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Ray Optics

Ray of Light: The straight line path along which the light travels in a homogeneous
medium is called a ray of light. The arrow head on the ray gives us the direction of light
and number of rays combined together is called beam of light.

Refraction: The phenomenon in which ray of light traveling from one medium to
another medium of different optical density, deviates from its original straight line path is
called refraction of light.

When light moves from rarer to denser medium it bends towards the normal and when it
moves from denser to rarer medium it bends away from the normal.

Refraction of light occurs because the speed of light changes as one moves from one
medium to another. Also, the wavelength of light changes, but frequency and phase of
the wave remains constant on refraction i.e. no change in phase or frequency occurs.

Laws of Refraction:

First Law [Snell’s Law]-The ratio of the sine of angle of incidence to the sine of angle
of refraction is constant for a pair of media in contact.

This constant is equal to the refractive index of second medium w.r.t. first medium. The
first medium is one in which incident ray lies and the second medium is one in which the
refractive ray lie. If 1 and 2 denotes the refractive index for the two mediums then
sin i  2

sin r  1

Second law:the incident ray, refracted ray and normal all three lie in the same plane
which is plane perpendicular to the refracting surface.

Absolute Refractive Index-Absolute refractive index of the medium is the ratio of

velocity of light in vacuum to the velocity of light in that medium

speed of light in vacuum c

Absolute refractive index  a  m    
speed of light in medium v

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This implies that the velocity of light decreases if the medium changes  times.
Relative Refractive Index-The relative refractive index of second medium w.r.t first
medium is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in first medium to second medium.

2 speed of light in first medium v

2    1
1 speed of light in second medium v2
1

Real and Apparent Depth -

Whenever an object is placed in optically denser medium, like object O placed at the
bottom of the container, the ray of light starting from object moves from denser to rarer
medium and bends away from normal. Thus a virtual image of the object is formed at
I. Then, distance OA is called real depth and IA is called
apparent depth of object.

AB AB
Now, sin i  and sin r 
OB IB

sin i AB IB 1 IB
Using Snell‟s law,  OB
  
sin r AB
IB OB  OB

If angles are small then OB  OA and IB  IA

OA Re alde pth
 
IA Appare ntde pth

OA t
Normal Shif, x  OA  IA  OA  t
 
 1
x = t 1 - 
 μ
Here,„t‟ denotes the real depth of the object.
Lateral Shift-It is the perpendicular distance between the incident ray and the
emergent ray. N’
A
i
In ∆BNC, BN  ( BC ) cos r

BC  t / cos r        (1) B (i-r)

r
t
In ∆BCF, CF  ( BC ) sin(i  r)          (2) F
d
From equation (1) and (2), we get-
N C E
e=i
D
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t sin(i  r)
d
cos r

Factors- (i) Thickness of medium, (ii) Angle of incidence and (iii) Nature of medium i.e.
refractive index.

Refraction through Compound Plate:

Consider a compound plate made of two materials with refractive index b and c
(c>b). A ray of light incident on ray moving from rarer to denser medium bends
towards the normal. Using Snell‟s law,

sin i1
a
b 
sin r1

Similarly, at face M1M1 it suffers refraction and using Snell‟s law,

sin r1
 b
c
sin r2

Finally at surface M2M2 it suffers refraction and comes out parallel to incident ray
as all the refracting surfaces are parallel.

sin r2
 c
a
sin r1

a
b  b
 c  c a  1
1
a
b  b
c   c
a
c
a

Total Internal Reflection:

This phenomenon in which a ray of light is reflected back into the same medium
when enters from denser to rarer medium and the angle of incidence is greater than the
critical angle is called as the total internal reflection.

Consider a source of light S situated in denser medium say water. As the rays move
from denser to rarer medium they bends away from the normal. If we go on increasing
the angle of incidence angle of refraction also goes on increasing (according to Snell‟s
law). At one particular angle of incidence, angle of refraction becomes 90º. The angle
of incidence for which the angle of refraction is 90º is called critical angle.

