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DOI: 10.1109/ITNG.2007.166 · Source: DBLP

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Research Directions in Quantum Cryptography

Department of Information Systems & Department of Systems & Computer Science

Decision Sciences Howard University

Howard University 2300 6th Street NW

2600 6th Street, NW Washington, DC 20059

Washington, DC 20059 {moses, agirma}@scs.howard.edu

rgoel@howard.edu

or improved cryptographic protocols

Quantum Cryptography is an approach to protecting classical information (as with

securing communications by applying the quantum key distribution or

phenomena of quantum physics. Unlike uncloneable encryption).

traditional classical cryptography, which uses • Cryptographic methods can be applied

mathematical techniques to restrict to protect quantum information instead

eavesdroppers, quantum cryptography is focused of classical information. Examples

on the physics of information. Quantum would include quantum secret sharing

cryptography provides secure communication, schemes and quantum authentication

whose security depends only on the validity of protocols.

quantum theory, i.e., it is guarantied directly by

the laws of physics. This is a substantial We investigate the differences between classical

difference from any classical cryptographic cryptographic techniques and quantum

techniques. This article summarizes the current cryptography, as well potential advantages and

state of quantum cryptography and provides applications of each. In section 2, we present

potential extensions of its feasibility as a attributes of classical cryptography and its

mechanism for securing existing communication difference with quantum cryptography and

systems. Section 3 summarizes Quantum Key distribution

and Quantum Entanglement. Section 4 and 5

I. Introduction describes the quantum cryptographic protocols,

eavesdropping, and we conclude with a

discussion on the current progress and quantum

The physics of quantum cryptography

crypto network debuts.

opens a door to tremendously intriguing

possibilities for cryptography, the art and science

of communicating in the presence of adversaries 2. Classical Cryptography

[1,2]. Interesting characteristics of quantum

mechanics include the existence of indivisible Cryptography is the art of rendering a

quanta and of entangled systems, both of which message unintelligible to any unauthorized party.

lie at the root of quantum cryptography (QC). Although confidentiality is the traditional

QC is one of the few commercial applications of application of cryptography, it is used nowadays

quantum physics at the single quantum level. to achieve broader objectives, such as

Other applications of quantum mechanics authentication, digital signatures [10].

to cryptography, which tend to come in three To achieve this goal, an algorithm (also called a

flavors: cryptosystem or cipher) is used to combine a

• Quantum mechanics can be used to message with some additional information

break classical cryptographic protocols (known as the key) and produce a cryptogram.

(as with quantum factoring). The primary application of cryptography is to

send secret messages.

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Many cryptographic systems are based on

computational assumptions. Decrypting is Secret key cryptography

equivalent to solving some computationally • Requires secure channel for key distribution

difficult problem, one that cannot be answered in • In principle every classical channel can be

polynomial time in some security parameters. monitored passively

The central problem in cryptography is the key • Security is mostly based on complicated non

distribution problem, for which there are proven algorithms

essentially two solutions: one based on

mathematics, classical cryptography, and one

based on Physics (quantum cryptography). While Public key cryptography

classical cryptography relies on the • Security is based on non proven

computational difficulty of factoring large mathematical assumptions

integers, quantum cryptography relies on what (e. g. in RSA cipher, difficulty of

we believe to be the universal laws of quantum factoring large numbers)

mechanics. • Break through renders messages insecure

These classical cryptosystems come in two retroactively.

flavors: symmetric systems, and asymmetric

systems [6]. The security of public key 3. Quantum Cryptography

cryptosystems is based on computational

complexity. The idea is to use mathematical The idea of quantum cryptography was first

objects called one-way functions. So far, no one proposed in the 1970s [14,15], though it is only

has proved the existence of any one-way now that the field is applied to information

function with a trapdoor; so, the existence of security. One aspect of quantum cryptography is

secure asymmetric cryptosystems is not proven. to create cryptographic protocols to protect

This poses a serious threat to these quantum States that do have the property that

cryptosystems. For instance, an overnight they cannot be copied [11,12].

breakthrough in mathematics could make The main advantage of quantum

electronic money instantly worthless. To limit cryptography is that it gives us perfectly secure

such economic and social risks, there is no data transfer. The first successful quantum

alternative but to turn to symmetrical cryptographic device could translate a secret key

cryptosystems. QC has a role to play in such over 30 centimeters using polarized light, calcite

alternative systems. crystal(s), and other electro-optical devices.

key for both encryption and decryption. The

symmetrical cryptosystems in use for routine

applications such as e-commerce employ rather

short keys. Like asymmetrical cryptosystems,

they offer only computational

security. However, for a given key length,

symmetrical systems are more secure than their

asymmetrical counterparts.

