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ὅ γ᾽ εὐχωλῆς ἐπιμέμφεται ἠδ᾽ ἑκατόμβης,
αἴ κέν πως ἀρνῶν κνίσης αἰγῶν τε τελείων
βούλεται ἀντιάσας ἡμῖν ἀπὸ λοιγὸν ἀμῦναι.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 33

hōs≈epʰato, edweyse=de yo=gerōn kas epītʰeto mutʰōy:


gʷa=de akēon pora≈tʰwīna polu=pʰloy(sb)ohyo tʰalassās:
polewa=de ipīta ap=anēwtʰe kīon earwato yo=gerayos
Apollōni wanaksi, ton ehukomos teke Lātow: 36
klutʰi=meo argurotokˢa, yos=Kʰrūsān ampʰibibāka
Killan=kʷe dwiatʰehān Tenedohyo=kʷe wīpʰi wanassehi,
Sminthew ē=kʷokʷe=toy kʰoriwenta ipi≈nahwon eripsa,
we ē=dē kʷokʷe=toy kata pīwona mēria (e)kāwa 40
taurōn=ēde aygōn to=de=moy krōhannon eweldōr:
kʷīseyan Danayoy ema dakrua toysi gʷelessi.

hos≈epʰato eukʰomenos, tohyo=de eklue pʰoygʷos Apollōn,


gʷā=de kata Olumpohyo korannōn kʰowomenos kēr, 44
toksā ōmhoysi hekʰon ampʰiripʰiha=kʷe pʰoretrān:
eklaŋksan=de or≈oystoy ipi≈omhōn kʰowomenohyo,
awtohyo kinēsantohyo: yo=de eeye nuksi wewoykwōs.
hezeto ipīta apanēutʰe nāwōn, meta=de ihon eyēke: 48
dweynā=de klaŋgā geneto argureohyo biohyo:
orēwas≈men prōwoton ipoykʰeto kas kunās argons,
awtar ipīta awtoyhi gʷelos hekʰipiwkes ipiyēs gʷalle:
aywehi=de pūres nekuōn kāwyonto tʰameyes. 52

en(n)āmor≈men ona≈stroton oykʰeto kawelā tʰehohyo,


tāhi≈dekatāy=de agorān=de kolesato lawon Akʰilews:
tōy≈gor ipi≈gʷresi tʰēke tʰehā leukōlenos Hērā:
kādeto≈gor Danayōn, yokʷi=ro tʰwenaskontas worāto. 56
toy=de≈ekʷey≈ōn agersatoy homagerees=kʷe genonto,
toysi=de onhistamenos metapʰā podas ōkus Akʰilews:
Atrewidā≈nūn ahme kʷolimploŋksmenōs oywō
aps≈aponostēsehen, ē=ana tʰwanaton=ge pʰugoymen, 60
ē=dē homō polemos=kʷe damasey kas loymos Akʰaywons
alla age≈dē=kʷina monsin wrēomen ē=iherēwa
ē=kas onerrokʷolon kas=gor=kʷe onor ek=Diwos=essi
yos=ana weykʷoy ho=kʷi tossos ekʰowsato pʰoygʷos Apollōn 64
ē=kʷe≈oro ho=ge ewkʰās ipimempʰitoy ē=de (he)katomgʷās,
ē=ana=kʷōs wornōn knīssās aygon=kʷe kʷeleyhōn
gʷōletoy ansiāsas ahmi apo≈leygon amūnay.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 34

ἤτοι ὅ γ᾽ ὣς εἰπὼν κατ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἕζετο: τοῖσι δ᾽ ἀνέστη 68


Κάλχας Θεστορίδης οἰωνοπόλων ὄχ᾽ ἄριστος,
ὃς ᾔδη τά τ᾽ ἐόντα τά τ᾽ ἐσσόμενα πρό τ᾽ ἐόντα,
καὶ νήεσσ᾽ ἡγήσατ᾽ Ἀχαιῶν Ἴλιον εἴσω
ἣν διὰ μαντοσύνην, τήν οἱ πόρε Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων: 72
ὅ σφιν ἐὺ φρονέων ἀγορήσατο καὶ μετέειπεν:
ὦ Ἀχιλεῦ κέλεαί με Διῒ φίλε μυθήσασθαι
μῆνιν Ἀπόλλωνος ἑκατηβελέταο ἄνακτος:
τοὶ γὰρ ἐγὼν ἐρέω: σὺ δὲ σύνθεο καί μοι ὄμοσσον 76
ἦ μέν μοι πρόφρων ἔπεσιν καὶ χερσὶν ἀρήξειν:
ἦ γὰρ ὀΐομαι ἄνδρα χολωσέμεν, ὃς μέγα πάντων
Ἀργείων κρατέει καί οἱ πείθονται Ἀχαιοί:
κρείσσων γὰρ βασιλεὺς ὅτε χώσεται ἀνδρὶ χέρηϊ: 80
εἴ περ γάρ τε χόλον γε καὶ αὐτῆμαρ καταπέψῃ,
ἀλλά τε καὶ μετόπισθεν ἔχει κότον, ὄφρα τελέσσῃ,
ἐν στήθεσσιν ἑοῖσι: σὺ δὲ φράσαι εἴ με σαώσεις.

τὸν δ᾽ ἀπαμειβόμενος προσέφη πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς: 84


θαρσήσας μάλα εἰπὲ θεοπρόπιον ὅ τι οἶσθα:
οὐ μὰ γὰρ Ἀπόλλωνα Διῒ φίλον, ᾧ τε σὺ Κάλχαν
εὐχόμενος Δαναοῖσι θεοπροπίας ἀναφαίνεις,
οὔ τις ἐμεῦ ζῶντος καὶ ἐπὶ χθονὶ δερκομένοιο 88
σοὶ κοίλῃς παρὰ νηυσί βαρείας χεῖρας ἐποίσει
συμπάντων Δαναῶν, οὐδ᾽ ἢν Ἀγαμέμνονα εἴπῃς,
ὃς νῦν πολλὸν ἄριστος Ἀχαιῶν εὔχεται εἶναι.

καὶ τότε δὴ θάρσησε καὶ ηὔδα μάντις ἀμύμων: 92


οὔ τ᾽ ἄρ ὅ γ᾽ εὐχωλῆς ἐπιμέμφεται οὐδ᾽ ἑκατόμβης,
ἀλλ᾽ ἕνεκ᾽ ἀρητῆρος ὃν ἠτίμης᾽ Ἀγαμέμνων,
οὐδ᾽ ἀπέλυσε θύγατρα καὶ οὐκ ἀπεδέξατ᾽ ἄποινα,
τοὔνεκ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἄλγε᾽ ἔδωκεν ἑκηβόλος ἠδ᾽ ἔτι δώσει: 96
οὐδ᾽ ὅ γε πρὶν Δαναοῖσιν ἀεικέα λοιγὸν ἀπώσει
πρίν γ᾽ ἀπὸ πατρὶ φίλῳ δόμεναι ἑλικώπιδα κούρην
ἀπριάτην ἀνάποινον, ἄγειν θ᾽ ἱερὴν ἑκατόμβην
ἐς Χρύσην: τότε κέν μιν ἱλασσάμενοι πεπίθοιμεν. 100
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 35

ē=toy yo=ge hos=weykʷōn kata≈oro hizeto: toysi=de onestā 68


Kalkʰās Tʰestoridās oywonokʷolōn hokʰa≈aristos,
yos ewewidē tā=kʷe ehonta tā=kʷe essomena pro=kʷe ehonta,
kas nāusi hāgāsato Akʰaywōn Wilion≈inō
yān dwia montosunān, tān toy=pore pʰoygʷos Apollōn: 72
ho=spʰi(n) ehu=pʰroneōn agorāsato kas metaweykʷe:
ō Akʰilew kelehoi=me Diwei pʰile mūtʰēsastʰay
monin Apollōnos hwekatagʷelatāo wanaktos:
kʷoy≈gor egō werehō: tu=de ksun=tʰēho kas=moy omoson 76
ē men=moy propʰrōn wekʷesi kas kʰehrsi areksehen:
ē≈gor oywomay andra kʰolōsemen, yos mega pantōn
Argēōn korteey kas toy=pītʰontoy Akʰaywoy:
kerssōs≈gor gʷasilews ho=kʷe kʰowsetoy andri kʰerehi: 80
ē=per gor=kʷe kʰolon=ge kas awtāmor katapikʷsēy,
allā=kʷe kas metopitʰen hekʰey koton, opʰra kʷelesēy,
in=stētʰesi (h)weoysi: tu=de pʰrosoy ē=me sawōsehi.

ton=de apameygʷomenos prosepʰā podas ōkus Akʰilews 84


tʰorsēsas≈mola weykʷe tʰehopropion yo=kʷi woystʰa:
oyu=ma=gor Apollōna diwey pʰilon tōy=kʷe tu=Kalkʰān
eukʰomenos Danayoyhi tʰehopropiāns onapʰannehi
oyu=kʷis emeyo zōntos kas ipi≈kʰtʰoni derkomenohyo 88
toy=kowilāys pora≈nāupʰi gʷorehyāns kʰehras ipoysey
ksumpanton Danayōn oyu=de ēn=Agamemnona weykʷēhi
yos≈nūn polewon aristos Akʰaywōn eukʰetoy ēsnay
kas=kʷokʷe≈dē tʰorseyese kas eawda montis amumōns: 92

oyu=kʷe≈oro ho=ge ewekʰās ipimempʰitoy oyu=de


(he)katomgʷās,
alla heneka arāteros ton akʷimāse Agamemnōn,
oyu=de apoluse tʰugatra kas oyuk=apedeksato akʷoyna,
kʷo=neka≈ara algya edōke hwekagʷolos=ēde≈eti dōsey: 96
oyu-de ho=ge pron Danayoyhi aweykea loygon apowōssey
pron=ge apo≈patri pʰilōy domenay welikopida korwān
akʷriatān anakʷoynon, agehen=kʷe iherēwān (he)katomgʷān
ens≈Kʰrūsen: kʷokʷe=ana=min hilasamenoy pipitʰoymen. 100
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 36
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 37

THE RECONSTRUCTION WRITTEN IN LINEAR B


A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 38

mo-ni a-we-de te-a ei-re-wa-de-o-jo a-ki-re-wo


o-ro-me-na ha=mu-wi-ja a-ka-wo a-ki-ja e-te-ke
po-re-wa=de i-pi-ti-mo pu-su-ka a-wi-da po-ro-ja-pe-se
e-ro-wo au-to=de we-ro-ra te-u-ke ku-si 4
o-wo-no-i=qe pa-si di-wo=de e-qe-re-e-to qo-ra
e-ke-so-jo de ta≈po-ro-wa-ta di-wi-a-i-ta-ta e-ri-sa-te
a-te-re-wi-da=qe wa-na-ka a-do-ro ka di-wo a-ki-re-u
qi=qe a=po-we te-o e-ri-de ku-su-ne-je-ke ma-ke-ta 8
ra-to-wo ka di-wo u-jo jo=ko qa-si-re-wi ko-ro-te
no-wo o-na to-ro-to o-se ka-ka o-re-ko-to=de ra-wo-i
o-u=e-ne-ka to ku-ru-sa a-e-qi-ma-se a-wa-te-ra
a-te-re-wi-da yo=ko e-ru-te to-wa i-pi≈na-wa a-ka-wo 12
ru-so-me-no=qe tu-ka-ta-ra pi-ro(-no-so)=qe a-pi-wa-si-ja a-qo-na
ti-po-mo-ta e-ko i=ke-si we-ka-qo-ro-jo a-po-ro-no
ku-ru-se-o o-na ka-po-to-ro ka ri-se-to pa-ta a-ka-wo
a-te-re-wi-da=de mo-ri-ta du-wo ko-me-to-re ra-wo 16
a-te-re-wi-da=qe ka a-ro e-u-ka-na-mi-de a-ka-wo
u-mi me te-o do-je o-ru-pi-ja do-ma-ta e-ko-te
e-ki=pi-sa pi-ri-a-mo-jo po-ri e-u=de wo-ka-de i-ke-ta
pa-wi-da=de e-mo ru-sa-te pi-ra ta=de a-qo-na de-ke-ta 20
ja-zo-me-no di-wo u-jo we-ka-qo-ro a-po-ro-na
e-ta(≈a)-ro≈me pa-ta i-pi-u-pa-ma-sa a-ka-wo
a₃-de-ta=qe i-je-re-wa ka a-ko-ro-wa de-ka-ta a-qo-na
a-ra≈o-u-ka-te-re-wi-da a-ka-me-no-ni wa-de tu-mo 24
a-ra ka-ko a-pi-je ko-ro-te-ro=de i-pi mu-to e-qe-re
me=twe ke-ro ko-wi-ra e-ko po-ra na-u-si ki-ke-o
we=nu da-wa-tu-no-ta we u-te-ro au-ti i-o-ta
me=nu=to o-u=ko-ro-me-i ka-po-to-ro ka ti-pa-ma te-o-jo 28
ta=de e-ko o-u=ru-so pi-ri≈mi ka ke-ra i-pe-si
a-me-te-ro i-ni=wo-ko i=na-ke-i qe-ro-ti pa-ta-ra
i-ta-mi i-po-ko-me-na ka e-mo re-ko a-si-o-wo-si-ja
a-ra≈i-ti me=me e-re-ti-ze ta-wa-wo-te-ro o a-na ne-e-a 32
o≈e-pa-to e-dwe-se=de jo=ke-ro ka e-pi-te-to mu-to
qa=de a-ke-o po-ra≈ti-wi-na po-ru-po-ro-(p)o-jo ta-ra-sa
po-re-wa=de i-pi-ta a-pa-ne-(u)-te ki-o e-a-wa-to jo=ke-ra-jo
a-po-ro-ni wa-na-ki-si to e-u-ko-mo te-ke ra-to-u 36
ku-ru-ti=me-o a-ku-ro-to-ka-sa jo=ku-ru-sa a-pi-pi-pa-ka
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 39

ki-ra=qe di-wi-a-te-a₂ te-ne-do-jo=qe wi-pi wa-na-se-i


mi-te-u e=qo-qe=to ko-ri-we-ta i-pi≈na-wo e-ri-pa-sa
we e=de qo-qe=to ka-ta pi-wo-na me-ri-ja (e)-ka-wa 40
ta-u-ro=(n)e-de a₃-ko to=de=mo ko-ro-a₂-no e-we-do
qi-se-ja da-na-jo e-ma da-ku-ru-a to-si qe-re-si
o≈e-pa-to eu-ko-me-no to-jo=de e-ku-ru-e po-ko a-po-ro
qa=de ka-ta o-ru-po-jo ko-ra-no ko-wo-me-no ke 44
to-ka-sa o-mo-si e-ko a-pi-ri-pi-a₂=qe po-re-ta-ra
e-ka-ra-ka-sa=de o≈ro-to i-pi≈o-mo ko-wo-me-no-jo
au-to-jo ki-ne-sa-to-jo jo=de e-e-je nu-ki-si we-wo-ko-wo
e-ze-to i-pi-ta a-pa-ne-u-te na-wo me-ta=de i-o e-ye-ke 48
dwe-na=de ka-ra-ka ke-ne-to a-ku-re-o-ja pi-o-jo
o-re-wa≈me po-ro-wo-to i-po-ke-to ka ku-na a-ko
au-ta i-pi-ta au-to-i qe-ro e-ki-pi-u-ke i-pi-je qa-re
a₃-we-i=de pu-re ne-ku-o ka-wo-to ta-me-e 52
e-na-mo≈me o-na≈to-ro-to o-ke-to ka-we-ra te-o-jo
ta-i≈de-ka-ta=de a-ko-ra=de ko-re-sa-to ra-wo a-ki-re-u
to≈ko i-pi≈qe-re-si te-ke te-a(₂) re-u-ko-re-no e-ra
ka-de-to≈ko da-na-jo jo-qi=ro twe-na-ko-ta wo-ra-to 56
to=de≈e-qe o≈a-ke-sa-to o-ma-ke-re-e=qe ke-ne-to
to-si=de o-(n)i-ta-me-no me-ta-pa po-da o-ku a-ki-re-u
a-te-re-wi-da≈nu a-me qo-ri-po-ro-ke-se-me-no o-wo
a-pa-sa≈(a)-po-no-te-se-e a=(a)-na ta-wa-no-to=ke pu-ko-me 60
e=de o-mo po-re-mo=qe da-ma-se-i ka ro-mo a-ka-wo
a-ra a-ke≈de=qi-na mo-si we-re-o-me e=i-je-re-wa
a=ka o-ne-ro-qo-ro ka ka=qe o-no e-ki=di-wo=e-si
jo=a-na we-qo o=qi to-so e-ko-u-sa-to po-ko a-po-ro 64
e=eq≈o-ro o=ke e-u-ka i-pi-me-pi-to e-de (e)-ka-to-qa
e=a-na=qo wo-no ki-ni-sa a₃-ko=qe qe-re-o
qo-re-to a-si-a-sa a-mi a-po≈re-ko a-mu-na
e=to jo=ke o=we-qo ka-ta(≈o)-ro i-ze-to to-si=de o-ne-ta 68
ka-ka te-to-ri-da o-wo-no-qo-ro o-ka(≈a)-ri-to
yo e-we-wi-de ta=qe e-o-ta ta=qe e-so-me-na po-ro=qe e-o-ta
ka na-u-si a₂-ka-to a-ka-wo wi-ri-jo≈i-no
ja di-wi-a mo-to-su-na ta to=po-re po-qo a-po-ro 72
o=pi e-u=po-ro-ne-o a-ko-ra-sa-to ka me-ta-we=qe
o a-ki-re-u ke-re-o=me di-we-i pi-re mu-te-sa-ta
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 40

mo-ni a-po-ro-no we-ka-ta-qe-re-ta-o wa-na-ko-to


qo≈ko e-ko we-re-o tu=de ku-su=te-o ka=mo o-mo-so 76
e me=mo po-ro-po-ro we-qe-si ka ke-si a-re-ke-se-e
e≈ko o-wo-ma a-da-ra ko-ro-se-me jo me-ka pa-to
a-ke-o ko-te-e ka to=pi-to-to a-ka-wo
ke-so≈ko qa-si-re-u o=qe ko-u-se-to a-di-ri ke-re-i 80
e=pe=ka=qe ko-ro=ke ka au-ta-mo ka-ta-pi-qe-se
a-ra=qe ka me-to-pi-te e-ke ko-to o-pa-ra qe-re-se
i=te-te-si we-o-si tu=de po-ro-so e-me sa-wo-se-i
to=de a-pa-me-qo-me-no po-ro-se-pa po-da o-ku a-ki-re-u 84
to-se-sa mo-ra we-i-qe te-o-po-ro-pi-jo jo=qi wo-ta
o-u=ma≈ko a-po-ro-na di-we pi-ro to=qe tu≈ka-ka
e-u-ko-me-no da-na-jo-i te-o-po-ro-pi-ja o-na-pa-ne-i
o-u=qi e-me-jo zo-to ka i-pi≈ko-to-ni de-ko-me-no-jo 88
to=ko-wi-ra po-ra na-u-pi qo-re-ja ke-ra i-po-i-se
ku-su-pa-to da-na-jo o-u=de a=na-ka-me-no-na we-qe-i
jo≈nu po-re-wo a-ri-to a-ka-wo e-u-ke-to e-na
ka=qo-qe≈de to-se-je-se ka e-au-da mo-ti a-mu-mo 92
o-u=qe≈o-ro ho=ke e-we-ka i-pi-me-pi-to o-u=de (e)-ka-to-qa
a-ra e-ne-ka a-ra-te-ro to a-qi-ma-se a-ka-me-no
o-u=de a-po-ru-se tu-ka-ta-ra ka o-u-ka=pe-de-ko-sa-to a-qo-na
qo=e-ne-ka≈(a)-ra a-ka-ja e-do-ke we-ka-qo-ro=se-de≈e-ti do-se 96
o-u=de o=ke po-ro da-na-jo-i a-we-ke-a ro-ko a-po-wo-se
po-ro=ke a-po≈pa-ti-ri pi-ro do-me-na we-ri-ko-pi-da ko-wa
a-qi-ri-a-ta a-na-qo-no a-ke-e=qe i-je-re-wa (e)-ka-to-qa
e≈ku-ru-se qo-qe=a-na=mi i-ra-sa-me-no pi-pi-to-me 100
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 41

THE RECONSTRUCTION IN DETAIL


A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 42

LINES 1–4

μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος


οὐλομένην, ἣ μυρί᾽ Ἀχαιοῖς ἄλγε᾽ ἔθηκε,
πολλὰς δ᾽ ἰφθίμους ψυχὰς Ἄϊδι προΐαψεν
ἡρώων, αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν

RECONSTRUCTION

Mę̄nin aeyde Tʰę̄ Pę̄lę̄ïadeǭ Akʰilę̄os


Monin aweyde Tʰeha Pelewadeohyo Akʰilēwos
ọ̄lomenę̄n, hẹ̄ muri’ Akʰayoys ālge᾽ etʰę̄kẹ̄,
olomenān, hā=murwia Akʰaywoys algya etʰēke,
pollas d᾽ īpʰtʰīmọ̄s pˢūkʰās Aïdī proïapˢen
polewas=de ipʰtʰimons psūkʰans Awidāy proyapse
hę̄rǭǭn, awtọ̄s de helǭria tewkʰe kunessin
hērōwōn, awtons=de welōra tewkʰe kunsi

LINEAR B

mo-ni a-we-de te-a ei-re-wa-de-o-jo a-ki-re-wo


o-ro-me-na ha=mu-wi-ja a-ka-wo a-ki-ja e-te-ke
po-re-wa=de i-pi-ti-mo pu-su-ka a-wi-da po-ro-ja-pe-se
e-ro-wo au-to=de we-ro-ra te-u-ke ku-si

1. a. μῆνιν ‘rage’ sg. f. acc.: root *man- ‘mind, thought’: *mn̥-i-m > Myc.
*monin (*n̥ > Myc. *on/no after labial; Ion. *mn̥- > man-; lengthened vowel
unexplained, Dor. μᾱνιν, Att.-Ion. μῆνιν) b. ἄειδε ‘sing’ 2sg. pres. imper. act.:
root *ə₂weyd- ‘sing’: *ə₂weyd-e > Myc. *aweyde c. θεὰ ‘Goddess’ sg. f. voc.:
zero-grade *dʰeə₁- ‘put’, extended form ‘offer, offering’ > ‘god’: *dʰə̥₁-s-eə₂ >
Myc. *tʰeha (larangyeal lost in voc., with final vowel altered in Gr.; c.f.
§263.2) d. Πηληϊάδεω ‘Son of Peleus’ adj. sg. m. gen.: name *{Pel}-ew-: *{Pel}-
ew-{ad-ye}-osyo > Myc. *Pelewadeohyo (usual *e > *i in Normal Myc. adjacent
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 43

to labials not in the case, on the evidence of pe-re-qo-ta Pēlekʷʰontas; the usual
-ίδεω and -άδεω patronymics are unknown in Myc.: gen. is normally used
instead; so {*Pel}-ew-osyo > Myc. *Pelewoyo) e. Ἀχιλῆος ‘Achilles’ sg. m. gen.:
name *{Akʰil}-ēw- (assuming the same stem as βασιλεύς): *{Akʰil}-ēw-o-s >
Myc. *Akʰilēwos

2. a. οὐλομένην adj. sg. f. acc. ‘destructive’ (Ep. form of ὀλομένην): root


*ə₃elə₁- ‘to destroy’, derived from participle: *ə₃elə₁-o-men-eə₂-m > Myc.
*olomenān b. ἣ ‘the’ art. (< pron. f. sg. nom.): root *seə₂: *seə₂ > Myc. *hā c.
μυρία ‘myriad’ adj. pl. n. acc.: zero-grade metathesised *morwi- ‘ant’, *mwr̥i-: *
mu̯ri-yos m. comp. adj. > Myc. *murios, remodelled m. > n., Myc. *murwia d.
Ἀχαιοῖς ‘Achaeans’ adj. pl. m. dat.: name {*Akʰayw}- (ἈχαιƑοί, c.f. possibly
Hittite Aḫḫiyawa): *{Akʰayw}-ōys > Myc. *Akʰaywoys e. ἄλγεα ‘pains’ pl. n.
acc.: unknown root *{alge}-: *{alge}-a (post-PIE ending *-ə₂ > -α, not *-eə₂ > -ᾱ)
> Myc. *algea > Myc. *algya (synizesis c.f. §233) f. ἔθηκε ‘he caused’ 3sg. aor.
ind. act.: root *dʰeə₂- ‘put’: *(e)-dʰeə₂-k-e (κ-aor.) > Myc. *(e)tʰēke