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If angle of incidence is increased further the ray gets totally reflected back into the
same medium instead of refraction. At critical angle, ic, r = 90.

sin i c
 2
1
sin90
1
1
2 
sin i c

Applications of Total Internal Reflection:

1.Mirage Formation: It is an optical illusion which takes
place in hot countries. The layers of earth in contact with
the earth are hooter and rarer whereas the upper layers
are colder and denser. When the ray of light moves
downwards after reflection from object like tree it moves
from denser to rarer medium. The angle of incidence
goes on increasing with refraction from each layer of
atmosphere. At a particular layer, the angle of incidence
becomes greater than critical angle and the ray of light
suffers total internal reflection. Thus, a virtual and inverted
image of the object is formed on the ground. These virtual
images produces the impression of reflection from water
due to atmospheric disturbance.

2. Optical Fibers: Optical fibers are the very long and fine threadsmade of quartz or
glass. (Diameter of 10—4 cm, with refractive index 1.7). These threads are coated
with a thin layer of material of lower refractive index. This coating is called as
cladding. Ray of light entering from one side undergoes about 10 - 12thousand
reflections per meter and comes out from other
end.

(i) They can be used to transmit high intensity

laser light insider the body.

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(ii) They can be used in the field of communication in sending video and audio
signals from one place to another.

(iii) They are used in endoscopy to see images of body‟s internal parts

(3) Totally Reflecting Prism-

An isosceles right angle prism acts as a totally reflecting prism and it works on the
principle of TIR.

This prism can be used to deviate the rays of light by 900 or 1800. It can also be used
to invert the erect image of an object.

A spherical surface is formed if the refracting surface forms the part of a

sphere. The surface is said to be convex if it bulges towards the rarer medium side and
it is concave surface if it bulges towards denser medium side.

Sign Conventions:

1. All the distances are measured from pole of spherical surfaces.

2. The distances measured in the direction of incident ray are taken as positive while
opposite of it are taken as negative.

Assumptions:

1. The objects are assumed to be point objects lying on the principal axis.

2. The aperture of spherical surface is small.

3. Incident ray, refracted ray and normal makes very small angle with principal
axis.

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(1) WhenRay of light Moving from Rarer to Denser Medium:
a)With convex surface towards rarer (Real Image):

Consider an object O lying on the principal axis. The ray moves from rarer to
denser medium and it bends towards the normal and the bending is just sufficient to
make the refracted ray meets the principal axis at I. The refracted ray makes angle β
with the principal axis and r with the normal. Using Snell's law,

1 sin i   2 sinr

sin i  i and sin r  r

1  i   2  r         (1)

In ∆IAC r = 

Putting the values of I and r in equation (1)

1 ( + ) = 2 ()

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AP ' AP '
  tan   
OP ' OP
AP ' AP ' (as ape rtureis small,
  tan   
IP ' IP OP '  OP , AP '  AP , CP '  CP )
AP ' AP '
  tan   
CP ' CP

MP1 '  MP1   MP1 

 2   1   1    2  
CP  OP   IP 
 2  1 1  2
 
R u v

(b) With convex surface towards rarer (Virtual Image):

In this case incident ray OA moving from rarer to denser bends towards the
normal but the bending is not sufficient to make it move towards principal axis. Thus, a
virtual image of object is formed at I. Using Snell's law,

sin i 2

sin r 1

If the angle of incidence and refraction are small then sin i ~ i and sin r ~ r,

i 2
  1i   2 r
r 1

Also, i =  +  and r =  + 

(because exterior angles are equal to interior opposite angles)

1 ( + ) = 2 ( + )

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Substituting the values of , ,  in (1), we obtain

MP1  MP1 '   MP1 

(  2  1 )  1    2  
CP  OP   IP 
 2  1 1  2
 
R u v
 2  1  
 1 2
R v u

(2) With Concave towards Rarer Medium:

The ray of light starting from point object O lying on the principal axis moves
towards the normal as it moves from rarer to denser medium and virtual image of the
object is formed at I. Using Snell's law

sin i 2

sin r 1

If the angle of incidence and refraction are small then sin i ~ i and sin r ~ r,

i 2
  1i   2 r
r 1

where

i =  and r = 

1 () = 2 ( + )

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MP1  MP1 '   MP1 
(  2  1 )   1    2  
CP  OP   IP 
 2  1  1  2
 
R u v
 2  1  
 2  1
R v u

Similarly, we can prove the identical results for light moving from denser to rarer
medium.

