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SHIP HYDRODYNAMICS

LECTURE NOTES OF
PROPULSION PART
Course Outline

Contents Time Date Week


1. Propulsion Systems
a) History and Development of Screw Propeller
b) Modern Propulsion Systems
i- Fixed pitch propellers
ii- Ducted propellers
iii- Contra-rotating propellers
iv- Overlapping propellers
v- Controllable pitch propellers 1 hour 19.11.2004 8th
vi- Waterjet propulsion system
vii- Cyclodial propellers
viii- Paddle wheels
ix- Superconducting electric propulsion
system
x- Azimuth podded propulsion system

2. Propeller Geometry
a) Frames of Reference
b) Propeller Reference Lines
c) Pitch
d) Rake and Skew 1 hour 19.11.2004 8th
e) Propeller Outlines and Areas
f) Blade Sections (NACA Definition of Thickness and
Camber)

g) Propeller Drawing
2 hours 23.11.2004 9th
Example (Wageningen series offset)

3. Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Propellers


a) Open Water Characteristics
b) Propeller-Hull Interaction-Wake
i- Wake field characteristics
ii- Wake field definition (nominal wake field,
effective wake field) 2 hours 26.11.2004 9th
iii- Thrust deduction
iv- Relative-rotative efficiency
v- Propulsive efficiency and propulsion
factors
vi- Summary of efficiencies in powering
c) Standard Series Propeller Data

4. Basic Outlines of Propeller Design


2 hours 30.11.2004 10th
Example (Propeller Design - Stage 1)

5. Propeller Theories
a) Momentum Theory
b) Blade Element Theory
2 hours 03.12.2004 10th
Example (KT, KQ, η0 and Bp-δ)
Contents Time Date Week

Mid-Term Exam 2 hours 7.12.2004 11th

c) Profile Characteristics
d) Profile Series
e) Lifting Line Theory 2 hours 10.12.2004 11th
f) Lifting Surface Theory
g) Boundary Element Methods
6. Cavitation
a) The basics of cavitation
i- Physics of cavitation
ii- Historical development
iii- Cavitation number (inception)
iv- Effect of angle of attack on cavitation
b) Types of cavitation experienced by propellers
i- Location on a blade
ii- Physical appearance of cavitation
c) Effects of Cavitation on Propellers 2 hours 14.12.2004 12th
i- Performance breakdown
ii- Noise
iii- Vibration
iv- Erosion
d) Cavitation Considerations in Design
i- Cavitation criteria
ii- Cavitation bucket diagrams
d) Preventing Cavitation

Example (NACA pressure distribution, KT-KQ- RÖ) 1 hour? 17.12.2004 12th

7. Propeller Design
a) Propeller Design Basis
1. Resistance and power estimation
b) The use of Standard Series Data in Design
2. Determination of optimum RPM and propeller size
(diameter) (general case) 2 hours 21.12.2004 13th
3. Engine Selection
4. Prediction of performance in service
5. Determination of blade surface area (BAR) and cavitation
control

Example (Propeller Design - Stage 2+3, Cavitation Criteria) 2 hours 24.12.2004 13th

8. Propeller Tests
a) Open Water Tests
b) Self Propulsion Tests
2 hours 28.12.2004 14th
c) Cavitation Tests
d) Other Tests

Example (Self propulsion tests)


2 hours 31.12.2004 14th
Lab visit
1. PROPULSION SYSTEMS
Propulsion is the act or an instance of driving or pushing forward of a body, i.e. ship,
by a propeller (in our case a screw propeller).

a) History and Development of Screw Propeller


Time period Inventor
287-212 BC Archimedes invented his “Archimedean Screw Pumps” to irrigate the
field of Syracuse in Sicily.

1452-1519 Leonardo da Vinci had sketches of screw principle to use as a


helicopter rotor.

1661 Toogood and Hayes of Britain claimed patent for using helical
surfaces (Archimedean screws) as a propeller

1680 Hooke the English physicist suggested to use Archimedean screw for
ship propulsion

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1802/04 C. Steves the American used a kind of screw propeller similar to
today’s screws to propel a 7.5 m twin screw steamer.

1828 R. Wilson the Scottish farmer successfully demonstrated the first


principles

1836 P. Smith, the English farmer achieved the first practical application.
He used single bladed screw of two turns made by wood.

1836 J. Ericsson, the Swedish engineer developed fore runner of contra-


rotating propeller(i.e. two wheels of three helicoidal blades rotating in
opposite direction)

1839 Smith equipped 237 ton of ship Archimedes with screw props having
a great success and this led to Paddle propulsion systems to screw
propulsion system

1840-1850 Development of steam engines contributed to effective use of screw


propellers

1845 Great Britain was the first screw propeller acrossed the Atlantic

1880 Thornycroft designed propellers similar today’s propellers

1880-1970 Basic shape of props remained unchanged

1970-1990’s Fuel crisis and environmental effects (low noise and vibrations) had
an impact on propeller shape and stern configurations as well as the
developments of unconventional propellers

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b) Modern Propulsion Systems

i- Fixed pitch propellers (FPP)

• This kind of propellers has traditionally formed the basis of propeller


production.
• They cover the majority proportion of propellers and design types and sizes,
ranging from propellers for small powerboats to those for large tankers and
bulk carriers.
• It is easy to manufacture.

ii- Ducted propellers

• Ducted propellers consist of two components


1- An annular duct having an aerofoil cross section
2- A propeller inside the duct
• The presence of duct would reduce the pressure forces induced on the hull
• This kind of propellers sometimes is referred to as Kort nozzles by way of
recognition of the Kort Propulsion Company’s initial patents and long
association with this type of propeller.
• Propeller efficiency is increased depending upon the propeller loading.
• A duct protects propeller against damage.

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iii- Contra-rotating propellers

• This kind of propellers has two coaxial propellers sited one behind the other
and rotating in opposite directions.
• They have the hydrodynamic advantage of recovering part of the slip stream
rotational energy which would otherwise be lost to a conventional single screw
system. This leads to an energy saving about 15% in power.
• Improved efficiency but higher drag and cost
• It is usually applied to small outboard units operating at around 1500 to 2000
RPM due to the mechanical problems associated with longer line shafting
systems of larger vessels.

iv- Overlapping propellers

• Two propellers are not mounted coaxially but are each located on separate
shaft systems.
• The system has rarely been used in practice
• Although the propulsion efficiency of this system is higher than a single
propeller, this system causes vibration and cavitation

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v- Controllable pitch propellers (CPP)

• The choice of a CPP to a FPP is due to flexibility of its control rather than
propulsion efficiency at service condition.
• CPP provides an extra degree of freedom in its ability to change blade pitch.
• It is especially used for ferries, tugs, trawlers, and fisheries due to better
manoeuvrability than FPPs.
• Manufacturing cost is very high and it requires more maintenance and
repairment.

vi- Waterjet propulsion system

• This system has found considerable application on a wide variety of small


high speed craft, although it is also used for larger ships.
• The operation principle of waterjet is that water is drawn through a ducting
system by an internal pump adding energy and the water is expelled aft at high
velocity. The unit’s thrust is primarily generated as a result of momentum
increase given in the water.
• The system is preferred to a conventional propeller. Because a conventional
propeller experiences cavitation at very high speeds (45 knots), but in the
waterjet unit the pump should not cavitate.
• It has a good manoeuvrability

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vii- Cycloidal propellers

• The system is also called vertical axis propellers which comprise a set of
vertically mounted vanes, six or eight in number, rotating on a disc mounted in
a horizontal or near horizontal plane.
• The system has considerable advantages when manoeuvrability or station
keeping is an important factor in the ship design.
• A separate rudder installation on the vessel is not required.
• The system provides with guards to help protect the propulsor from damage
from external sources.
• Vertical axis propellers are fitted in tugs or other cases where low speed
manoeuvrability is desired.

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viii- Paddle wheels

• It is a predator of screw propulsion system.


• Used largely on lakes and river services or where limited draughts are
encountered.

ix- Superconducting electric propulsion

• The system provides ship propulsion without the aid of either propellers or
paddles.
• The fundamental principal of electromagnetic propulsion is that of interaction
between a fixed coil inside the ship and an electric current is passed through
the sea water from electrodes in the bottom of the ship.
• A force is produced orthogonal to the magnetic field and to the current as a
result of Fleming’s right-hand rule.
• It provides noise and vibration free hydrodynamic propulsion so that it is
found some applications in navy vessels.
• One of the major problems in this propulsion system is the difficulty to
maintain superconducting coil zero resistance property, which is required, to
be kept at the temperature of liquid helium (-268 °C).

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x- Azimuth podded propulsion system

• It provides propellers with high manoeuvrability, low fuel consumption, high


efficiency, low noise and less cavitation
• Today, the major users of pod units have been cruise liner operators.
• The introduction of pod propulsion, which will allow the propulsion unit to be
placed without considering any shaft arrangements or space for machinery
will, of course, give the naval architect many new opportunities to design the
'ultimate hullform'.