3. a. πολλὰς ‘many’ adj. f. pl. acc.: zero-grade *pelə₁u- ‘fill’: *pl̥ə₁u-eə₂-ms >
*polewāns > Myc. *polewăns > (post-Myc. loss of -Ƒ- > *polewas > *polyas
(§195.a) > pollas (§233); also assuming *-vns > -v̄s post-dates Myc.) b. δέ ‘and’
conj: root *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de c. ἰφθίμους ‘strong? mighty?’ adj. pl. f. acc.:
root unknown, possibly ἰφ-θūμος ‘straight-souled’, forming two-termination
adj. *{ipʰtʰīm-} (formation must post-date dissimulation of aspirates):
*{ipʰtʰīm}-o-ms > Myc. *ipʰtʰīmons (> Att.-Ion. ipʰtʰīmōs) d. ψυχὰς ‘souls’ pl. f.
acc.: extended zero-grade *bʰes- ‘breathe’: *bʰs-ū-kʰ-eə₂-ms > *pʰsūkʰāns >
Myc. *psūkʰăns (assuming *-ns > -s post-dates Myc.; hence Att.-Ion. ψυχὰς) e.
Ἄϊδι ‘to Hades’ m. sg. loc.: *n̥- ‘not’ & zero-grade *weyd ‘see’: *n̥=wid-eə₂-i >
Myc. *awidāi (Hom. appears to be athem. Ἄϊδι rather than the regular Ἄιδηι
for metrical reasons) f. προΐαψεν ‘he hurled’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: root uncertain
*{yap-} (?related to *yeə₁- ‘throw’?) & zero-grade *preə₃- ‘in front of’:
*prə̥₃={yap}-s-e (σ-aor. > Myc. *pro=yapse (final -n is Att.-Ion. only)

4. a. ἡρώων ‘heroes’ pl. m. gen.: extended, lengthened grade *ser-


‘protect’: *sēr-ōw-ōm (§321) > Myc. *hērōwōn (Watkins gives *sēr-ōs-) b.
αὐτοὺς ‘selves’: extended *au- (?or zero-grade *ə₂ew-) ‘self’: *au-t-o-ms adj. pl.
m. acc. > Myc. *awtons (> Att.-Ion. autōs) c. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc.
*=de d. ἑλώρια ‘spoil, prey’ pl. n. acc.: extended root *wel- ‘to tear’: *wel-ōr-ə₂
> Myc. *welōra (Hom. uses rare i-stem ἑλώριον rather than ἕλωρ) e. τεῦχε
‘made ready’ 3sg. imperf. ind. act.: root *dʰeugʰ- ‘to make’: *dʰeugʰ-e-t >
*tʰewkʰe > Myc. *tewkʰe (with dissimulation of aspirates) f. κύνεσσιν Epic
lengthened form of κυσί ‘for dogs’ f. pl. dat.: zero-grade *ḱwon- ‘dog’: *ḱwn̥-si >
Myc. *kunsi (> Att.-Ion. kusi; the Epic form has geminate typical of Aeolic, but
final -n imported from Attic.)
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 44

LINES 5–8

οἰωνοῖσί τε πᾶσι, Διὸς δ᾽ ἐτελείετο βουλή,


ἐξ οὗ δὴ τὰ πρῶτα διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε
Ἀτρεΐδης τε ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν καὶ δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς.
τίς τ᾽ ἄρ σφωε θεῶν ἔριδι ξυνέηκε μάχεσθαι;

RECONSTRUCTION

oyǭnoysi te pāsi, Diọ̄s d᾽ etelẹ̄eto bọ̄lę̄,


oywonoyhi=kʷe pansi, Diwos=de ekʷeleeto gʷōlā,
ekˢ họ̄ dę̄ ta prǭta diastę̄tę̄n erisante
eks=hohyo dē tā≈prōwata dwiahistātān erisante
Atreïdę̄s te anakˢ andrǭn kay dīos Akʰillews.
Atrewidā(s)=kʷe wanaks andrōn kas diwos Akʰilews.
tis t᾽ ar spʰǭe tʰeǭn eridi kˢuneę̄ke makʰestʰay;
kʷis=kʷe ar=spʰōwe tʰehōn eridey ksuneyēke
makʰestʰay;

LINEAR B

o-wo-no-i=qe pa-si di-wo=de e-qe-re-e-to qo-ra


e-ke-so-jo de ta≈po-ro-wa-ta di-wi-a-i-ta-ta e-ri-sa-te
a-te-re-wi-da=qe wa-na-ka a-do-ro ka di-wo a-ki-re-u
qi=qe a=po-we te-o e-ri-de ku-su-ne-je-ke ma-ke-ta

5. a. οἰωνοῖσί ‘eagles, birds of prey’ pl. m. dat.: combining root *oy-wo-


‘one’ (semantic development from ‘one’ > ‘solitary’ > ‘solitary (bird)’ > ‘bird of
prey, eagle’): *oy-wo-n-oysu (loc. pl. ending, §260.4) > Myc. *oywonoy(h)i b. τε
‘and’ partic.: root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe c. πᾶσι ‘all’ adj. pl. m. dat.: root
*pant- ‘all’: *pant-si (loc., with *-su > PG *-si) > *pantsi > Myc. *pansi (> Att.-
Ion *passi > pāsi) d. Διὸς ‘Zeus, God’ sg. m. gen.: zero-grade *dyew- ‘shine’ >
‘sky’ > ‘god’: *di̯w-o-s > Myc. *diwos (> Att.-Ion. dios, c.f. §325) e. δὲ ‘and’
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 45

partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de f. ἐτελέετο ‘was fulfilling, completing’ 3sg.
imperf. ind. mp.: root *kʷelə- ‘cycle’: *(e-)kʷelə-e-to > Myc. *(e)kʷeleeto (Att.-
Ion. *eteleeto, Ep. etelēeto is only for metrical reasons) g. βουλή ‘decision,
will’ f. sg. nom.: unknown root *{gʷōl}-: *{gʷōl}-eə₂ > Myc. *gʷōlā (> Dor.
βωλά, Att.-Ion. βουλή)

6. a. ἐξ ‘from’: *eks (encl.) > Myc. *eks= b. οὗ ‘his’ pron. sg. m. gen.: root
*yo-: *yo-syo > Myc. *hohyo (Att.-Ion > *hoo > hō) c. δὴ ‘now’ partic.: *deə₁ >
*dē d. τὰ ‘it’ artic. (< pl. n. acc.): *teə₂ > Myc. *tā (> Att.-Ion ta) e. πρῶτα ‘first’
pl. n. acc.: modelled on πρῶτος sg. m. nom: extended zero-grade *perə₃-: *pr̥ə₃-
wo-s > *prōwos, remodelled *prōwotos (?>*prowotos/*prowatos, c.f. §398.1) >
πρῶτος; hence *prōwot-ə₂ > Myc. *prōwota (Att.-Ion. pl. n. acc. πρῶτα) f.
διαστήτην ‘those two stood apart, separated’ 3du. aor. ind. act.: root *dwi(a)-
‘two’ & redupl. *steə₂- ‘to stand’: *dwi(a)+sti-steə₂-tām > *dwia-sistātān > Myc.
*dwiahistātān g. ἐρίσαντε ‘separate’ > ‘quarrel’ part. aor. act. du. m. nom.:
*(ə₁)erə₂- > *erə- ‘separate: *erə-s-n̥t-e > Myc. *erisante

7. a. Ἀτρεΐδης ‘Son of Atreus’ adj. sg. m. nom.: name *{Atr}-ew- (c.f. ʆʃ1d.
on Myc. patronymics): *{Atr}-ew-{id-ye}-eə₂(-s) > *Atrewidā(s) (Linear B does
not allow us to determine if this form of masc. ā-stems existed in Myc.) b. τε
‘and’ partic.: root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe c. ἄναξ ‘ruler’ sg. m. nom.:
extended unknown root *{wanak-} (attested in Myc. wa-na-ka): *{wanak}-t-s >
*wanakss > Myc. *wanaks d. ἀνδρῶν ‘man’, pl. m. gen.: zero-grade *ə₂ner-
‘man’: *ə₂n̥r-ōm > *anrōn > Myc. *andrōn e. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so
Myc. *kas f. δῖος ‘divine, godlike’ adj. sg. m. nom.: zero-grade *dyew- ‘shine’ >
‘sky’ > ‘god’: *di̯w-o-s > Myc. *diwos g. Ἀχιλλεύς ‘Achilles’ sg. m. nom.: name
*{Akʰil}-ēw-: *{Akʰil}-ēw-s > Myc. *Akʰilews (with geminination unexplained)

8. a. τίς ‘what?’ interrog. pron.: *kʷis > Myc. *kʷis b. τε ‘and’ partic.:
root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe c. ἄρ partic.: *ra > Myc. *ara/ra/ar d. σφωε
‘them both’ pron. du. m. acc.: unknown root *{spʰo/e-}: form modelled on
*νωƑi (Hom. νῶϊ, pl. m./f. du.) < *n̥ə₁wé (c.f. §370), hence *spʰo/e-ə₁-we > Myc.
*spʰōwe e. θεῶν ‘gods’ pl. m. gen.: zero-grade *dʰeə₁- ‘put’, extended form
‘offer, offering’ > ‘god’: *dʰə̥₁-s-ōm > Myc. *tʰehōn f. ἔριδι ‘quarrel’ sg. f. dat.:
*(ə₁)erə₂- > *erə- ‘separate > quarrel’: *erə-d-ey (d-stem) > Myc. *eridey (-ei
ending for athem. sg. dat. in Normal Myc., rather than -i) g. ξυνέηκε ‘he
brought’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: unknown *{ksun-} ‘with’ (attested in Myc., ku-su-),
but possibly related to *som- & *yeə₁- ‘go’: *ksun+(e)-yi-yeə₁-k-e (κ-aor.) >
*ksun=(e)yiyēke > Myc. *ksun(e)yēke h. μάχεσθαι ‘to fight’ pres. inf. mp.:
root *magʰ- ‘to have power’: *magʰ-e-stʰai > Myc. *makʰestʰay
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 46

LINES 9–12

Λητοῦς καὶ Διὸς υἱός: ὃ γὰρ βασιλῆϊ χολωθεὶς


νοῦσον ἀνὰ στρατὸν ὄρσε κακήν, ὀλέκοντο δὲ λαοί,
οὕνεκα τὸν Χρύσην ἠτίμασεν ἀρητῆρα
Ἀτρεΐδης: ὃ γὰρ ἦλθε θοὰς ἐπὶ νῆας Ἀχαιῶν

RECONSTRUCTION

Lę̄tọ̄s kay Dios huïos: ho gar basilę̄i kʰolǭtʰẹ̄s


Lātows kas Diwos huyos: yo=gor gʷasilēwi kʰolotʰēns
nọ̄son ana straton orse kakę̄n, olekonto de laoy,
noswon ona stroton orse kakān, olekonto=de lāwoy,
howneka ton Kʰrusę̄n ę̄timasen arę̄tę̄ra
oyu=eneka ton Kʰrūsān aekʷīmase arwātēra
Atreïdę̄s: ho gar ę̄ltʰe tʰoas epi nę̄as Akʰayǭn
Atrewidās: yo=gor elutʰe tʰowans ipi≈nāwas Akʰaywōn

LINEAR B

ra-to-wo ka di-wo u-jo jo=ko qa-si-re-wi ko-ro-te


no-wo o-na to-ro-to o-se ka-ka o-re-ko-to=de ra-wo-i
o-u=e-ne-ka to ku-ru-sa a-e-qi-ma-se a-wa-te-ra
a-te-re-wi-da yo=ko e-ru-te to-wa i-pi≈na-wa a-ka-wo

9. a. Λητοῦς ‘Leto’s’ sg. f. gen.: name *{Lātow-} ‘Leto’ (Dor. Λᾱτω):


*{Lātow}-s > Myc. *Lātows b. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas c.
Διὸς ‘God’s’ sg. m. gen.: zero-grade *dyew- ‘shine’ > ‘sky’ > ‘god’: *di̯w-os (c.f.
§325) > Myc. *diwos d. υἱός ‘son’ sg. m. nom.: denom. zero-grade *seuə- ‘to
give birth’ > ‘son’: *su̯ə-yo-s > Myc. *huyos e. ὃ ‘he’ pron. sg. n. nom. *yod >
Myc. *yo f. γὰρ ‘for’ partic.: *ge (encl.) + *r̥ > Myc. *gor (or *ger) g. βασιλῆϊ
‘ruler’ sg. m. dat.: unknown, possibly non-Greek root {gʷə₂-ti-l}-: *{gʷə₂-ti-l}-
ēw-i (c.f. §320) > Myc. *gʷasilēwi (> Att.-Ion. basilēi) h. χολωθεὶς ‘anger,
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 47

(make) angry’ part. aor. pass. sg. n. nom.: o-grade *ǵʰel- ‘yellow’ > ‘gall’, so
with pseudo-denom. > *ǵʰol-(y)o- ‘anger’ (χολόω, χολόομαι > χολοῦμαι): *ǵʰol-
(y)o-tʰēn-nt-s > *kʰolotʰēnts (with duplicated n lost, and no contraction as in
χολοῦμαι) > Myc. *kʰolotʰēns (> Att.-Ion. kʰolōtʰēs)

10. a. νοῦσον sg. f. acc. ‘disease’: unknown root *{nosw}- (c.f. §190.2):
*{nosw}-o-m > Myc. *noswon (Att. νόσον, Ion. νοῦσον) b. ἀνὰ ‘in, on’ > ‘along’:
Arc.-Cypr. ὀν, so Myc. *ona c. στρατὸν ‘army’ sg. m. acc.: suffixed zero-grade
*ster- ‘spread’ > ‘horde’: *str̥-t-o-m > Myc. *stroton d. ὄρσε ‘arouse’ 3sg. aor.
ind. act.: zero-grade *(ə₃)er- ‘to move’: *(ə₃)r̥-s-t > Myc. *orse (In Gr. aor., *t is
replaced by *e, following the pattern in the thematic aorist) e. κακήν ‘bad’
adj. sg. f. acc: *kak- ‘shit’: *kak-eə₂-m > Myc. *kakān f. ὀλέκοντο ‘destroy’ 3pl.
imperf. ind. mp.: extended root *ə₃elə₁- ‘to destroy’: *ə₃elə₁-{k}-o-nto > Myc.
*olekonto g. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de h. λαοί ‘men’ pl. m.
nom.: unknown root *{lāw}- (attested in Myc. as ra-wa-ke-ta): *{lāw}-o-es >
Myc. *lāwoy (*-o-es > *-ōs nom. pl. replaced by *-o-i from pronomial form, c.f.
§260.1. Since the form is not required for metrical reasons, it is presumably
inherited.)

11. a. οὕνεκα ‘and’ from conj. *oyu={eneka} (unknown root, c.f. ʆʃ24b) b.
τὸν ‘the’ artic.: *tom (pron. m. sg. acc.) > Myc. *ton c. Χρύσην ‘Kʰrusẹ̄s’ sg. m.
acc.: name *{Kʰrūs}-: *{Kʰrūs}-eə₂-m > *Kʰrūsān d. ἠτίμασεν ‘he dishonoured’
3sg. aor. ind. act.: *n̥- ‘not’ & extended zero-grade *kʷeyə₁- ‘to value, honour’:
*n̥=(e)-kʷi̯ə₁-m̥-s-t > *a(e)kʷīmase (c.f. ʆʃ10d.; it is not clear that the initial ae-
would have contracted in Myc., and if so, whether the result would have
been ā or ē) e. ἀρητῆρα ‘one who prays, priest’ sg. f. acc.: zero-grade *ə₂or-
‘speak’, with ‘tool-maker’ suffix *-ter-: *ə₂r-u̯-eə₂+ter-m̥ > *arwātera > Myc.
*arwātēra (levelling of the r-stem nouns, with ā-stem throughout, c.f. αρᾱ,
αρη ‘prayer’)

12. a. Ἀτρεΐδης ‘Son of Atreus’ adj. sg. m. gen.: name *{Atr}-ew- (c.f. ʆʃ1d.
on Myc. patronymics): *{Atr}-ew-{id-ye}-eə₂-s > *Atrewidās b. ὃ ‘it’ pron. sg.
n. nom.: *yod > Myc. *yo c. γὰρ ‘for’ partic.: *ge (encl.) + *r̥ > Myc. *gor (or
*ger) d. ἦλθε ‘he came’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: zero-grade ə₁lewdʰ- ‘to go’: *(e)-
ə₁lu̯dʰ-e > *elutʰe (> Att.-Ion. ēltʰe by syncope, with aor.-augment) e. θοὰς
‘quick’ adj. pl. f. acc.: o-grade *dʰeu- ‘to flow’: *dʰou-ans > Myc. *tʰowans (>
Ion. tʰoās) f. ἐπι ‘on’ prep.: *ep-i (loc. sg.) > Myc. *ipi (*e > Normal Myc. *i
adjacent to labials) g. νῆας ‘ships’ pl. f. acc.: *neə₂w- ‘boat, ship’: *neə₂w-m̥s >
Myc. *nāwas (c.f. §328) h. Ἀχαιῶν ‘Achaeans’ adj. pl. m. gen.: name
*{Akʰayw}- (c.f. ʆʃ2d.): *{Akʰayw}-ōm > *Akʰaywōn
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 48

LINES 13–16

λυσόμενός τε θύγατρα φέρων τ᾽ ἀπερείσι᾽ ἄποινα,


στέμματ᾽ ἔχων ἐν χερσὶν ἑκηβόλου Ἀπόλλωνος
χρυσέῳ ἀνὰ σκήπτρῳ, καὶ λίσσετο πάντας Ἀχαιούς,
Ἀτρεΐδα δὲ μάλιστα δύω, κοσμήτορε λαῶν:

RECONSTRUCTION

lusomenos te tʰugatra pʰerǭn t᾽ aperẹ̄si᾽ apoyna,


lūsomenos=kʷe tʰugatra pʰirōns=kʷe apirwasia akʷoyna,
stemmat᾽ ekʰǭn en kʰersin hekę̄bolọ̄ Apollǭnos
stipʰmota hekʰons in=kʰehrsi (h)wekagʷolohyo
Apollōnos
kʰruseǭY ana skę̄ptrōY, kay lisseto pantas Akʰayọ̄s,
kʰrūseōy ona skāptrōy, kas lisseto pantas Akʰaywons,
Atreïda de malista duǭ, kosmę̄tore laǭn:
Atrewidā=de molista duwō, kosmētore lāwōn:

LINEAR B

ru-so-me-no=qe tu-ka-ta-ra pi-ro(-no-so)=qe a-pi-wa-si-ja


a-qo-na
ti-po-mo-ta e-ko i=ke-si we-ka-qo-ro-jo a-po-ro-no
ku-ru-se-o o-na ka-po-to-ro ka ri-se-to pa-ta a-ka-wo
a-te-re-wi-da=de mo-ri-ta du-wo ko-me-to-re ra-wo

13. a. λυσόμενός ‘ransom’ part. fut. mid. sg. nom.: zero-grade *leu- ‘to
loosen’ > ‘to release’: *lu̯-(ə₁)s-o-men-o-s > Myc. *lūsomenos b. τε ‘and’ partic.:
root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe c. θύγατρα ‘daughter’ sg. f. acc.: *dʰugə₂tr-
‘daughter’: *dʰugə₂tr-m̥ > Myc. *tʰugatra d. φέρων ‘bearing, carrying’ part.
pres. act. sg. n. nom.: root *bʰer- ‘bear’: *bʰer-ont-s > Myc. *pʰirons (Att.-Ion.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 49

pʰerōn) e. τε ‘and’ partic.: root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe f. ἀπερείσια
‘countless’ adj. pl. n. acc.: *n̥- ‘not’ & unknown root *{perw}- ‘end, boundary’,
modelled on adj. sg. m. nom.: *n̥={perw}-n̥t-yos > Myc. *apirwatyos (*e > *i in
Normal Myc. adjacent to labials), hence adj. pl. n. acc. Myc. *apirwasia (c.f.
§293, with *ti > *si in Myc.) g. ἄποινα ‘ransom’ pl. n. acc. > ‘ransom’: *n̥- ‘not’
& o-grade *kʷeyn- ‘pay, compensate’ > ‘ransom’: *n̥=kʷoyn-m̥ > Myc. *akʷoyna

14. a. στέμματα ‘wreath’ n. pl. acc.: extended *stebʰ- ‘bend’: *stebʰ-m-n̥t-ə̥₂


> *stipʰmota (> Att.-Ion. stemmata; *e, *n > Normal Myc. *i, *o adjacent to
labials) b. ἔχων ‘holding (in the hands)’ part. sg. pres. act. m. nom.: *seǵʰ- ‘to
hold’ *seǵʰ-ont-s > Myc. *hekʰons (> Ion. hekʰōn) c. ἐν ‘in, on’ *en (procl.)
prep.: > Myc. *in= d. χερσὶν ‘in hands’ pl. f. loc.: *ǵʰesr- ‘hand’: *ǵʰesr-si (loc.,
with *-su > PG *-si) > Myc. *kʰehrsi (dat.) (> Att.-Ion. kʰersi(n)) e. ἑκηβόλου
‘far-shooting’ adj.
sg. m. gen.: unknown root *{(s)we+ka}- & o-grade *gʷel- ‘to throw’:
*{(s)weka}=*gʷol-osyo > Myc. *(h)wekagʷolohyo (> Att.-Ion *hēkāboloo >
hēkābolō, with lengthening of conjoint vowel) f. Ἀπόλλωνος ‘Apollo’s’ sg. n.
gen.: name *{Apoli}-: *{Apoli}-ō-n-os (n-stem, §286.5) > Myc. *Apollōnos

15. a. χρυσέῳ adj. sg. m. dat. ‘gold’: unknown root *{kʰrūse-} (possibly
Semitic, or else from *ǵʰel- ‘bright’ > *ǵʰer- extended, suffixed > *ǵʰr̥-u-s- >
*kʰrūs-) attested in Myc.: *{kʰrūse}-o-ey > Myc. *kʰrūseōy b. ἀνὰ ‘in, on’
prep.: Arc.-Cypr. ὀν, so Myc. *on(a) c. σκήπτρῳ ‘staff, sceptre’ sg. m. dat.:
lengthened *kap- ‘to hold’ with s-mobile prefix and tool suffix: *s-kāp-tr̥-o-ey >
Myc. *skāptrōy d. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas e. λίσσετο ‘he
begged’ 3sg. imperf. ind. mp.: unknown root *{leit-/li̯t-}: *{li̯t}-ye-to (ending
from act.) > *lityeto > Myc. *lisseto f. πάντας ‘all’ pl. m. acc.: *pant- ‘all’: *pant-
m̥-s > Myc. *pantas g. Ἀχαιούς ‘Achaean’ adj. pl. m. acc.: name {*Akʰayw}-:
{*Akʰayw}-o-ms > Myc. *Akʰaywons

16 . a. Ἀτρεΐδα ‘Sons of Atreus’ du. m. acc.: name *{Atr}-ew-: {Atr}-ew-{id-


ye}-eə₂-ə₁ > Myc. *Atrewidā (c.f. ʆʃ1d. for Myc. patronymics) b. δὲ ‘and’ partic.:
*de (encl.) > Myc. *=de c. μάλιστα ‘very’ adv.: zero-grade *mel- ‘great, strong’
with superlative suffix: *ml̥-i̯s-to-s (sg. m. nom.) > *molistos and, for unclear
reasons, remodelled in n. (prob. following mala) > Myc. *molista d. δύω ‘two’
number: *duwō > Myc. *duwō e. κοσμήτορε ‘commander, leader’ du. m. acc.:
unknown root *{kosm-} ‘order’: *{kosm}-ē-tor-e/ə₁ (§278) > *kosmētore f.
λαῶν ‘men, war-band’ pl. m. gen.: possible PIE root *lāw-: *lāw-ō-m > Myc.
*lāwōn
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 50

LINES 17–20

Ἀτρεΐδαι τε καὶ ἄλλοι ἐϋκνήμιδες Ἀχαιοί,


ὑμῖν μὲν θεοὶ δοῖεν Ὀλύμπια δώματ᾽ ἔχοντες
ἐκπέρσαι Πριάμοιο πόλιν, εὖ δ᾽ οἴκαδ᾽ ἱκέσθαι:
παῖδα δ᾽ ἐμοὶ λύσαιτε φίλην, τὰ δ᾽ ἄποινα δέχεσθαι,

RECONSTRUCTION

Atreïday te kay alloy euknę̄mides Akʰayoy,


Atrewidāy=kʷe kas alloy ehuknāmides Akʰaywoy,
humin men tʰeoy doyen Olumpia dǭmat᾽ ekʰontes
umi≈men tʰehoy doyen Olumpia dōmata hekʰontes
ekpersay Priamoyo polin, ew d᾽ oykad᾽ hikestʰay:
ek=pirsay Priamohyo polin, ehu=de woykade hikestʰay:
payda d᾽ emoy lusayte pʰilę̄n, ta d᾽ apoyna dekʰestʰay,
pawida=de emoy lusayte pʰilān, ta=de akʷoyna
dekestʰay,