Lens:

A portion of refracting material bound between two spherical surfaces out of which at
least one surface is curved is called as lens.

Types of Lenses-

(i) Convex or Conversing lens- A lens is said to be converging if the width of the
beam decreases after refraction through it. These lenses are thick at middle and thin at
edges. Focal length of converging lens is taken as positive.

(ii) Concave or Diverging Lens- A lens is said to diverging if the width of beam
increases after refraction through it. These lenses are thin at middle and thick at
edges. Focal length of diverging lens is negative.

Definitions
Regarding Lenses:

Optical Centre: It is a point lying on the principal axis of lens within or outside it,
such that ray of light passing through it goes un-deviated. If the two surfaces are of
same radii of curvature then optical centre lies exactly in the centre of the lens.

Radius of Curvature (R1& R2): Radius of curvature of a surface of lens is defined

as the radius of that sphere of which surface forms a part.

Principal Axis: The line joining centre of curvature of two surfaces and passing
through optical centre is called principal axis.

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Principal Focus: Principal focus of the lens is a point at which beam of light
coming parallel to the principal axis actually converse (in case of convex lens) or
appears to diverse (in case of concave lens) after refraction through lens.

Focal Length: Focal length of a lens is defined as the distance between focus and
optical centre. It is denoted by f.

Focal Planes: It is the plane passing through the principal focus and perpendicular
to principal axis.

Rules for image formation- There are three rules

(i) Ray moving parallel to principal axis passes through the focus after refraction.
(ii) Ray passing through the focus becomes parallel to principal axis after
refraction from lens.
(iii) Ray passing through the optical centre goes undeviated (in case of thin
lenses)

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Image Formation by Concave Lens-

(i) All distances are measured from optical centre.

(ii) The distance measured in
the direction of incident ray
are taken as positive while
the distance measured in the
opposite direction of incident
ray are taken as negative
(iii) Heightsmeasured upwards to
principal axis are taken as
positive while downwards are
taken as negative

Lens Formula:

Lens formula is a relation between focal length of lens with the distance of objects
and images.

For Convex lens: (For Real Image)-

Let AB be the object placed on the principal axis and beyond focus F. The ray
starting from „A‟ passing through optical centre goes undeviated and the ray moving
parallel to principal axis passes through focus. The two ray meet at A 1, thus A1B1 is the
image of the object AB.

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As ABC and A1B1C are similar,

AB BC
 ...(1)
A1 B1 B1C

CD CF

A1 B1 FB1

Also, CD = AB =>

AB CF
 ...( 2)
A1 B1 FB1

From (1) and (2),

BC CF

B1C FB1
u f

v v f
uf  vf  uv

Dividing by uvf,

1 1 1
 
v u f

For Virtual Image: If the object lies between optical centre and the principal focus
then a virtual image of the object is formed. Again as ABC and ABC are similar.

AB AC
 ...(1)
A1 B1 B1C

CD CF
 ...( 2)
A1 B1 FB1

From (1) and (2) and CD = AB,

AC CF

A' C FB1
u f

v v f
uf  vf  uv

Dividing by uvf, 1 1 1
 
v u f

      (1)
AB OB

similar

A'B ' B'F

OD OF
A'B ' B'F
        (2) as OD  AB
AB OF

OB ' B ' F

OB OF
OB ' OF  OB '

OB OF

v  f  (v)

u f
v f v

u f
vf  uf  uv

1 1 1
 
f v u

Linear Magnification: The linear magnification produced by a lens is the ratio of

size of the image to the size of the object.

si z eof i m age (A'B' ) A' C

m  ( from (1))
si z eof obje ct (AB) AC
 h2 v
m  ( for real image )
h1 u

For virtual image,

h2 v
m 
h1 u

Thus, for a convex lens, linear magnification is positive when image is virtual and
negative if image is real. Similarly, for concave lens the linear magnification is always
positive.

h2 v
m  
h1 u

Lens Maker’s formula:This formula is used by the manufacturers to design lenses

1  1 1 
of required focal length from a glass of given refractive index.  (   1)   
f  R1 R2 

(i) Lens is very thin.