In practical implementations, asymmetrical

algorithms are used not so much for encryption,

because of their slowness, but rather for

distribution of session keys for symmetrical

cryptosystems such as DES. Because the security

of those algorithms is not proven, the security of

the whole implementation can be compromised.

If these algorithms were broken by mathematical Figure 3: A Quantum Cryptographic

advances, QC would constitute the only way to communication system for securely transferring

solve the key distribution problem. random key.

2.3 Barriers of Classical cryptography 3.1 Quantum Entanglement

2

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Entanglement is a kind of quantum generated. No leakage of information occurs,

correlation that is stronger, in a certain sense, since the key is just a random sequence.

than any classical one. If some quantum system, The primary proposed application of QKD

consisting of several subsystems, is in an is to create a secret key, which is then used with

entangled state (even in a pure entangled state) the one-time pad to send unconditionally secure

its individual subsystems cannot be described by messages. We ensure secure communications by

pure quantum states. Entangled states can be using one-time pads in conjunction with

used to serve for quantum key distribution and quantum key distribution. The main drawback

quantum teleportation. for classical one-time pads is the distribution of

Quantum entanglement is a quantum encryption/decryption keys, and this is not a

mechanical phenomenon in which the quantum problem for quantum cryptography as we can

of two or more objects have to be described with transfer key data in a totally secure fashion.

reference to each other, even though the One of the best-known protocols for

individual objects may be spatially separated [3]. quantum key distribution is usually called BB84,

This leads to correlations between observable since it was proposed by Bennett and Brassard in

physical properties of the systems. As a result, 1984 [4]. In BB84, Alice sends Bob a random

measurements performed on one system seem to sequence of quantum bits (or qubits). These

be instantaneously influencing other systems quantum bits are equally likely to be in one of

entangled with it. four possible states, see table 1.

|0> Z 0

Quantum mechanics has multiple |1> Z 1

cryptographic applications as well (see [8] for a

|0> + |1> X 0

survey). The best known is quantum key

distribution (QKD) [11], which enables Alice |0> - |1> X 1

and Bob to create a secure classical secret key

despite the potential presence of an Table 1: States of quantum bits

eavesdropper. QKD requires only an insecure

quantum channel and authenticated (but When Bob receives a qubit, he randomly

unencrypted) classical channels, but chooses to measure it either in the Z basis or the

unfortunately requires multiple rounds of back- X basis, and records the results. Then Alice

and-forth communication between Alice and announces which basis the state she sent came

Bob. from (the "Basis" column in the table), but not

QKD is a means of distributing keys from one what the state actually was, and Bob announces

party to another, and detecting eavesdropping. It which basis he measured in. If Bob measured in

allows two parties to establish a common the same basis that Alice used to prepare the

random secret key by taking advantage of the state, he should have gotten the result in the

fact that quantum mechanics does not allow for "Value" column of the table. Alice and Bob keep

distinguishing non-orthogonal states with the results for which they used the same basis

certainty. Within the framework of classical and discard the other bits. In the absence of

physics, information encoded into a property of a errors and eavesdropping, they now have an

classical object, can be acquired without identical string of bits, which can act as their

affecting the state of the object. However, if private key.

information is encoded into a property of a But, note that a clever Eve can adopt many

quantum object, any attempt to discriminate its possible strategies to fool Alice and Bob,

non-orthogonal states inevitably changes the including subtle quantum attacks entangling all

original state with a nonzero probability. And of the particles sent by Alice. Taking all

since eavesdropping is also governed by the laws possibilities into account, along with the effects

of quantum mechanics, these changes cause of realistic imperfections in Alice and Bob's

errors in transmissions and reveal the apparatus and channel, has been difficult. A long

eavesdropper. QKD cannot prevent from series of partial results has appeared over the

eavesdropping, but it enables legitimate users to years, addressing restricted sets of strategies by

discover it. If any eavesdropping is detected, the Eve, [2] but only in the past few years have

key is simply thrown away and a new one is complete proofs appeared.

3

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One class of proofs, by Dominic Mayers quantum cryptographic protocols has turned out

[3] and subsequently by others, including Eli to be significantly easier than the implementation

Biham and collaborators and Michael Ben-Or, of quantum algorithms. Quantum cryptographic

[4] attacks the problem directly and proves that protocols are designed with the intention that

the standard BB84 protocol is secure. Another their security is guaranteed by the laws of

approach, by (HKL) and H. F. Chau [5]. proves quantum physics. Naturally it is necessary to

the security of a new QKD protocol that uses prove, for any given protocol, that this is indeed

quantum error-correcting codes [6]. The two the case. The most notable result in this area is

approaches have been unified by Peter Shor and Mayers’ proof [3] of the unconditional security