LINEAR B

a-te-re-wi-da=qe ka a-ro e-u-ka-na-mi-de a-ka-wo


u-mi me te-o do-je o-ru-pi-ja do-ma-ta e-ko-te
e-ki=pi-sa pi-ri-a-mo-jo po-ri e-u=de wo-ka-de i-ke-ta
pa-wi-da=de e-mo ru-sa-te pi-ra ta=de a-qo-na de-ke-ta

17. a. Ἀτρεΐδαι ‘Sons of Atreus’ pl. m. voc.: name *{Atr}-ew-: *{Atr}-ew-


{id-ye}-eə₂-y > Myc. *Atrewidāy (c.f. §265; c.f. ʆʃ1d. for Myc. patronymics) b.
τε ‘and’ partic.: root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe c. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas,
so Myc. *kas d. ἄλλοι ‘other’ adj. pl. m. nom.: derived from ἄλλος sg. m. nom:
*ə₂el-yos > *alyos > *allos; hence by analogy ˣall-oy (pronomial form) > Myc.
*alloy e. ἐϋκνήμιδες ‘well-greaved’ adj. pl. m. nom.: *esu- ‘good’,
metahthsised *kenə₂- ‘shinbone’: *esu=kneə₂-m-{id}-es > Myc. *ehu+knāmides
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 51

(*{-id-} presumably has the same source as the patronymic, with the
semantic function, ‘image of, form of’.) f. Ἀχαιοί ‘Achaeans’ pl. m. nom.:
name *{Akʰayw}-: *{Akʰayw}-o-y (pronomial form) > Myc. *Akʰaywoy

18. a. ῾ῡμῖν ‘you’ pron. 2pl. dat.: *usm-i (loc.) > Myc. *umi (> Att.-Ion. ῾ῡμῖν,
Dor. ῾ῡμίν, Lesb. ὔμμι(ν)) b. μὲν emphatic partic.: unknown root *{men} >
*Myc. *men (also *mēn) c. θεοὶ ‘gods’ pl. m. nom.: zero-grade *dʰeə₁- ‘put’,
extended form ‘offer, offering’ > ‘god’: *dʰə̥₁-s-o-y > Myc. *tʰehoy d. δοῖεν
‘give, grant’ 3pl. aor. opt. act.: zero-grade *deə₃- ‘to give’: *də̥₃-yə̥₁-n > Myc.
*doyen (presumably the loss of larangyeals *də̥₃- > *do, and *-yə̥₁- > *-ye- had
occured, in order to account for the lack of vowels in zero-grade opt. *də̥₃-yə̥₁-
n) e. Ὀλύμπια ‘Olympian’ adj. pl. n. acc.: unknown root *{Olump}-: *{Olump}-
i-ə̥₂ > Myc. *Olumpia f. δώματα ‘houses’ pl. n. acc.: lengthened extended o-
grade *dem- ‘house’: *dōm-n̥t-ə₂ > *dōmata > g. ἔχοντες ‘have’ part. pres. act.
pl. m. nom: *seǵʰ- ‘take, hold’: *seǵʰ-o-nt-es > Myc. *hekʰontes

19. a. ἐκπέρσαι ‘to be sacked, destroyed’ aor. inf. act.: unknown root
*{per-} & *ek(s) ‘from’: *eks (encl.) > Myc. *eks=: *ek={per}-sai (Gr. aor. inf.
ending -sai) > Myc. *ek=pirsay (*e > *i in Normal Myc. adjacent to labials) b.
Πριάμοιο ‘Priam’s’ sg. m. gen.: name *{Priam-}: *{Priam-}osyo > Myc.
*Priamo(h)yo c. πόλιν ‘city’ sg. f. acc.: *polə- ‘fort’: *polə-m > Myc. *polin d.
εὖ ‘good’ adv.: *esu > Myc. *ehu e. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de f.
οἴκαδε ‘homewards, to (one’s) house’: *woik- ‘house’: *woik-{a}-de (abl.) >
*woykade g. ἱκέσθαι ‘to come to, to arrive at’ aor. inf. mp.: zero-grade *seik-
‘reach’ (§507.4a): *si̯k-e-stʰai > Myc. *hikestʰay

20. a. παῖδα ‘child’ sg. m. acc.: unknown root *{pawit}- (§215b) *{pawit}-m̥
> *pawidm̥ > Myc. *pawida b. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de c. ἐμοὶ
‘me’ pron. sg. m. dat.: *moy (encl.) > Myc. *emoy (restressed encl. §367.3) d.
λύσαιτε ‘you should release’ 2pl. aor. opt. act.: zero-grade *leu- ‘to loosen’: *lu̯-
s-oy-te > Myc. *lusayte (*-s-oy > *-sai from aor.) e. φίλην ‘beloved, dear’ adj.
sg. f. acc.: uncertain Greek root *{pʰil-} (widely attested in all dialects):
*{pʰil}-eə₂-m > Myc. *pʰilān f. τὰ ‘it’ def. art. (< pron. pl. n. acc.): *teə₂ (§376) >
Myc. *tā (> Att.-Ion. ta) g. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de h. ἄποινα
‘ransom’ pl. n. acc.: *n̥- ‘not’ & o-grade *kʷeyn- ‘pay, compensate’ > ‘ransom’:
*n̥=kʷoyn-m̥ > Myc. *akʷoyna i. δέχεσθαι ‘to take’ pres. inf. mp.: root *dek-
‘take’: *dek-estʰai > Myc. *dekestʰay (Aeol., Cret. δέκεσθαι, Att.-Ion. δέχεσθαι)
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 52

LINES 21–24

ἁζόμενοι Διὸς υἱὸν ἑκηβόλον Ἀπόλλωνα.


ἔνθ᾽ ἄλλοι μὲν πάντες ἐπευφήμησαν Ἀχαιοὶ
αἰδεῖσθαί θ᾽ ἱερῆα καὶ ἀγλαὰ δέχθαι ἄποινα:
ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ Ἀτρεΐδῃ Ἀγαμέμνονι ἥνδανε θυμῷ,

RECONSTRUCTION

hazomenoy Dios huyon hekę̄bolon Apollǭna.


yazomenoy Diwos huyon hwekagʷolon Apollōna.
entʰ᾽ alloy men pantes epewpʰę̄mę̄san Akʰayoy
entʰa≈alloy≈men pantes ipihupʰāmāsa Akʰaywoy
aydẹ̄stʰay tʰ᾽ hierę̄a kay aglaa dekʰtʰay apoyna:
aydestʰay=kʷe iherēwa kas aglowa dekstʰay akʷoyna:
all᾽ ouk Atreïdę̄Y Agamemnoni hę̄ndane tʰumǭY,
alla≈oyuk=Atrewidāy Agamemnoni hwande tʰūmōy,

LINEAR B

ja-zo-me-no di-wo u-jo we-ka-qo-ro a-po-ro-na


e-ta(≈a)-ro≈me pa-ta i-pi-u-pa-ma-sa a-ka-wo
a₃-de-ta=qe i-je-re-wa ka a-ko-ro-wa de-ka-ta a-qo-na
a-ra≈o-u-ka-te-re-wi-da6 a-ka-me-no-ni wa-de tu-mo

21. a. ἁζόμενοι ‘dread’ part. pres. mp. pl. m. nom.: *yag- ‘to worship,
reverence’ with denom. *-yo-: *yag-yo-meno-i (pronomial -oi) > Myc.
*yazomenoy b. Διὸς ‘god’ sg. m. gen.: zero-grade *dyew- ‘shine’ > ‘sky’ >
‘god’: *di̯w-os (c.f. §325) > Myc. *diwos c. υἱὸν ‘son’ sg. m. acc.: denom. zero-
grade *seuə- ‘to give birth’: *su̯ə-yo-m > Myc. *huyon d. ἑκηβόλον ‘far-aiming’

6
Assuming that negations are prefixed, as in the attested o-u-di-do-si οὐ δίδονσι
‘not giving’ (dat.)
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 53

adj. sg. m. acc.: unknown root *{(s)we}+{ka}- & o-grade *gʷel- ‘to throw’:
*{(s)weka} + *gʷol-o-m > Myc. *hwekagʷolon (> Att.-Ion hēkabolon) e.
Ἀπόλλωνος ‘Apollo’ sg. n. acc.: name *{Apoli}- : *{Apoli}-ō-n-m̥ (n-stem,
§286.5) > Myc. *Apollōna

22. a. ἔνθα ‘then’ adv.: uncertain origin; possibly *en- ‘in, on’ with suffix
possibly related to adv. loc. *-dʰi (adv. of place) or *-dʰen (abl. of place): *en-
dʰ-m̥ > Myc. *entʰa b. ἄλλοι ‘other’ adj. pl. m. nom.: derived from ἄλλος sg. m.
nom: *ə₂el-yos > *alyos > *allos; hence ˣall-oy (pronomial form) > Myc. *alloy
c. μὲν emphatic partic.: unknown root *{men} > *Myc. *men (also *mēn) d.
πάντες ‘all’ adj. pl. m. nom.: root *pant- ‘all’: *pant-e-s > Myc. *pantes e.
ἐπευφήμησαν ‘they assented’ 3pl. aor. ind. act.: roots *ep(i)- ‘on’ & *esu- ‘good’
& *bʰeə₂- ‘speak’: *epi + *esu + *bʰeə₂-mā-s-n̥t > Myc. *ipihupʰāmāsa (stem-suffix
*-mā- is a PIE reflex: cf. Ion. φήμη, Dor. φᾱμᾱ Lat. fāma, §53; *e > Normal Myc.
*i adjacent to labials) f. Ἀχαιοὶ ‘Achaean’ pl. m. nom.: name *{Akʰayw}-:
*{Akʰayw}-o-y (pronomial form) > Myc. *Akʰaywoy

23. a. αἰδεῖσθαί ‘to respect’ pres. inf. mp.: extended, suffixed root *ə₂eys-d-
‘to be in awe of, to worship’ (Pokorny p16, *ais-²): *ə₂eys-d-estʰai > Myc.
*aydestʰay (Att.-Ion. ẹ̄ydēstʰay < ə₂eys-d-ye-estʰai, although post-second
palatalisation) b. τε ‘and’ partic.: root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe c. ἱερῆα
‘priest’ sg. m. acc.: zero-grade *eis-(a term denoting passion) : *i̯s-ə₁re-ew-m̥ >
*iherēwa > Myc. *hierēwa d. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas e.
ἀγλαὰ ‘shining’ adj. pl. n. acc.: extended zero-grade *ǵel- ‘bright’, with Gr.
augment (otherwise the term is vowel-free`): a-ǵl-̥ u̯-ə̥₂ > Myc. *aglowa f.
δέχθαι ‘take’ aor. inf. mid.: root *deḱ- ‘take, accept’: *deḱ-stʰai > Myc. *dekstʰay
(> dekʰtʰay with post-Myc. loss of inter-consonental -s-) g. ἄποινα ‘ransom’
pl. n. nom./acc.: *n̥- ‘not’ & extended o-grade *kʷey-n- ‘pay’: *n̥=kʷoy-n-ə̥₂ >
Myc. *akʷoyna

24. a. ἀλλὰ ‘otherwise’ adv.: root *ə₂ely- ‘other’: *ə₂ely-ə̥₂ > PGr. *alya >
Myc. *alla b. οὐκ ‘not’ adv.: from the phrase *ne ə₂oyu kʷid ‘not (in) life, not
ever’ > *oyu kʷid > *oyukid > Myc. *oyuk(i) (Att.-Ion. ouk(i), c.f. Peters p.113)
c. Ἀτρεΐδῃ ‘of the son of Atreus’ sg. m. dat.: name *{Atr}-ew-: {Atr}-ew-{id}-
eə₂-i (loc.) > Myc. *Atrewidāy (c.f. ʆʃ1d. for Myc. patronymics) d. Ἀγαμέμνονι
‘Agamemnon’ sg. m. dat.: name from zero-grade *meǵə₂- ‘big’, *m̥gə́ ₂- > *aga- &
redupl. *men- ‘remain’ > *memn- ‘resolute’; *m̥gə́ ₂ + *memn-on-i (n-stem, c.f.
§286.5) > Myc. *Agamemnoni e. ἥνδανε ‘please, gratify’ 3sg. imperf. ind. act.:
possible root n-infix zero-grade *sweə₂d- ‘sweet’ (§120): *(e)-swə₂nd-e-t > Myc.
*hwande f. θυμῷ ‘breath’ > ‘soul’ sg. m. dat.: suffixed *dʰeuə- ‘smoke’: *dʰuə-
m-ōy > Myc. *tʰūmōy (a case where loc. does not replace the dat.)
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 54

LINES 25–28

ἀλλὰ κακῶς ἀφίει, κρατερὸν δ᾽ ἐπὶ μῦθον ἔτελλε:


μή σε γέρον κοίλῃσιν ἐγὼ παρὰ νηυσὶ κιχείω
ἢ νῦν δηθύνοντ᾽ ἢ ὕστερον αὖτις ἰόντα,
μή νύ τοι οὐ χραίσμῃ σκῆπτρον καὶ στέμμα θεοῖο:

RECONSTRUCTION

alla kakǭs apʰiẹ̄, krateron d᾽ epi mutʰon etelle:


alla≈kakōs apʰiyē, kroteron=de ipi≈mūtʰon ekʷelle:
mę̄ se geron koylę̄ sin egǭ para nę̄usi kikʰẹ̄ǭ
Y

mē=te geron kowilāys egō pora≈nāusi kikʰēō


ę̄ nun dę̄tʰunont᾽ ę̄ husteron autis ionta,
wē=nūn dwātunonta wē usteron autʰis ihonta,
mę̄ nu toy ow kʰraysmę̄Y skę̄ptron kay stemma tʰeoyo:
mē=nū=toy oyu=kʰroysmēhi skaptron kas stipʰma
tʰehohyo:

LINEAR B

a-ra ka-ko a-pi-je ko-ro-te-ro=de i-pi mu-to e-qe-re


me=twe ke-ro ko-wi-ra e-ko po-ra na-u-si ki-ke-o
we=nu da-wa-tu-no-ta we u-te-ro au-ti i-o-ta
me=nu=to o-u=ko-ro-me-i ka-po-to-ro ka ti-pa-ma te-o-jo

25. a. ἀλλὰ ‘otherwise’ adv.: root *ə₂ely- ‘other’: *ə₂ely-ə̥₂ > PGr. *alya >
Myc. *alla b. κακῶς ‘bad’ adv.: *kak(a)- ‘shit’: *kak-ōs (abl.) > Myc. *kakōs c.
ἀφίει ‘he sent away’ 3sg. imperf. ind. act.: roots *ap(o)- ‘away’ & reduplicated
*(ə)yeə₁- ‘throw, impel’: *ap+yi-yeə₁-t > *ap+hiyē > Myc. *apʰiyē (>Att.-Ion.
apʰiē) d. κρατερὸν ‘stronger’ comp. adj. sg. m. acc.: zero-grade *kert- ‘strong’
(§350): *kr̥t-(t)ero-m (§355) > Myc. *kroteron e. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) >
Myc. *=de f. ἐπὶ ‘on’ prep.: *ep-i (loc. sg.) > Myc. *ipi g. μῦθον ‘word’ sg. m.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 55

acc.: unknown root *{mūtʰ-}: *{mūtʰ}-o-m > Myc. *mūtʰon h. ἔτελλε


‘accomplish’ 3sg. imperf. ind. act.: denom. *kʷel- ‘cycle’ > ‘complete’: *(e)-kʷel-
ye-t > Myc. *(e)kʷelle (> Att.-Ion. (e)telle(n))

26. a. μή ‘not’ conj.: *mē > Myc. *mē b. σε ‘you’ pron. sg. acc.: *te (encl.) >
Myc. *te c. γέρον ‘old man’ sg. m. voc.: *ǵerə₂- ‘to grow old’: ǵerə₂-o-nt > Myc.
*geron (voc. takes short stem vowel, regardless of the laryngeal) d. κοίλῃσιν
‘hollow’ adj. pl. f. dat.: extended o-grade *ḱeuə- ‘cup, hollow’: *ḱou̯ə-l-eə₂-ys
(modelled on pl. m. dat. *-ōys) > Myc. *kowilāys (Att.-Ion kowilāysi(n) < *ḱou̯ə-l-
eə₂-su (pl. loc., with *-su > PG *-si) on analogy on consonant stems, c.f. §265.3,
not attested in Myc.) e. ἐγὼ ‘I’ pron. sg. m. nom.: *eǵoə₍₋₎ > Myc. *egō f. παρὰ
‘beside’ prep.: zero grade *per- ‘in front of’ > ‘near’: (development unclear):
*pr̥-m̥? > Myc. *pora g. νηυσί ‘ships’ pl. f. dat.: *neə₂u- ‘ship’: *neə₂u-su (pl.
loc.) > PG. nāupʰi > Myc. *nāusi (displacing inherited nāupʰi, c.f. §328) h.
κιχείω ‘should I find’ 1sg. aor. subj. act.: appears to originate in reduplicated
*gʰeə₍₁₎- (meaning unknown), gʰi-gʰə₍₁₎- > *kʰikʰə₍₁₎- > *kikʰə₍₁₎- but with a variety
of suffixes: -n̥- (κινᾱνω) for pres. and perf.; *kikʰ- for them. aor.; *kikʰē- for
athem. aor. and imperf.: *(e)-kikʰē-oə₂ (primary ending for 1sg. subj.) > Myc.
*kikʰēō

27. a. ἢ ‘or’ conj.: *wē > Myc. *wē b. νῦν ‘now’ adv.: *nūn (encl.) > Myc.
*=nūn c. δηθύνοντα ‘delay’ part. pres. act. sg. m. acc.: root based on redupl.
metath. *deuə₂- ‘long (in time)’: *dweə₂-dwə₂ > PG *dwādʰwa > Myc. *dwātʰwa
‘long’ (adv.); *dwātʰu̯-n-ehen ‘to be long (in time)’ > *dwātʰunehen ‘to delay,
stay’ (inf.); hence *dwātʰun-o-nt-m̥ > Myc. *dwātʰunonta d. ἢ ‘or’ conj.: *wē >
Myc. *wē e. ὕστερον ‘later’ adj. sg. m. acc.: suffixed comp.-adj. *ud- ‘out’: *ud-
tero-m > Myc. *usteron f. αὖτις ‘back’ adv. (also αὖθις): *ə₂ew- ‘other’: *ə₂ew-
dʰi-s (loc. of place) > Myc. awtʰis g. ἰόντα ‘be’ part. pres. act. sg. m. acc.: *ə₁es-
‘be’: development unclear (§496.2) *ə₁es-ont-m̥ > Myc. *ehonta or *ə₁s-ont-m̥ >
? Myc. *ihonta

28. a. μή ‘not’ conj.: *mē > Myc. *mē b. νύ ‘now’ adj. or sent. conj. : *nūn
(encl.) > Myc. *=nūn c. τοι ‘he’ pron. m. sg. dat.: *toy (encl.) > *=toy (c.f. §363)
d. οὐ ‘not’ adv.: Myc. *oyu (c.f. ʆʃ 24b.) e. χραίσμῃ ‘should be of use to you;
should help you’ 2sg. aor. subj. mp.: prob. suffixed zero-grade *gʰer- ‘to like,
want’ (variant gives χαρίσμα < *gʰr-i-s-m-m̥) : *gʰr̥-i-s-m-e-e-si
(uncharacterised act. aor. with passive sense; late Greek, otherwise *sm >
mm; duplication of them. vowel for subj.) > Myc. *kʰroysmēhi f. σκῆπτρον
‘staff’ sg. n. acc.: lengthened *kap- ‘to hold’ with s-mobile prefix and tool
suffix: *s-kāp-tr̥-o-m: > Myc. *skaptron g. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so
Myc. *kas h. στέμμα ‘wreath’ sg. n. acc.: extended *stebʰ- ‘bend’ > ‘wreath’:
*stebʰ-m-ə̥₂ > Myc. *stipʰma (> Ion. stemma; *e > Normal Myc. *i adjacent to
labials) i. θεοῖο ‘god’s’ m. sg. gen.: root *dʰes- extended form ‘offer, offering’ >
‘god’ : *dʰes-osyo > Myc. *tʰehohyo
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 56

LINES 29–32

τὴν δ᾽ ἐγὼ οὐ λύσω: πρίν μιν καὶ γῆρας ἔπεισιν


ἡμετέρῳ ἐνὶ οἴκῳ ἐν Ἄργεϊ τηλόθι πάτρης
ἱστὸν ἐποιχομένην καὶ ἐμὸν λέχος ἀντιόωσαν:
ἀλλ᾽ ἴθι μή μ᾽ ἐρέθιζε σαώτερος ὥς κε νέηαι.

RECONSTRUCTION

tę̄n d᾽ egǭ ow lusǭ: prin min kay gę̄ras epeysin


tān=de egō oyu=lūsō: prin≈min kas gēras ip=eysi
hę̄meterǭY eni oikǭY en argeï tę̄lotʰi patrę̄s
ameterōy ini=woykōy in=Argēyi kʷēlotʰi patrās
histon epoikʰomenę̄n kay emon lekʰos antïoǭsan:
histāmi ipoykʰomenān kas emon lekʰos ansiowosyan:
all᾽ itʰi mę̄ m᾽ eretʰize saǭteros hǭs ke neę̄ay.
allā≈itʰi mē=me eretʰize twawoteros hōs ana nehēay.

LINEAR B

ta=de e-ko o-u=ru-so pi-ri≈mi ka ke-ra i-pe-si


a-me-te-ro i-ni=wo-ko i=na-ke-i qe-ro-ti pa-ta-ra
i-ta-mi i-po-ko-me-na ka e-mo re-ko a-si-o-wo-si-ja
a-ra≈i-ti me=me e-re-ti-ze ta-wa-wo-te-ro o a-na ne-e-a

29. a. τὴν ‘she’ pron. sg. acc.: *teə₂m > Myc. *tān: b. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de
(encl.) > Myc. *=de c. ἐγὼ ‘I’ pron. sg. m. nom.: root *eǵoə₍₋₎ (§363): *eǵoə₍₋₎ >
Myc. *egō d. οὐ ‘not’ adv.: Myc. *oyu (c.f. 24b.) e. λύσω ‘loose, release’ 1sg.
fut. ind. act.: zero-grade *leu- ‘to loose’: *lu̯-ə₁s-o-oə₂ > Myc. *lūsō f. πρίν
‘soon’ adv.: root *per- ‘forward, before’, but development unclear: *pr-i-m (on
analogy of *kʷim?) > Myc. *prin g. μιν ‘her’ pron. 3sg. f. acc.: root
unreconstructable, but modelled on 1sg. acc. encl. *me-/m̥-, with ending acc.
*-m: Myc. *=min h. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas i. γῆρας ‘old
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 57

age’ sg. n. nom.: lengthened-grade *ǵerə₂- ‘to grow old’: *ǵērə₂-s > Myc. *gēras
j. ἔπεισιν ‘overcome, come upon’ 3sg. pres. ind. act.: roots *ep- ‘on’, *(ə₁)ey-
‘to go’: *ip-ey-ti (*-ti athem. stem) > Myc. *ip-eysi (*e > Normal Myc. *i
adjacent to labials; final –n only in Att.)

30. a. ἡμετέρῳ ‘our’s’ adj. sg. m. dat.: *n̥sme-tero-ey (suffix c.f. §371) > Myc.
*ameterōy (The initial h- is attested in Doric and Attic, but not Aeolic; Ion.
Initial vowel lengthened > hāmeterōy) b. ἐνὶ ‘in’ prep.: ἐν ‘in, on’ prep: *eni
(procl., precons.): > Myc. *ini= c. οἴκῳ sg. m. dat.: root *woyk- ‘house’: *woyk-
o-ey > Myc. *woykōy d. ἐν ‘in’ prep.: *en (pre-vocalic, procl.) > Myc. *in= e.
Ἄργεϊ ‘Argos’ sg. n. dat.: name {*Arg-}: *Arg-ey-ey > replaced by *Arg-ēyi (c.f.
§304) > Myc. *Argēyi f. τηλόθι ‘at a distance’ adv.: lengthened-grade *kʷel-
‘far’: *kʷēl-o-dʰi (adv. of place) > Myc. *kʷēlotʰi g. πάτρης ‘fatherland’ sg. f.
gen.: root *pə₂ter- ‘father’: *pə₂tr-eə₂-es > Myc. *patrās

31. a. ἱστὸν ‘loom’ sg. n. acc.: reanalysed from ἱστημι ‘stand’ root *steə₂-:
*sti-steə₂-mi > *sistāmi > *histāmi; *hist-o-m (sg. n. acc.) > Myc. *histon b.
ἐποιχομένην ‘go (up and down) the loom’ part. pres. mp. sg. f. acc.: *ep- ‘on’; o-
grade extended *ey- ‘go’; *ep+oygʰ-o-men-eə₂-m > Myc. *ipoykʰomenān c. καὶ
‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas d. ἐμὸν ‘my, mine’ adj. sg. m. acc.: *me
(pron. ton. sg. acc., encl.) > *=eme; reanalysed *em-o-m > Myc. *emon e.
λέχος ‘bed’ sg. n. acc.: *legʰ- ‘lay’: *legʰ-o-s > Myc. *lekʰos f. ἀντιόωσαν
‘visiting, sharing’ part. pres. act. sg. f. acc., from ἀντιάω/ἀντιόω ‘to meet’:
*ə₂ent- ‘front’; re-formulated from loc. sg. *ə₂ent-y > Myc. ansi: *ansi-eə₂-yo-ə₂ >
ansiā(y)ō, *ansi-o-yo-ə₂ > *ansio(y)ō (1sg. pres. ind. act.); hence *ansi-o-w̯siə₂-m̥
(stative part., c.f. §561) > Myc. ansiowosyan

32. a. ἀλλὰ ‘otherwise’ adv.: root *ə₂ely- ‘other’: *ə₂ely-ə̥₂ > PGr. *alya >
Myc. *alla b. ἴθι ‘go’ 2sg. pres. imper. act.: zero-grade *(ə₁)ey- ‘to go’: *y-dʰi >
Myc. *itʰi (athematic *-dʰi ending, §547.3) c. μή ‘not’ conj.: *mē > Myc. *mē
d. με ‘me’ pron. sg. m. acc.: *me (encl.) > Myc *=me e. ἐρέθιζε ‘rouse to
anger’ 2sg. pres. imper. act.: suffixed *(ə₁)er- ‘to move, set in motion’:
reformulated from *er-edʰ-id-yo-ə₂ (1sg. pres. ind. via denominative of
extended d-stem) > eretʰizō; hence *er-edʰ-id-ye > Myc. *eretʰize (2sg. imper.
act.) f. σαώτερος ‘safer’ comp.-adj. sg. m. nom.: suffixed zero-grade *teuə₂- ‘to
swell’ > ‘swollen’ > ‘strong’ > ‘safe’: *tu̯ə₂-wo-tero-s > Myc. *twawoteros (*tw- >
*s- in most dialects with post-Myc.) g. ὥς ‘so, thus’ adv.: unknown root {hōs}
> Myc. *hos h. κε partic.: Arc.-Cypr. and Ion. ana (pre-cons.), so Myc. *ana i.
νέηαι ‘you should go home’ 2sg. pres. subj. mp.: *nes- ‘return home safely’:
*nes-e-e-ə₂or (with *-ə₂or > ār, and *-r replaced by *-y from the active, > *-āy >
*-ay; duplication of them. vowel for subj.) > *nehēay
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 58

LINES 33–36

ὣς ἔφατ᾽, ἔδεισεν δ᾽ ὃ γέρων καὶ ἐπείθετο μύθῳ:


βῆ δ᾽ ἀκέων παρὰ θῖνα πολυφλοίσβοιο θαλάσσης:
πολλὰ δ᾽ ἔπειτ᾽ ἀπάνευθε κιὼν ἠρᾶθ᾽ ὃ γεραιὸς
Ἀπόλλωνι ἄνακτι, τὸν ἠΰκομος τέκε Λητώ:

RECONSTRUCTION

hǭs epʰat᾽, edeysen d᾽ ho gerǭn kay epeytʰeto mutʰǭY:


hōs≈epʰato, edweyse=de yo=gerōn kas epītʰeto mutʰōy:
bę̄ d᾽ akeǭn para tʰina polupʰloysboyo tʰalassę̄s:
gʷa=de akēon pora≈tʰwīna polu=pʰloy(sb)ohyo tʰalassās:
polla d᾽ epeit᾽ apaneutʰe kiǭn ę̄ratʰ᾽ ho gerayos
polewa=de ipīta ap=anēwtʰe kīon earwato yo=gerayos
Apollǭni anakti, ton ę̄ükomos teke Lę̄tǭ:
Apollōni wanaksi, ton ehukomos teke Lātow:

LINEAR B

o≈e-pa-to e-dwe-se=de jo=ke-ro ka e-pi-te-to mu-to


qa=de a-ke-o po-ra≈ti-wi-na po-ru-po-ro-(p)o-jo ta-ra-sa
po-re-wa=de i-pi-ta a-pa-ne-(u)-te ki-o e-a-wa-to jo=ke-ra-jo
a-po-ro-ni wa-na-ki-si to e-u-ko-mo te-ke ra-to-u

33. a. ὥς ‘so, thus’ adv.: unknown root {hōs} > Myc. *hōs b. ἔφᾰτο ‘he
said, spoke’ 3sg. imperf. mp.: zero-grade *bheə₂- ‘say’: *(e)-bʰə̥₂-to > Myc.
*(e)pʰato (uncharacterised stem) c. ἔδεισεν ‘he feared’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.:
*dwei- ‘to fear’: *(e-)dwei-s-t > Myc. *(e)dweyse d. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) >
Myc. *=de e. ὃ ‘it’ pron. sg. n. nom: *yod > Myc. *yo f. γέρων ‘the old man’
sg. m. nom.: *ǵerə₂- ‘to grow old’: ǵerə₂-o-nt > Myc. *gerōn (c.f. §286 for -ων in
n-stem nom.) g. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas h. ἐπείθετο
‘persuaded him’ 3sg. imperf. ind. mp.: root *bʰeydʰ- ‘to trust’: *(e-)bʰeydʰ-e-to >
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 59

*(e)pʰeitʰeto > Myc. *(e)pītʰeto (with dissimulation of aspirates; *e > *i in


Normal Myc. adjacent to labials) i. μύθῳ ‘with words’ sg. m. dat.: unknown
root {mutʰ-}: *{mutʰ}-o-ey > Myc. *mutʰōy

34. a. βῆ ‘he walked’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: zero-grade *gʷem- ‘set out’: *gʷm̥-t
(2nd aor.) > PGr *gʷm̥-ø > Myc. *gʷā (c.f. §440.a2 for ā rather than ă) (βῆ is
Epic 3sg.) b. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de c. ἀκέων ‘silently’ adj. sg.
m. nom.: unknown root *{akē} ‘silence’: *{akē}-o-m > Myc. *akēon
(quantitative metathesis in Att.-Ion. akeōn) d. παρὰ ‘beside’ prep.: *per- ‘in
front of’ > ‘near’: unknown development, possibly *pr̥-m̥ > Myc. *pora (Ion.
para) e. θῖνα ‘heap of sand’ > ‘beach’ sg. m./f. acc.: possibly zero-grade
suffixed *dʰeuə- ‘smoke’ > ‘dust cloud, sand cloud’ > ‘sand, dust’ (Pokorny
p.261–267): *dʰu̯ə-i-n-m̥ > Myc. *tʰwīna f. πολυφλοίσβοιο ‘loud-roaring’ adj. sg.
f. gen.: o-grade *polə₁-u- ‘fill’ (§106.2a) & extended metath. *bʰel- ‘blow, swell;
roar’ > *bʰley- > * bʰloy- (o-grade), with unclear suffix (probably poetic only):
*polə₁u-bʰloy-(sb)-osyo > Myc. *polu-pʰloy(sb)ohyo g. θαλάσσης ‘sea’ sg. f.
gen.: denom. of unknown verb *{tʰalat-}: *{tʰalat}-y-eə₂-es > Myc. *tʰalassās
(Ion. tʰalassa, Att. tʰalatta sg. f. nom.)

35. a. πολλὰ ‘many’ adj. pl. n. acc.: zero-grade *pelə₁-u- ‘fill’: *pl̥ə₁u-ə̥₂ >
Myc. *polewa (> *polea > *polya > *polla, c.f. ʆʃ3a.) b. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de
(encl.) > Myc. *=de c. ἔπειτα ‘then’ adv.: from ἐπί ‘on’ + εἶτα ‘then’ adv.: *ep-
‘on’ & unknown root *{ēta}: *ep + *{ēta} > Myc. *ipīta d. ἀπάνευθε ‘from afar’
adv.: *ap- ‘on’ & suffixed zero-grade *ə₂en-ēw-: *ap=*ə₂n-ēw-tʰe (loc.) > Myc.
*apanēutʰe (> with quant. metathesis Att.-Ion. apaneūtʰe(n)) e. κιὼν ‘going
away, walking’ part. aor. act. sg. m. nom.: zero-grade *keiə₂- ‘to set in motion’:
kiə₂-ont-ø > Myc. *kīon (> Att.-Ion. kiōn with quant. metathesis) f. ἠρᾶτο ‘he
prayed’ 3sg. imperf. ind. mp.: suffixed zero-grade *ōr-/*ə₂or-{u̯ə₂}- ‘speak’ (c.f.
αρƑα ‘prayer’): *(e)-ə₂r-{u̯ə₂}-e-to > Myc. *(e)arwato (note that the augment
developed in Greek after the loss of the laryngaels) g. ὃ ‘it’ pron. sg. n. nom.:
*yod > Myc. *yo h. γεραιὸς ‘the old (man)’ adj. sg. m. nom.: demon. root
*ǵerə₂- ‘to grow old’: *ǵerə₂-yo-s > Myc. *gerayos

36. a. Ἀπόλλωνι ‘to Apollo’ sg. n. dat.: name *{Apoli}- : *{Apoli}-ō-n-i (loc.
n-stem, §286.5) > Myc. *Apollōni b. ἄνακτι ‘to the king’ sg. m. dat.: unknown
root, *{wanak-t-} (attested in Myc. wa-na-ka): *wanakt-i (loc.) > Myc.
*wanaksi (dat.) c. τὸν ‘the’ artic. (< pron. m. sg. acc.): *tom > Myc. *ton d.
ἠΰκομος ‘lovely-haired’ adj. sg. f. nom.: *esu- ‘good’; uncertain root *{kom}-
‘hair: *esu-{kom}-o-s > Myc. *ehukomos (ἠΰ- is Epic for ἐϋ-) e. τέκε ‘bring
from’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: *tek- ‘to give birth to’: *tek-e-t > Myc. *teke f. Λητώ
‘Leto’ sg. f. nom.: name {Lāt}-ow-: *{Lāt}-ow-ø > Myc. *Lātow
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 60

LINES 37–40

κλῦθί μευ ἀργυρότοξ᾽, ὃς Χρύσην ἀμφιβέβηκας


Κίλλάν τε ζαθέην Τενέδοιό τε ἶφι ἀνάσσεις,
Σμινθεῦ εἴ ποτέ τοι χαρίεντ᾽ ἐπὶ νηὸν ἔρεψα,
ἢ εἰ δή ποτέ τοι κατὰ πίονα μηρί᾽ ἔκηα

RECONSTRUCTION

klutʰi meu argurotokˢ᾽, hos Kʰrusę̄n ampʰibebę̄kas


klutʰi=meo argurotokˢa, yos=Kʰrūsān ampʰibibāka
Killan te zatʰeę̄n Tenedoï te ipʰi anasseys,
Killan=kʷe dwiatʰehān Tenedohyo=kʷe wīpʰi wanassehi,
Smintʰew ẹ̄ pote toy kʰarient᾽ epi nę̄on erepˢa,
Sminthew ē=kʷokʷe=toy kʰoriwenta ipi≈nahwon eripsa,
ę̄ ẹ̄ dę̄ pote toy kata piona mę̄ri᾽ ekę̄a
we ē=dē kʷokʷe=toy kata pīwona mēria (e)kāwa

LINEAR B

ku-ru-ti=me-o a-ku-ro-to-ka-sa jo=ku-ru-sa a-pi-pi-pa-ka


ki-ra=qe di-wi-a-te-a₂ te-ne-do-jo=qe wi-pi wa-na-se-i
mi-te-u e=qo-qe=to ko-ri-we-ta i-pi≈na-wo e-ri-pa-sa
we e=de qo-qe=to ka-ta pi-wo-na me-ri-ja (e)-ka-wa

37. a. κλῦθί ‘[you] hear’ 2sg. aor. imperat. act.: zero-grade *ḱleu- ‘hear’:
*ḱlu̯-dʰi > Myc. *klutʰi b. μευ ‘me’ pron. sg. m. gen.: *me-syo (encl.) > Myc.
*mehyo (> Ion. meo or meu) c. ἀργυρότοξα ‘silver-bowed’ adj. pl. n. acc.:
suffixed root with deverbative *ə₂(e)rǵ-u-ro- ‘shine, white’ > ‘silver’ & suffixed
o-grade *tekʷ- ‘run, flee’, *tokʷ-so- > Iranian taχša ‘bow’ > Gr. tokˢon (m. sg.
nom., Watkins, Pokorny 1059; post-dates Greek contact with the Persians or
Scythians, and hence cannot be Myc.): *ə₂rǵ-u-r-yo + {tokˢon} >
*arguro{tokˢon} (nom.), hence Myc. *arguro{tokˢa} (adj. pl. n. acc.) d. ὃς ‘he’
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 61

pron. sg. m. nom.: *yos > Myc. *yos e. Χρύσην ‘Khryse’ sg. f. acc.: name
‘Kʰrūsē’: unknown root *{Kʰrūs-}, but presumably related to χρύσος ‘gold’
attested in Myc. (ku-ro-so) c.f. ʆʃ15.a: *{Kʰrūs}-eə₂-m > Myc. *Kʰrūsān f.
ἀμφιβέβηκας ‘surround; protect’ 2sg. perf. ind. act.: *ə₂mbʰi- ‘both’ &
*gʷeə₂- ‘go’: *ə₂mbʰi + *gʷe-gʷeə₂-ka (κ-perfect, unattested in Myc.) > Myc.
*ampʰibibāka (§518, final -ς unexplained; *e > *i in Normal Myc. adjacent to
labials)

38. a. Κίλλάν ‘Killa’ sg. f. acc.: name {Kīll-}: *{Kīll}-eə₂-m > Myc. Kīllān b.
τε ‘and’ partic.: root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe c. ζαθέην ‘sacred’ adj. sg. f. acc.:
*dwi-a ‘two’ > ‘through’ > intensive prefix & zero-grade *dʰeə₁- ‘put’, extended
form ‘offer, offering’ > ‘god’: *dwi-a + *dʰə̥₁-s-eə₂-m̥ > Myc. *dwiatʰehān (after
the loss of Ƒ and h, > *diatʰeān > Aeol. zatʰeān) d. Τενέδοιό ‘Tenedos’ sg. f.
gen.: name *{Tened-}; *{Tened}-osyo > Myc. *Tenedohyo e. τε ‘and’ partic.:
root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe f. ἶφι ‘by force’ adv.: zero-grade *weyə- ‘force,
power’: *wi̯ə-bʰi (pl. abl.) > Myc. *wīpʰi g. ἀνάσσεις ‘you are lord’ 2sg. pres.
ind. act.: denom. of unknown root *{wanak-}, attested in Myc. (wa-na-ka):
*wanak-ye-si > Pre-Gr. *wanaččesi > Myc. *wanassehi (later Att.-Ion. *wanak-
t-e-si > anaktẹ̄s)
39. a. Σμινθεῦ ‘Smintheus’ sg. m. voc.: name ‘Smintheus’: *{Sminth}-
ew-ø > Myc. *Sminthew b. εἴ ‘if’ conj.: *ē > Myc. *ē (Att.-Ion. εἴ, Arc.-Cypr. εἰ,
ἠ) c. ποτέ ‘at some time’ partic.: *kʷo-kʷe > Myc. *kʷokʷe d. τοι ‘you’ pron.
sg. dat.: *toy (encl.) > Myc. *=toy e. χαρίεντα ‘beautiful’ adj. sg. m. acc.: zero-
grade root *gʰer- ‘to want, like’: *gʰr̥-i-went-m̥ (c.f. §346 on *-went-) > Myc.
*kʰoriwenta f. ἐπὶ ‘on’ prep.: *ep-i (loc. sg.) > Myc. *ipi g. νηὸν ‘temple’ sg. m.
acc.: Early Greek root *nasw- ‘cell, temple’ (c.f. §190.2): *nasw-o-m > Myc.
*nahwon (c.f. §190.2 > naōn > Att.-Ion. *nāon > nę̄on. Attested in all branches of
G.: Dor. & Thess. νᾱός, Lakon. νᾱƑος, Lesb. νaūος, Ion. νηός, Att. νεώς) h. ἔρεψα
‘I covered with a roof; I built’ 1sg. aor. ind. act.: root *rebʰ- ‘to roof over’: *(e)-
rebʰ-s-m̥ > Myc. *(e)ripsa

40. a. ἢ ‘or’ conj.: *wē > Myc. *wē b. εἰ ‘if’ conj.: *ē > Myc. *ē (Att.-Ion. εἴ,
Arc.-Cypr. εἰ, ἠ) c. δή partic. (emphasises exactness): root unknown *{dē}: >
Myc. *dē d. ποτέ ‘at some time’ partic.: *kʷo-kʷe (§381.1) > Myc. *kʷokʷe e.
τοι ‘you’ pron. sg. dat.: *toy (encl.) > Myc. *=toy f. κατὰ ‘down’ prep.: *kata >
Myc. *kata g. πίονα ‘fat’ sg. m. acc.: root *piəw- ‘fat’ (§290): *piəw-ont-m̥ >
Myc. *pīwona h. μηρία ‘thighbones’ pl. n. acc.: demon. of lengthened *mer-
‘to cut’ > ‘portion’ > ‘thighbones (the god’s portion)’: *mēr-yo-s (sg. n. nom) >
Myc. *mērios, reformulated as *mēria (sg. n. acc.) i. ἔκηα ‘burn’ 1sg. aor. ind.
act.: *keə₂u- ‘to burn’; *(e)-keə₂u-m̥ > *(e)-kāwm̥ > Myc. *(e)kāwa
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 62

LINES 41–44

ταύρων ἠδ᾽ αἰγῶν, τὸ δέ μοι κρήηνον ἐέλδωρ:


τίσειαν Δαναοὶ ἐμὰ δάκρυα σοῖσι βέλεσσιν.
ὣς ἔφατ᾽ εὐχόμενος, τοῦ δ᾽ ἔκλυε Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων,
βῆ δὲ κατ᾽ Οὐλύμποιο καρήνων χωόμενος κῆρ,

RECONSTRUCTION

taurǭn ę̄d᾽ aygǭn, to de moy krę̄ę̄non eeldǭr:


taurōn=ēde aygōn to=de=moy krōhannon eweldōr:
tiseian Danaoi ema dakrua soisi belessin.
kʷīseyan Danayoy ema dakrua toysi gʷelessi.
hǭs epʰat᾽ eukʰomenos, tọ̄ d᾽ eklue Pʰoybos Apollǭn,
hos≈epʰato eukʰomenos, tohyo=de eklue pʰoygʷos
Apollōn,
bę̄ de kat᾽ Ọ̄lumpoyo karę̄nǭn kʰǭmenos kę̄r,
gʷā=de kata Olumpohyo korannōn kʰowomenos kēr,

LINEAR B

ta-u-ro=(n)e-de a₃-ko to=de=mo ko-ro-a₂-no e-we-do


qi-se-ja da-na-jo e-ma da-ku-ru-a to-si qe-re-si
o≈e-pa-to eu-ko-me-no to-jo=de e-ku-ru-e po-ko a-po-ro
qa=de ka-ta o-ru-po-jo ko-ra-no ko-wo-me-no ke

41. a. ταύρων ‘bulls’ pl. m. gen.: root *tauro- ‘bull’: *taur-ōm > Myc.
*taurōn b. ἠδε ‘and’ conj.: unknown root *{ē} + *de ‘and’ (encl.) > Myc. *=ēde
c. αἰγῶν ‘goats’ pl. m. gen.: *ayǵ- ‘goat’: *ayǵ-ō-m > Myc. *aygōn d. τὸ ‘the’
artic.: *tod > Myc. *to e. δέ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de f. μοι ‘me’ sg.
m. dat.: *moy (encl.) > Myc. *=moy g. κρήηνον ‘fulfil’ 2sg. aor. imperat. act.:
extended zero-grade root *ḱer- ‘head’, *ḱrə̥ ₂sn̥- (§86.6a): *ḱr̥ə₂sn̥-s-{on} (the
ending -ον is obscure for σ-aor. impert., c.f. §547.5) > *krōhanson > Myc.
*krōhannon h. ἐέλδωρ ‘desire, wish for’ sg. n. acc. (undecl.): augmented root
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 63

*wel- ‘wish, want for’: *(e)-wel-d-ōr (r-stem, with nom. generalised


throughout, c.f. §284A.3) > Myc. *(e)weldōr

42. a. τίσειαν ‘pay a price’ 3pl. aor. opt. act.: zero-grade *kʷey- ‘pay for,
compensate’: development unclear; either (i) *kʷī-s-yeə₁-n̥t > Myc. *kʷīs(i)ēan
or (ii) *kʷī-sey-n̥t (c.f. §542) > Myc. *kʷīseyan b. Δαναοὶ ‘Danaans’ pl. m. nom.:
name {*Danay-}: *{Danay}-o-i (using pronomial form, c.f. §374.5) > Myc.
*Danayoy c. ἐμὰ ‘mine’ adj. sg. n. acc.: *me ‘me’ > ἐμέ (1sg. nom.); remodelled
as adj. acc. *em-m̥ > Myc. *ema d. δάκρυα ‘tears’ pl. n. acc.: root *daḱru- ‘tear’:
*daḱru-ə̥₂ > Myc. *dakrua e. σοῖσι ‘their’ adj. pl. m. dat.: *toy-su (loc., with *-su
> PG *-si) > Myc. *toysi f. βέλεσσιν ‘missiles’ pl. n. dat.: *gʷelə₁- ‘throw’,
possibly extended: *gʷelə₁-(s)-su (loc., with *-su > PG *-si) > Myc. *gʷele(s)si
(*-su > PG *-si; the gemination of σ is unexplained)

43. a. ὥς ‘so, thus’ adv.: unknown root {hōs} > Myc. *hos b. ἔφᾰτο ‘he
said, spoke’ 3sg. imperf. mp.: root *bheə₂- ‘say’: *(e)-bʰə̥₂-to > Myc. *(e)pʰato
(uncharacterised stem) c. εὐχόμενος ‘prayer’ part. pres. mp. sg. m. nom.:
root *ə₁wegʷʰ- ‘speak solemnly’, metathesised to *ə₁eu̯gʷʰ-: *ə₁eu̯gʷʰ-o-men-o-s >
Myc. *eukʰomenos d. τοῦ ‘the’ artic. (< m. sg. gen.): *tosyo > Myc. *tohyo (>
Att.-Ion. > *too > tō) e. δε ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de f. ἔκλυε ‘he
heard’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: zero-grade *ḱlew- ‘hear’: *(e)-ḱlu̯-e-t (2nd. aor.) >
Myc. *(e)klue g. Φοῖβος ‘Bright One’ adj. sg. m. nom.: o-grade *bʰeygʷ- ‘shine’:
*bʰoygʷ-o-s > Myc. *pʰoygʷos h. Ἀπόλλων ‘Apollo’ sg. n. nom.: name *{Apoli}-
: *{Apoli}-ō-n (n-stem, §286.5) > Myc. *Apollōn

44. a. βῆ ‘he walked’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: zero-grade *gʷem- ‘set out’: *gʷm̥-t
(2nd aor.) > PGr *gʷm̥-ø > Myc. *gʷā (c.f. §440.a3 for ā rather than ă) b. δὲ
‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de c. κατα ‘down’ prep.: *kata > Myc. *kata
d. Οὐλύμποιο ‘Olympus’s’ sg. m. gen.: name *{Olump}- : *{Olump}-osyo > Myc.
*Olumpohyo e. καρήνων ‘heads’ > ‘summits’ pl. n. gen.: extended zero-grade
*ḱer-, *ḱrə̥ ₂- ‘head’: *ḱrə̥ ₂-n̥-ō-m > Myc. *korannōn f. χωόμενος ‘angered’ part.
pres. mp sg. m. nom.: unknown root *{gʰow}-: *{gʰow}-omen-o-s > Myc.
*kʰowomenos g. κῆρ ‘heart’ sg. n. nom. root: *ḱerd- ‘heart: *ḱerd-ø > *kērd-ø >
Myc. *kēr (§103.4a)
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 64

LINES 45–48

τόξ᾽ ὤμοισιν ἔχων ἀμφηρεφέα τε φαρέτρην:


ἔκλαγξαν δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ὀϊστοὶ ἐπ᾽ ὤμων χωομένοιο,
αὐτοῦ κινηθέντος: ὃ δ᾽ ἤϊε νυκτὶ ἐοικώς.
ἕζετ᾽ ἔπειτ᾽ ἀπάνευθε νεῶν, μετὰ δ᾽ ἰὸν ἕηκε:

RECONSTRUCTION

tokˢ᾽ ǭmoysin ekʰǭn ampʰę̄repʰea te pʰaretrę̄n:


toksā ōmhoysi hekʰon ampʰiripʰiha=kʷe pʰoretrān:
eklagkˢan d᾽ ar᾽ oïstoi ep᾽ ǭmǭn kʰǭomenoyo,
eklaŋksan=de or≈oystoy ipi≈omhōn kʰowomenohyo,
awtọ̄ kinę̄tʰentos: ho d᾽ ę̄ïe nukti eoykǭs.
awtohyo kinēsantohyo: yo=de eeye nuksi wewoykwōs.
hezet᾽ epẹ̄t᾽ apaneutʰe neǭn, meta d᾽ ion heę̄ke:
hezeto ipīta apanēutʰe nāwōn, meta=de ihon eyēke:

LINEAR B

to-ka-sa o-mo-si e-ko a-pi-ri-pi-a₂=qe po-re-ta-ra


e-ka-ra-ka-sa=de o≈ro-to i-pi≈o-mo ko-wo-me-no-jo
au-to-jo ki-ne-sa-to-jo jo=de e-e-je nu-ki-si we-wo-ko-wo
e-ze-to i-pi-ta a-pa-ne-u-te na-wo me-ta=de i-o e-ye-ke

45. a. τόξα ‘bow’ pl. n. acc.: suffixed o-grade *tekʷ- ‘run, flee’, *tokʷ-so- >
Iranian taχša ‘bow’ > Gr. tokˢon (m. sg. nom.) > tokˢā (pl. n. acc.) (c.f. ʆʃ37c. on
post-Myc. date of this word) b. ὤμοισιν ‘on shoulders’ pl. m. dat.: lengthened
grade *om(e)so- ‘shoulder’, reanalysed as o-stem: *ōms-oysu (loc. with *-oysu >
PG *-oysi) > Myc. *ōmhoysi c. ἔχων ‘holding’ part. pres. act. sg. m. nom.: root
*seǵʰ- ‘hold’: *seǵʰ-ōn > Myc. *hekʰōn (c.f. §557) d. ἀμφηρεφέα ‘covered,
covering both sides’ adj. sg. f. acc.: bahuvrīhi compound, roots *ə₂m̥bʰi- ‘both
[sides]’ and extended *rebʰ- ‘to roof over’: ə₂m̥bʰi+rebʰ-{es}-m̥ > Myc.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 65

*ampʰi+ripʰi(h)a (§87 Wackernagel’s Law later reinterpretted as dropping the


final vowel in the first element of compounds and extending the initial vowel
of the second part. Hence, with later augmented erepʰea > ampʰērepʰea) e. τε
‘and’ partic.: root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc. *=kʷe f. φαρέτρην ‘quiver’ sg. f. acc.:
denom. zero-grade *bʰer- ‘carry’, suffixed as an agent noun, and the zero-
grade form of the tool-suffix *-ter-: *bʰr̥-ye-tr-eə₂-m > Myc. *pʰoretrān

46. a. ἔκλαγξαν ‘they clashed’ 3pl. aor. ind. act.: n-infixed root *kleg-, var.
*klag- ‘a sharp noise’: (e)-klang-sa-nt > Myc. *(e)klaŋksan (assuming that *-s-
n̥t- > -σα- had spread through aor. forms in Myc., as for other all other
dialects) b. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de c. ἄρα ‘then’ partic.: *r̥ >
Myc. *or (pre-voc.) d. ὀϊστοὶ ‘arrows’ pl. m. nom.: suffixed extended o-grade
*eis- ‘sting, pain’: *ois-{t}-oi (f.) > Myc. *oystoy e. ἐπι ‘on’ prep.: *ep-i (loc. sg.)
> Myc. *ipi f. ὤμων ‘shoulders’ pl. m. gen.: root *om(e)so- ‘shoulder’: *om(e)s-
ōm > Myc. *omhōn (Att.-Ion. initial vowel lengthened) g. χωομένοιο ‘anger’
part. pres. mp. sg. m. gen.: unknown root *{gʰow}-: *{gʰow}-omen-osyo > Myc.
*kʰowomenohyo

47. a. αὐτοῦ ‘his’ adj. sg. m. gen.: extended *au- (?or zero-grade *ə₂ew-)
‘self’: *au-t-osyo > Myc. *awtohyo b. κινηθέντος ‘set in motion’ part. aor. pass.
sg. m. gen.: extended zero-grade *keiə₂-ne- ‘set in motion’: (the Homeric form
is an artifical mix, with long theme vowel from σ-aor., but suffixed with later
-tʰēn- aor., anattested in Myc., with the short vowel unexplained; Hom. also
uses *-os gen. rather than *-osyo); assuming most likely form σ-aor. (c.f.
κίνησα Il. 23:730) *ki̯ə₂-nē-sa-nt-osyo > Myc. *kinēsantohyo c. ὃ ‘it’ pron. sg. n.
nom: *yod > Myc. *yo d. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de e. ἤϊε ‘he
goes’ 3sg. imperf. ind. act.: root *ə₁ey- ‘to go’: *(e)-ə₁ey-e-t > Myc. *(e)eye f.
νυκτὶ ‘night’ sg. f. dat.: extended o-grade *nekʷ- ‘night’: nokʷ-t-i (loc.) > Myc.
*nuksi (dat., c.f. §44 *o > u between a labial and resonant, Cowgill’s Law) g.
ἐοικώς ‘as like’ part. perf. act. sg. m. nom.: redupl. o-grade *weyk- ‘to be like’:
*we-woyk-wōs (c.f. §561) > Myc. *wewoykwōs (> Att.-Ion. eoykōs)

48. a. ἕζετο ‘he sat himself’ 3sg. imperf. ind. mp.: extended durative root
*sed-ye- ‘to sit’: *(e-)sed-ye-to > *hedyeto > Myc. *hezeto b. ἔπειτα ‘then’ adv.:
from ἐπί ‘on’ + εἶτα ‘then’ adv.: *ep- ‘on’ & unknown root *{ēta}: *ep+ *{ēta} >
Myc. *ipīta c. ἀπάνευθε ‘from afar’ adv.: *ap- ‘away’ & *n̥- ‘not’ > ‘without’, so
*an-ēw- : *ap+*an-ēw-tʰe (adv. loc.) > Myc. *ap+anēutʰe (Att.-Ion. with quant.
metathesis apaneūtʰe(n)) d. νεῶν ‘ships’ pl. f. gen.: root *neə₂w-: *neə₂w-o-m >
Myc. *nāwōn (> Ion. nēōn > neōn. c.f. §328) e. μετὰ ‘amid’ prep.: suffixed root
*me-ta- > Myc. *meta f. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de g. ἰὸν ‘arrow’
sg. m. acc.: root *eis- ‘sting, pain’, zero-grade: *is-o-m > Myc. *ihon h. ἕηκε ‘he
set in motion’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: root *yeə₁- ‘travel’: *(e)-yeə₁-k-e (κ-aor.) >
Myc. *(e)yēke (Att.-Ion. heēke, with loss of intervocalic y)
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 66

LINES 49–52

δεινὴ δὲ κλαγγὴ γένετ᾽ ἀργυρέοιο βιοῖο:


οὐρῆας μὲν πρῶτον ἐπῴχετο καὶ κύνας ἀργούς,
αὐτὰρ ἔπειτ᾽ αὐτοῖσι βέλος ἐχεπευκὲς ἐφιεὶς βάλλ᾽:
αἰεὶ δὲ πυραὶ νεκύων καίοντο θαμειαί.

RECONSTRUCTION

deynę̄ de klaggę̄ genet᾽ argureoyo bioyo:


dweynā=de klaŋgā geneto argureohyo biohyo:
ọ̄rę̄as men prǭton epōYkʰeto kay kunas argous,
orēwas≈men prōwoton ipoykʰeto kas kunās argons,
awtar epẹ̄t᾽ awtoysi belos ekʰepewkes epʰię̄s ball᾽:
awtar ipīta awtoyhi gʷelos hekʰipiwkes ipiyēs gʷalle:
ayey pura nekuǭn kayonto tʰameyay.
aywehi=de pūres nekuōn kāwyonto tʰameyes.

LINEAR B

dwe-na=de ka-ra-ka ke-ne-to a-ku-re-o-ja pi-o-jo


o-re-wa≈me po-ro-wo-to i-po-ke-to ka ku-na a-ko
au-ta i-pi-ta au-to-i qe-ro e-ki-pi-u-ke i-pi-je qa-re
a₃-we-i=de pu-re ne-ku-o ka-wo-to ta-me-e

49. a. δεινὴ ‘fearful’ sg. f. nom.: extended root *dwey- ‘fear’ (§190.3):
*dwey-n-eə₂-ø > Myc. *dweynā b. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de c.
κλαγγὴ ‘a loud sound’ sg. f. nom.: root *kleg- with var. *klag- and n-infix:
*klang-eə₂-ø > Myc. *klaŋgā d. γένετο ‘he became’ 3sg. aor. ind. mp.: root *gen-
‘beget’: *gen-e-to (2nd aor.) > Myc. *geneto e. ἀργυρέοιο ‘of silver’ adj. sg. m.
gen.: deverb. suffixed root *ə₂(e)rǵ-u-ro- ‘shine, white’ > ‘silver’: *ə₂rǵ-u-r-yo-
syo > Myc. *argureohyo f. βιοῖο ‘bow’ sg. m. gen.: zero-grade root *gʷey-
‘tendon, sinew’: *gʷi̯-osyo > Myc. *biohyo
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 67

50. a. οὐρῆας ‘mules’ pl. m. acc.: o-grade *er- ‘earth’ > ‘mountain’ from
which ‘mountain animal’ with Gr. ‘occupational suffix’ -ew-: *or-ēw-m̥s > Myc.
*orēwas (Ion. has lengthened initial vowel) b. μὲν ‘truly’ partic.: unknown
root *{men}: > Myc. *men c. πρῶτον ‘first’ adj. sg. m./n. acc.: zero-grade
*preə₃- ‘first’: *pr̥ə₃-wo-m > *prōwon remodelled by analogy to Myc. *prōwoton
(c.f. §398.1) d. ἐπῴχετο ‘he approached’ 3sg. imperf. ind. mp.: *ep- ‘on’ &
extended o-grade *ə₁ei-gʰ- ‘to go’: *ep=(e)-ə₁oi-gʰ-e-to > Myc. *ipoykʰeto (Att.-
Ion. involves a reinterpretation of the prefix rule, giving epōykʰeto) e. καὶ
‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas f. κύνας ‘dogs’ pl. f. acc.: zero-grade
*kwon-: *ku̯n-eə₂-m̥s > Myc. *kunāns (> kunās, c.f. §286.1) g. ἀργούς ‘swift’ adj.
pl. m. acc.: root *ə₂(e)rǵ- ‘shining’: *ə₂rǵ-o-ms > Myc. *argons

51. a. αὐτὰρ ‘but, nevertheless’ partic.: ə₂(e)u-t-ar > Myc. *awtar b. ἔπειτα
‘then’ adv.: from ἐπί ‘on’ + εἶτα ‘then’ adv.: *ep- ‘on’ & unknown root *{ēta}:
*ep+ *{ēta} > Myc. *ipīta c. αὐτοῖσι ‘by himself’ adj. pl. m/n. dat.: suffixed *au-
(?or zero-grade *ə₂ew-) ‘self’: *au-t-oysu (loc.) > Myc. *awtoyhi (-σ- restored in
Att.-Ion.) d. βέλος ‘missile’ sg. n. nom.: root *gʷelə₁- ‘to throw’: *gʷelə₁-o-s >
Myc. *gʷelos e. ἐχεπευκὲς ‘piercing’ adj. sg. n. nom.: bahuvrīhi compound,
deverbative *seǵʰ- ‘to hold’ & *peuḱ- ‘prick’: *seǵʰ-ye+peuḱ-es (s-stem adj., c.f.
§300) > Myc. *hekʰipiwkes f. ἐφιεὶς ‘let go’ part. pres. act. sg. m. nom.: roots
*ep- ‘on’ & redupl. *yeə₁- ‘to go’: *ep+yi-yeə₁-s (athem.) > Myc. *ipiyēs (Ion. *ep +
*yi-yeə₁-s > *ep + hi(h)iēs > epʰiēs)

52. a. βάλλε ‘he threw, cast’ 3sg. imperf. act.: *gʷel- ‘throw’ var. *gʷal- (? <
*gʷl̥-) with durative ext.ension: *gʷal-ye-t > Myc. *gʷalle b. αἰεὶ ‘ever’ adv.: *
ə₂eywesi (§60) > Myc. *aywehi c. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de d.
πυραὶ ‘fires’ pl. f. nom.: zero-grade *peə₂wr̥ ‘fire’: *pə₂u̯r-es (athem.) > Myc.
*pūres (later Greek replaces *-es with -ai, c.f. §265.1) e. νεκύων ‘corpses’ pl.
m. gen.: extended *neḱ- ‘dead’: *neḱ-uə₍₂₎-ōm > Myc. *nekuōn f. καίοντο ‘they
kindle’ 3pl. imperf. mp.: suffixed zero-graderoot *kə₂eu- ‘to burn’: *(e)-kə₂eu-
yo-nto (with active end) > Myc. *kāwyonto g. θαμειαί ‘crowded’ adj. pl. f.
nom.: development unclear; possibly extended denom. zero-grade *dʰeə₁-m-
‘to put’ with unexplained metathesis *dʰm̥ə₁-: *dʰm̥ə₁-i̯-es > Myc. *tʰameyes
(later Greek replaces *-es with -ai, c.f. §265.1)
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 68

LINES 53–56

ἐννῆμαρ μὲν ἀνὰ στρατὸν ᾤχετο κῆλα θεοῖο,


τῇ δεκάτῃ δ᾽ ἀγορὴν δὲ καλέσσατο λαὸν Ἀχιλλεύς:
τῷ γὰρ ἐπὶ φρεσὶ θῆκε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη:
κήδετο γὰρ Δαναῶν, ὅτι ῥα θνήσκοντας ὁρᾶτο.

RECONSTRUCTION

ennę̄mar men ana straton ǭ kʰeto kę̄la tʰeoyo,


i

en(n)āmor≈men ona≈stroton oykʰeto kawelā tʰehohyo,


tę̄i dekatę̄i d᾽ agorę̄n de kalessato laon Akʰillews:
tāhi≈dekatāy=de agorān=de kolesato lawon Akʰilews:
tǭY gar epi pʰresi tʰę̄ke tʰę̄ leukǭlenos Hę̄rę̄:
tōy≈gor ipi≈gʷresi tʰēke tʰehā leukōlenos Hērā:
kę̄deto gar Danaǭn, hoti ʰra tʰnę̄skontas horato.
kādeto≈gor Danayōn, yokʷi=ro tʰwenaskontas worāto.

LINEAR B

e-na-mo≈me o-na≈to-ro-to o-ke-to ka-we-ra te-o-jo


ta-i≈de-ka-ta=de a-ko-ra=de ko-re-sa-to ra-wo a-ki-re-u
to≈ko i-pi≈qe-re-si te-ke te-a(₂) re-u-ko-re-no e-ra
ka-de-to≈ko da-na-jo jo-qi=ro twe-na-ko-ta wo-ra-to

53. a. ἐννῆμαρ ‘for nine days’ adv.: roots *newn̥ ‘nine’ & *āmer- ‘day’; *
newn̥ > Myc. *enewo (?> *ennewo influenced by *enw-, c.f. §389.9), *en(n) +
*āmr̥-ø > Myc. *en(n)āmor b. μὲν ‘truly’ partic.: unknown root *{men}: > Myc.
*men c. ἀνὰ ‘up’ prep.: Arc.-Cypr. ὀν, so Myc. *ona d. στρατὸν ‘army’ sg. m.
acc.: suffixed zero-grade *ster- ‘to spread out’: *str̥-to-m > Myc. *stroton e.
ᾤχετο ‘he went’ 3sg. imperf. mp.: extended o-grade root *ə₁ey-gʰ- ‘to go’: *(e)-
ə₁oy-gʰ-e-to > Myc. *oykʰeto f. κῆλα ‘shafts, arrows’ pl. n. nom.: possibly
suffixed root *kə₂eu- ‘to burn, kindle‘ + *{el} ‘to take’ (*{el}-o-m/nt > (h)elon ‘to
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 69

grasp’) > *kawelon ‘kindling, (i.e. that which takes fire)’, (> kālon in Att.-Ion.),
reinterpretted as sg. m. nom. > ‘thin wood’ > ? ‘arrow shafts’: > Myc. *kawelā
(pl. n. nom., later Gr. replaced *-ā with -a) g. θεοῖο m. sg. gen.: zero-grade
*dʰeə₁- ‘put’, extended form ‘offer, offering’ > ‘god’: *dʰə̥₁-s-osyo > Myc.
*tʰehohyo

54. a. τῇ ‘the’ artic.: *teə₂-su (sg. f. loc., with *-su > PG *-si) > Myc. tāhi
(dat.) b. δεκάτῃ ‘tenth’ adj. sg. f. dat.: suffixed root *dekm̥ ‘ten’: *deḱm-̥ t-eə₂-i
(loc.) > Myc. *dekatāy (dat.) c. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de d.
ἀγορὴν ‘assembly’ sg. f. acc.: suffixed o-grade *ə₂ger-ā- ‘gather’: *ə₂gor-ā-m >
Myc. *agorān e. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de f. καλέσσατο ‘he
called’ 3sg. aor. ind. mid.: zero-grade *kelə₁- ‘call’: *kl̥ə₁-sa-to > Myc. *kolesato
(gemination is Aeol. in aor. with short stem vowels) g. λαὸν ‘men, people’ sg.
m. acc.: unknown root *{law-} ‘men, people’ (attested in Myc. as ra-wa-ke-ta):
*{law}-o-m > Myc. *lawon h. Ἀχιλλεύς ‘Achilles’ m. sg. nom.: name *{Akʰil}-
ew-: *{Akʰil}-ew-s > Myc. *Akʰilews

55. a. τῷ ‘the’ artic. (< pron. pl. n. dat.): *to-ōy > Myc. *tōy b. γὰρ ‘for’
partic.: *ge (encl.) + *r̥ > Myc. *gor (or *ger) c. ἐπὶ ‘on’ prep.: *ep-i (loc. sg.) >
Myc. *ipi d. φρεσὶ ‘into (his) mind’ pl. f. dat.: zero-grade *gʷreə₁- ‘breathe’ >
‘words’ > ‘thinking, mind’ > ‘site of the mind’: *gʷrə₁-su (loc.) > Myc. *gʷrosi
(with *-su > -si to match the sg. dat.) e. θῆκε ‘she put, placed’ 3sg. aor. ind.
act.: root *dʰeə₁- ‘put’: *dʰeə₁-k-e (κ-aorist) > Myc. *tʰēke f. θεὰ ‘goddess’ sg. f.
nom.: zero-grade *dʰeə₁- ‘put’, extended form ‘offer, offering’ > ‘god’: *dʰə̥₁-s-
eə₂ > Myc. *tʰehā g. λευκώλενος ‘of the white arms’ adj. sg. m./f. nom.;
bahuvrihi compound, *leuk- ‘light’ > ‘white’ & lengthened, suffixed o-grade
*el- ‘elbow’: *leuk- + ōlen-o-s > Myc. *lewkōlenos h. Ἥρη ‘Hera’ sg. f.
nom./voc.: name {*Hēr-}: {*Hēr}-eə₂ > Myc. *Hērā

56. a. κήδετο ‘she was troubled’ 3sg. imperf. mp.: root *ḱeə₂d- ‘sorrow,
distress’ (Pokorny 517): *ḱeə₂d-e-to > Myc. *kādeto b. γὰρ ‘for’ partic.: *ge
(encl.) + *r̥ > Myc. *gor (or *ger) c. Δαναῶν ‘Danaans’ pl. m. gen.: name
{*Danay-}: *{Danay}-ōm > Myc. Danayōn d. ὅτι ‘because’ conj.: *yod + *kʷid >
Myc. *yokʷi e. ῥα partic.: *r̥ > Myc. *ro (pre-cons.) f. θνήσκοντας ‘the dying’
part. pres. act. pl. m. acc.: root *dʰwenə₂- ‘to die, disappear’: *dʰwenə₂-sko-nt-m̥-
s > Myc. *tʰwenaskontas (or possible metathesis to *dʰwneə₂- gives
*tʰwnāskontas) g. ὁρᾶτο ‘she saw’ 3sg. imperf. ind. mp.: o-grade *wer-: *wor-
eə₂yo (§456.2.B) > *Ƒορ-ᾱω (1sg. ind. act.), reanalysed as Ƒορᾱ-ω: hence *worā-to
(athem. 3sg. imperf. mp.) > *worāto
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 70

LINES 57–60

οἳ δ᾽ ἐπεὶ οὖν ἤγερθεν ὁμηγερέες τε γένοντο,


τοῖσι δ᾽ ἀνιστάμενος μετέφη πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς:
Ἀτρεΐδη νῦν ἄμμε παλιμπλαγχθέντας ὀΐω
ἂψ ἀπονοστήσειν, εἴ κεν θάνατόν γε φύγοιμεν,

RECONSTRUCTION

hoy d᾽ epę̄ ọ̄n ę̄gertʰen homę̄gerees te genonto,


toy=de≈ekʷey≈ōn agersatoy homagerees=kʷe genonto,
toysi d᾽ anistamenos metepʰę̄ podas ǭkus Akʰillews:
toysi=de onhistamenos metapʰā podas ōkus Akʰilews:
Atreïdę̄ nun amme palimplagkʰtʰentas oïǭ
Atrewidā≈nūn ahme kʷolimploŋksmenōs oywō
apˢ aponostę̄sẹ̄n, ẹ̄ ken tʰanaton ge pʰugoymen,
aps≈aponostēsehen, ē=ana tʰwanaton=ge pʰugoymen,

LINEAR B

to=de≈e-qe o≈a-ke-sa-to o-ma-ke-re-e=qe ke-ne-to


to-si=de o-(n)i-ta-me-no me-ta-pa po-da o-ku a-ki-re-u
a-te-re-wi-da≈nu a-me qo-ri-po-ro-ke-se-me-no o-wo
a-pa-sa≈(a)-po-no-te-se-e a=(a)-na ta-wa-no-to=ke pu-ko-me

57. a. οἳ ‘the’ artic.: *toy > Myc. *toy (Att.-Ion. *toy replaced by hoi
modelled on sg. m. nom.) b. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de c. ἐπεὶ
‘then, after that’ conj.: root presumably from interrog. pron. *=kʷe- but
development unclear: *(e)-kʷe-i (loc.?) > Myc. *ekʷey? d. οὖν ‘then’ partic.:
unknown root *{ōn} > Myc. *ōn e. ἤγερθεν ‘they were gathered together’ 3pl.
aor. ind. pass.: root *ə₂ger- ‘gather’: *(e)-ə₂ger-s-n̥tor > Myc. *agersatoy (Att.-
Ion. based on PG *ε-ə₂ger-θεν > *āgertʰen > ẹ̄gertʰen; -θεν not attested in
Myc.) f. ὁμηγερέες ‘assemblies’ adj. pl. m. nom.: o-grade *sem- ‘one’ > ‘same’ &
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 71

*ə₂ger- ‘gather’: *som- + *ə₂ger-e-es > Myc. *homagerees (Att.-Ion. based on


reinterpretation *som+āger-e-es > homẹ̄gerēs) g. τε ‘and’ partic.: root *kʷe
(encl.) > Myc *=kʷe h. γένοντο ‘made them’ 3pl. aor. ind. mid.: root *gen-
‘beget’: *gen-o-nto > Myc. *genonto

58. a. τοῖσι ‘the’ artic. (< pron. pl. m. loc.): *toysu (loc.) > Myc. *toysi (dat.)
(with *-su > PG *-si) b. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de c. ἀνιστάμενος
‘to make to stand up’ part. pres. mp. sg. m. nom.: roots *an(a) ‘on’ & reduplic.
*steə₂- ‘to stand’: *an+sti-stə̥₂-men-o-s > Myc. *on(h)istamenos (§53) d. μετέφη
‘he spoke amongst’ 3sg. imperf. act.: roots suffixed *me-ta ‘middle’ & zero-
grade *bʰeə₂- ‘utter’: *me-ta+(e)-bʰə̥₂-e-t > Myc. *metapʰā (Att.-Ion. *met-
epʰā(n) > metepʰę̄(n)) e. πόδας ‘feet’ pl. m. acc.: o-grade root *ped- ‘foot’:
*podm̥s > Myc. *podas f. ὠκὺς ‘swift’ adj. sg. m. nom.: *eə₃ḱu- ‘quick’ (§117.1):
*eə₃ḱu-s > Myc. *ōkus g. Ἀχιλλεύς ‘Achilles’ sg. m. nom.: name *{Akʰil}-ew-s >
Myc. *Akʰilews

59. a. Ἀτρεΐδη ‘Son of Atreus’ sg. m. voc.: name *{Atr}-ew-: {Atr}-ew-{id}-


eə₂ > Myc. *Atrewidā (c.f. ʆʃ1d. for Myc. patronymics) b. νῦν ‘now’ adv.: *nūn
> Myc. *nūn c. ἄμμε ‘for myself’ pron. pl. m. acc.: *n̥sme > *asme > Myc.
*ahme (> Aeol. amme, Dor. āme, Att.-Ion. *āmme > *hę̄me-as > Att. hę̄mās ) d.
παλιμπλαγχθέντας ‘driving backwards’ part. aor. pass. pl. m. acc.: roots *zero-
grade *kʷelə₁- ‘cycle’ & suffixed zero-grade *pel- ‘strive, drive’: *kʷl̥ə₁-i-m̥ +
*pl̥n-k-s-men-t-m̥s (t-stem) > *kʷolin+plonksmentas > Myc. *kʷolim-
ploŋksmentas (later Att. from pl̥-n-k-tʰen-t-m̥s > *planktʰentas > plaŋkʰtʰentas,
with unexplained shortening of aor. -tʰę̄n- > -tʰen-; not attested in Myc.) e.
ὀΐω ‘think, suppose, believe’ 1sg. pres. ind. act.: root unknown (ὀΐω is the only
active form; the usual is passive ὀΐομαι, but passive tense with active force
suggests and idiomatic use: possibly from *oy-wo- ‘alone, solitary‘ > ‘(to think)
alone’, disinct from the more usual form of divine inspiration in Hom., c.f.
1:55): *oy-w-o-mai (1sg. pres. ind. pass.) > *Myc. *oywomay. Hence by analogy
*oyw-o-oə₂ > Myc. *oywō (Homeric ὀΐομαι vs. usual οἴομαι would then be for
metrical purposes only, and would not reflect contraction)

60. a. ἂψ ‘backwards’ adv.: *ə₂ep- ‘away’: *ə₂ep-s > Myc. *aps b.