(ii) The aperture of the lens is small.
(iii) Object is in the form of a point situated at the principal axis.
(iv) Incident and refracted rays makes small angles with principal axis

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(i) All distances are measured from optical centre.
(ii) The distance measured in the direction of incident ray are taken as positive.
(iii) The distance measured in the opposite direction of incident ray are taken as
negative

Consider a thin lens with optical centre C, and the point object O placed on the principal
axis of this lens.If the second surface AP2B were absent then first surface AP1B will
form the real image of object „O‟.at I1. Thus

 2 1  2  1
         (1)
v1 u R1

But actually the second surface is

present there so I1 acts as an
imaginary object for the surface
AP2Bwhich forms the final image at
I. Thus we can write

1  2 1   2
         (2)
v v1 R2

Adding equation (1) and (2), we get

2 1 1 2  2  1 1   2
    
v1 u v v1 R1 R2
1 1  1 1 
    2  1    
v u  R1 R2 

1 1    1   1 1 
  2   
v u  1   R1 R2 

If the object is placed at infinity (u=∞), the image will be formed at the focus, i.e. v  f .

1 1   2  1   1 1  1  2   1 1 
         1   
f   1   R1 R2  f  1   R1 R2 

1  1 1  
=  μ - 1  -  ⟹This is lens maker‟s formula and   2 is the refractive index of
f  R1 R 2  1
lens w. r. t. its surrounding‟s medium.

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Similarly, the relation can be proved for concave lens also.

Power of a Lens:

Power of lens is the ability of the lens to converge or diverge a beam of light falling
1
on it. Mathematically, it is defined as the reciprocal of focal length, i.e. P 
f

1
P Dioptre
f (in meters )

100
Or P Dioptre
f (in cms.)

A number of lenses can be combined to increase the magnification (compound

microscope), make the final image erect (terrestrial telescope). As each lens has its own
magnifying power, the resultant magnification is the product of magnification of
individual lenses i.e.

m = m1  m2  . . . . . mn

Lenses in Contact: Equivalent Focal Length-Suppose two lenses L1 and L2 of

focal lengths f1 and f2 are placed in
contact to each other as shown in L1 L2
figure.

Let O be a point object on the

principal axis of the lens system.
O C1 C2 I I’
In the absence of lens L2, the first
lens L1 will form a real image of
object „O‟ at I’. v
u v’
\
Using lens formula

1 1 1
        (1)
f1 v ' u

But actually the second lens is present there so the image I‟ acts as a virtual object for
second lens L2 which forms its real image at I.

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Thus again using lens formula

1 1 1
        (2)
f2 v v '

Adding the equation (1) and (2), we get,

1 1 1 1
          (3)
f1 f 2 v u

If f is the equivalent focal length of the combination, then

1 1 1
         (4)
f v u

1 1 1
From equation (3) and (4). We find that  
f f1 f 2

∴ Equivalent power, P  P1  P2

1 1 1 1 1
For n thin lenses in contact, we have     ............ 
f f1 f 2 f 3 fn

∴ Equivalent power, P  P1  P2  P3  .............Pn

Note- If the lenses are separated by a distance d then their equivalent focal length is
given by-

1 1 1 d
   and Power , P  P1  P2  d  P1  P2
f f1 f 2 f 1 f 2

Refraction through Prism:

A prism is a wedge shaped body made from refracting medium bound by two
plane faces inclined to each other at same angle. The two plane faces are refracting
surfaces and angle between them is known as the angle of prism.

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Consider ABC as the prism with AB and AC as the two refracting surfaces. The
incident ray PE meets the refracting face AB at E making an angle of incidence i with
normal NN1. As it is moving from rarer to denser medium it bends towards the normal
making an angle r1. Similarly, at second face itmoves from denser to rarer medium
making an angle of incidence r2 and angle of refraction e (or angle of emergence). The
angle between incident and refracted ray is called angle of deviation.