John Preskill, [7], who showed that a quantum of the quantum key distribution protocol “BB84”

error-correcting protocol could be modified to [12]. This proof guarantees the security of BB84

become BB84 without compromising its in the presence of an attacker who can perform

security. any operation allowed by quantum physics;

The proof of the security of QKD is a fine hence the security of the protocol will not be

theoretical result, but it does not mean that a real compromised by future developments in

QKD system would be secure [8]. Some known quantum computing. Mayers’ results, and others

and unknown security loopholes might prove to of the same kind [4,3], are extremely important

be fatal. Apparently minor quirks of a system can contributions to the study of quantum

sometimes provide a lever for an eavesdropper to cryptography.

break the encryption. For instance, instead of However, a mathematical proof of the

producing a single photon, a laser may produce security of a protocol does not in itself guarantee

two; Eve can keep one and give the other to Bob. the security of an implemented system which

She can then learn what polarization Alice sent relies on the protocol. Experience of classical

without revealing her presence. There are various cryptography has shown that, during the

possible solutions to this particular problem; it is progression from an idealized protocol to an

the unanticipated flaws that present the greatest implementation, many security weaknesses can

security hazard. Ultimately, we cannot have arise. For example: the system might not

confidence that a real-life quantum cryptographic correctly implement the desired protocol; there

system is secure until it has withstood attacks might be security flaws which only appear at the

from determined real-life adversaries. implementation level and which are not visible at

Traditionally, breaking cryptographic protocols the level of abstraction used in proofs; problems

has been considered to be as important as can also arise at boundaries between systems and

making them--the protocols that survive are between components which have different

more likely to be truly secure. The same standard execution models or data representations.

will have to be applied to QKD. Quantum cryptographic systems must be

Quantum key distribution is perhaps the analyzed at a level of detail that is closer to a

best-known example of an application of practical implementation. Computer scientists

quantum mechanics to cryptography, but there have developed a range of techniques and tools

are many others. For instance, quantum key for the analysis and verification of

distribution is closely related to a slightly communication systems and protocols. Those

stronger protocol called uncloneable encryption, particularly relevant to security analysis are

which uses quantum states to send an encrypted surveyed by Ryan et al. [7]. This approach has

classical message which cannot be read or even two key features. The first is the use of formal

copied by Eve. languages to precisely specify the behavior of

the system and the properties which it is meant

4. Quantum Cryptographic Protocols to satisfy. The second is the use of automated

software tools to either verify that a system

Recent interest in quantum cryptography has satisfies a specification or to discover flaws.

been stimulated by the fact that quantum There are classical solutions to insecure

algorithms, such as Shor’s algorithms for integer communication all rely on making some sort of

factorization and discrete logarithm [9], threaten assumption, about the computational power of a

the security of classical cryptosystems. A range cheater, about the number of cheaters, or

of quantum cryptographic protocols for key something of this kind. Based on quantum key

distribution, bit commitment, oblivious transfer distribution, one might hope that a quantum

and other problems [10] have been extensively computer might allow us to weaken or remove

studied. Furthermore, the implementation of these assumptions. For instance, it is possible to

4

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make a quantum digital signature, which is point-to-point links rather than networks that

secure against all attacks allowed by quantum share connections.

mechanics. BBN Technologies, Harvard University and

Boston University researchers have built a six-

Many classical cryptographic protocols work by node quantum cryptography network that

building up the protocol from simpler protocols. operates continuously to provide a way to

Two particularly useful simple protocols are exchange secure keys between BBN and

Authentication of quantum messages [8] and the Harvard, which is about 10 kilometers away [3].

other called bit commitment. Standard classical The researchers will soon move one of the

cryptographic protocols for bit commitment rely network nodes across town to link Boston

on Bob having limited computational power. For University into the network. The network is

a while, it was thought quantum bit resilient because any node in the network can act

commitments protocols existed which were as a relay to connect two other nodes. Because

unconditionally secure. However, it turns out there are multiple connections to and from any

that if Alice and Bob have quantum computers, given node, "failure of a link or node does not

any protocol for which Bob cannot determine the mean that we have lost quantum cryptography.

value of Alice's bit allows Alice to safely change The quantum network uses secure

the bit without Bob finding out. This was a great point-to-point connections between nodes and

disappointment, and later results proved that allows a given node to relay secure

many other quantum cryptographic protocols cryptographic keys between two other nodes.

were also impossible. However, there are still a Because the quantum properties of photons are

number of possible protocols that have not been lost if they are observed, they cannot be copied,

ruled out, including some of considerable but making copies of light signals is the way

interest. Quantum computation may allow us to signals are boosted along ordinary

perform some of these operations more safely telecommunications lines.

than any classical protocol. Quantum repeaters, which are under

development at several research labs around the

world, would instead transfer the quantum state

5. Eavesdropping of one photon to another through interactions

with atoms or through the strange quantum

Eavesdropping is the intercepting and reading phenomenon of entanglement, which allows

of messages and conversations by unintended traits of two or more particles to be linked

recipients. One who participates in regardless of the distance between them.

eavesdropping, i.e. someone who secretly listens The network's photon sources are currently

in on the conversations of others, is called an heavily filtered lasers, which are extremely dim

eavesdropper. The origin of the term is literal, and sometimes emit more than one photon at a

from people who would literally hide out in the time[9].

eaves of houses to listen in on other people's The quantum cryptography network works with

private conversations. Internet protocols including the secure Internet

Protocol (IPsec) and creates a type of virtual

Eavesdropping can also be done over private network, which provides secure

telephone lines, email, instant messages, and any communications over unsecured networks like

other method of communication considered the Internet at large. The idea is that even if an

private. (If a message is publicly broadcast, eavesdropper is able to listen in on a line, he

witnessing it does not count as eavesdropping). would be unable to learn much about the

Messages can be protected against communications traversing it. The network is

eavesdropping by employing a security service ready for practical applications today.

of confidentiality (or privacy). This security

service is usually implemented by encryption. Magiq Technologies is creating a new line

of products that it says could help make quantum

encryption theoretically impossible to crack --

6. Quantum crypto network debuts

more palatable to mainstream customers. The

New York-based company said it has signed a

Quantum cryptography has the potential to deal with Cavium Networks, under which

guarantee perfectly secure communications, but Cavium's network security chips will be included

until now the entire prototype systems have been inside Magiq's servers and networking boards

5

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Magiq and Cavium will also create reference

designs for networking boards and cards, with all As this quantum cryptography is a new science

of the necessary silicon to create a quantum in a cryptosystem technology and many

encryption system. researchers from around the world are

Quantum properties other than polarization can discovering a way of incorporating some new

encode the value of a bit for the quantum key, devices and have already made a breakthrough, it

says Gregoire Ribordy, CEO of Swiss start-up looks quantum cryptography will be an advanced

Swiss start-up ID Quantique His company code- making technology which is theoretically

introduced the first commercial quantum- uncrackable. This is because of the laws of

cryptography products in 2002: single-photon quantum physics that dictate an eavesdropper

detectors and random-number generators, two could not measure the properties of a single

essential components for quantum-cryptography photon without the risk of altering those

systems. In 2003, the company partnered with properties. In other words, even if an

two electronic-security firms to develop a eavesdropper is able to listen in on a line, he/she

commercial system. could be unable to learn much about the

communications traversing it.

7. Conclusion

[9] Brassard, G., 1988, Modern Cryptology: A

8. References Tutorial, Lecture Notes in Computer Science,

Vol. 325 (Springer, New York).

[1] Bennett, C. H., and Brassard, G. Quantum

public key distribution reinvented. Sigact News [10] Shannon, C. E., 1949, ‘‘Communication

18(4) (1987), 51–53. theory of secrecy systems, ’’ Bell Syst. Tech. J.

28, 656–715.

[2] Bennett, C. H., Brassard, G., and Ekert, A. K.

Quantum cryptography. Sci. Am. 267, 4 (Oct. [11] Stallings, W., 1999, Cryptography and

1992), 50. Network

[3] Bennett, C. H., and DiVincenzo, D. P. [12] Wiesner, S., 1983, ‘‘Conjugate coding,’’

Quantum information and computation. Nature SIGACT News, 15,78–88

404 (2000), 247–55.

[13] Bennett, C. H., and G. Brassard, 1984, in

[4] Bennett, C. H., and Shor, P. W. Quantum Proceedings of the IEEE International

information theory. IEEE Transactions on Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal

Information Theory 44, 6 (1998), 2724–42. Processing, Bangalore, India, (IEEE, New

York), pp.175–179.

[5] Brassard, G. Cryptology column — 25 years

of quantum cryptography. Sigact News 27(3) [14] Bennett, C. H., and G. Brassard, 1985,

(1996), 13–24. ‘‘Quantum public key distribution system,’’ IBM

Tech. Discl. Bull. 28, 3153–3163.

[6] Gottesman, D., and Lo, H.-K. From quantum

cheating to quantum security. Physics Today 53, [15] W. K. Wootters and W. H. Zurek, “A single

11 (Nov. 2000), 22. quantum cannot be cloned,” Nature 299, 802

(1982).

[7] Lo, H.-K. Quantum Cryptology. World

Scientific, 1998.

of Secrecy from Ancient Egypt to Quantum

Cryptography (Fourth Estate, London).

6

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