ἀπονοστήσειν ‘to return home’ fut. inf. act.: roots *ə₂epo ‘away’ & suffixed o-
grade *nes- ‘return home safely’: *ə₂epo + *nos-te-ə₁s-e-sen > Myc.
*aponostēsehen (NB: the construction is late, after PIE *-e-sen > PG *-ehen,
but *-ə₁s- > PG *-es- is still productive as the future marker) c. εἴ ‘if’ conj.: *ē
> Myc. *ē (Att.-Ion. εἴ, Arc.-Cypr. εἰ, ἠ) d. κεν ‘he came’ partic.: Arc.-Cypr. and
Ion. ana (pre-cons.), so Myc. *ana e. θάνατόν ‘death’ sg. m. acc.: suffixed
zero-grade *dʰwenə₂-: *dʰwn̥ə₂-t-o-m > tʰwanaton f. γε partic.: *ge (encl.) >
Myc. *=ge g. φύγοιμεν ‘we should flee’ 1pl. aor. opt. act.: zero-grade *bʰeug-
‘flee’: *bʰu̯g-oy-mē > Myc. *pʰugoymen (termination *-mē > *-men in all
branches of Greek except West and Dor. c.f. §427)
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 72

LINES 61–64

εἰ δὴ ὁμοῦ πόλεμός τε δαμᾷ καὶ λοιμὸς Ἀχαιούς:


ἀλλ᾽ ἄγε δή τινα μάντιν ἐρείομεν ἢ ἱερῆα
ἢ καὶ ὀνειροπόλον, καὶ γάρ τ᾽ ὄναρ ἐκ Διός ἐστιν,
ὅς κ᾽ εἴποι ὅ τι τόσσον ἐχώσατο Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων,

RECONSTRUCTION

ẹ̄ dę̄ homọ̄ polemos te damaY kay loymos Akʰayọ̄s:


ē=dē homō polemos=kʷe damasey kas loymos
Akʰaywons
all᾽ age dę̄ tina mantin erēomen ę̄ hierę̄a
alla age≈dē=kʷina monsin wrēomen ē=iherēwa
ę̄ kay onẹ̄ropolon, kay gar t᾽ onar ek Dios estin,
ē=kas onerrokʷolon kas=gor=kʷe onor ek=Diwos=essi
hos k᾽ eypoy ho ti tosson ekʰǭsato Pʰoybos Apollǭn,
yos=ana weykʷoy ho=kʷi tossos ekʰowsato pʰoygʷos
Apollōn

LINEAR B

e=de o-mo po-re-mo=qe da-ma-se-i ka ro-mo a-ka-wo


a-ra a-ke≈de=qi-na mo-si we-re-o-me e=i-je-re-wa
a=ka o-ne-ro-qo-ro ka ka=qe o-no e-ki=di-wo=e-si
jo=a-na we-qo o=qi to-so e-ko-u-sa-to po-ko a-po-ro

61. a. εἰ ‘if’ conj. (c.f. εἴ elsewhere): *ē > Myc. *ē (Att.-Ion. εἴ, Arc.-Cypr. εἰ,
ἠ) b. δή partic. (emphasises exactness): root unknown *{dē}: > Myc. *dē c.
ὁμοῦ ‘together’ adv.: o-grade *semə₁- ‘same’: *somə₁-ō (loc. of place) > Myc.
*homō d. πόλεμός ‘war’ sg. m. nom.: possible extended zero-grade root
*pel(ə)- ‘ strike’ or ‘spread out’ (c.f. *ster- ‘spread out’ > ‘army’): *pol(ə)-m-o-s >
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 73

Myc. *polemos e. τε ‘and’ partic.: root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe f. δαμᾷ ‘he
will overpower’ 3sg. fut. ind. act.: zero-grade *demə₂- ‘constrain, force’: *dm̥ə₂-
(ə₁)s-e-i > Myc. *damasey (N.B. (1) in Gr. the root is zero-grade in all forms,
without ablaut (2) δαμᾷ is a specifically Epic form) g. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-
Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas h. λοιμὸς ‘plague’ m. sg. nom.: o-grade extended *leyə-
‘waste away’: *loyə-m-o-s > Myc. *loymos (c.f. 67e. λοιγὸν ‘plague’) i. Ἀχαιούς
‘Achaean’ adj. pl. m. acc.: name *{Akʰayw}-: *{Akʰayw}-o-ms > Myc.
*Akʰaywons

62. a. ἀλλὰ ‘otherwise’ adv.: root *ə₂ely- ‘other’: *ə₂ely-ə̥₂ > PGr. *alya >
Myc. *alla b. ἄγε ‘you bring, carry’ 2sg. pres. imperat. act.: root *ə₂eǵ-: *ə₂eǵ-
e-ø > Myc. *age c. δή partic. (emphasises exactness): root unknown *{dē}: >
Myc. *dē d. τινα pron. sg. m./f. acc.: root *kʷim, remodelled to PGr. *kʷin-:
*kʷim+m̥ > PGr. *kʷin-a > Myc. *kʷina e. μάντιν ‘prophet’ sg. m. acc.:
extended zero-grade *man- ‘mind’: *m̥nt-i-m > Myc. *monsin (c.f. ʆʃ1a.) f.
ἐρείομεν ‘we enquire’ 1pl. pres./imperf. ind. act.: metathesised *werə₁- ‘find’ >
*wreə₁-: *(e)-wreə₁-o-mos > Myc. *(e)wrēomen (ending *-mos > *-men in all but
WG dialects) g. ἢ ‘if’ conj.: *ē > Myc. *ē (Att.-Ion. εἴ, Arc.-Cypr. εἰ, ἠ) h. ἱερῆα
‘priest’ sg. m. acc.: suffixed zero-grade *eys- : *i̯s-ə₁re-ew-m̥ > Myc. *iherēwa
(c.f. §192.a)

63. a. ἢ ‘if’ conj.: *ē > Myc. *ē (Att.-Ion. εἴ, Arc.-Cypr. εἰ, ἠ) b. καὶ ‘and’
conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas c. ὀνειροπόλον ‘dream interpreter’ sg. m.
acc.: demon. *oner- ‘dream’ & o-grade *kʷel- ‘far’: *oner-yo- + *kʷol-o-m > PG.
*oner̃r̃o-kʷolon > Myc. *onerrokʷolon (Att. *Vr- > *Vr̃r̃ > V̄r, hence onēro-) d.
καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas e. γάρ ‘for’ partic.: *ge (encl.) + *r̥ >
Myc. *gor (or *ger) f. τε ‘and’ partic.: *kʷe (encl.) > Myc. *=kʷe g. ὄναρ
‘dream’ sg. n. acc./nom.: zero-grade root *oner- ‘dream’: *onr̥-ø > Myc. *onor
h. ἐκ ‘from’ prep.: root *ek- (encl.) > Myc. *ek= i. Διός ‘god, Zeus’ m. sg. gen.:
zero-grade *dyew-‘sky, god’: *di̯w-o-s > Myc. *diwos (§325) j. ἐστιν ‘he is’ 3sg.
pres. ind. act.: root *ə₁es- ‘is’: *ə₁es-ti (*-ti athem. stem) > Myc. *essi

64. a. ὅς ‘he’ pron. sg. m. nom.: *yos > Myc. *yos b. κε partic.: Arc.-Cypr.
and Ion. ana (pre-cons.), so Myc. *ana c. εἴποι ‘he should say’ 3sg. aor. opt.
act.: redupl. root *wekʷ- ‘say, speak’: *(e)-we-wkʷ-oi-t-ø (no. aug.) > Myc.
*weykʷoy d. ὅ ‘the’ artic. (< pron. sg. m. nom.): *so > Myc. *ho e. τι ‘who’
pron. sg. n. nom.: *kʷi > Myc *kʷi f. τόσσον ‘so much’ adj. sg. m. acc.: *tot-yo-s
> Myc. *tossos (§196.1) g. ἐχώσατο ‘angered him’ 3sg. aor. ind. mid.: root
unknown *{gʰow}- : *(e)-{gʰow}-sa-to > Myc. *(e)kʰowsato h. Φοῖβος ‘Bright
One’ adj. sg. m. nom.: o-grade *bʰeygʷ- ‘shine’: *bʰoygʷ-o-s > Myc. *pʰoygʷos i.
Ἀπόλλων ‘Apollo’ sg. n. nom.: name *{Apoli}- : *{Apoli}-ō-n (n-stem, c.f.
§286.5) > Myc. *Apollōn
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 74

LINES 65–68

εἴτ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ὅ γ᾽ εὐχωλῆς ἐπιμέμφεται ἠδ᾽ ἑκατόμβης,


αἴ κέν πως ἀρνῶν κνίσης αἰγῶν τε τελείων
βούλεται ἀντιάσας ἡμῖν ἀπὸ λοιγὸν ἀμῦναι.
ἤτοι ὅ γ᾽ ὣς εἰπὼν κατ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἕζετο: τοῖσι δ᾽ ἀνέστη

RECONSTRUCTION

ẹ̄t᾽ ar᾽ ho g᾽ ewkʰǭlę̄s epimempʰetai ę̄d᾽ hekatombę̄s,


ē=kʷe≈oro ho=ge ewkʰās ipimempʰitoy ē=de
(he)katomgʷās,
ai ken pǭs arnǭn knisę̄s aygǭn te teleyǭn
ē=ana=kʷōs wornōn knīssās aygon=kʷe kʷeleyhōn
bọ̄letay antiasas hę̄min apo loygon amunay.
gʷōletoy ansiāsas ahmi apo≈leygon amūnay.
ę̄toy ho g᾽ hǭs eypǭn kat᾽ ar᾽ hezeto: toysi d᾽ anestę̄
ē=toy yo=ge hos=weykʷōn kata≈oro hizeto: toysi=de
onestā

LINEAR B

e=eq≈o-ro o=ke e-u-ka i-pi-me-pi-to e-de (e)-ka-to-qa


e=a-na=qo wo-no ki-ni-sa a₃-ko=qe qe-re-o
qo-re-to a-si-a-sa a-mi a-po≈re-ko a-mu-na
e=to jo=ke o=we-qo ka-ta(≈o)-ro i-ze-to to-si=de o-ne-ta

65. a. εἴτε ‘either’ adv. = εἴ+τε: *ē=kʷe > Myc. *ē=kʷe b. ἄρα ‘then’ partic.:
*r̥ > Myc. *oro (pre-cons.) c. ὅ ‘the’ artic. (< pron. sg. m. nom): *so > Myc. *ho
d. γε partic.: *ge > Myc. ge e. εὐχωλῆς ‘prayer’s’ sg. f. gen.: zero-grade
*ə₁wegʷʰ- ‘preach’: *ə₁u̯gʷʰ-eə₂-es > Myc. *ewkʰās (εὐχωλή is Epic for εὐχή) f.
ἐπιμέμφεται ‘blame on him’ 3sg. pres. ind. pass.: root *epi ‘on’ & *membʰ-
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 75

‘blame’: *epi + *membʰ-e-tor > Myc. *ipimempʰitoy (*e > Normal Myc. *i
adjacent to labials) g. ἠδέ ‘and’ conj. = ἦ+δέ: unknown root *{ē} + *de > *=ēde
h. ἑκατόμβης ‘sacrifice of a hundred cattle’ sg. f. gen.: roots *ḱm̥tom ‘hundred’
& *gʷow- ‘cow’: *ḱm̥tom + gʷow-s (m. sg. nom) > Myc. *(he)katon-gʷows, with
ending remodeled on G. sg. f. gen. -ās (< *-eə₂-es) > Myc. *(he)katomgʷās
(requires –ows to be reinterpretted as -ow-s, i.e. treatyng -ow- as a
morphologically significant suffix)

66. a. αἴ ‘if’ conj.: *ā > Myc. *ā (Att.-Ion. εἴ, Aeol. and Dor. αἴ, αἴκ) b. κέν
partic.: Arc.-Cypr. and Ion. ana (pre-cons.), so Myc. *ana c. πως ‘in any way,
somehow’ partic.: possibly extended *kʷos > Myc. * kʷōs d. ἀρνῶν ‘lambs’ pl.
m./f. gen.: zero-grade *wern- ‘lamb’ : *wr̥n-ō-m > Myc. *wornōn (§187.a) e.
κνίσης ‘smell of roasting fat’ sg. f. gen.: root *knīd-s- (§215): *knīd-s-eə₂-es >
Myc. *knīssās f. αἰγῶν ‘goats’ pl. m./f. gen.: root *ayǵ- ‘goat’: *ayǵ-ō-m > Myc.
*aygon g. τε ‘and’ partic.: *kʷe (encl.) > Myc. *=kʷe h. τελείων ‘perfect’ adj.
pl. m./f. gen.; root *kʷelə₁- ‘cycle’ > ‘complete’ with intensive zero-grade
*-yos- adj. suffix: *kʷelə₁-i̯s-ō-m (§353.4) > Myc. *kʷeleyhōn

67. a. βούλεται ‘be willing’ 3sg. pres. ind. mp.: unknown root *{gʷōl}-:
*{gʷōl}-e-tor > Myc. *gʷōletoy b. ἀντιάσας ‘accepting of a sacrifice’ part. aor.
act. sg. m. nom., from ἀντιάω/ἀντιόω ‘to meet’: *ə₂ent- ‘front’, re-formulated
from loc. sg. *ə₂ent-y- > Myc. ānsi: *ānsi-eə₂-yo-ə₂ > ansiā(y)ō (1sg. pres. ind.
act.); hence *ansiā-s-n̥t-s > Myc. *ansiāsas c. ἡμῖν ‘from us’ pron. pl. m. dat.:
*n̥sm-ey > Myc. *ahmi (§369) d. ἀπὸ ‘from’ prep.: *apo > Myc. *apo e. λοιγὸν
‘plague’ sg. m. acc.: extended *leyə-g- ‘waste away’ : *leyə-g-o-m > Myc.
*leygon g. ἀμῦναι ‘ward off’ aor. inf. act.: zero-grade augmented *mewə- ‘to
move’ (c.f. Pokorny p.743): *a-mu̯ə-nai (Gr. athem inf. ending, but varies with
dialect; uncertain for Myc.) > Myc. *amūnay

68. a. ἤτοι ‘truly’ partic.: = ἦ + τοι: ἦ ‘truly’ adv.: unknown root *ē > Myc.
*ē (possibly *ə₁es-ø ‘be, is’ > Myc. *ēs); *toy pron. sg. m. dat.: > Myc. *toy (not
replaced in East Gr. σοι in this case): > Myc. *ē=toy b. ὅ ‘it’ pron. n. sg. nom.:
*yod > Myc. *yo c. γe partic.: *ge (encl.) > Myc *=ge d. ὥς ‘so, thus’ adv.:
unknown root {hōs} > Myc. *hos e. εἰπὼν ‘spoke’ part. aor. act. sg. m. nom.:
root *wekʷ- ‘speak’ : *we-wkʷ-ōnt (no. aug., §557) > Myc. *weykʷōn f. κατα
‘down’ prep.: *kata > Myc. *kata g. ἄρ᾽ ‘then’ partic.: *r̥ > Myc. *or (pre-voc.)
h. ἕζετο ‘he sat himself’ 3sg. aor. ind. mid: redupl. *sed- ‘sit’: *si-sd-e-to > Myc.
*hisdeto (*hizeto) i. τοῖσι ‘the’ artic. (< pron. pl. m. dat.): *toysu (loc.) > Myc.
*toysi (dat., with *-su > PG *-si) j. δε ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de k.
ἀνέστη ‘he stood up’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: root *an- ‘on’ & e-grade *steə₂- ‘stand’:
*an=*(e)-steə₂-t > Myc. *on(e)stā
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 76

LINES 69–72

Κάλχας Θεστορίδης οἰωνοπόλων ὄχ᾽ ἄριστος,


ὃς ᾔδη τά τ᾽ ἐόντα τά τ᾽ ἐσσόμενα πρό τ᾽ ἐόντα,
καὶ νήεσσ᾽ ἡγήσατ᾽ Ἀχαιῶν Ἴλιον εἴσω
ἣν διὰ μαντοσύνην, τήν οἱ πόρε Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων:

RECONSTRUCTION

Kalkʰas Tʰestoridę̄s oyǭnopolǭn okʰ᾽ aristos,


Kalkʰās Tʰestoridās oywonokʷolōn hokʰa≈aristos,
hos ę̄Ydę̄ ta t᾽ eonta ta t᾽ essomena pro t᾽ eonta,
yos ewewidē tā=kʷe ehonta tā=kʷe essomena pro=kʷe
ehonta,
kay nę̄ess᾽ hę̄gę̄sat᾽ Akʰayǭn Ilion eisǭ
kas nāusi hāgāsato Akʰaywōn Wilion≈inō
hę̄n dia mantosunę̄n, tę̄n ohi pore Pʰoybos Apollǭn:
yān dwia montosunān, tān toy=pore pʰoygʷos Apollōn:

LINEAR B

ka-ka te-to-ri-da o-wo-no-qo-ro o-ka(≈a)-ri-to


yo e-we-wi-de ta=qe e-o-ta ta=qe e-so-me-na po-ro=qe e-o-ta
ka na-u-si a₂-ka-to a-ka-wo wi-ri-jo≈i-no
ja di-wi-a mo-to-su-na ta to=po-re po-qo a-po-ro

69. a. Κάλχας ‘Kalkhas’ sg. m. nom.: name ‘Kalkʰas’: zero-grade reduced


*gʰeleǵʰ- ‘copper?’: *gʰelǵʰ-eə₂-s > Myc. *kalkʰās (with *e > *a unexplained; the
root cannot be gʰl̥ǵʰ-, as this would yield ˣkolkʰ-, rather than the attested ka-
ko (kalkʰos) ‘bronze’) b. Θεστορίδης ‘son of Thestor’ sg. m. nom.: name
‘Tʰestor’ < *dʰes-tor ‘he who places (offerings)’: *dʰes-tor-{id}-eə₂-s >
Tʰestoridās (c.f. ʆʃ1d. on Myc. patronymics) c. οἰωνοπόλων ‘augur’s’ pl. m.
gen.: extended *oywo-no- ‘only’ > ‘solitary (bird)’ > ‘eagle’ (§389.1.A.a) & o-
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 77

grade *kʷel- ‘cycle’ > ‘pivot’: *oywo-no + *kʷol-ōm > Myc. *oywonokʷolōn d. ὄχα
‘by far’ adv. (only in Hom.): uncertain root, possibly o-grade seǵʰ- ‘possess,
hold’: *soǵʰ-m̥ > Myc. *hokʰa e. ἄριστος ‘best’ comp. adj. sg. m. nom.: root
*ə₂erə₁- ‘fit together’: *ə₂erə₁-i̯s-to-s > Myc. *aristos

70. a. ὃς ‘he’ pron. sg. m. nom.: *yos > Myc. *yos b. ᾔδη ‘he knew’ 3sg.
pluperf. ind. act.: root *weyd- ‘know’: PG. *(e)-we-wi̯d-e-e (§520) > Myc.
*(e)wewidē c. τά ‘the’ artic. (< pron. pl. n. acc.): *teə₂ > Myc. *tā d. τε ‘and’
partic.: *kʷe (encl.) > Myc. *=kʷe e. ἐόντα ‘(that which) is’ part. pres. act. pl.
n. acc.: zero-grade *ə₁es- ‘be’: *ə̥₁s-ont-ə̥₂ > Myc. *ehonta f. τά ‘the’ artic. (<
pron. pl. n. acc.): *teə₂ > Myc. *tā g. τε ‘and’ partic.: *kʷe (encl.) > Myc. *=kʷe
h. ἐσσόμενα ‘(that which will) be’ part. fut. mid. pl. n. acc.: zero-grade *ə₁es-
‘be’: *ə̥₁s-*(ə₁)s-o-meno-s (m.) > Myc. *essomenā (n.) (-os end replaced by *-ā <
*-eə₂) i. πρό ‘before’ prep.: *pro > Myc. *pro j. τε ‘and’ partic.: *kʷe (encl.) >
Myc. *=kʷe k. ἐόντα ‘(that which) is’ part. pres. act. pl. n. acc.: zero-grade
*ə₁es- ‘be’: *ə̥₁s-ont-ə̥₂ > Myc. *ehonta

71. a. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas b. νήεσσι ‘ships’ pl. f.
dat.: root *neə₂u- ‘boat, ship’ : *neə₂u-su (pl. loc.) > PG. nāupʰi > Myc. *nāusi
(displacing inherited nāupʰi, c.f. §328; N.B. Homeric form shows Aeol.
gemination; Myc. could also have inherited *nāupʰi) c. ἡγήσατο ‘guided
them’ 3sg. aor. ind. mid.: root *seə₂g- ‘seek’: *seə₂g-eə₂ye-sa-to > Myc. *hāgāsto
(causative suffix, c.f. §456.B2; Ion. seə₂g-eə₂ye-sa-to > hāgāsato > ἡγήσατο) d.
Ἀχαιῶν ‘Achaean’s’ adj. pl. m. gen.: name *{Akʰayw-}: *{Akʰayw}-ōm > Myc.
*Akʰaywōn e. Ἴλιον ‘Ilion’ sg. f. acc.: name *{Wili-}: *{Wili}-o-m > Myc.
*Wilion f. εἴσω ‘into’ adv.: root *en(i) ‘in’: denom. *en-yo > Myc. *inō (εἴσω
from late *en-s in acc. > *ēs + *-yo (denominative) > *ēsō > εἴσω c.f. §406.3)

72. a. ἣν ‘the’ artic. (< rel. pron. sg. f. acc.): *yeə₂-m > Myc. yān (§384.2) b.
διὰ prep.: root related to *dwi ‘two’ (c.f. §389.2.Ac): Myc. *{dwia} (cognates
attested in other G. dialects: Att. *dia, Aeol. za, Hom. dīa, poet diā, diai) c.
μᾱντοσύνην ‘oracular’ adj. sg. f. acc.: extended zero-grade *man- ‘mind,
thought’ & o-grade *som- ‘with’ > ‘linked to’: *mn̥-t-o- + *som-eə₂-m > Myc.
*montosunān (*n̥ > Myc. *on/no after labial; Ion. *mn̥- > man-, lengthened vowel
unexplained; *som- > (k)sun- unexplained, but the latter is attested in Myc.,
ku-su-) d. τήν ‘that’ dem. pron sg. f. acc.: *teə₂-m > Myc. tān e. οἱ ‘that’ artic.:
*toy > Myc. *toy (In Hom., *toy replaced by East Gr. *soy > hoy) f. πόρε ‘he
gave’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: o-grade *per- ‘pass over’: *por-e-t > Myc. *pore g.
Φοῖβος ‘Bright One’ adj. sg. m. nom.: o-grade *bʰeygʷ- ‘shine’: *bʰoyg-o-s > Myc.
*pʰoygʷos h. Ἀπόλλων ‘Apollo’ sg. n. nom.: name *{Apoli}- : *{Apoli}-ō-n (n-
stem, §286.5) > Myc. *Apollōn
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 78

LINES 73–76

ὅ σφιν ἐὺ φρονέων ἀγορήσατο καὶ μετέειπεν:


ὦ Ἀχιλεῦ κέλεαί με Διῒ φίλε μυθήσασθαι
μῆνιν Ἀπόλλωνος ἑκατηβελέταο ἄνακτος:
τοὶ γὰρ ἐγὼν ἐρέω: σὺ δὲ σύνθεο καί μοι ὄμοσσον

RECONSTRUCTION

ho spʰin ew pʰroneǭn agorę̄sato kay meteeypen:


ho=spʰi(n) ehu=pʰroneōn agorāsato kas metaweykʷe:
ǭ Akʰileu keleay me Diï pʰile mutʰę̄sastʰay
ō Akʰilew kelehoi=me Diwei pʰile mūtʰēsastʰay
mę̄nin Apollǭnos hekatę̄beletao anaktos:
monin Apollōnos hwekatagʷelatāo wanaktos:
toy gar egǭn ereǭ: su de suntʰeo kay moy omosson
kʷoy≈gor egō werehō: tu=de ksun=tʰēho kas=moy
omoson

LINEAR B

o=pi e-u=po-ro-ne-o a-ko-ra-sa-to ka me-ta-we=qe


o a-ki-re-u ke-re-o=me di-we-i pi-re mu-te-sa-ta
mo-ni a-po-ro-no we-ka-ta-qe-re-ta-o wa-na-ko-to
qo≈ko e-ko we-re-o tu=de ku-su=te-o ka=mo o-mo-so

73. a. ὅ ‘the’ artic. (< pron. sg. n. nom.): *so > Myc. *ho (§376) b. σφιν
‘they’ pron. pl. m. dat.: Greek root *spʰ-: *spʰ-i (<*-si loc.) > Myc. *spʰi(n) (pe-i
attested in Linear B; spʰ- is attested in Att., Ion., Dor., Ep., and Boet.; Aeol. has
dat. and acc. ἄσφι, ἄσφε; Syrac. and Cret. have ψιν, ψε: -ν attested in both East
and West Greek, Att.-Ion σφιν, σφισι c.f. §370b.) c. ἐὺ ‘good’ adv.: root *ə₁su-
‘good’; *ə₁su-ø > Myc. *ehu d. φρονέων ‘minded’ part. pres. act. sg. m. nom.:
root *gʷʰre- ‘breath’ > *gʷʰre-n- ‘breathers, i.e. lungs’ > ‘source of speech’ >
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 79

‘mind’: *gʷʰro-n-ye-ōn-ø (-ye- denom.) > Myc. *pʰroneōn e. ἀγορήσατο ‘they


met together (in assembly)’ 3sg. aor. ind. mid.: extended *ə₂ger-ā- ‘gather’:
*ə₂gor-ā-sa-to > Myc. *agorāsato f. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas
g. μετέειπεν ‘he spoke with’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: roots *me-ta ‘with, among’,
*wekʷ- ‘speak’: *me-t(a) + *we-wkʷ-e-t > Myc. *metaweykʷe(n) (no augment)

74. a. ὦ exclam.: *ō > Myc. *ō b. Ἀχιλεῦ ‘Achilles’ sg. m. voc.: name


*{Akʰil}-ēw-: *{Akʰil}-ew-ø > Myc. *Akʰilew (short theme vowel in voc.) c.
κέλεαί ‘you have commanded’ 2sg. pres. ind. mp.: extended root *kel-ə₁-
‘drive, set in motion’ > ‘command’: *kelə̥₁-tə₂o (ending replaced by PG *-soi) >
Myc. *kelehoi (Att.-Ion. *-soi > *-sai > -αι) d. με ‘me’ pron. sg. m. acc.: *me
(encl.) > Myc. *=me e. Διῒ ‘Zeus’ sg. m. dat.: zero-grade *dyew-‘sky, god’: *di̯w-i
(loc.) > Myc. *diwi f. φίλε ‘dear’ adj. sg. m. voc.: root uncertain *bʰil-
(Pokorny p.154 gives *bʰil-; φίλος is widely attested in all G. dialects): *pʰil-e-ø
> Myc. *pʰile g. μυθήσασθαι ‘to speak, discourse’ aor. inf. mp.: root uncertain
(but found in all G. dialects) *mūtʰ- ‘speech’ > denom. *mūtʰ-ye- > *mūtʰe-
‘speak’ vb. (post-2nd palatalisation): PG. *mūtʰē-sa-stʰai > Myc. *mūtʰēsastʰai

75. a. μῆνιν ‘rage’ sg. f. acc.: zero-grade *man- ‘mind, thought’: *mn̥-i-m >
Myc. *monin (c.f. ʆʃ1a.) b. Ἀπόλλωνος ‘Apollo’s’ sg. n. gen.: name *{Apoli}- :
*{Apoli}-ō-n-os (n-stem, §286.5) > Myc. *Apollōnos c. ἑκατηβελέταο ‘far-
shooting’ adj. sg. m. gen.: root *gʷel- ‘throw’ > *gʷel-n̥-t- > *gʷelat-: extended
unknown root *{(s)weka-ta} ‘far’: *{(s)weka-ta} +*gʷelat-ā-(y)o (§267.2) >
Myc. *hwekatagʷelatāo d. ἄνακτος ‘king’ sg. m. gen.: extended *{wanak}-t-
(attested in Myc. wa-na-ka): *{wanak}-t-os (consonant stem, c.f. §257.4) > Myc.
*wanaktos

76. a. τοὶ ‘then, so’ indef. pron.: *kʷoy > Myc. *kʷoy b. γὰρ ‘for’ partic.:
*ge (encl.) + *r̥ > Myc. *gor (or *ger) c. ἐγὼν ‘I’ pron. sg. m. nom.: root *eǵoə
(§363): *eǵoə > Myc. *egō (egōn is an Epic innovation before vowels) d. ἐρέω ‘I
will speak’ 1sg. fut. ind. act.: root *wer- ‘speak’: *wer-ə₁s-o-oə₂ > PG. *weresō >
Myc. *werehō (N.B. this future must be archaic—and hence inherited—in
order to account for the loss of intervocalic *s) e. σὺ ‘you’ pron. sg. nom.: *tū
> PG. *tŭ > Myc. *tu (Att.-Ion su) f. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de g.
σύνθεο ‘you must promise’ 2sg. aor. imperat. mid.: roots *sοm- > ?συν-
‘together’ (§389.1B.b2), but Myc. *kˢun- (ku-su-) & *dʰeə₁- ‘put’: *sun=*dʰeə₁-so
> Myc. *sun=tʰēho (with loss of *-h-, -ēo- > -eo- in Att.-Ion. §79.3, hence
suntʰeo) h. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas i. μοι ‘I’ pron. sg. m.
dat.: *moy (encl.) > Myc. *=moy j. ὄμοσσον ‘you must swear’ 2sg. aor. imperat.
act.: root uncertain, ?o-grade *ə₂emə₃- ‘force’ (§454.A3): *ə₂omə₃-s-on (§547.5) >
Myc. *omoson (gemination is Aeol. in aor. with short stem vowels)
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 80

LINES 77–80

ἦ μέν μοι πρόφρων ἔπεσιν καὶ χερσὶν ἀρήξειν:


ἦ γὰρ ὀΐομαι ἄνδρα χολωσέμεν, ὃς μέγα πάντων
Ἀργείων κρατέει καί οἱ πείθονται Ἀχαιοί:
κρείσσων γὰρ βασιλεὺς ὅτε χώσεται ἀνδρὶ χέρηϊ:

RECONSTRUCTION

ę̄ men moy propʰrǭn epesin kay kʰersin arę̄kˢẹ̄n:


ē men=moy propʰrōn wekʷesi kas kʰehrsi areksehen:
ę̄ gar oïomai andra kʰolǭsemen, hos mega pantǭn
ē≈gor oywomay andra kʰolōsemen, yos mega pantōn
Argẹ̄ǭn krateey kay hoy peytʰontay Akʰayoy:
Argēōn korteey kas toy=pītʰontoy Akʰaywoy:
krẹ̄ssǭn gar basilews hote kʰǭsetay andri kʰerę̄ï:
kerssōs≈gor gʷasilews ho=kʷe kʰowsetoy andri kʰerehi:

LINEAR B

e me=mo po-ro-po-ro we-qe-si ka ke-si a-re-ke-se-e


e≈ko o-wo-ma a-da-ra ko-ro-se-me jo me-ka pa-to
a-ke-o ko-te-e ka to=pi-to-to a-ka-wo
ke-so≈ko qa-si-re-u o=qe ko-u-se-to a-di-ri ke-re-i

77. a. ἦ ‘truly’ adv.: unknown root *ē > Myc. *ē b. μὲν ‘truly’ partic.:
unknown root *{men}: > Myc. *men c. μοι ‘I’ pron. sg. m. dat.: *moy (encl.) >
Myc. *=moy d. πρόφρων adj. sg. m. nom.: zero-grade *per ‘forward’; zero-
grade *gʷʰreə₁- ‘breath’ > ‘speak’ > ‘think’: *pr̥+gʷʰr̥ə₁-ōn (§286.4) > Myc.
*propʰrōn e. ἔπεσιν ‘words’ pl. n. dat.: root *wekʷ- ‘speak’: *wekʷ-e-su (loc.,
with *-su > PG *-si) > Myc. *wekʷesi (dat.) f. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so
Myc. *kas g. χερσὶν ‘hands’ pl. f. dat.: root *ǵʰesr- ‘hand’: *ǵʰesr-su (loc., with
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 81

*-su > PG *-si) > Myc. *kʰehrsi (dat.) h. ἀρήξειν ‘help’ fut. inf. act.: root *ə₃reǵ-
‘rule’: ə₃reǵ-(ə₁)s-e-sen > *aregsesen > Myc. *areksehen

78. a. ἦ ‘truly’ adv.: unknown root *ē > Myc. *ē b. γὰρ ‘for’ partic.: *ge
(encl.) + *r̥ > Myc. *gor (or *ger) c. ὀΐομαι ‘I think, suppose, believe’ 1sg. pres.
ind. mp.: root unknown (c.f 59e on *oy-wo- ‘solitary’): *oy-wo-{mai} (c.f. §436
on *-mai)> Myc. *oywomay d. ἄνδρα ‘man’ sg. m. acc.: zero-grade root *ə₂ner-
‘man’: *ə₂nr̥-m̥ > PG. *anra > Myc. *andra e. χολωσέμεν ‘provoke, anger’ fut.
inf. act: o-grade root *gʰel- ‘yellow’ > ‘gall’ > ‘anger’: gʰol-yo-(ə₁)s-{emen}
(ending attested West Greek dialects, so probably not in Myc. c.f. §552.2) >
Myc. *kʰolōsemen f. ὃς ‘he’ pron. sg. m. nom.: *yos > Myc. *yos g. μέγα ‘big’
adj. sg. n. acc.: *meǵə̥₂ ‘big’ > Myc. *mega (§343) h. πάντων ‘all’ adj. pl. m.
gen.: root *pant- ‘all’: *pant-ōm > Myc. *pantōn

79. a. Ἀργείων ‘of Argos’ adj. pl. m. gen.: name *{Argē-}: *{Argē}-ōm >
Myc. *Argēōn b. κρατέει ‘they are strong’ 3sg. pres. ind. act.: suffixed denom.
zero-grade *kar- ‘hard’: *kr̥t-ye-e-i (*-i §426) > Myc. *korteey (N.B. this form
must post-date the second palatalisation, otherwise the form would be
ˣkrosseey) c. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas d. οἱ ‘by him’ pron.
sg. m. dat.: *toy > Myc. *toy (In Hom., *toy replaced by East Gr. *soy > hoy) e.
πείθονται ‘persuaded them; they obey’ 3pl. pres. ind. mp.: root *bʰeydʰ- ‘to
trust’: *bʰeydʰ-ō-ntor > *pʰeytʰontoy > Myc. *pītʰontoy (with dissimulation of
aspirates; *e > *i in Normal Myc. adjacent to labials) f. Ἀχαιοὶ ‘Achaeans’ adj.
pl. m. nom.: name *{Akʰayw}-: *{Akʰayw}-o-y (pronomial form) > Myc.
*Akʰaywoy

80. a. κρείσσων ‘stronger’ comp.-adj. sg. m. nom.: metathesised suffixed


root *kar- (var. *ker-) ‘hard’: *kret-yōs (nom.) > *kretˢōs > *kretˢyōs > Myc.
*kressōs (§197, Mycenaean shows no trace of comparatives based on *-is-on,
from which types -ōn developed, c.f. §354.4b) b. γὰρ ‘for’ partic.: *ge (encl.) +
*r̥ > Myc. *gor (or *ger) c. βασιλεὺς ‘ruler’ sg. m. nom.: unknown, possible
root {gʷatil}-: *{gʷatil}-ew-s > Myc. *gʷasilews (attested in Myc., qa-si-re-u) d.
ὅτε ‘when’ conj.: roots *so (dem. pron.) & *kʷe ‘and’ (encl.): *so+*kʷe > Myc.
*ho=kʷe e. χώσεται ‘troubled him’ 3sg. aor. subj. mid.: o-grade *ǵʰeu- ‘to
pour’: *ǵʰow-s-e-tor (short stem athem. subj. 535) > Myc *kʰowsetoy f. ἀνδρὶ
‘man’ sg. m. dat.: zero-grade root *ə₂ner-: *ə₂n̥r-i (loc.) > *anry (dat.) > Myc.
*andri g. χέρηϊ ‘weaker, inferior’ adj. sg. m. dat.: *ǵʰer- ‘small, short’
(Pokorny 443): *ǵʰer-yes-i (sg. loc. §354, N.B. comparatives based on *-is-on-
are unknown in Myc., only *-yos-) > *kʰeryesi > Myc. *kʰerehi (χερείων is Epic
of χείρων < *χεριων, c.f. Aeol. χερρων)
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 82

LINES 81–84

εἴ περ γάρ τε χόλον γε καὶ αὐτῆμαρ καταπέψῃ,


ἀλλά τε καὶ μετόπισθεν ἔχει κότον, ὄφρα τελέσσῃ,
ἐν στήθεσσιν ἑοῖσι: σὺ δὲ φράσαι εἴ με σαώσεις.
τὸν δ᾽ ἀπαμειβόμενος προσέφη πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς:

RECONSTRUCTION

ẹ̄ per gar te kʰolon ge kay awtę̄mar katapepˢę̄Y,


ē=per gor=kʷe kʰolon=ge kas awtāmor katapikʷsēy,
alla te kay metopistʰen ekʰey koton, opʰra telessę̄Y,
allā=kʷe kas metopitʰen hekʰey koton, opʰra kʷelesēy,
en stę̄tʰessin heoysi: su de pʰrasay ẹ̄ me saǭseys.
in=stētʰesi (h)weoysi: tu=de pʰrosoy ē=me sawōsehi.
ton d᾽ apameybomenos prosepʰę̄ podas ǭkus Akʰillews:
ton=de apameygʷomenos prosepʰā podas ōkus Akʰilews

LINEAR B

e=pe=ka=qe ko-ro=ke ka au-ta-mo ka-ta-pi-qe-se


a-ra=qe ka me-to-pi-te e-ke ko-to o-pa-ra qe-re-se
i=te-te-si we-o-si tu=de po-ro-so e-me sa-wo-se-i
to=de a-pa-me-qo-me-no po-ro-se-pa po-da o-ku a-ki-re-u

81. a. εἴ ‘if’ conj.: *ē > Myc. *ē (Att.-Ion. εἴ, Arc.-Cypr. εἰ, ἠ) b. περ ‘very’
partic.: uncertain root, but probably *per- ‘front’ > ‘chief, first, foremost’:
*per- > Myc. *=per (encl.) c. γάρ ‘for’ partic.: *ge (encl.) + *r̥ > Myc. *gor (or
*ger) d. τε ‘and’ partic.: root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe e. χόλον ‘gall, bile’ sg.
m. acc.: o-grade root *gʰel- ‘yellow’ > ‘bile’: *gʰol-o-m > Myc. *kʰolon f f. γε
partic.: *ge (encl.) > Myc. *=ge g. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas
h. αὐτῆμαρ ‘on the same day’ adv.: extended *au- (?or zero-grade *ə₂ew-)
‘self’ & zero-grade *āmer- ‘day’: *au-t-āmr̥-ø > Myc. *awtāmor i. καταπέψῃ ‘he
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 83

should swallow’ 3sg. aor. subj. act.: roots κατα ‘down’ prep. & *pekʷ- ‘ripen,
cook’: *kata +*pekʷ-s-e-e-i > Myc. *katapikʷsēy (*e > *i in Normal Myc.
adjacent to labials)

82. a. ἀλλὰ ‘otherwise’ adv.: root *ə₂ely- ‘other’: *ə₂ely-ə̥₂ > PGr. *alya >
Myc. *alla b. τε ‘and’ partic.: root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe c. καὶ ‘and’ conj.:
Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas d. μετόπισθεν ‘behind, in the rear’ adv.: roots
*me=t(a) ‘behind’ (pre-vocalic) & o-grade *ə₂ep(o)- ‘away’ (§47): *me=t(a)+ə₂op-
i-dʰen (abl. ‘place from’) > Myc. *metopitʰen e. ἔχει ‘he has, holds, keeps’ 3sg.
pres. ind. act.: root *seǵʰ- ‘to hold’: *seǵʰ-e-i (*-i them. stem) > Myc. *hekʰey f.
κότον ‘grudge’ sg. m. acc.: unknown root *{kot-}: *{kot}-o-m > Myc. *koton g.
ὄφρα ‘until’ conj.: uncertain root, possibly augmented zero-grade *bʰer- ‘bear,
carry’: *o-bʰr̥-m̥ (acc.) > Myc. *opʰra h. τελέσσῃ ‘he should fulfil’ 3sg. aor.
subj. act.: root *kʷelə₁- ‘cycle’ > ‘complete’: *kʷelə₁-s-e-e-i > Myc. *kʷelesēi (aor.
(ἐ)τελέσσα is strictly Epic; the normal form is (ἐ)τελέσα)

83. a. ἐν ‘in, on’ prep.: *en (procl.): > Myc. *in= b. στήθεσσιν ‘chest’ pl.
n. dat.: unknown root *{stētʰ-}: *{stētʰ}-e-su (loc., with *-su > PG *-si) >
stētʰesi (Hom. uses Aeol. gemination) c. ἑοῖσι his’ adj. pl. m. dat.: *swe-
‘him/her’ (c.f. §367.4): *swe-oy-su (loc.) > Myc *hweoysi (dat.) d. σὺ ‘you’
pron. sg. nom.: *tu > Myc. *tu e. δὲ ‘and’ partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de f.
φράσαι ‘show, point out to you’ 2sg. aor. imperat. mid.: zero-grade *gʷʰren-
(usually given as ‘to think’, but derived from ‘breath’, making a connection
with ‘point out’ difficult): * gʷʰrn̥-tə₂or (here, the 2sg. indicative is used for the
impertative, c.f. §546.2, also §436.2) > Myc. *pʰrosoy (*-tə₂or replaced by later
*-soy > -say on analogy to 2nd ind. mid. ending, c.f. §436.2) g. εἴ ‘if’ conj.: *ē >
Myc. *ē (Att.-Ion. εἴ, Arc.-Cypr. εἰ, ἠ) h. με ‘me’ sg. m. acc.: *me (encl.) > Myc.
*=me i. σαώσεις ‘will keep safe’ 2sg. fut. ind. act.: uncertain root {*sawo-}
‘safe’ (widely attested in Greek: c.f. Cypr. personal name ΣαƑοκλέƑης): *sawo-
ə₁s-e-si > Myc. *sawōsehi (> *sawōsey > Att. saōseys, with final -s imported
from secondary forms, c.f. §425)

84. a. τὸν ‘the’ artic. (< pron. m. sg. acc.): *tom > Myc. *ton b. δὲ ‘and’
partic.: *de (encl.) > Myc. *=de c. ἀπαμειβόμενος ‘answer, reply’ part. pres.
mp. sg. m. nom.: *apo-/*ə₂ep(o)- ‘away’ & extended root *ə₂mei-gʷ- ‘change,
exchange’: *ap=ə₃meigʷ-o-meno-s > Myc. *apameygʷomenos d. προσέφη ‘speak
to, address’ 3sg. imperf. ind. act.: roots zero-grade metath. *per- ‘in front of’
& zero-grade *bʰeə₂- ‘speak’: *pro(s)=(e)bʰə̥₂-e-t > Myc. *propʰā (prosepʰā can
only be formed after the ε-augment becomes mandatory for imperfects, post-
Myc.) e. πόδας ‘feet’ pl. m. acc.: o-grade root *ped- ‘foot’: *pod-m̥s > Myc.
*podas f. ὠκὺς ‘swift’ adj. sg. m. nom.: *eə₃ḱu- ‘quick’ (117.1): *eə₃ḱu-s > Myc.
*ōkus g. Ἀχιλλεύς ‘Achilles’ m. sg. nom.: name *{Akʰil}-ew-: *{Akʰil}-ew-s >
Myc. *Akʰilews
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 84

LINES 85–88

θαρσήσας μάλα εἰπὲ θεοπρόπιον ὅ τι οἶσθα:


οὐ μὰ γὰρ Ἀπόλλωνα Διῒ φίλον, ᾧ τε σὺ Κάλχαν
εὐχόμενος Δαναοῖσι θεοπροπίας ἀναφαίνεις,
οὔ τις ἐμεῦ ζῶντος καὶ ἐπὶ χθονὶ δερκομένοιο

RECONSTRUCTION

tʰarsę̄sas mala eype tʰeopropion ho ti oystʰa:


tʰorsēsas≈mola weykʷe tʰehopropion yo=kʷi woystʰa:
ou ma gar Apollǭna Diï pʰilon, hǭY te su Kalkʰan
oyu=ma=gor Apollōna diwey pʰilon tōy=kʷe tu=Kalkʰān
eukʰomenos Danaoisi tʰeopropias anapʰaynẹ̄s,
eukʰomenos Danayoyhi tʰehopropiāns onapʰannehi
ọ̄ tis emeu zǭntos kay epi kʰtʰoni derkomenoyo
oyu=kʷis emeyo zōntos kas ipi≈kʰtʰoni derkomenohyo

LINEAR B

to-se-sa mo-ra we-i-qe te-o-po-ro-pi-jo jo=qi wo-ta


o-u=ma≈ko a-po-ro-na di-we pi-ro to=qe tu≈ka-ka
e-u-ko-me-no da-na-jo-i te-o-po-ro-pi-ja o-na-pa-ne-i
o-u=qi e-me-jo zo-to ka i-pi≈ko-to-ni de-ko-me-no-jo

85. a. θαρσήσας ‘be of good courage’ part. aor. act. sg. m. nom.: zero-
grade deverb. *dʰers- ‘dare, be brave’ (§96): dʰr̥s-ye-s-n̥t-s > *tʰorsēsats
(lengthened stem vowel by analogy, c.f. §505.2) > Myc. *tʰorsēsas b. μάλα
‘very’ adv.: zero-grade *mel- ‘strong, big’: *ml̥-m̥ (acc.) > Myc. *mola c. εἰπὲ
‘speak’ aor. imperat. act.: redupl. root *wekʷ- ‘speak’: *we-wkʷ-e-ø > Myc.
*weykʷe d. θεοπρόπιον ‘an oracle, prophecy’ sg. n. acc.: extended zero-grade
*dʰeə₁-s- ‘put’ > ‘offering’ > ‘god’; o-grade deverbative *prep- ‘to appear’: *dʰə₁-
s-o- + *prop-yo-m > Myc. *tʰehopropion e. ὅ ‘the’ article (< pron. sg. n. nom.):
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 85

*yod > Myc. *yo f. τι ‘anything’ pron. sg. n. acc.: *kʷid > Myc. *kʷi g. οἶσθα
know’ 2sg. perf. ind. act.: o-grade *weyd- ‘see’: *woyd-tʰa (c.f. §514 for ending)
> Myc. *woystʰa (δ + θ > σθ, c.f. §212)

86. a. οὐ adv.: Myc. *oyu (c.f. ʆʃ24b.) b. μὰ ‘by’ partic.: unknown root
*{ma}: Myc. *ma c. γὰρ ‘for’ partic.: *ge (encl.) + *r̥ > Myc. *gor (or *ger) d.
Ἀπόλλωνα ‘Apollo’ sg. n. acc.: name *{Apoli}-: *{Apoli}-ō-n-m̥ (n-stem, §286.5)
> Myc. *Apollōna e. Διῒ ‘Zeus’ sg. m. dat.: zero-grade *dyew-‘sky, god’: *di̯w-ey
> Myc. *diwey (Hom. Διῒ either sg. loc. or reflection of Special Myc. sg. loc. -i)
f. φίλον ‘beloved, dear’ adj. sg. m. acc. uncertain Greek root *{pʰil-} (widely
attested in all Greek dialects): *{pʰil}-o-m > Myc. *pʰilon g. ᾧ ‘the’ (< pron. sg.
m. dat.): *to-sm-ey > reduced to *to-ey > Myc. *tōy (Ion. : remodelled on ὁ, ἡ)
h. τε ‘and’ partic.: root *kʷe (encl.) > Myc *=kʷe i. σὺ ‘you’ pron. sg. nom.: *tu
> Myc. *tu j. Κάλχαν sg. m. voc.: name ‘Kalkʰas’: zero-grade reduced *gʰeleǵʰ-
‘copper?’: *gʰelǵʰ-eə₂-m > Myc. *kalkʰān (with *e > *a unexplained; the root
cannot be gʰl̥ǵʰ-, as this would yield ˣkolkʰ-, rather than the attested ka-ko
(kalkʰos) ‘bronze’)

87. a. εὐχόμενος ‘prayer’ part. pres. mp. sg. m. nom.: root *ə₁wegʷʰ- ‘speak
solemnly’, metathesised to *ə₁eu̯gʷʰ-: *ə₁(e)u̯gʷʰ-o-men-o-s > Myc. *eukʰomenos
b. Δαναοῖσι ‘to the Danaans’ pl. m. dat.: name {*Danay-}: *{Danay}-oy-su (loc.,
with *-su > PG *-si) > Myc. *Danayoyhi c. θεοπροπίας ‘oracles’ pl. f. acc.:
extended o-grade *dʰeə₁-s- ‘put’ > ‘offering’ > ‘god’ & o-grade denom. *prep- ‘to
appear’: *dʰeə₁-s-o- + *prop-y(o)-eə₂-ms > tʰehopropiāns d. ἀναφαίνεις ‘you
show, bring to light’ 2sg. pres. ind. act.: roots *an(a) ‘on’ & extended zero-
grade *bʰeə₂- ‘shine’: *bʰə̥₂-n-yo- (pres.) > PG *pʰanyo > Myc. *pʰanno- ; *an(a) +
*pʰann-e-si > Myc. *onapʰannehi (*pʰanyo > *pʰañño > Att. pʰayno-, with final
-s restored in Att.)

88. a. οὔ adv.: Myc. *oyu (c.f. ʆʃ24b.) b. τις ‘anyone, anything’ pron. sg. m.
nom.: *kʷis (encl.) > Myc. *=kʷis c. ἐμεῦ ‘me’ (restressed encl. μευ) pron. sg.
m. gen.: *(e)-me-syo > Myc. *emehyo d. ζῶντος ‘live’ part. pres. act. sg. m.
gen.: metath. o-grade *gʷeyə₃- ‘to live’ > *gʷyeə₃-: *gʷyoə₃-nt-os > Myc. *zōntos
e. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas f. ἐπὶ ‘on’ prep.: *ep-i (loc. sg.) >
Myc. *ipi g. χθονὶ ‘earth’ sg. f. dat.: o-grade root *dʰǵʰem- ‘earth’ : *dʰǵʰom-ey
> PG. *tʰkʰoni > Myc. *kʰtʰoni (with metathesis) h. δερκομένοιο ‘see clearly’
part. pres. mid. sg. m. gen.: root *derk- ‘to see’: *derk-o-meno-syo > Myc.
*derkomenohyo
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 86

LINES 89–92

σοὶ κοίλῃς παρὰ νηυσί βαρείας χεῖρας ἐποίσει


συμπάντων Δαναῶν, οὐδ᾽ ἢν Ἀγαμέμνονα εἴπῃς,
ὃς νῦν πολλὸν ἄριστος Ἀχαιῶν εὔχεται εἶναι.
καὶ τότε δὴ θάρσησε καὶ ηὔδα μάντις ἀμύμων:

RECONSTRUCTION

soy koylēYs para nę̄usi bareyas kʰẹ̄ras epoysey


toy=kowilāys pora≈nāupʰi gʷorehyāns kʰehras ipoysey
sumpantǭn Danaǭn, owd᾽ ēn Agamemnona eypę̄Ys,
ksumpanton Danayōn oyu=de ēn=Agamemnona
weykʷēhi
hos nun pollon aristos Akʰayǭn eukʰetay ẹ̄nay.
yos≈nūn polewon aristos Akʰaywōn eukʰetoy ēsnay
kay tote dę̄ tʰarsę̄se kay ę̄wda mantis amumǭn:
kas=kʷokʷe≈dē tʰorseyese kas eawda montis amumōns:

LINEAR B

to=ko-wi-ra po-ra na-u-pi qo-re-ja ke-ra i-po-i-se


ku-su-pa-to da-na-jo o-u=de a=na-ka-me-no-na we-qe-i
jo≈nu po-re-wo a-ri-to a-ka-wo e-u-ke-to e-na
ka=qo-qe≈de to-se-je-se ka e-au-da mo-ti a-mu-mo

89. a. σοὶ ‘you’ pron. sg. dat.: *toi (ton.) > Myc. *toy b. κοίλῃς ‘hollow’ adj.
pl. f. dat.: o-grade *ḱeuə- ‘cup, hollow’: *ḱou̯ə-l-eə₂-ys (modelled on pl. m. dat.
*-ōys) > Myc. *kowilāys (c.f. ʆʃ26d.) c. παρὰ ‘beside’ prep.: zero-grade *per- ‘in
front of’ > ‘near’ (development unclear): *pr̥-m̥? > Myc. *pora d. νηυσί ‘ships’
pl. f. dat.: *neə₂u- ‘ship’: *neə₂u-su (pl. loc.) > PG. nāupʰi > Myc. *nāusi
(displacing inherited nāupʰi, c.f. §328; Myc. could also have inherited
*nāupʰi) e. βαρείας ‘heavy’ adj. pl. f. acc.: extended zero-grade *gʷer(ə₂)-
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 87

‘heavy’: *gʷr̥-es-ye-eə₂-ms > *gʷoresyāns > Myc. *gʷorehyāns f. χεῖρας pl. f.


acc.: root *ǵʰesr- ‘hand’: *ǵʰesr-m̥s > Myc. *kʰehras g. ἐποίσει ‘he will bear
upon’ 3sg. fut. ind. act.: roots *ep- ‘on’, o-grade *ei- ‘to go’ (suppletive of
*bʰer- ‘bear, carry’) (Pokorny 293) : *ep- + *oi-(ə₁)s-e-i > Myc. *ipoysey (*e > *i in
Normal Myc. adjacent to labials)

90. a. συμπάντων ‘all together’ adj. pl. m. gen.: PG. *(k)sun- ‘same’
(§389.1.Bb; attested in Myc., ku-su-), *pant- ‘all’: *(k)sun + pant-ōm > Myc.
*ksumpanton b. Δαναῶν ‘Danaans’ pl. m. gen.: name {*Danay-}: *{Danay}-ōm
> Myc. Danayōn c. οὐδ᾽ ‘but not’ partic.: Myc. *oyu=de (c.f. ʆʃ24b) d. ἢν ‘if’
conj.: *ē > Myc. *ē (Att.-Ion. εἴ, Arc.-Cypr. εἰ, ἠ), hence Myc. *ēn (pre-vocalic)
e. Ἀγαμέμνονα ‘Agamemnon’ sg. m. acc.: name, zero-grade *meǵə₂- ‘big’,
*m̥gə́ ₂- > *aga- & redupl. *men- ‘remain’ > *memn- ‘resolute’, *m̥gə́ ₂-memn-on-m̥
(n-stem, c.f. §286.5) > Myc. Agamemnona f. εἴπῃς ‘you said’ 2sg. aor. subj.
act.: *wekʷ- ‘speak’: *wewkʷ-e-e-si > Myc. *weykʷēhi (> *weypēis > Att. eypēis)

91. a. ὃς ‘he’ pron. sg. m. nom.: *yos > Myc. *yos b. νῦν ‘now’ adv.: *nūn >
Myc. *nūn c. πολλὸν ‘many’ adj. sg. m. acc.: root *pelə₁u- ‘fill’: *pl̥ə₁u-o-m >
Myc. *polewon (> *poleon > *polyon > pollon, c.f. ʆʃ3a) d. ἄριστος ‘best’ comp.
adj. sg. m. nom.: root *ə₁arə₁- ‘fit together’ (Watkins): *ə₁arə₁-i̯s-to-s > Myc.
*aristos e. Ἀχαιῶν ‘Achaean’s’ adj. pl. m. gen.: name *{Akʰayw-}: *{Akʰayw}-
ōm > Myc. *Akʰaywōn f. εὔχεται ‘pray’ 3sg. pres. ind. mp.: aug. zero-grade
root *ə₁wegʷʰ- ‘preach’: *ə₁wgʷʰ-e-tor > Myc. *eukʰetoy (*-toy > -tay in later
Gr.) g. εἶναι ‘to be’ pres. inf. act.: *ə₁es- ‘be’: *ə₁es-nai (Gr. athem inf. ending,
but varies with dialect; uncertain for Myc.) > Myc. *esnay

92. a. καὶ ‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas b. τότε ‘then’ adv.:
roots *kʷo- (interrog. adj. pron. sg. m. nom.) & *kʷe ‘and’ (encl.) (c.f. §381): >
Myc. *kʷokʷe c. δὴ partic. emphasising exactness: unknown root: Myc. *dē
d. θάρσησε ‘dare’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: zero-grade *dʰers- ‘dare’ with
unexplained iterative suffix (possibly analogical only): *dʰr̥s-eye-s-t > Myc.
*tʰoreyese (with loss of intervocalic -y- > tʰareese > Att.-Ion. tʰarēse) e. καὶ
‘and’ conj.: Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas f. ηὔδα ‘he spoke’ 3sg. imperf. act.:
extended *ə₁au-dʰ- ‘to perceive’: *audʰ-ə₂e-yo-oə₂ (1sg. ind. act.) > *audayō >
Myc. *awdaō (c.f. §462 on shortening of stem vowel in pres. & imperf.); hence
*(e)-awda-t (3sg. imperf. act.) > Myc. *(e)awda g. μάντις ‘prophet’ sg. m.
nom.: extended zero-grade *man- ‘hold’ > ‘perceive’ : *mn̥-ti-s > Myc. *montis
(c.f. ʆʃ1a.; *-ti- ≯ *-si- unexplained, §148.2) h. ἀμύμων ‘blameless’ adj. sg. m.
nom.: n̥- ‘not’; unknown root {mum}- (the base μῶμος ‘blame’ points to a root
*mow-m-/*mu̯m-): * n̥-{mu̯m}-ont-s > Myc. *amumons
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 88

LINES 93–96

οὔ τ᾽ ἄρ ὅ γ᾽ εὐχωλῆς ἐπιμέμφεται οὐδ᾽ ἑκατόμβης,


ἀλλ᾽ ἕνεκ᾽ ἀρητῆρος ὃν ἠτίμης᾽ Ἀγαμέμνων,
οὐδ᾽ ἀπέλυσε θύγατρα καὶ οὐκ ἀπεδέξατ᾽ ἄποινα,
τοὔνεκ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἄλγε᾽ ἔδωκεν ἑκηβόλος ἠδ᾽ ἔτι δώσει:

RECONSTRUCTION

ou t᾽ ar ho g᾽ eukʰǭlę̄s epimempʰetay owd᾽ hekatombę̄s,


oyu=kʷe≈oro ho=ge ewekʰās ipimempʰitoy oyu=de
(he)katomgʷās,
all᾽ henek᾽ arę̄tę̄ros hon ę̄timę̄s᾽ Agamemnǭn,
alla heneka arāteros ton akʷimāse Agamemnōn,
owd᾽ apeluse tʰugatra kay owk apedekˢat᾽ apoyna,
oyu=de apoluse tʰugatra kas oyuk=apedeksato akʷoyna,
tounek᾽ ar᾽ alge᾽ edǭken hekę̄bolos ę̄d᾽ eti dǭsey:
kʷo=neka≈ara algya edōke hwekagʷolos=ēde≈eti dōsey:

LINEAR B

o-u=qe≈o-ro ho=ke e-we-ka i-pi-me-pi-to o-u=de (e)-ka-to-qa


a-ra e-ne-ka a-ra-te-ro to a-qi-ma-se a-ka-me-no
o-u=de a-po-ru-se tu-ka-ta-ra ka o-u-ka=pe-de-ko-sa-to a-qo-na
qo=e-ne-ka≈(a)-ra a-ka-ja e-do-ke we-ka-qo-ro=se-de≈e-ti do-se

93. a. οὔ adv.: Myc. *oyu (c.f. 24b) b. τε ‘and’ partic.: *kʷe (encl.) > Myc.
*=kʷe c. ἄρ ‘then’ partic.: *r̥ > Myc. *oro (pre-cons.) d. ὅ ‘the’ artic. (< pron.
sg. m. nom.): *so > Myc. *ho e. γε partic.: *ge > Myc. *ge f. εὐχωλῆς ‘prayer’
sg. f. gen.: root *ə₁wegʷʰ- ‘preach’: *ə₁wegʷʰ-eə₂-es > Myc. *ewekʰās (εὐχωλή is
Epic for εὐχή) g. ἐπιμέμφεται ‘cast blame on’ 3sg. pres. ind. act.: *ep(i)- ‘on’ &
*membʰ- ‘curse, blame’: *ep(i)+membʰ-e-tor > Myc. *ipimempʰitoy h. οὐδε
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 89

partic. = οὐ + δε: *oyu=de (c.f. ʆʃ24b.) i. ἑκατόμβης ‘sacrifice of a hundred


cattle’ sg. f. gen.: roots *ḱm̥tom ‘hundred’ & *gʷow- ‘cow’: *ḱm̥tom-gʷ/ow- > e-
katomgʷ-ās > Myc. *hekatomgʷās (end remodeled on G. sg. f. gen. -ās < *-eə₂-
es)

94. a. ἀλλὰ ‘otherwise’ adv.: root *ə₂ely- ‘other’: *ə₂ely-ə̥₂ > PGr. *alya >
Myc. *ālla b. ἕνεκα ‘because of’ prep.: unknown root: *{heneka} > Myc.
*heneka c. ἀρητῆρος ‘one that prays’ sg. f. gen.: zero-grade *ōr-/*ə₂or- ‘speak’
> *ə₂r-eə₂-ø > Myc. *arā ‘prayer’ (sg. f. nom): *ə₂r-eə₂-ter-o-s (with ‘tool-maker’s
suffix’) > Myc. *arāteros (> arātēros in later Gr.) d. ὃν ‘the’ pron. sg. m. acc.:
*tom > Myc *ton (later forms influenced by ὁ, ἡ) e. ἠτίμησε ‘dishonour,
disdain’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: *n̥- ‘not’ & extended zero-grade *kʷeyə- ‘value,
honour’: *(e)-n̥-kʷi̯ə-m-eə₂-s-t > Myc. *akʷimāse f. Ἀγαμέμνων ‘Agamemnon’
sg. m. voc.: name, zero-grade *meǵə₂- ‘big’ > *aga-, & redupl. *men- ‘remain’ >
*memn- ‘resolute’; *m̥gə́ ₂-memn-ō-n-ø (n-stem, §286.5) > Myc. *Agamemnōn

95. a. οὐδε ‘but not’ partic.: *oyu=de (c.f. ʆʃ24b) b. ἀπέλυσε ‘he released
from’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: *apo ‘away’ & zero-grade *lew- ‘loose’: *apo + *lu̯-s-t >
Myc. *apoluse (-e inserted in 3sg. aor.) c. θύγατρα ‘daughter’ sg. f. acc.: zero-
grade *dʰugə₂ter- ‘daughter’: *dʰugə₂tr̥-m̥ > Myc. *tʰugatra d. καὶ ‘and’ conj.:
Arc.-Cyp. kas, so Myc. *kas e. οὐκ ‘not’ adv.: Myc. *oyuk (c.f. ʆʃ24b) f.
ἀπεδέξατο ‘accept from him, take away from him’ 3sg. aor. ind. mid.: *ap-
‘away’; *dek- ‘take’: *ap + *(e)-dek-sa-to > Myc. *ap(e)deksato g. ἄποινα
‘ransom (lit. ‘unpaid’)’ pl. n. acc.: *n̥- ‘not’, extended o-grade *kʷey-n- ‘pay’:
*n̥=kʷoy-n-ə̥₂ > Myc. *akʷoyna

96. a. τοὔνεκα ‘therefore’ adv. = τοῦ + νεκα: *kʷo- ‘where’ + unknown root:
*{neka}: Myc. *kʷo=neka b. ἄρ ‘then’ partic.: *r̥ > Myc. *or (pre-voc.) c.
ἄλγεα ‘pain’ pl. m. acc.: denom. unknown root {*alg-}: *{alg}-ye-o-s (sg. m.
nom.) > PG *algyeos, reanalysed as *algyea (sg. n. acc.) > Myc *algya
(synizesis c.f. §233) d. ἔδωκεν ‘give, grant’ 3sg. aor. ind. act.: *deə₃- ‘to give’:
*(e)-deə₃-k-e (κ-aor.) > *Myc. (e)dōke (final -n in Att.) e. ἑκηβόλος ‘far-aiming’
adj. sg. m. nom.: unknown extended root *{(s)we}+{ka}- ‘far’, o-grade *gʷel-
‘to throw, shoot’: *{(s)weka}- +gʷol-o-s > Myc. *hwekagʷolos f. ἠδε ‘and’ conj.:
unknown root *{ē} + *de ‘and’ (encl.) > Myc. *=ēde g. ἔτι ‘yet still’ adv.:
unknown root: Myc. *eti h. δώσει ‘give, grant’ 3sg. fut. ind. act.: o-grade or o-
coloured *deə₃- ‘to give’: *doə₃-(ə₁)s-e-i > Myc. *dōsey
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 90

LINES 97–100

οὐδ᾽ ὅ γε πρὶν Δαναοῖσιν ἀεικέα λοιγὸν ἀπώσει


πρίν γ᾽ ἀπὸ πατρὶ φίλῳ δόμεναι ἑλικώπιδα κούρην
ἀπριάτην ἀνάποινον, ἄγειν θ᾽ ἱερὴν ἑκατόμβην
ἐς Χρύσην: τότε κέν μιν ἱλασσάμενοι πεπίθοιμεν.

RECONSTRUCTION

owd᾽ ho ge prin Danaoysin aeykea loygon apǭsey


oyu-de ho=ge pron Danayoyhi aweykea loygon
apowōssey
prin g᾽ apo patri pʰilǭ domenay helikǭpida kọ̄rę̄n
i

pron=ge apo≈patri pʰilōy domenay welikopida korwān


apriatę̄n anapoynon, agẹ̄n tʰ᾽ hierę̄n hekatombę̄n
akʷriatān anakʷoynon, agehen=kʷe iherēwān
(he)katomgʷān
es Kʰrusę̄n: tote ken min hilassamenoy pepitʰoymen.
ens≈Kʰrūsen: kʷokʷe=ana=min hilasamenoy pipitʰoymen.

LINEAR B

o-u=de o=ke po-ro da-na-jo-i a-we-ke-a ro-ko a-po-wo-se


po-ro=ke a-po≈pa-ti-ri pi-ro do-me-na we-ri-ko-pi-da ko-wa
a-qi-ri-a-ta a-na-qo-no a-ke-e=qe i-je-re-wa (e)-ka-to-qa
e≈ku-ru-se qo-qe=a-na=mi i-ra-sa-me-no pi-pi-to-me

97. a. οὐδε ‘but’ partic.: Myc. *oyu-de (c.f. ʆʃ24b) b. ὅ ‘the’ artic.: *so >
Myc. *ho c. γε partic.: *ge (encl.) > Myc. *=ge d. πρὶν ‘before, until’ adv.:
zero-grade *per- ‘forward, before, in front of’, but development unclear: *pr̥-
m̥ > Myc. *pron e. Δαναοῖσιν ‘Danaans’ pl. m. dat.: name {*Danay-}: {*Danay}-
oy-si > Myc. *Danayoyhi (§260.4) f. ἀεικέα ‘unseemly, shameful’ adj. sg. m.
acc.: roots *n̥- ‘not’ & denom. *weyk- ‘to be like’ > ‘to seem’: *n̥-weyk-ye-o-s (sg.
m. nom.) > *aweykeos, reinterpreted as *aweyke-m̥ (adj. sg. m. acc.) > Myc.
A MYCENEAEN ILIAD: 91

*aweykea g. λοιγὸν ‘plague’ sg. m. acc.: extended o-grade root *leyə-g- ‘waste
away’ : *loyə-g-o-m > Myc. *loygon h. ἀπώσει ‘he will push back, drive away’
3sg. fut. ind. act.: *apo ‘away’ & extended o-grade *wedʰə- ‘to push, strike’:
*apo + *wōdʰ(ə)-(ə₁)s-e-i > *apowōtʰsey > Myc. *apowōssey

98. a. πρίν ‘sooner’ adv.: zero-grade *per- ‘forward, before, in front of’,
but development unclear: *pr̥-m̥ > Myc. *pron b. γε partic.: *ge (encl.) > Myc.
*=ge c. ἀπὸ ‘away, from’ prep.: *apo > Myc. *apo d. πατρὶ ‘father’ sg. m. dat.:
zero-grade *pə₂ter- ‘father’: *pə₂tr̥-i > Myc. *patri e. φίλῳ ‘dear’ adj. sg. m.
dat.: uncertain Greek root *{pʰil-} (widely attested in all dialects): *{pʰil}-o-ey
> Myc. *pʰilōy f. δόμεναι ‘to give’ aor. inf. act.: zero-grade *deə₃- ‘give’: *də̥₃-
men-ai (c.f. 552.A2 for ending; however this form is specific to Lesb., and
probably not attested in Myc.) > Myc. *domenay g. ἑλικώπιδα ‘glance-eyed’
sg. f. acc.: suffixed *wel- ‘turn, roll’ & *ə₃ekʷ- ‘to see’: *wel-ik- + *ə₃ekʷ-{id}-m̥ >
Myc. *welikopida (Att. interprets the joint vowel as long) h. κούρην ‘girl’ sg.
f. acc.: suffixed o-grade *ker- ‘to grow’: *kor-wo- ‘growing’ > ‘child’: *kor-wo-s
(m. sg. nom.) > *korwos, reinterpretted in f. as *korwā, hence *korwā-m >
Myc. *korwān (sg. f. acc.; Ion. *korwān > kōrān)

99. a. ἀπριάτην ‘without purchase’ adv.: *n̥- ‘not’ & *kʷriə₂- ‘buy’ (§49.2):
‘unbought’ (3sg. aor. midd.) *n̥-kʷriə₂-to > Myc. *akʷriato; hence adv. Myc.
*akʷriatān (sg. f. acc. *-eə₂-m) b. ἀνάποινον ‘without ransom’ adj. sg. f. acc.:
*n̥- ‘not’ & extended o-grade root *kʷey-n- ‘pay’: *n̥ + n̥-kʷoy-n-o-m > Myc.
*an+akʷoynon c. ἄγειν ‘lead, fetch’ pres. inf.: *ə₂eǵ- ‘to drive, move’: *ə₂eǵ-e-
sen (§552.A1) > Myc. *agehen d. τε ‘and’ partic.: *kʷe (encl.) > Myc. *=kʷe e.
ἱερὴν ‘priestly, blessed’ adj. sg. f. acc.: extended zero-grade root *eys- : *i̯s-ə₁re-
ew-ā-n (< *-eə₂-m) > Myc. *iherēwān f. ἑκατόμβην ‘sacrifice of a hundred
cattle’ sg. f. acc.: roots *ḱm̥tom ‘hundred’ & *gʷow- ‘cow’: *ḱm̥tom-gʷ/ow- > (he)-
katomgʷ-ā-n (< *-eə₂-m) > Myc. *(he)katomgʷān

100. a. ἐς ‘into’ prep.: *en- ‘in, on’: *en-s (§406.3) > Myc. *ens (> later Gr.
ēs) b. Χρύσην ‘Khryses’ sg. m. acc.: name ‘Kʰrūsēs’, unknown root *{Kʰrūs-},
but presumably related to χρύσος ‘gold’ attested in Myc. (ku-ro-so): *{Kʰrūs}-e-
m > Myc. Kʰrūsen c. τότε ‘then’ adv.: *kʷo- (interrog. adj. pron. sg. m. nom.) &
*kʷe ‘and’ (encl.) (c.f. §381): > Myc. *kʷokʷe d. κέν partic.: Arc.-Cypr. and Ion.
ana (pre-cons.), so Myc. *ana e. μιν ‘her’ pron. 3sg. f. acc.: root
unreconstructable, but modeled on 1sg. acc. *me-/m̥- (encl.), with ending acc.
*-m: Myc. *=min f. ἱλασσάμενοι ‘appease’ part. aor. mid. pl. m. nom.:
unknown root {*hila-}: hila-sa-meno-y > Myc. *hilasamenoy g. πεπίθοιμεν ‘we
should persuade’ 1pl. aor. opt. act.: redupl. *bʰeydʰ- ‘trust’: *bʰe-bʰi̯dʰ-oy-mos
(no aug., short-stem subj.) > *pʰepʰitʰoymen (*-mos > -*men c.f. §427,
assuming E.Greek) > Myc. pipitʰoymen (with dissimulation of aspirates).