   FOM   FMO
  (i  r1 )  (e  r2 ) 
  (i  e)  (r1  r2 )        (1)

 AOP   OPM   PMA   MAO  360

90   OPM  90   A  360 
 OPM   A  180         (2)

Also in OPM,

From (2) and (3), we get A  r1  r2        (4)

Now from equation (1) and (4), we can find out that

 ie A       (5)

For prism having small refracting angle A the incident ray makes small angle with
prism, thus angle of refraction is also small. Applying Snell‟s law, for refraction at face
AB and AC,

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If the angle of incidence and refraction are small, then i   r1 and e   r2

Therefore from equation (5),

   ( r1  r2 )  A    (   1) A

Factors on which angle of deviation depends:

(i) The angle of incidence (ii) The refractive index of the material of prism

(iii) The wavelength of the light used (iv) The angle of prism

Angle of Minimum Deviation: Prism Formula-

The minimum value of angle of deviation when ray of light passes through the
prism is called the angle of minimum deviation. In minimum deviation position,

The adjacent graph shows the variation δof with the angle of incidence I for a given
prism and for a given colour of light and the angle δ depends on i only. The graph
shows that as i increases, the angle δ decreases and reaches a minimum value δmand
the increases.

The minimum value of the angle of deviation suffered by a ray on passing

through a prism is called the angle of minimum deviation and denoted byδm or Dm.

In the position of minimum deviation it is found that

ie and r1  r2

 from A  r1  r2 , we get r  A
2

and from   i  e  A we have ,  m  i  i  A

A  m
i
2

A + δm
sin
sin i 2
Using Snell‟s law,   μ=
sin r A
Sin
2

Dispersion of Light:

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The phenomenon of the splitting of a ray of light into its constituent colours on passing
through a prism, is called as dispersion of light.

Cause of dispersion.

The refractive index μ of a material

for wavelength λ is given the
Cauchy‟s relation

B C
  A 
 2
4

Where A, B and C are the

constants which depends upon the
nature of material.

  (   1) A

Now R  R   R  V and hence  R  V

Thus the red colour is deviated the least and the violet is deviated the most. Other
colours are deviated by angles between  red and  violet . So different colours of white
light det dispersed on refraction through a prism.

Angular Dispersion:

This difference of deviation produced in violet

and red light is called angular dispersion.

Angular dispersion ,    V   R
  ( V  1) A  (  R  1) A 
 ( V   R ) A

Dispersive Power:

It is the ability of the prism material to cause dispersion and it is defined as the
ratio of the angular dispersion to the mean deviation (i.e. deviation of yellow colour). It is
denoted by 𝜔.

Angular dispersion  V   R V   R
Dispersive Power ,    
Mean deviation   1

RAY OPTICS BY UMESH TYAGI 21

δV + δR
Note- (1) δ Y or δ =
2

(2) As v>r , therefore, dispersive power is always positive.

Scattering of Light:

The phenomenon of the change in direction of light due to the

atmospheric particles is called as scattering of light.

Intensity of scatted light depends upon the size of particles. If the size of particles is
much smaller than the wavelength of light then Rayleigh law holds good and according
to this law, “The intensity of scattered light is inversely proportional to the fourth
1
power of its wavelength." i.e. I
4

If the size of particles (like water droplets in clouds) is larger than the wavelength of light
then Rayleigh law does not remain valid and all colours are equally scattered.

.Applications of Scattering of light-

Blue color of Sky: Blue colour of the sky. Blue colour of the sky is due to scattering of
sunlight by air molecules. According to Rayleigh's law, intensity of scattered light,
I  1  4 .So blue light ofshorter wavelength is scattered much more than red light of
longer Wavelength. When we look atthe sky, the scattered light enters our eyes and this
light contains blue component in a large proportion. That is why the sky appears blue.

Note-(1) As r = 2b, therefore, scattering of blue colour will be 16 times more than
that of red light. Thus the scattered intensity is maximum for shorter wavelengths

(2) Moon has no atmosphere. There is no scattering of sunlight. The sky appears dark.

Reddishness at Sunset and Sunrise. During

sunrise or sunset, the sun is near the horizon.
Sunlight has to travel a greater distance. So
shorter waves of blue region are scattered away
by the atmosphere. Red waves of longer
wavelength are least scattered and reach the
observer. So the sun appears red.

