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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.

Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

CHAPTER 5
FINAL GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

5. FINAL GENERAL ARRANGEMENT


5.1. Frame Spacing and Bulkhead Disposition
5.1.1 Introduction

The general Arrangement of a ship can be defined as the assignment of


spaces for all the required functions and equipments, properly coordinated for location
and access.

The requirements that must be met are,


a) Volume requirements
b) Adequate trim and stability
c) Structural integrity
d) Watertight subdivision and integrity
e) Adequate access to spaces.

The volume below deck is subdivided into:


a) Machinery space
b) Cargo spaces
c) Ballast spaces
d) Pump room
e) Slop Tank
5.1.2 Basic Hull Framing

The bottom shell, inner bottom, deck, side shell, inner hull bulkheads and
longitudinal bulkheads are longitudinally framed. Transverse framing is adopted in fore
peak region, aft peak region and machinery space region.

The different regions along with their rule spacing [LRS, Part 3,
and Chapter 5, 6] are given below,
a) Aft Ice breaking region: 500 mm (taken from trends in Russian Ice class 1A ships)

b) Aft of 0.05 L from AP


s = (470 + L / 0.6) = 908 mm (where L = 263 m) or 600 mm, whichever is the
lesser.
Taken s = 600 mm

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

c) Between 0.05 L and 0.15 L from AP


s = (510 + L / 0.6) = 948 mm (where L = 263 m) or 850 mm, whichever is the
lesser.
Taken s = 850 mm

d) Forward of 0.05 L from FP


s = (470 + L / 0.6) = 908 mm (where L = 263 m) or 600 mm, whichever is the
lesser.
Taken s = 600 mm

e) Between 0.05 L & 0.2 L from FP


s = (470 + L / 0.6) = 908 mm (where L = 263 m) or 700 mm, whichever is the
lesser.
Taken s = 700 mm

f) Rest of spaces, s = 850mm is adopted.

The maximum frame spacing as permitted by the rules has been calculated. The
final frame spacing along the length in accordance with the rules is shown in the table.

Table 5.1 Basic Frame Spacing

Region Spacing (mm)


a 500
b 600
c 850
d 600
e 700
Rest o space 850

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

Fig 5.1 Basic Frame Spacing

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

5.1.3 Number and Disposition of Bulkheads

The disposition of transverse bulkheads is to comply with the requirements of


LRS [LRS, Part3, Chapter 3&4], as applicable to ships with machinery located aft.
Minimum number of bulkheads = 9
Number of bulkheads taken = 9

5.1.4 Forward Collision Bulkhead

For ships with bulbous bow [LRS, Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 4] and LL ≥ 200,
the distance of collision bulkhead aft of fore end of LL in m is.
10 – f2 (minimum)
0.08 LL– f2 (maximum)
Where:
LL = load line length, is to be taken as 96% of total length on WL at 85%
of least moulded depth, or as the length from foreside of the stem to the AP on that
WL, if that is greater
f2 = G/2 or 0.015 LL m, whichever is the lesser
G = projection of bulbous bow forward of fore end of LL in m = 4.56 m
Here,
LL = 270.65 m.
G = 4.56 m.
Whence
f2 = 2.28 m.
Minimum distance = 10 – f2 = 7.72 m.
Maximum distance = 0.08 LL – f2 = 19.37 m.

Let’s take distance of fore peak bulkhead at a distance of 11.4 m from FP.

5.1.5 Aft Peak Bulkhead

All ships should have one aft peak bulkhead generally enclosing the stern
tube and the rudderpost. As provided in the parent ship, aft peak bulkhead is provided at
a distance of 12.6 m from AP.

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

5.1.6.1 Length of Engine Room

The length of engine room is determined by the power of the engine, type and
whether it is a slow-speed, medium-speed or high-speed engine.
Main engine particulars:
Type: 9TM620
Number: 3
Manufacturer: STORK WARTSILA DIESEL CO. Holland
Rated output: 12,750KW
Rated speed: 428rpm

Considering the frame spacing and the information from built ships the length
of engine room is fixed as 31.55 m. Length of pump room is 4.25m.

5.1.6.2 Cofferdams

Cofferdams are to be provided at the forward and aft ends of the oil cargo
space. These cofferdams should be at least 760 mm in length and should cover the
whole area of the bulkheads of the cargo space. Pump room has been incorporated as
the aft cofferdam. The fore peak tank forms the forward cofferdam.

5.1.6.3 Slop Tank

According to LRS rule, slop tank should be provided with a minimum capacity
of 3% of cargo carrying capacity.
3% of cargo carrying capacity = 3% of 150000 = 4500 t
Assuming a stowage factor of 1.2, 5400 m3 capacity is required for the slop tank, hence
length of slop tank taken is 5.1m

5.1.7 Length of Cargo Tanks


The structural configuration adopted has been one with a centreline
longitudinal bulkhead. For such a configuration the length of the tank [Part 4, Chapter 9]
should not exceed,
10 m or (0.25 bi/B + 0.15) LL m, whichever is the greater.
Where bi = minimum distance from side shell to inner hull of tank
measured inboard at right angles to the center line at
load water line.

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

Here bi = 3.0 m
LL = load line length, is to be taken as 96% of total length on WL
at 85% of least moulded depth, or as the length from foreside of the stem to AP on
that WL, if that is greater
Therefore, LL = 270.65 m
(0.25 bi / B + 0.15) LL= 44.76 m

According to the above mentioned restrictions the cargo region is divided into five.
For length of cargo tanks see table 5.2.

Table 5.2- Division of Compartments


Component Frame Spacing (mm) Length (m)

Aft ballast tank -39-11 500 13.89


Pod room -11-21 500&600 18.1
A P tank 9-21 600 7.2
Engine room 21-59 600 & 850 31.55
Pump room 59-64 850 4.25
Slop tank 64-70 850 5.1
Cargo oil tank-1 70-114 850 37.4
Cargo oil tank-2 114-164 850 42.5
Cargo oil tank-3 164-209 850 38.25
Cargo oil tank-4 209-259 700&850 41.75

Cargo oil tank-5 259-314 600&700 38.2

Fore peak tank 314 to FE 500&600 19.9

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

5.2 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT


5.2.1 Introduction

The vessel has been designed as a twin screw diesel-electric driven (Podded
Propulsion machinery) double skin segregated ballast crude oil tanker with machinery
space and all accommodation including Navigation Bridge located aft. The vessel has a
single continuous deck with forecastle deck and six tiers of deckhouse and has a
bulbous bow at the stem and stern.

5.2.2 Hull Structure

The vessel is to be classed under LRS. All steel for hull construction is of ship
building quality High tensile steel (DH32 or DH36) and grade of steel is in accordance
with FSICR as par Ice Navigation requirements.

5.2.3 Framing

Details about major subdivision of cargo and ballast spaces are discussed in
the above section 5.1. Longitudinal framing supported by transverse webs has been
adopted in way of cargo region. Forward and aft ends have been framed transversely.
Adequate changing systems from longitudinal to transverse framing have been provided
to avoid abrupt discontinuities.

Cargo hold region : Longitudinal framing in way of upper deck, side


shell, inner bottom, longitudinal bulkhead and bottom
Forepeak : Longitudinal except at fore part.
Forecastle deck : Longitudinal except at fore part.
Engine room : Longitudinal system in way of upper deck and side shell.
Transverse system in double bottom
Aft peak : Transverse system

5.2.4 Superstructure

External bulkheads and decks of superstructure and deckhouse are of steel


construction. Navigation bridge wings have been extended to the full breadth of the
vessel. The wheel house is constructed in such a way to meet with the requirements to
run the vessel ahead as well as astern. Funnel has sufficient height to prevent smoke
nuisance at bridge wings and accommodation areas.

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

5.2.5 Deck Machinery

Deck machinery has been arranged as shown in the general arrangement


plan. Windlasses, mooring winches and hose handling cranes are of electro-hydraulic
type.Each windlass provided with two declutch cable wire drums and two warping heads
mounted on the shaft. Mooring winches are provided as shown in the general
arrangement plan.

5.2.6 Pumps and Engines


The ballast water is transferred by two electric powered pumps.There are also four
tanks that hold drinking water & waste water .Two fire pump of capacity 300 m3/hr@4
bar running at 200 m3/hr@6.5bar is provided which this can be used as bilge pump.
Emergency fire pump has been provided in fwd .Cargo pump has been provided in
pump room. Power is supplied by following Generators

Type: SKU CUIN-1400N305, Model 1400 GQKA


Number: 3
Manufacture: Cummins
Rated output: 1400 kW
Rated capacity: 1400 kW (1750 KVA) 60 Hz or 1166.7 kW (1458.3 KVA) 50 Hz
Additionally two boiler of capacity 1400 KW has been provided for heating purpose.

5.2.7 Hose Handling Cranes

Hose handling cranes are provided on the upper deck for handling cargo oil
hose. The installed crane has capacity 5-ton with the speed of 15m/minute, and have a
radius of maximum 13 m and min 3.9m.additionlly one provision crane of capacity 1-ton
has been provided at port side near provision store.

5.2.8 Masts and Posts

One unstayed fore mast has been provided as shown in the general
arrangement plan. One unstayed aft mast has been provided fitted with Navigation
lights; ladder and air horn.

5.2.9 Hatch Covers

One set of cargo oil tank hatch with neoprene rubber gasket has been
provided for each cargo oil tank, fuel oil bunker tank and slop tank as shown in the
general arrangement plan. The hatches have been fitted at end of tanks. Oil tight or
watertight manholes are provided for access to cargo tanks, double bottom tanks, peak
tanks, cofferdam etc. The hatch is fitted with two vapour controlling valves. The hatch
size should be of sufficient size to insert cargo sampling bottles.

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

5.2.10 Doors

The sizes of doors fitted are of 850 mm wide. Heavy weather tight steel doors
are to be provided at weather-exposed entrances. All doors are provided with stainless
steel and nameplate.

5.2.11 Accommodation Ladders

Two accommodation ladders, one on each side, are provided on the upper deck
as shown in the general arrangement plan. They are of the vertical self-stowing type.
Material - Al alloy
Width - 800 mm
Length - Sufficient to reach 700 mm above WL at an angle of 50o.

5.2.12 Windows
The sizes of windows fitted are:
Windows: 400 x 600 mm in accommodation rooms
600 x 700 mm in public rooms

5.2.13 Guard Rails and Bulwark


Guardrails have been provided in accordance with Lloyd’s Register [Part 3, Chapter 9].
Stanchions are provided at the boundaries of exposed freeboard. Guardrails are
provided at super structure decks and first tier deckhouse.
Height of Guardrails = 1 m
Distance of first and second rail from bottom = 0.26 m
Distance of second and third rail = 0.44 m
Distance between third and top most rail = 0.30 m
Bulwark of 1.0 m height is provided along the boundary of forecastle deck.

5.2.14 Foam Monitoring Platform

Foam monitoring platforms are provided on the upper deck for the installation
of foam guns.

No. of foam monitoring platforms = 7 (on the main deck)

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

5.2.15 Accommodation

The design of accommodation covers following aspects:


1. Crew accommodation aft.
2. All bulkheads should be of steel. If in contact with weather they have to be gas tight
and watertight. Means for closing the opening to be provided.
3. Bulkheads connecting crew space with store, cargo spaced tanks etc should be
watertight, gastight.
4. Bulkheads connecting two galleys, sanitary space, laundry etc should be gastight
and watertight up to a certain height.
5. Floors to be properly covered.
6. Protection:
a) Protection of crew against injury
b) Protection of crew against weather
c) Insulation from heat and cold
d) Protection from moisture
e) Protection from effluent originating in various compartments
f) Protection from noise.
7. No direct opening between accommodation and stores.
8. Side scuttles can be opened in sleeping rooms, mess rooms, and recreation rooms.
9. Separate sleeping rooms for officers, petty officers, apprentices etc.
10. Mess room should be able to accommodate all officers at the same time.
11. Recreation room should accommodate one third of the officers.
5.2.16 Compliment Estimation
Compliment is estimated as per the Indian regulations, i.e., Maritime Law of India.
GRT = 82411 (Ref capacity calculation)
1) Deck officers including master
For GRT > 1600 – 4 numbers.
Additional 1 or 2 cadets are carried in larger vessels. 3 cadets are carried.
2) Radio Officer
GRT > 500 – 1 number.
3) Deck ratings including petty officers
GRT > 1500 – 10 numbers.

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

4) Caterers
For total crew up to 45 – 3 numbers.
5) Engineering officers including electrical engineer
Over 3680 kW – 4 numbers.
Additional 1 or 2 junior engineers are carried in higher-powered vessels
6) Engine ratings including petty officers
Foreign going – 5 numbers.
7) Stewards
For 6 officers - 1 numbers.
For 10-12 officers- 2 numbers.

Deck officers are:


Captain
Chief officer
Second officer
Third officer
Radio officer
Additional 1 or 2 cadets are carried in larger vessels.

Engineering officers are:


Chief engineer
Second engineer
Third engineer
Fourth engineer
Fifth engineer
Electrical engineer

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

Table 5.3 Compliment List


Rank Deck Part Engine Part Other Part Total

Captain Class 1 1 2 4

Senior Class 1 1 - 2

Junior Class 2 4 1 7

Cadet 2 - 1 3

Petty Officers 1 2 1 4

Leading Crew 1 1 1 3

Crew Class 8 5 7 20

Pilot - - 1 1

Grand Total = 44

Single cabin accommodation has been provided for captain and other
officers. And double berth cabin accommodation for seamen. Accommodation for
officers and crew is provided based on minimum area requirements.
The minimum stipulated areas are as follows:
i) Captain and Chief Engineer : 30 m2 + bath 4 m2 or toilet 3 m2
ii) Chief Officer and 2nd Engineer : 14 m2 + toilet 3 m2
iii) Other Officers : 8 m2 + toilet
iv) Captain’s office and Chief Engr’s office :7.5 m2 each
v) Passages and Stairs : 40 % of sum of (i) to (iv)
vi) Petty Officers’ and Crew cabin : 7 m2 single berth cabins
vii) Passages and Stairs : 35 % of (vi)
viii) Wheelhouse : 30 m2

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

ix) Chart room : 15 m2


x) Radio room : 10.5 m2 (8 + 2.5 m2 / radio officer)
xi) Galley : 3.4 m2 (Area/person served = 0.65)
xii) General Stores : 140 m2 ( 0.09 m2 / person / day )
xiii) Refrigerated Stores : 52.5 m2 (0.04 m2 / person / day)
Area in excess of the minimum stipulated area is provided.
The heights of various accommodation tiers are:
A deck tier = 3.2 m
B deck tier = 3.2 m
C deck tier = 3.2 m
D deck tier = 3.2 m
Wheel house = 3.2 m
Total height above main deck at side = 16.0 m

5.2.17 Anchoring Arrangements


Anchor is selected as per LRS. [Part 3, Chapter 13]
Equipment number = Δ2/3 + 2 B H + A / 10

Where H is the freeboard amidships plus sum of the heights of each tier of
houses, in m

A is the profile area of hull and super structures above the summer load water line,
in m2
B = 48.7 m
Δ = 183376.12 t
H = 25.01m
A = 1843.63+439.92
= 2283.55 m2
E = 5879
From the table 13.7.2 in LRS [Part 3, Chapter 13]
Equipment letter = A*
Anchor type = Commercial standard stockless

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

No. Of anchors = 2
Mass of anchor, WA = 17800 kg
Total mass of anchor = 17.8 x 2 = 35.6 t
Total length of stud link cable, Lc = 742.5 m
Diameter of stud link cable, dc = 102 mm (special grade of steel)
5.2.17.1 Chain Locker
Volume of chain locker = 0.6 Lcdc2 ft3 (Ship Design and Construction)
Where dc in inches and Lc in fathoms
1 fathom = 1.8288 m
1 inch = 0.0254 m
Lc = 406.04 fathom
dc = 4.0157 inch
Volume required = 108.70 m3

A chain locker of rectangular shape of size 4x6x11 is provided on either side


Width = 4.0 m

Depth = 11m (the depth is inclusive of the height of


mud box.)

5.2.18 Navigation Lights

Navigational lights provided as follows


1) Masthead light - one on forward mast and one on navigational mast;
visibility over an arc of horizon of 225°.
2) Side lights - Red light on port side and green light on starboard. Fitted
on the sides of navigating bridge; visibility over an arc
of horizon of 135°.
3) Anchor lights - All round white light at forward mast, visibility over an arc
of horizon of 360°.
4) Stern light - White light at extreme aft having visibility over an arc
of horizon of 225°.
5) NUC light - Red white and red light at aft navigating mast, visibility over an
arc of horizon of360°.
6) Towing light - Yellow light at forward mast.

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

DIAGRAM OF ARCS OF LIGHTS


AS PER RULES

Fig 5.2 Arc of light

5.2.19 Life Saving Appliances


Life saving appliances provided as per SOLAS CHAPTER III.
Lifeboat particulars should satisfy volume requirement for each person:
Volume required per person = 0.283 m3.
Total compliment = 44

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

Lifeboat chosen has following particulars:


L = 8.5 m
B = 2.97 m
T = 1.25 m
H = 8.58 m
CB = 0.60 (Ref ship design and construction by R
Taggart)

One totally enclosed free fall type, diesel engine driven lifeboats capable of
55 persons capacity is provided on aft of the ship. The lifeboats are equipped with water
spray fire protection system. Material of construction is GRP.

COMPLIANCE LIST

a. Two inflatable life rafts of 25 person’s capacity each is provided on either side of
the ship.

b. One life raft for 6 persons with hydrostatic release is installed on forward upper
deck behind forecastle deck.

c. Orange coloured life jackets of 55 numbers are provided.

d. Eight life buoys are provided, four of which are fitted with self-igniting light

e. Orange coloured life jacket for child is provided

f. A line throwing apparatus in wheel house is provided.

g. 2 two way portable VHF (CH16) is provided in wheel house.

h. 12 parachute flare has been provided in wheelhouse.

i. 4 EPIRB has been provided in wheelhouse and above deck.

j. 2 SART has been provided in wheel house and adjacent space

k. 4 WT set has been provided.

l. 9 general alarm and P A System has been provided in different location in ships

m. Training manual has been provided in wheel house ,galley and other public
places.

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

n. Operating instruction booklet is provided in each raft and boat.

o. 9 muster list has been provided in different public places in ship.

p. 2 OMTL is provided in wheel house.

q. 2 Embarkation ladder with light is provided in aft at MDK.

r. 1 Muster station has been provided at MDK in aft region.

s. 55 immersion suits has been provided

t. TPA has been provided according to approval of administrations

5.2.20 Fire Fighting Systems

Fire fighting systems are to be installed in accordance with SOLAS and fire
fighting rules 1990.compliance list and calculation are as follows.

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

COMPLIANCE LIST
Reg SOLAS CHAPTER II-2
Construction – Fire Protection, Fire Detection and Compliance
Extinction / Remarks
SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-C (SUPPRESSION OF FIRE)
Item Description and Requirements
Reg. 7
Detection and alarm
Fixed fire detection, fire alarm sys, manually operated call Provided
points should be installed.
Fire patrols shall provide an effective means of Provided
detecting and locating fire
Smoke detectors in accommodation spaces Provided
installation of automatic and remote control systems in Provided
Reg.8
engine room
Two-way portable radiotelephone apparatus Provided

Control of smoke spread


Reg.9 Suitable arrangement shall be made to permit the release of Provided
smoke, in event of fire, from protected space.
Smoke extraction system in atriums of passenger ships N.A

Containment of fire
Ship shall be subdivided by thermal and structural Complied
Reg.10 boundaries.
Fire integrity of division shall be maintained at openings and Complied
penetrations

to suppress and swiftly extinguish a fire in space of


origin
fixed fire fighting system should be installed Complied
fire extinguishing appliances should be readily available Complied

water supply systems


Fire mains and hydrants Provided
Pipes and fire hydrants should be so placed that it can be
easily coupled to fire hoses, suitable drainage sys should be Provided
provided for fire main piping, isolation valve shall be installed
for open deck fire main branch, hydrant should be so placed
that it can be easily accessible and avoid the risk of damage
to cargo

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from main fire pump at suitable pressure either by remote Complied
starting from nav bridge or fire control station, it could be
waived by administration if permanent pressurization of
main fire pump is there for cargo ships of less than 1600
gross tonnage Complied
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

2.1.3 –Diameter of fire mains Complied


The diameter of the fire main and water service pipes shall
be sufficient for the effective distribution of the maximum 100 mm dia
required discharge from two-fire pump.
In the case of cargo ships the dia. need only be sufficient for provided
the discharge of 140 m3. /hr.

2.1.4-isolating valves and relief valves Complied


To separate the section of fire main within the machinery
Reg 10 space, containing the fire main pump or pumps from rest of Provided
the fire main shall be fitted in easily accessible position
outside machinery space.
Valve for each fire hydrant should be fitted to remove fire Provided
hoses.
Isolation valves for tankers

2.1.5- Number and position of hydrants


The number and [position of hydrants shall be such that at
least 2-jets of Water not emanating from same hydrant.
One of which shall be from a single length of hose, may
reach any part of ship normally.
In addition to paragraph 2.1.5.1,pesseenger vessel should N.A
have

2.1.6-pressure at hydrant
The following minimum
Pressure shall be maintained at all hydrants.
Passenger Ships :
4000 GT. And upward 0.40N/mm2. N.A
Under 4000 GT 0.30 N/mm2.

Cargo Ships.
6000 GT and upwards 0.27 N/mm2. Complied
But < 6000 GT 0.25 N/mm2.

Max pressure at hydrant should not exceed that at which Complied


effective control of fire hose is demonstrated

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

2.1.7-international shore connection


Provided(2
Ship of 500 gross tonnage and above shall be provided with No provided
at least one international shore connection on MDK),1
Above connection should be used on either side of the ship in nav
bridge
2.2-fire pumps
Sanitary Ballast, Bilge or G.S. pump may be accepted as Complied
Fire pumps.
Number of fire pumps Provided with independently driven 2 no’s in
fire pumps E.R
Passenger ship 4000 GT and upwards. At least 3 pumps
Passenger ship less than 4000 GT at least 2
pumps
Cargo ship of 1000 GT upwards At least 2 pumps
Cargo ships have less than 1000 GT. At least two
power pump, one of which independently driven.

2.2.3 –arrangement of fire pumps and fire mains


Fire pumps
In passenger ship 1000 GT upwards in event of fire in any N.A
one comp. All fire pumps will not be put out of action.
In Cargo ships and passenger ship have less than 1000 GT. N.A
if the fire in any one comp. Put all the pumps out of actions
there shall be independently driven emergency fire pump,
located outside the space where the main fire pump or their
sources of power located

Access to emergency fire pumps


No direct access shall be permitted between machinery
Space & space containing emergency fire pump. (Door can
Complied
be provided with air lock arrangement with self-closing
doors).
Complied
Ventilation of emergency fire pumps.
Provided
Additional pump for cargo ships.
In addition, in cargo ships where other pumps, such as
Complied
general service pumps, bilge etc are fitted in a machinery
space, arrangement shall be made to ensure that at least
one of these pump should be capable to provide water to fire
main at capacity and pressure required by paragraph 2.1.6.2
and 2.2.4.2

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

2.2.4-capacity of fire mains


Total capacity of required fire pumps
Capable of delivering for fire-fighting purpose at pressure
Complied(R
specified in paragraph 2.1.6.
ef calc)
Capacity of each fire pumps
Each of required fire pumps (other than any emergency Complied(re
pump reqd. in paragraph. 2.2.3.1.2 for cargo ships) shall f
have cap. Not less than 80% of total Reqd. cap. Divide calculation)
by minimum No. Pumps (Any case not less than 25 m3/hr.
2.3-fire hoses and nozzle
Fire hoses shall be non –perishable material approved by
administration. fire hose shall have a length of at least Complied
10m,but not more than:
25 m in machinery space Complied
20 m in other spaces and open decks; and Complied
25m for open decks on ships with max breadth in excess of Complied
30m
unless one hose and nozzle is provided for each hydrant in Complied
ship, there shall be complete interchange ability of hose
couplings and nozzles

2.3.2-number and diameter of fire hoses


Diameter of fire hose shall be to satisfaction to Complied.
administration.
Passenger ship 1-hosee to every hydrant N.A.
Cargo ships 1000 GT and upwards fire hoses for every Complied
30m of length of ship and one spare no case less than five.

Cargo ship less than 1000 GT hoses to be provided to N.A


satisfaction to administration.

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

2.3.3-size and type of nozzles


Nozzles standard size 12 mm, 16mm and 19 mm. Dia 19mm)
Accommodation and service spaces nozzle size 12mm to be
used.
Machinery space and exterior locations nozzle size greater Complied.
than 19mm. should not be used. it should obtain maximum
possible discharge from two nozzle at pressure mentioned Complied.
in paragraph 2.1.6
Nozzles should be approved dual-purpose type Complied.

3- portable fire extinguisher Complied


It should comply with the requirement of the fire safety
system code.
3.2-arrngement of fire extinguisher
Accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations Complied
shall be provided with portable fire extinguisher of proper
type and in sufficient in number to the satisfaction to
administration.
Ship of 1000 gross tonnage and upwards shall carry at least Complied
five portable fire extinguisher Portable fire extinguishers
intended for use in any space shall be stowed near the
entrance to the space.
Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher shall not be placed in Complied
accommodations spaces. In control station and other space
containing electrical equipment necessary for safety of ship,
fire extinguisher shall be provided whose extinguishing
media is neither electrically conductive nor harmful to the
equipment and appliances
Fire extinguisher shall be situated ready for use at easily Complied
visible place .it should be provided with device which
indicates whether they have been used.

3.3- spare charges


Spare charge shall be provided for 100%of the first ten Complied
extinguisher and 50%of the remaining fire extinguisher. Provided
Capable of being recharged on board. Not more than sixty
total spare charges are required.

107
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

4-fixed fire extinguishing systems


Fixed high expansion foam fire extinguishing system should
comply the provisions of the fire safety system code. Complied
Fixed pressure water-spraying fire extinguishing system
should comply the provisions of the fire safety system
code.
.
Fire extinguishing system using halon 1211,1301,and2402 N.A
and per fluorocarbon shall be prohibited
Steam firefighting system is not permitted by administration NA
in general, but if it is permitted it shall be used in restricted
area and it should complied the provisions of the fire safety
system code

4.2-closing appliances for fixed gas fire extinguishing


systems
where a fixed fire extinguishing system is used, opening Complied
which may admit air to, or allow gas to escape from, a
protected space shall be capable of being closed from
outside the protected space
4.3-storage room for fire extinguishing media
if it is stored outside protected a protected space, it should
be stored in room behind the forward collision bulkhead and
Reg10 not to be used for other purpose, entrance should be Complied
preferably from main deck, access doors should open
outwards, closings should be gas tight. can be treated as fire
control
4.4-water pumps for other fire extinguishing system
pumps, other than those serving the fire main, required for Complied
the provision of water for fire extinguisher system s required
by this chapter ,their source of power and controls shall be
installed outside the space or spaces protected by such
systems and so arranged that fire in space will not put such
system out of action

108
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

5-fire extinguishing arrangements in machinery space


5.1-machinery space containing oil fired boilers or oil fuel
units
Space containing oil fired boiler or oil fuel unit. Complied
Machinery space containing oil fired boiler or oil fuel unit shall Complied
be provided with any of the fixed fire extinguishing system
5.1.2- additional fire extinguishing systems
In each boiler room at least one set of portable foam applicator
complying with the provisions of the fire safety system code Complied
Reg. 10 There shall be at least two portable foam extinguishers in each
firing space in each boiler room Complied
There shall be receptacle containing at least 0.1m3 sand other
approved material in each firing space. an approved portable Complied
extinguisher may be substituted as an alternative

5.2-machinery space containing internal combustion


engine Complied
Fixed fire extinguishing systems
Machinery space containing oil fired boiler or oil fuel unit shall
be provided with any of the fixed fire extinguishing system

Reg. 10 5.2.2- additional fire extinguishing systems


At least one set of portable foam applicator complying with the Complied
provisions of the fire safety system code.
At least one set of portable foam equipment complying with
the provisions of the fire safety system code. One in each such Provided
space at least one 45 liters capacity or equivalent. Foam in E.R
extinguisher system.

6- fire extinguishing arrangements in control stations N.A


Sprinkler system in passenger vessel
Passenger ships carrying more than 36 passenger shall be
equipped with an automatic sprinkler, fire detection and fire N.A
alarm systems of approved type

109
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

6.3-space containing flammable liquid


Paint locker should be protected by: Complied
Carbon dioxide system, designed to give a min volume of free
gas equal to 40%of the gross volume, or
Dry powder system, a water spraying or sprinkler sys

It should be operated from outside the protected space. Complied


Flammable liquid locker shall be protected by an appropriate
fire extinguishing arrangements

6.4-deep fat cooking equipments Complied

7-Arrangements in cargo space fire extinguishing Complied


Fixed fire extinguishing in cargo space
Reg. 10
8-fixed deck foam fire extinguishing systems Complied
9-Protection of cargo pump room for tanker

Reg. 10 10-fire fighter outfits Provided


Cont.— 10.1-should complied according to FSS Code Complied
10.2-at least two fire fighter’s outfits Provided
Additional for passenger vessel N.A
Additional for tanker Complied
Two spare charge shall be provided for each breathing Provided
apparatus Complied
Reg. 11 10.3-storage of fire fighter outfits
Shall be kept ready for use easily accessible position Provided

Structure integrity
The purpose is to maintain structural integrity of the ship, Provided
preventing partial loss or whole collapse of the ship due to
strength deterioration by heat.
The hull, structural bulkhead, decks and deckhouse shall be
constructed of steel or other equivalent material. Provided

110
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-D (ESCAPE)


Reg 12 Notification to crew and passenger
General emergency alarm system Complied
Public address system in passenger ships complied

Reg13
Means of Escape
Stairways and ladders shall be so arrange to provide from all Complied
accommodation spaces service spaces ready means of escape
to embarkation deck. life raft ,life boat.
Means of escape from control station, accommodation spaces Provided
and service spaces

SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-E (OPERATION REQUIREMENTS)

Operational readiness and maintenance


1-purpose
Fire protection and fire fighting system shall be maintained ready Complied
to use.
Fire protection and fire fighting system shall be properly tested Complied
Reg. 14 and inspected.
Maintenance testing and inspections
3-additional requirement for passenger ships N.A
4-Additional requirement for tanker
Complied

Instructions, onboard training and drills


1-Purpose (to mitigate the consequences of fire by means of Complied
proper instructions)
Reg. 15

Operations
Reg. 16 1-purpose
Fire safety operational booklets shall be provided on board and
flammable vapour releases from cargo tanks venting shall be Complied
controlled
2-fire safety operational booklet Provided
3-additional requirement for tankers Complied

111
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-G (SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS)

Reg. 18 Helicopter facilities


Helideck structure shall be adequate to protect the ship from the Complied
fire hazards

Two dry powder extinguishers having a total capacity of Complied


not less than 45 kg

Carbon dioxide extinguishers of a total capacity of not less than Complied


18 kg or equivalent;
A suitable foam application system consisting of monitors or
foam-making branch pipes capable of delivering foam to all Complied
parts of the helideck in all weather conditions in which
helicopters can operate

NO SMOKING’’ signs shall be displayed at appropriate Complied


locations;

Reg.20 Protection of vehicle, special category and ro- ro spaces N.A

112
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

FIRE PUMP CAPACITY CALCULATIONS

Capacity of fire pump


Q = Cd2 where
C = 5 for ships required to be provided with more than one fire pump (excluding any
emergency fire pump) and C= 2.5 for ships required to be provided with only one fire
pump, and
d = 1+ 0.066 [√ L (B+D)] ⇒ 1+0.066√ 263.07 ( 48.7 +23.76 )] = 10.11
L = length of the ship in meters on the summer load water line from the foreside of the
Stem to the afterside of the rudderpost. Where there is no rudderpost, the length is
measured from the foreside of the stem to the axis of the rudderstock if that be the
greater.
B = greatest moulded breadth of the ship in meters and
D = moulded depth of the ship in meters measured to the bulkhead deck amidships
Q = Cd2
= 5 x 10.112 =511.06 m3/hr
Minimum is 40 m3/hr
Provided is 300 m3/hr@4 bar running at 200 m3/hr@6.5bar

113
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

PRESSURE AT HIGHEST HYDRANT


Pump Pressure at fire main, P1 (6.5bar)(650000N/ m2)
Specific gravity of the sea water (ρ) 1025 kg/m3
Capacity of fire pump, Q 200 m3/hr
Diameter of fire main, d1 0.15 m
Diameter of pipe at hydrant, d2 0.15 m
Cross-sectional area of fire main, A1 0.0177 m2
Cross-sectional area of pipe at hydrant, A2 0.0177 m2
Length of the pipe to hydrant, l 36 m
Velocity of water at fire main, V1 3.139 m/s
Velocity of water at hydrant, V2 = A1.V1 / A2 3.139 m/s
Applying Bernoulli’s equation at fire main and hydrant
P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 = P2 /ρ g + v22 / 2g + H2 + Head losses
A. Loss of Head due to Height (H2 - H1)
Height of fire pump above base line (H1) 6.0 m
Height of highest fire hydrant above base line (H2) 39.78 m
Loss of Head due to Height (H2-H1) 33.78 m
B. Loss of Head due to Friction (4. f. l. v22/ d2. 2g)
Coefficient of friction 0.0033
Loss of head due to friction 1.59m
C. Loss of Head at the exit of Pipe (v22 / 2g)
Loss of Head 0.5 m
D. Loss of Head due to Bends, Valves and Pipe fittings
Loss of Head (considered 5% of loss of Head due to Friction) 0.08
P2 = (P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 – v22 / 2g – H2 – Head losses)X (ρ g)

114
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

Pressure at highest hydrant (P2) 288513.76 N/m2


Required Pressure 270000 N/m2
Conclusion: Satisfactory

PRESSURE AT FARTHEST HYDRANT


Pump Pressure at fire main, P1 (2.75 kg/cm2) 6.5 bar
Specific gravity of the sea water (ρ) 1025 kg/m3
Capacity of fire pump, Q 200 m3/hr
Diameter of fire main, d1 0.15 m
Diameter of pipe at hydrant, d2 0.15 m
Cross-sectional area of fire main, A1 0.0177 m2
Cross-sectional area of pipe at hydrant, A2 0.0177 m2
Length of the pipe to hydrant, l 236 m
Velocity of water at fire main, V1 3.139 m/s
Velocity of water at hydrant, V2 = A1.V1 / A2 3.139 m/s
Applying Bernoulli’s equation at fire main and hydrant
P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 = P2 /ρ g + v22 / 2g + H2 + Head losses
E. Loss of Head due to Height (H2 - H1)
Height of fire pump above base line (H1) 6.0 m
Height of farthest fire hydrant above base line (H2) 20.76 m
Loss of Head due to Height (H2-H1) 14.76 m
F. Loss of Head due to Friction ( 4. f. l. v22/ d2. 2g)
Coefficient of friction 0.0033
Loss of head due to friction 10.43 m
G. Loss of Head at the exit of Pipe (v22 / 2g)
Loss of Head 0.5m
H. Loss of Head due to Bends, Valves and Pipe fittings
Loss of Head (considered 5% of loss of Head due to Friction) 0.52 m
P2 = (P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 – v22 / 2g – H2 – Head losses)X (ρ g)

115
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

Pressure at farthest hydrant (P2) 386451.9 N/m2


Required Pressure 270000 N/m2
Conclusion: Satisfactory

JET THROW CALCULATION

MS (Fire appliances) Rules 1990

Capacity of fire pump = 200 m3/hr

Dia. of nozzle = 19 mm

Cross-sectional area of nozzle = 2.8 x 10-4 m2


Length of the jet throw required = 12 m

Jet velocity = 198.4 m/s

Percentage loss due to nozzling and air resistance = 30%


Net jet velocity = 138.8 m/s

Projectile Angle = 45˚

Velocity require at nozzle for 12 m throw

Using formula R = u2 Sin 2θ / g


Where
u = Velocity at the nozzle
θ = Projectile angle to get maximum range = 45˚
a = g (acceleration due to gravity = 9.8 m/s2)
R = Horizontal distance reached by the throw = 12 m.
i.e., u = √ R g / Sin 2θ = 10.84 m/s

116
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB, Batch - XXIX

Velocity of throw required = 138.4 m/s


Available jet Velocity = 138.4 m/s
Conclusion: Satisfactory

CARBON DIOXIDE GAS CALCULATION

Gross volume of engine room including pump room 21716.53 m3

40% of Gross volume of engine room including pump room 8686.612 m3

Gross volume of Azipod room 7714 m3

40% Gross volume of Azipod room 3085.6 m3

Addition of air receiver 18 m3

Gross volume for co2 protection 11790.2 m3

Gross volume of co2 required 11790.2 m3

Weight of co2 required 11790.2 /.56

=21053 kg
(sp vol =0.56 m3/kg)
No of bottle of 45.5 kg required 21053/45.5
=463bottles

117