Clouds appear white. Large particles like raindrops, dust and ice particles do
notscatter light in accordance with Rayleigh's law, i.e., their scattering power is not
selective. Theyscatter light of all colours almost equally. Hence the clouds which have
droplets of water witha >>λ are generally white.

RAY OPTICS BY UMESH TYAGI 22

Danger signals are red. According to Rayleigh's law, the intensity of scattered light is
inversely proportional to the fourth power of Wavelength. In the visible spectrum, red
colour has the largest wavelength, it is scattered the least. Even in foggy conditions,
such a signal covers large distances without any appreciable loss of intensity due to
scattering. Therefore, red coloured signals are preferred.

Rainbows: The rainbow is nature’s most spectacular display of the spectrum of

light, produced by refraction, dispersion and internal reflection of sunlight by spherical
rain drops. It is observed when the sun shines on rain drops, during or after a shower.
An observer standing with his back towards the sun observes in the form of concentric
circular arcs (bows) of different colours in the horizon. The inner brighter rainbow is
called the primary rainbowand the outer fainter rainbow is called the secondary rainbow.

The primary rainbow is formed by rays which undergo one internal reflection and
tworefractions and finally emerge from the raindrops at minimum deviation. The red rays
emergefrom the water drops
at one angle of 43° and
theviolet rays emerge at
another angle of 41°.
Theparallel beam of sunlight
getting dispersed atthese
angles produces a cone of
rays at theobserver‟s eye, as
shown in Fig. Thus
therainbow is seen as a
colourful arc, with its
inneredge violet and outer
edge red in colour.

The secondary rainbow is

formed by therays which
undergo two internal
reflections andtwo refractions
before emerging from the waterdrops at minimum deviation. Due to two
internalreflections, the sequence of colour in secondaryrainbow is opposite to that in the
primaryrainbow. Here the inner red rays emerge from thewater drops at angle of 51°
and the outer violetrays emerge at angle of 54°.

RAY OPTICS BY UMESH TYAGI 23

Optical Instruments
The instruments used to see the tiny or heavenly bodies are known as optical
instruments.

Simple Microscope:
A convex lens of short focal length acts as a simple microscope when the object is
placed between the optical centre and focus of the lens. In this position of object
convex lens forms the magnified image behind the object.

In the figure object AB which when viewed by an unaided eye cannot be seen
distinctly. A convex lens is then interposed between the eye and the object so that the
distance 'u' of the object from the lens is less than the focal length of the lens. A virtual,
erect and magnified image A'B' will be produced. By adjusting the distance of object
image is formed at least distance of distinct vision (D=25cm for a healthy eye).

Magnifying Power: It is the ratio of angle subtended by the image at the eye to the
angle subtended by the object at the eye when both are placed at least distance of
distinct vision.

 tan 
Magnifying Power  
 tan 
AB
CB ' D
 CB   ...(1)
A1 B ' CB u
CB '

Since the virtual image is formed at least distance of distinct vision (D), therefore v = -
D, Using Lens Formula,

1 1 1
 
v u f
1 1 1
 
D u f

D D
1 
u f
D D
 1 ...(2 )
u f

From (1) and (2),

D
M 1
f

Compound Microscope:

It is used to see the tiny objects which can‟t be seen by naked eyes.

Construction- It consists of two lenses called as objective and eyepiece. The size and
focal length of objective are smaller than that of eyepiece. These lenses are fitted at one
end of two hollow metallic tubes open at both ends. These tubes can be inserted into
each other with the help of rack and pinion arrangement to change the distance
between the two lenses.

Working- Let AB be an object situated on the principal axis at distance greater than
focal length of the objective. As refraction takes place through the objective O, a real
inverted and magnified image A‟B‟ is formed. This image acts as an object for
eyepiece. The position of eye piece so adjusted that A’B’falls within its focal length and
so the final image A’’B’’ is formed at least distance of distinct vision. Thus, final image
A”B” which is highly magnified but is inverted with respect to the object AB is formed
by eyepiece.

RAY OPTICS BY UMESH TYAGI 25

Magnifying Power: The magnifying power is defined as the angle subtended by the
final image at the eye to the angle subtended by object when both are placed at least
distance of distinct vision from eye.

 tan  A ' B '/ C 2 A '

M   
 tan  A " P / C 2 A "
A ' B ' C2 A "
M    mo  me
AB C 2 A '

vo
For objective lens, mo  
uo

Again since the lens eyepiece, acts like a simple microscope, so its magnification me is
given by,

D
me  1 
fe

Thus, magnification of compound microscope should be,

vo  D
M   1  
uo  fe 

D
If final image is formed at infinity, then me 
fe

vo D
∴ M  
uo fe

Telescopes are used to see very far off heavenly bodies.

Construction- It consists of two lenses called as objective lens and eyepiece. The eye
piece has small focal length and small aperture than that of objective lens. These lenses
are fitted at one end of two hollow metallic tubes open at both ends. These tubes can be
inserted into each other with the help of rack and pinion arrangement to change the
distance between the two lenses.

Working- A parallel beam of light coming from distance object forms a real, inverted
and diminished image at a distance f0 from C1. The image then acts as an object for
eye piece, and final image is formed after refraction through eye piece.

RAY OPTICS BY UMESH TYAGI 26

(i) Normal Adjustment: If the final image is formed at infinity after refraction
through the eye piece. The magnifying power of telescope is defined as the
ratio of angle β subtended by the image to the angleα subtended by the
object at the eye when both are placed at infinity.

 tan 
M  
 tan 
A ' B '/ C 2 B ' C1 B '
M  
A ' B '/ C1 B ' C 2 B'

C1 B '  f o  focal length of objective lens

C 2 B '  f e  focal length of eyepiece

fo
∴ M 
fe

(ii) When image is at least distance of distinct vision:

If A’B’ lies within the focal length fe of the eye piece, a final virtual but
magnified image A”B” is observed. The position of eye piece is so adjusted that final
image is formed at least distance of distinct vision D from the eye.

Consider a source of light S situated in denser medium say water. As the rays move
from denser to rarer medium they bends away from the normal.

RAY OPTICS BY UMESH TYAGI 27

Magnifying Power:

It is the ratio of angle subtended at the eye by the final image formed at least
distance of distinct vision to the angle subtended by the unaided eye by the object at
infinity.

 tan  A ' B '/ C 2 B '

M   
 tan  A ' B '/ C1 B '
C1 B ' fo
M  
C 2 B' ue

1 1 1
Using Lens formula,  
f v u

1 1 1
 
f e  D u e

1 1 1
 
ue fe D

 1 1 fo  f 
M   fo      M   1  e 
 fe D  fe  D

Cassegrain reﬂecting telescope-

It consists of a large concave paraboloidal (primary) mirror having a hole at its centre.
This mirror acts as an objective and it is fitted at one end of a hollow metallic tube.
There is a small convex (secondary) mirror between the focus and pole of the primary

RAY OPTICS BY UMESH TYAGI 28

mirror. The eyepiece is placed on the axis of the telescope near the hole of the primary
mirror outside the tube.

Working- The parallel rays from the

distant object are reﬂected by the
large concave mirror. Before these
rays come to focus at F, they are
reﬂected by the small convex mirror
and are converged to a point I just
outside the hole. The final image
formed at I is viewed through the
eyepiece. As the first image at F is
inverted with respect to the distant object and the second image I is erect with respect
to the first image F, hence the final image is inverted with respect to the object .

Let f0 be the focal length of the objective and fe that of the eyepiece.

For the final image formed at the least distance of distinct vision,

f0  fe 
M  1  
fe  D

f0 R / 2
M  
fe fe

(i) No chromatic aberration, because mirror is used.

(ii) Spherical aberration gets removed by using a paraboloidal mirror.
(iii) The image is bright, because there is no loss of light due to reﬂection and
absorption by objective.
(iv) Higher resolution can be obtained by using a mirror of large aperture.
(v) A mirror provides an easier mechanical support over its entire back surface.
(vi) It is difficult and expensive to make large sized lens free from chromatic
aberration and distortions.

Thus reflecting type telescopes are better than refracting type astronomical telescopes.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *