9 views

Uploaded by Gopik Anand

thermo

- Week_3
- dynamics of compressive fluid flow.pdf
- fm
- ExtDies06.pdf
- MPP Presentation Part02
- Fm&Hms Lab Manual
- Multistage Centrifugal Pumps - Assessment of a Mixing Plane Method for Cfd Analysis
- Chapter1-cfd
- r Problems
- OH02N
- promag53_instr
- Pump Presentation
- Basic Prop Fluids
- 1 River Flow2
- Numerical Method for Incompressible Flow
- Group2plottedisobestic
- A Closed Form Sol for Hydrodyn Pressure of GDs Reservoir w Effect of Viscosity Under Dyn Loading (2009) - Paper (5)
- Oilfield Products Catalog Gates 2012 LR
- PipeFlow2Multi-phaseFlowAssurance
- Echometer_GasSeparatorSimulationProgram_Information_2014_SWPSC.docx

You are on page 1of 182

Machinery

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 1

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 1 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:13:16

3:36:48 PM

The aim of this publication is to supply information taken from sources believed to be valid and

reliable. This is not an attempt to render any type of professional advice or analysis, nor is it to

be treated as such. While much care has been taken to ensure the veracity and currency of the

information presented within, neither the publisher nor its authors bear any responsibility for

any damage arising from inadvertent omissions, negligence or inaccuracies (typographical or

factual) that may have found their way into this book.

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION,

NOV/DEC 2013

Third Semester

Mechanical Engineering

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

(Regulation 2008/2010)

(Common to Aeronautical Engineering, Automobile

Engineering, Production Engineering, Mechatronics

Engineering, Mechanical and Automation Engineering and

Fourth Semester Manufacturing Engineering, Industrial

Engineering and Industrial Engineering and Management)

(Common to PTCE 3213 – Fluid Mechanics and Machinery

for B.E. (Part-Time) Third Semester – Manufacturing

Engineering Regulation 2009)

Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

Any missing data can be suitably assumed with justification.

Answer ALL questions

PART A (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

respect to pressure.

3. How does surface roughness affect the pressure drop in a pipe if the flow

is turbulent?

4. A piping system involves two pipes of different diameters (but of identical

length, material, and roughness) connected in parallel. How would you

compare the flow rates and pressure drops in these two pipes?

4 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

surface tension and the radius. By dimensional reasoning determine how

the excess, pressure will vary if we double the surface tension and the

radius.

fluid on an immersed object, assuming the pressure is a function of the

density and the velocity.

9. Draw the relationship between discharge and crank angle for a single

acting pump.

PART B (5 × 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) (i) Water enters the bottom of the cone in Fig. 1. at a uniformly

increasing average velocity V = Lt. If d is very small, derive an

analytic formula for the water surface rise h(t), assuming h = 0 at

t = 0. (8)

Cone

θ θ

Diameter d

h(t)

V = Lt

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2013) 5

from a hole in a tank is V = (2gh)1/2, where h is the depth of water

above the hole. Let the hole have area A0 and the cylindrical tank

have bottom area Ab. Derive a formula for the time to drain the

tank from an initial depth h0. (8)

Or

(b) (i) A simple turbomachine is constructed from a disk with two

internal ducts which exit tangentially through square holes, as in

the Fig. 2. Water at 20°C enters the disk at the center, as shown.

The disk must drive, at 250 rev/min, a small device whose

retarding torque is 1.5 Nm. What is the proper mass flow of

water, in kg/s? (8)

2 cm

2 cm

32 cm Q

7 m/s, strikes a fixed wall inclined at 20° with respect to the jet

direction. Assuming frictionless flow, find the normal force on

the wall per meter of depth, and the widths of the sheet deflected

upstream and downstream along the wall. (8)

12. (a) (i) Consider turbulent flow (f = 0.184 Re–0.2) of a fluid through a

square channel with smooth surfaces. Now the mean velocity of

the fluid is doubled. Determine the change in the head loss of the

fluid. Assume the flow regime remains unchanged. What will be

the head loss for fully turbulent flow in a rough pipe? (10)

Or

6 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

(b) (i) Two tanks of fluid (r =998 kg/m3 and m= 0.001 kg/ms.) at 20°C

are connected by a capillary tube 4 mm in diameter and 3.5 m

long. The surface of tank 1 is 30 cm higher than the surface of

tank 2. Estimate the flow rate in m3/h. Is the flow laminar? For

what tube diameter will Reynolds number be 500? (10)

(ii) Explain the concept of boundary layer in pipes for both laminar

and turbulent flows with neat sketches. (6)

13. (a) (i) Derive an expression for the shear stress at the pipe wall when an

incompressible fluid flows through a pipe under pressure. Use

dimensional analysis with the following significant parameters:

pipe diameter D, flow velocity V, and viscosity m. and density r

of the fluid. (10)

(ii) Use dimensional analysis and the MLT system to arrange the

following into a dimensionless number: L, r, m and s. (6)

Or

(b) (i) Consider viscous flow over a very small object. Analysis of the

equations of motion shows that the inertial terms are much

smaller than viscous and pressure terms. Fluid density drops out,

and these are called creeping flows. The only important

parameters are velocity U, viscosity m, and body length scale d.

For three-dimensional bodies, like spheres, creeping flow

analysis yields very good results. It is uncertain, however, if

creeping flow applies to two-dimensional bodies, such as

cylinders, since even though the diameter may be very small, the

length of the cylinder is infinite. Let us see if dimensional

analysis can help. (1) Apply the Pi theorem to two-dimensional

drag force F2-D as a function of the other parameters. Be careful:

two-dimensional drag has dimensions of force per unit length,

not simply force. (2) Is your analysis in part (1) physically

plausible? If not, explain why not. (3) It turns out that fluid

density r cannot be neglected in analysis of creeping flow over

two dimensional bodies. Repeat the dimensional analysis, this

time including r as a variable, and find the resulting non-

dimensional relation between the parameters in this problem.

(10)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2013) 7

laminar flow and then undergoes transition to turbulence at a

time ttr which depends upon the pipe diameter D, fluid acceleration

a, density r and viscosity m. Arrange this into a dimensionless

relation between ttr and D. (6)

14. (a) (i) A Kaplan turbine delivers 10 MW under a head of 25 m. The hub

and tip diameters are 1.2 m and 3 m. Hydraulic and overall

efficiencies are 0.90 and 0.85. If both velocity triangles are right

angled triangles, determine the speed, guide blade outlet angle

and blade outlet angle. (10)

(6)

Or

(b) (i) A centrifugal pump with an impeller diameter of 0.4 m runs at

1450 rpm. The angle at outlet of the backward curved vane is 25°

with tangent. The flow velocity remains constant at 3 m/s. If the

manometric efficiency is 84% determine the fraction of the

kinetic energy at outlet recovered as static head. (10)

with a diagram. (6)

15. (a) Discuss on the following: Working of double acting pump, indicator

diagram, acceleration head, friction head. (16)

Or

(b) With neat sketches, discuss about the rotary positive displacement

pump.

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION,

MAY/JUNE 2013

Third Semester

Mechanical Engineering

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

Answer ALL questions

PART A (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1. Define relative or specific viscosity.

5. Give the dimensions foe the following; surface tension and dynamic

viscosity.

machine.

9. What is negative slip in reciprocating pump? What are the causes for it?

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 9

PART B (5 × 16 = 80 marks)

at a pressure of 690 N/Cm2. What should be the new pressure in

order to make its volume 0.0119 m3? Assume bulk modulus of

elasticity (K) for the liquid = 6.9 × 104 N/Cm2

another cylinder of diameter 15.10 cm. Both cylinders are 25 cm

high. The space between the cylinders is filled with a liquid

whose viscosity is unknown. If a torque of 12 NM is required to

rotate the inner cylinder at 1000 rpm. Determine the viscosity of

the fluid.

Or

11. (b) (i) State Bernoulli’s theorem and assumption for steady flow of an

incompressible fluid.

(ii) The water is flowing through a taper pipe of length 100 m having

diameter 600 mm at the upper end and 300 mm at the lower end,

the rate of 50 lps. The pipe has a slope of 1 in 30. Find the pressure

at the lower end, if the pressure at higher level is 19.62 N/cm2.

12. (a) For a flow of viscous fluid flowing through a circular pipe under

laminar flow condition show that the velocity distribution is a

parabola and also show that average velocity is half of maximum

velocity.

Or

12. (b) A horizontal pipe line 40 m long is connected to a water tank to one

end and discharge freely into atmosphere at other end for the first

25 m of its length from the tank, the pipe is 150 mm diameter and its

diameter is suddenly enlarged to 300 mm. The height of water level

in the tank is 8m above the centre of pipe considering all losses of

head which occur, determine the rate of flow, take f = 0.01 for both

section of pipe.

(Q) is dependent on N (speed of pump), d (diameter of impeller),

10 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

pump) and r and m (density and dynamic viscosity of the fluid).

Using the dimensional analysis and Buckingham’s p theorem, prove

gH µ

that Q = Nd 3 f 2 2 ,

N d Nd 2 ρ

Or

13. (b) (i) What are the similarities between model and prototype? Mention

the application of model testing.

1

across a flume of 600 mm width. The prototype is 15 m high

50

and maximum head on it is expected to be 1.5 m.

(i) What height of model and what head on the model should be

used?

(ii) If the flow over the model at a particular head is 12 lps, what

flow per metre length of the prototype is expected?

(iii) If the negative pressure in model is 200 mm, what is negative

pressure in prototype? Is it practicable?

produce 148.25 kw power. It is working under a head of 7.62 m. The

peripheral velocity = 0.26 2 gh and the radial velocity of flow at

inlet is 0.96 2 gh . The wheel runs at 150 rpm and the hydraulic

losses in the turbine are 22% of available energy. Assume radial

discharge. Determine (i) guide blade angle (ii) wheel vane angle at

inlet (iii) Diameter of wheel at inlet (iv) Width of wheel at inlet.

Or

pump which is running at 100 rpm are 200 mm and 400 mm reply.

The discharge the pump is 0.04 m3/sec and velocity of flow is cost

and equal to 2 m/s. The diameter of section and delivery pipes 150

and 100 mm and section & delivery heads are 6m (abs) and 30 m

cabs of water. If outlet vane angle is 45° and power required to drive

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 11

the pump is 16.186 kw. Determine (i) vane angle at inlet (ii) overall

efficiency of pump and (iii) manometric efficiency of pump.

and 30 m in stroke. The pump is running at 30 rpm and discharge

water to a height of 12 m. The diameter and length of delivery pipe

are 10 cm and 30 m. If a larger vessel is fitted in delivery pipe at a

distance of 2 m from centre of pump, find the pressure head in

cylinder.

Or

15. (b) (i) Explain in detail the working principle and construction of rotary

pumps with neat sketch.

Rotary pumps resemble like centrifugal pumps in appearance but

the working method differs. Uniform discharge and positive

displacement can be obtained by using rotary pumps.

(ii) Calculate the work saved by filtering air vessel for a double

acting single cylinder reciprocating pump.

Solutions

PART A

1. It is the ratio of dynamic viscosity of fluid to dynamic viscosity of water

at 20°C

Dynamic viscosity of fluid

Relative or Sp. viscosity =

Dynamic viscosity of water at 20°C

2. Impulse momentum equation states that the impulse of fore acting

on a fluid mass is a short interval of time is required to the change of

momentum in direction of force.

3.

i. There is a shear stress between fluid layers

ii. ‘No slip’ at the boundary

iii. The flow is rotational

iv. Loss of energy is proportional to first power of velocity and viscosity.

4. When a main pipes, which again join together to form a single pipe and

continues as a main line. These pies are said to be pipes in parallel.

5. Surface tension = MT-2

Dynamic viscosity = ML-1T-1

6. Only gravitational force is more predetermining force. The law states

that “The froude number is same for both model and prototype”.

7. Hydraulic efficiency is defined as ratio of power developed by the runner

to power supplied by water jet.

Axial thrust is defined as the thrust caused by the pressure acting against

the cross-sectional area of an impeller. This thrust must be accomodated

by the pump’s thrust bearing.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 13

8.

1. All the potential energy is 1. Only a portion of the fluid energy

converted to kinetic energy by is transformed to kinetic energy

nozzle

2. Blades are only in action 2. Blades are in action at all the time

when they are in front of

nozzle

3. Water may be allowed to 3. Water is admitted over the

enter a part or whole of wheel circumference of the wheel

circumference

When Qact may be higher Qthe and the slip is negative. It is possible when

the delivery pipe is short and pump runs at high speed.

10. The air vessels, amount of work to be supplied to the reciprocating pump

is reduced.

PART B

11. (a) (i) Given

Initial volume V1 = 0.012 m3

Initial pressure P1 = 690 N/Cm2

Final volume V2 = 0.0119 m3

Bulk modulus K= 6.9 × 104 N/Cm2

Solution

dp

Bulk modulus K =

( /v1 )

dv

P1 − P2

=

V1 −V2

V

14 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

690 − P2

6.9×10 4 =

0.012 − 0.0119

0.012

575 = 690 − P2

P2 = 690 − 575

P2 = 115 N/Cm 2

Diameter of inside cylinder d = 15 cm = 0.15 m

Diameter of outer cylinder D = 15.10 cm = 0.151 m

Height of both cylinders l = 25 cm = 0.25 cm

Torque of inner cylinder = T = 12 N-m

Speed of cylinder N = 100 rpm

Solution:

p dN

Tangential velocity u =

60

p × 0.15×100

=

60

u = 0.785 m / sec = du

A = p dl

= p × 0.15× 0.25

A = 0.117 m 2

Clearance between cylinders

D − d 0.151− 0.15

Dy = =

2 2

= 5×10−4 m

Shear stress

du 0.785

τ=µ = µ× = 1570 µ

dy 5×10−4

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 15

Shear force

F = τ A = 1570 µ × 0.1178

= 184.946 m

Torque

d 0.15

T = F × = 184.946 m × = 12

2 2

m = 0.865 N-s/m 2

11. (b) (i) Bernoulli’s theorem states that ‘In an ideal, incompressible fluid

when the flow is steady and continuous, the sum of pressure

energy, kinetic energy and potential energy are constant”.

P V2

+ + Z = costant

w 2g

Assumptions done:

The liquid is ideal and incompressible

The flow is steady and continuous

The velocity is uniform over cross section

The only forces acting on fluids are gravity and pressure forces

All frictional losses are neglected

D1 = 600 mm = 0.6 m

D2 = 300 mm = 0.3 m

Q = 50 litres/sec

P1 = 19.62 N/cm2 = 19.62 × 104 N/m2

Slope = 1:30

L = 100 m

16 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Solution:

D1 = 0.6m

0

1:3

pe m

s l o

= 100 p1 = 19.62 × 104 N/m2

D2 = 0.3m gth

len

p 2 p

A1 = D1 = × 0.6 2 = 0.283 m 2

4 4

p 2 p

A2 = D2 = × 0.32 = 0.0706 m 2

4 4

50

Q = 50 litres/sec = = 0.05 m3 /sec

1000

Datum passes through centre of lower end.

Z2 = 0

Slope is 1:n 30

1 10

\ Z1 = ×100 = m = 3.333 m

30 3

Q 0.05

V1 = = = 0.176 m/sec

A1 0.283

Q 0.05

V2 = = = 0.707 m/sec

A2 0.0700

Using Bernoulli’s equation

P1 V12 P V2

+ + Z1 = 2 + 2 + Z 2

w 2g w 2g

× + 3.333 = 2 × +0

1000 2× 9.81 1000 2× 9.81

P2

199.53 = + 0.0254

1000

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 17

P2

= 199.50

1000

P2 = 199.50 ×103 N/m 2

P2 = 19.95 N/m 2

τ*2πr∆x

R

r

∆x

pπr2 p + ∂p ∆x πr 2

∂x

Velocity Distribution:

Shear stress is given by

du

τ=µ

dy

\ y = R − r

dy = −dr

du du

τ=µ = −µ .

−dr dr

from element value.

∂p r

τ =−

∂x 2

du ∂p r

−m =−

dr ∂x 2

du 1 ∂p

= r

dr 2m ∂x

18 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

1 ∂p 2

u= r +C

4m ∂x

where C is a constant and can be found by the boundary condition

r = R, u = 0

1 ∂p 2

\ 0 = R +C

4m ∂x

1 ∂p 2

C =− R

4m ∂x

1 ∂p 2 1 ∂p 2

\ u = r − R

4m ∂x 4m ∂x

−1 ∂p 2

u= [R − r2 ]

4m ∂x

∂p

In the above equation m, and R are constant. \ u varies with r2

∂x

which is a equation of parabola. The velocity distribution across the

section of pipe is parabolic velocity distribution.

velocity distribution

When r = 0 maximum velocity is obtained

1 ∂p 2

\ U max = − R

4m ∂x

Average velocity u is obtained by dividing the discharge of fluid

across section of by area of pipe. Fluid flowing per second through

elementary ring

dq = Velocity at a radius × area of ring element

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 19

= u × 2π rdr

1 ∂p 2

=− ( R − r 2 ) × 2π rdr

4µ ∂x

R R 1 ∂p 2

Q = ∫ dQ = ∫ − ( R − r 2 ) × 2π rdr

0 0 4µ ∂x

1 −∂p R

× 2π ∫ ( R − r )rdr

2 2

=

4 µ ∂x 0

1 −∂p R

= × 2π ∫ (R R 2 − r 3 )dr

4 µ ∂x 0

R

1 −∂p R2 r 2 r 4

= × 2π −

4µ ∂x 2 4 0

1 −∂p R4 R4

= × 2π −

4µ ∂x 2 4

1 −∂p R 4

= 2π

4µ ∂x 4

π −∂p 4

Q = R

8µ ∂x

Area velocity

π −∂p 4

R

Q 8µ ∂x

U = =

Area π R2

1 −∂p 2

U = R .

8m ∂x

1 ∂p 2

− R

U 4 m ∂x

\ max = = 2.0 .

U 1 −∂p 2

R

8m ∂x

20 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

U max

\ U=

2

\ Average velocity is half of maximum velocity.

Total length of pipe L = 40 m

Length of 1st pipe L1 = 25 m

Diameter of 1st pipe d1 = 150 mm = 0.15 m

Length of 2nd pipe L2 = 40 - 25 = 15 m

Diameter of 2nd pipe d2 = 300 mm = 0.3 m

Height of water H = 8 m

Coefficient of friction f = 0.01

v2

v1

L1= 25 m

d1= 0.15 m L2 = 15 m

d2 = 0.3 m

P1 V12 P V2

+ + Z1 = 2 + 2 + Z 2 + all losses

w 2g w 2g

P2 V2 2

0 +0 +8 = + + 0 + all losses Z1 = 8 Z 2 = 0

w 2g

V2 2

8= 0+ + hi + h f1 + he + h f2

2g

V12

hi = loss at entrance = 0.5

2g

4 fL1 V12

h f1 = head loss due to friction pipe 1 =

2 gd1

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 21

(V1 −V2 ) 2

he = loss due to enlargement =

2 gd2

4 fL2 V2 2

h f2 = loss due to friction pipe 2 =

2 gd2

1 1 = A2V2

AV

p 2

d2 ×V2 d 2

A2V2

V1 = = 4 = 2 V2

A1 p 2 d1

d1

4

2

0.3

= ×V2 = 4V2

0.15

\ hi = = =

2g 2g 2g

h f1 =

2× g × 0.15

V2 2

= 106.67

2g

he = = =

2g 2g 2g

4 fL2 V2 2 4 × 0.01×15×V2 2

h f1 = =

2 gd2 2× 0.3× g

V2 2

=2

2g

Sub all values in (1)

V2 2 8V2 2 V 2 9V 2 2V 2

8= + + 106.67 2 + 2 + 2 .

2g 2g 2g 2g 2g

V2 2

= 126.67

2g

22 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

8× 2× 9.81

\ V2 2 =

126.67

V2 = 1.113 m/sec

Rate of flow

p

Q = A2V2 = ×(0.3) 2 ×1.113

4

= 0.07867 m3 /sec

Q = 0.07867 m3 /sec

Buckingham’s p theorem states that if there are n variables in a

dimensionally homogeneous equation and if these variables contain

m-dimensions, then they are grouped into (n - m) dimensionless

independent p term.

Discharge Q is a function of N, D, g, H, m, r.

P = f ( ω , V , D , µ, ρ , C ) (1)

f1 ( P , ω, V , D , µ, ρ, C ) = 0 (2)

No of variables

Q = L3T-1 N = T-1 D = L g = LT-2

H = L m = ML-1T-1 r = ML-3

No. of fundamental dimensions

m=3

\ No. of p terms = n - m = 7 - 3 = 4.

\ equation (2) can be written as

f1(p, p2, p3, p4) = 0 (3)

a1 b1 c1

\ π1 = D N ρ ⋅Q

π2 = D a2 N b2 ρ c2 ⋅ g

π3 = D a3 N b3 ρ c3 ⋅ H

π4 = D a4 N b4 ρ c4 ⋅ µ

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 23

p1 term

π1 = D a1 N b1 ρ c1 ⋅ Q

M 0 L0T 0 = La1 (T −1 )b1 ( ML−3 )c1 ( L3T −1 )

= M c1 + La1 −3c1 +3T −b1 −1

equating powers

0 = c1 , a1 − 3c1 + 3 = 0, − b1 −1 = 0

\ c1 = 0 , b1 = −1 , a1 = 3c1 − 3

a1 = −3

π1 = D −3 N −1ρ 0 ⋅ Q

Q

p1 =

ND 3

p2 term

π2 = D a2 N b2 ρ c2 ⋅ g

M 0 L0T 0 = La2 (T −1 )b2 ( ML−3 )c2 ( LT −2 )

For M : 0 = c2 For L : 0 = a2 - 3c2 + 1

For T: 0 = -b2 - 2

\ c2 = 0 b2 = −2 a2 = 3c2 −1

a2 = −1

\ π2 = D −1 N −2 ρ 0 ⋅ g

g

p2 =

DN 2

p3 term

π3 = D a3 N b3 ρ c3 ⋅ H

M 0 L0T 0 = La3 (T −1 )b3 ( ML−3 )c3 L

a3 = +3c3 - 1

24 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

For T: 0 = -b3

\ c3 = 0 b3 = 0 a3 = −1

\ π3 = D −1 N 0 ρ 0 ⋅ H

H

p3 =

D

p4 term

π4 = D a4 N b4 ρ c4 ⋅ µ

M 0 L0T 0 = La4 (T −1 )b4 ( ML−3 )c4 ML−1T −1

equating power on both sides

For M : 0 = c4 + 1 For L : 0 = a4 - 3c4 - 1

a4 = 3c4 + 1

= -3 + 1

For T: 0 = -b4 - 1

\ c4 = −1 b4 = −1 a4 = −2

\ π4 = D −2 N −1 ρ−1µ

µ

π4 =

D2 N ρ

Q g H µ

\ f1 = , , , =0

ND DN D ρ ND 2

3 2

p1 × p2 dimensionless.

Q gH µ

\ f1 = , 2 2, =0

ND N D ρ ND 2

3

gH µ

Q = ND 3φ 2 2 ,

N D ρ ND 2

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 25

13. (b) (i) The similarities between model & prototype are

(i) Geometric similarity

A model and its prototype are geometrically similar, if the

ratio of corresponding length dimensions are equal.

Lp bp Dp

= = = Lr = length scale ratio

Lm bm Dm

Ap L p × bp

Area scale ratio = = = Lr 2 and

Am Lm × bm

3 3 3

Vp L p bp D p

Volume scale ratio = = = = Lr 3 .

Vm Lm bm Dm

It is the similarity of motion. If the acceleration ratios and

acceleration vectors points are same in the same direction,

the two flows are kinematically similar.

Tp

Time scale ratio ⇒ Tr =

Tm

Lp / Tp Lr

Velocity scale ratio, Cr = =

Lm / Tm Tr

Lp / Tp 2 Lr

Acceleration scale ratio ar = 2

=

Lrm / Tm Tr 2

L13 / T p Lr 3

Discharge scale ratio Qr = =

Lm 3 / Tm Tr

It is similarity of forces. The flows in the model and prototype

are of dynamic similar.

( Fi ) p ( Fv ) p ( Fg ) p

= = = Fr = force ratio

( Fi ) m ( Fv ) m ( Fg ) m

26 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

i. Civil engineering structures such as dams, weirs, canals

ii. Design of harbour, ships and submarines.

iii. Aeroplanes rockets and machines etc.

Given data:

Scale ratio for length Lr = 50

Width of model Bm = 60 mm = 0.6 m

Flow over model Qm = 12 litres/sec

Pressure in model hm = -20 cm of water

Height of prototype Hp = 15 m

Head on prototype Hp* = 1.5 m

Let the height of model = Hm

head on model Hm*

Hp Hp *

Linear scale ratio Lr = = = 50

Hm Hm *

Hp 15

Height of model ⇒ H m = = = 0.3 m

50 50

Hp * 1.5

Head of model H m * = = = 0.03 m

50 50

Width of prototype B p = Lr × Bm = 50 × 0.6 = 30 m

Discharge ratio

It is given by the equation

Qp

= Lr 2.5 = (50) 2.5 = 17677.67

Qm

Q p = Qm ×17677.67 = 12×17677.67

Q p = 212132.04 lit/sec

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 27

Qp 212132.04

= =

Length of protype Width of protype

212132.04

=

30

Qp = 7071.078 litres/sec

L

Negative pressure head in prototype

hp = Lr × hm

= 50 ×(−20)

= −1000 cm

hp = −10.0 m

Overall efficiency h0 = 80% = 0.8

Power developed P = 148.25 kw

Head H = 7.62 m

Speed = N = 150 rpm.

Hydraulic losses = 22% of available energy.

VW2 = 0 V f1 = V f2 [Radial discharge]

Solution:

Peripheral velocity of wheel = 0.26 2 gh

u1 = 0.26 2 gh

= 0.26 2× 9.81× 7.62

u1 = 3.18 m/s

Radial velocity at inlet = 0.96 2 gh

V f1 = 0.96 2× 9.81× 7.62

V f1 = 11.74 m/s

28 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Hydraulic efficiency

Head at inlet − Hydraulic losses

hn =

Head at inlet

H − 0.22H 0.78H

= = = 78%

H H

Vw1 µ1

ηn =

gH

Vw1 ×3.18

0.78 =

9.81× 7.62

Vw1 = 18.34 m/s

u2

φ

v2 = vf = vf

1 2

vr2

v1

vr1 vf1

α θ

u1

vw1

V f1 11.74

tan α = =

Vω1 − µ1 18.34

∝= 32.62°

V f1 11.74

tan θ = = = 0.774

Vω1 − µ1 18.34 − 3.18

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 29

q = 37.75°

π D1 N

Velocity µ1 =

60

p × D1 ×150

3.18 =

60

D1 = 0.404 m = 405 mm

Overall efficiency

P

h0 =

wQH

148.25

0.8 =

9.81× Q × 7.62

Q = 2.48 m3 /sec

Q = p D1 B1V f1

2.48 = p × 0.405× B1 ×11.74

B1 = 0.16602 cm

B1 = 166.02 mm

Speed N = 1000 rpm

Internal diameter D1 = 200 mm = 0.2 m

External diameter D2 = 400 mm = 0.4 m

Discharge Q = 0.04 m3/sec

Velocity of flow V f1 =V f2 = 2m/sec

Suction pipe diameter Ds = 1500 mm = 0.15 m

Delivery pipe diameter Dd = 100 mm = 0.10 m

Suction head hs = 6 m cabs

Delivery head hd = 30 m cabs

Outlet vane angle f = 45°

Power required P = 16.186 kw

30 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

u2

vw

2

β φ

v2 vf2

vr2

vr

1

vf1 = v1

θ

u1

V f1 2

tan θ = =

µ1 µ1

π D1 N π × 0.2×100 r

µ1 = = = 10.47 m/sec

60 60

2

tan q = = 0.191

10.47

q = 10.81°

(ii) Over all efficiency of pump (h0)

WH m / 75

h0 =

P

WQH m 1000 × 0.04 × H m

= =

75 P 75×16.186

P V 2 P V 2

H m = 0 + 0 + Z 0 − i + i + Zi

w 2 g w 2 g

Z 0 = Zi

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 31

V 2 V2

H m = 30 + d − 60 + s

2 g 2 g

Vd = = = = 5.09 m/sec

Area of delivery pipe p 2 p

( Dd ) (0.1) 2

4 4

0.04 0.4 0.04

Vs = = = = 2.26 m/sec

Area of suction p 2 p 2

( Ds ) × 0.15

4 4

(5.09) 2 ( 2.26) 2

H m = 30 + − 6 +

2× 9.81 2× 9.81

= 31.32 − 6.26 = 25.06 m.

\ h0 =

75×16.186

h0 = 82.57%

π D2 N π × 0.04 ×1000

µ2 = =

60 60

m2 = 20.94 m/sec

From outlet triangle

V f2 2

tan φ = =

µ2 −Vω2 20.94 ×Vω2

2

20.94 −Vw2 =

tan 45

Vw2 = 20.94 − 2

32 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

gH m 9.81× 25.06

η man = =

Vω2 µ2 18.94 × 20.94

h man = 61.98%

Diameter D = 15 cm = 0.15 m

Stroke length = L = 30 cm = 0.3 m

L 0.3

Tank radius r = = = 0.15 m

2 2

Speed N = 30 rpm

Delivery head hd = 12 m

Diameter of delivery pipe dd = 10 cm = 0.1 m

Length of delivery pipe l = 30 m

Length of the air vessel from centre of cylinder

ld′ = 2 m

Length of delivery pipe above air vessel

ld = l − ld′ = 30 − 2 = 28 m

p 2 p

Area A = D = × 0.152 = 0.01767 m 2

4 4

Angular speed

2π N 2π ×30

ω= = = π rad/sec

60 60

Area of delivery pipe

p 2 p

ad = dd = × 0.12 = 0.007854.

4 4

Coefficient of friction f = 0.01

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 33

Solution:

Pressure head in cylinder at beginning of delivery stroke is

2 2

ld′ A 4 fld A ωr 1 A ωr

= hd + + ω2r + × × + ×

g ad

dd 2 g ad π 2 g ad π

2

2 0.01767 4 × 0.01× 28 0.01767 π × 0.15

= 12 + + × π 2 × 0.15× ×

9.81 0.007854 0.1× 2× 9.81 0.007854 π

2

1 0.01767 π × 0.15

+ ×

2× 9.81 0.007854 π

= 12 + 0.6709 + 0.065 + 0.0058

= 12.75 m

2 2 2

4 f ld′ A 4 fld A ωr 1 A ωr

= hd + × ωr + × × + ×

dd × 2 g ad dd 2 g ad π 2 g ad π

2

4 × 0.01× 2 0.01767

= 12 + × π × 0.15 + 0.065 + 0.0058

0.1× 2× 9.81 0.007854

= 12 + 0.0458 + 0.065 + 0.0058

= 12.116 m

External Gear Pump

Internal Gear Pump

Lobe Pump

Vane pump

It has two identical intermeshing spur wheels A and B. One wheel

is connected to driving shaft and other one is driven. The liquid

is entrapped between teeth and allowed to discharge into delivery

pipe when the gear rotates.

Thee rotating gears itself set up sufficient pressure to force the

liquid.

34 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Two intermeshing wheels are internally meshed. A crescent

shaped partition is made between these two wheels. This space

acts as a seal between suction and discharge. During rotation the

space between inner and outer wheel increases and liquid fills the

space. Due to continuous rotation the fluid is pushed to delivery

end.

Lobe Pump

This pump resembles like a gear pump in action but not in

appearance. The wheels inside the casing have two or more lobes.

The liquid is entrapped & flows to the delivery end when lobe

rotates. The lobe itself build up sufficient pressure to force the

liquid.

Vane Pump

A disc is eccentrically rotating inside the pump casing. Slots

containing vanes are provided in the disc. The vanes are moved

against the casing due to centrifugal force. Due to continuous

rotations the liquid is entrapped and forced to the delivery end

with sufficient pressure.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 35

Vane pump

36 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Lobe pumps

15. (b) (ii) Work done against friction without air vessels

The work done is calculated by assuming no loss of head due to

friction at beginning & end of stroke friction head is maximum

in middle of the stroke.

Loss of head due to friction

4 flV 2

Hf = (1)

2 gd

A

V= wr ; sub in (1)

a

A 2

4 fl wr

a

Hf = .

2 gd

Area under profile due to friction is parabola

2

= × base × height

3

2

Work done = ×Stroke × Head due to friction

3

work done per stroke

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2013) 37

2

2 4 fl A

W1 = × wr

3 2 gd a

Power required

2

w AN w AN 2 4 fl A

P = W1 × = × × wr

60 60 3 2 gd a

Work done against friction with air vessel

Velocity of piston with air vessel due to S.H.M

2

4 flV 2 4 fl A ωr

Hf = =

2 gd 2 gd a π

2

4 fl A ωr

Work done = Stroke × h f = h f ×

2 gd a π

Work saved against friction by filling air vessel

W1 −W2 W

Work saved = ×100 = 1− 2 ×100

W1 W

1

4 fl Aωr

2

×

aπ L

2 gd

= 1− ×100

2

2

× 2×

4 fl A ω r

3 2 gd aπ

3

= 1− 2 ×100

2π

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION,

NOV/DEC 2012

Third Semester

Mechanical Engineering

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

Answer ALL questions

PART A (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2012) 39

PART B (5 × 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) The space between two square slat parallel plate is filled with oil.

Each side of the plate is 600mm. The thickness of the oil films is

12.5mm. The upper plate, which moves at 2.5m/s requires a force of

98.1N to maintain the speed. Determine.

(i) The dynamic viscosity of the oil in poise

(ii) The kinematics viscosity of the oil in strokes if the specific

gravity of the oil is 0.95.

Or

11. (b) Derive the Euler’s equation of the motion and deduce the expression

to Bernoulli’s equations

12. (a) (i) A plate of 600mm length and 400mm wide is immersed in a fluid

of specific gravity 0.9 and kinematic viscosity of oil is

1 × 10-4 m2/s, the fluid is moving with the velocity of 6m/n.

Determine.

(1) Boundary layer thickness; (2) Shear stress at the end of the

plate and (3) Drag force on the sides of the plate.

12. (a) (ii) Derive Chezy’s formula for loss of head due to friction in pipes.

Or

diameter. If the pipe carries water at 30 liters per second. Calculate

the pressure loss across the construction. Take coefficient of

contraction as 0.6.

represent the thrust developed by a propeller. Assume that the thrust

P depends upon the angular velocity w, speed of advance V, diameter

D, dynamics viscosity m, mass density r, elasticity of the fluid

medium which can be denoted by the speed of sound in the

medium C.

Or

40 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

gravity 0.9 and viscosity 3 × 10-2 poise at the rate of 3000 lps. Tests

were conducted on 15 cm diameter pipe using water at 20°C. Find the

velocity and rate of flow in the model. Viscosity of water at

20°C = 0.01 poise.

14. (a) The following data is given for a francis turbine Net head H = 60 m,

Speed N = 700 rpm Shaft Power = 294.3 Kw, overall

efficiency = 84%, hydraulic efficiency = 93%, flow ratio = 0.20,

breadth ratio n = 0.1, outer diameter of runner = 2 × inner diameter

of runner, velocity of flow is constant at inlet & outlet and discharge

is radial at outlet. Determine.

(i) Guide blade angle (ii) Runner vane angle at inlet and outlet

(iii) Diameter of runner at inlet & outlet (iv) width of wheel at outlet.

Or

14. (b) A pelton wheel has a mean bucket speed of 10 m/s with a jet of water

flowing at the rate of 0.7m3/sec under a head of 30m. If the buckets

deflect the jet through an angle of 160°. Calculate the power given by

water to the runner and hydraulic efficiency of turbine. Assume

coefficient of velocity of 0.98.

15. (a) The cylinder bore diameter and stroke of a single acting reciprocating

pump are 150mm and 300mm respectively. The pump runs at 50 rpm

and lifts water to a height of 25 m. The delivery pipe is 22 m long,

100 mm diameter. Find the theoretical discharge and theoretical

power required to run the pump. If the actual discharge is

4.2 litres/sec. Find the percentage of slip.

Or

15. (b) The internal and external diameters of the impeller of a centrifugal

pump are 200 mm and 400 mm respectively. The pump is running at

1200 rpm the vane angle of impeller at inlet & outlet are 20° & 30°.

The water enters the impeller radially and velocity of flow is constant.

Determine the work done by the impeller per unit weight of water.

Solutions

PART A

1. It states that shear force F acting between two layers of fluid is proportional

to the difference in their velocities and Area of the plate and inversely

proportional to the distance between them.

where C-density

A-Area

V-Velocity.

32µUL 128µQL

3. P1 − P2 = =

D2 λD 4

4. Moody’s Diagram is used to determine friction factor for any turbulent

flow problem.

5. It is defined as ratio of the Inertia force to the viscous force of a flowing

fluid, denoted by Re

Inertia force ev 2 L2 eVL Lv

Re = = = or

viscous force µLV µ γ

equation and if these variables contain ‘m’ fundamental dimension, then

they are grouped into (n - m) dimensionless independent p-terms.

7. It is defined as the ratio of power developed by the runner to the power

supplied by the water jet.

Power developed by runner

ηn =

Power supplied by the water jet

8. The ratio of the velocity of flow at inlet (vf1) to the theoretical velocity

vf1

( )

2gh is known as flow ratio k f =

2 gh

. The value varies from 0.15

to 0.3.

9. The centrifugal pump consists of following parts Impeller, Casing, Suction

pipe, Strainer Foot valve, Delivery pipe and delivery value.

42 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

10. The difference between the theoretical discharge and actual discharge is

called slip of the pump.

Slip = Qth - Qact

PART B

11. (a) Given data:

Thickness of oil film dy = 12.5 mm

Side of plate = 6.00 mm

Velocity du = 2.5 m/s

Force on the plate = 98.1N

Specific gravity = 0.95.

dy

Solution:

Area of the plate = 600 × 600

= 360000

=0.36 m2.

Shear stress

F

τ=

A

98.1

=

0.36

τ = 272.5 N/m 2

du

τ=µ

dy

2.5

272.5 = µ

12.5×10−3

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2012) 43

µ = 1.3625 N-s/m 2

µ = 1.3625 Poise

Density of oil = Sp. gravity × Density of water

= 0.95 × 1000 = 950 kg/m3.

Kinematic viscosity

µ

γ=

C

1.3625

=

950

γ = 1.43×10−3 m 2 / sec

11. (b) A steady flow of an ideal fluid along a streamline with a small element

of the flowing fluid LM of cross section dA and length dS as shown.

Direction of flow

stream line

ds

S

M

θ ds θ dz

ptdp

P dW

dALL dw

Let,

P = Pressure on the element at A.

P + dp = Pressure on element at M and

V = velocity of fluid element.

We know that the net force acting on the fluid element in the direction

of flow

= P.dA - (p + dp)dA.

= -dPdA.

we also know that the weight of the fluid element.

dw = rg×dA×ds

From the geometry, we find that component of weight of the fluid

element in the direction of flow.

44 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

= −ρg ⋅ dA ⋅ ds ⋅ cos θ

dz

= −ρg ⋅ dA ⋅ ds ⋅

ds

= −ρg ⋅ dA ⋅ dz

The resultant force on fluid element in direction of S

= - dPdA - r×g×dA×dz

\ Mass of the fluid element

= r×dA×ds

The acceleration of fluid element

dv dv ds dv

a= = × = v⋅

dt ds dt ds

According to Newton’s second law of motion

Force = Mass × Acceleration

dv

(−dpdA) − (ρgdAdz ) = ρdAds × v ×

ds

Dividing both sides by r×dA.

dp

− − gdz = v × dv

ρ

dp

+ vdv + gdz = 0

ρ

Bernoulli’s Equation from Euler’s Equation

dp

+ vdv + gdz = 0

ρ

Integrating the above equation

1

ρ∫

dp + ∫ gdz + ∫ v ⋅ dv = constant .

p v2

+ gz + = constant

ρ 2

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2012) 45

dividing by g.

p v2

+z+ = constant

ρg 2g

p v2

+ + z = constant

w 2g

p1 v 21 p v2

+ + z1 = 2 + 2 + z2

w 2g w 2g

12. (a) (i) Given data:

L = Length of plate = 600 mm

W = Width of plate = 400 mm

S = specific gravity = 0.9

g = Kinematic viscosity = 1 × 10-4 m2/s

V = Velocity = 6 m/s

Solution:

Regnold’s number

UL 6 ×600 ×10−3

Re = =

γ 1×10−4

= 36 ×103 < 5×105

Leminer Flow

(i) Boundary layer Thickness

5L

δ lem =

Re

5×600 ×10−3

=

36 ×103

= 0.0158m

δ lem = 15.8 mm

46 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

du

τ = µ y=L

dy

Dynamic viscosity

µ = γe

Density

r = sp.gravity × Density of water.

= 0.9 × 1000

ρ = 900 kg/m3

µ = 1×10−4 × 900

µ = 0.009 N-s/m 2

du

τ = µ y=L

dy

6

= 0.09× [du = 0 dy = δ lem ]

0.0158

τ = 34.17 N/m 2

FD = τ × B × L

= 34 ⋅17×600 ×10−3 × 400 ×10−3

FD = 8.2008 N.

12. (a) (ii) Major loss of energy can be found by Chezy’s formula

Chezy’s formula is given as

V = C mi

V = Velocity of flow

C = Chezy’s coefficient

M = Hydraulic mean depth.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2012) 47

=

Wetted Perimeter

π 2

D

A 4 D

= = =

P πD 4

I = loss of head per unit length of pipe.

hf D hf

= \ V =C

L 4 L

4 LV 2

hf =

C⋅D

12. (b) Given data:

Q = 30 LPS

D1 = 150 mm

30 3

D2 = 100 mm = m /sec

1000

Cc = 0.6

Q = 0.03 m3 /sec

Solution:

Q = AV

1 1 = A2V2

π

A2 = ×(100 ×10−3 ) 2

4

A2 = 7.853mm 2

Q = A2V2

0.03 = 7.852V2

V2 = 3.81m / sec

Q = AV

1 1

π

A1 = ×(150 ×10−3 ) 2

4

A2 = 0.0176 m 2

Q = AV

1 1

V1 = 1.704 m / sec

48 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

2

V 2 2 1

hc = −1

2 g Cc

2

(3.81) 2 1

= −1

2× 9.81 0.6

hc = 0.3288

Applying Bernoulli’s theorem

P1 V 21 P2 V 2 2

+ = + + hc

w 2g w 2g

P1 (1.704) 2 2 P (3.81) 2 2

+ = 2 + + 0.3288

9810 2× 9.81 9810 2× 9.81

P1 P

− 2 = 1.0686 − 0.148

9810 9810

= 0.9206

( P1 − P2 ) = 9.031 KN/m 2

P = f (ω, V , D, µ, ρ, C )

f1 ( P , ω, V , D, µ, ρ, C ) = 0

Total number of variables, n = 7

The dimensions are

Thrust P = MLT −2

ω = T −1

V = T −1

D=L

m = ML-1T-1

r = ML-3

C = LT-1

number of fundamental dimensions

m=3

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2012) 49

\ Number of p terms = n - m = 7 - 3 = 4.

f1(p, p2, p3, p4) = 0

D, V, r can be taken as repeating variables.

\ π1 = D a1 V b1 ρ c1 ⋅ P

π2 = D a2 V b2 ρ c2 ⋅ ω

π3 = D a3 V b3 ρ c3 ⋅ µ

π4 = D a4 V b4 ρ c4 ⋅ C

p1 term

π1 = D a1 V b1 ρ c1 ⋅ P

M 0 L0T 0 = La1 ( LT −1 )b1 ( ML−3 )c1 ⋅ MLT −2

= M c1 +1 + La1 +b1 −3c1 +1T −b1 −3c1 −2

equating M, L, T power on both sides

0 = c1 + 1

0 = a1 + b1 − 3c1 + 1

0 = −b1 − 3c1 − 2

a1 − 2 + 3 + 1 = 0

a1 = −2

π1 = D −2V −2 ρ−1 ⋅ P

P

π1 =

D 2V 2 ρ

p2 term

π2 = D a2 V b2 ρ c2 ⋅ ω

M 0 L0T 0 = La2 ( LT −1 )b2 ( ML−3 )c2 ⋅ T −1

= M c2 + La2 +b2 −3c2 T −b2 −1

equating power on both sides

c2 = 0

a2 + b2 − 3c1 = 0

−b2 −1 = 0

50 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

c2 = 0 b2 = −1 a2 = −b2 + 3c2

a2 = 0

\ π2 = D1 V −1 ρ 0 ω

Dω

π2 =

V

p3 term

π3 = D a3 V b3 ρ c3 ⋅ µ

= La3 ( LT −1 )b3 ( ML−3 )c3 ⋅ ML−1T −1

= M c3 +1 + La3 +b3 −3c3 T −b3 −3c3 −1

equating power on both sides

0 = c3 + 1

0 = a3 + b3 − 3c3 −1

0 = −b3 −1

c3 = −1 b3 = −1 a3 = −b3 + 3c3 + 1

= −1 − 3 + 1

= −1

\ π3 = D1 V −1 ρ 0 µ

µ

π3 =

DV ρ

p4 term

π4 = D a4 V b4 ρ c4 ⋅ C

M 0 L0T 0 = La4 ( LT −1 )b4 ( ML−3 )c4 ( LT −1 )

= M c4 La4 +b4 −3c4 +1T −b4 −1

equating power on both sides

c4 = 0

a4 + b4 − 3c4 + 1 = 0

−b4 −1 = 0

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2012) 51

c4 = 0 b4 = −1 a4 = −b4 + 3c4 −1

= 1 −1

a4 = 0

\ π4 = D 0 V −1 ρ 0C

C

π4 =

V

f1(p, p2, p3, p4) = 0

P Dω µ C

f1 2 2 , , , = 0

D V ρ V DV ρ V

P Dω µ C

= φ , ,

22

DV ρ V DV ρ V

Dω µ C

P = D 2V 2 ρφ , ,

V DV ρ V

13. (b) Given data:

1

= 0.01×

10

= 0.001 Ns/m 2

Solution

52 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

ρ mVm Dm ρ PVP DP

=

µm µP

Vm ρ P DP µ m

=

VP em Dm µ P

9.81× 0.9

1.5 0.001

= 9.81 × ×

9.81 / 9.81 0.15 0.003

0.9 1.5 0.001

= × ×

1 0.15 0.003

Vm

=3.

VP

QP 3

VP = = = 1.697 m/s

AP π 2

×(1.5)

4

Vm = 3×VP

= 3×1.697

Vm = 5.092 m/s

Qm = Am ×Vm

π

= × D 2 m ×Vm

4

π

= ×(0.15) 2 ×5.092

4

= 0.09 m3 /sec.

Qm = 90 liters/sec

Net head H = 60 m

Speed N = 700 rpm

Shaft Power Hp = 294.3 Kw

Overall efficiency h0 = 84% = 0.84

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2012) 53

flow ration kf = 0.2

breadth ratio n = 0.1

D1 = 2 × D2

Vf1 = Vf3

Solution:

Overall efficiency

P

η0 =

WQH

294.3

0.84 =

9.81× 2×60

Q = 0.595 m3 /s

flow ratio

vf1

kf =

2 gh

vf1

0.2 =

2× 9.81×60

= πD1 B1 × vf1

B

= πD1 × 0.1D1 × vf1 1 = n = 0.1

D1

2

0.595 = πD1 × 0.1×6.86

D1 = 0.525 m

D1 = 525 mm

B1 = 0.1 D1

B1 = 52.5 mm

54 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

D1

D2 =

2

0.525

= = 0.2625

2

D2 = 262.5 mm

Tangential of wheel at intlet

πD1 N

u1 =

60

π× 0.525× 700

=

60

u1 = 19 ⋅ 242 m/s

we know that

V ω1u1

ηh =

gh

V ω1 ×19.242

0.93 =

9.81×60

V ω1 = 28.448 m/s

Tangential velocity at outlet

πD2 N

u2 =

60

π× 0.2625× 700

=

60

u2 = 9 ⋅ 621 m/s

Guide blade angle (µ)

Vf1 6.86 6.86

tan ∝= = =

V ω1 28.448 28.448

∝= 13.55°

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2012) 55

u2

φ

v2 = vf1=vf2

vr2

v1

vf1

vr1

α θ

u1

vw1

Vf1

tan θ =

V ω1 − u1

6.86

=

28.448 −19.242

θ = 36.69°

Runner blade angle at outlet (f)

Vf 2 Vf1

tan φ = =

u2 u2

6.86

=

9.6211

φ = 35.48°

u = u1 = 10 m/s u2 = Angle of deflection = 160°

Cv = 0.98

56 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

H = 30 m

Q = 0.7m3/sec

P = ? = rgQH

(V ω1 ± V ω1 )u

ηh =

gH

Angle f = 180 - 160

= 20°

Velocity of jet

V1 = Cv 2 gH = 0.98 2× 9.81×30

V1 = 23.77 m / sec

Vω1 = V1 = 23.77 m/ sec

u2 vw2

φ β

v2 vf2

vr2

165°

u1 vr1

v1 = vw1

Vr2 = Vr1 = 13.77 m/ sec

Vω2 = Vr2 cos φ − u2

= 3.77 cos 20 −10

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2012) 57

1000

= × 0.7[23.77 + 2.94]×10[Q = 9v1 ]

9.81

= 19059.12 kgf-m / sec

Horse power is given to turbine

Work done

=

75

19059.12

=

75

P = 254.12 h. p

2 Vω + Vω + u

ηh = 1 2 2

V1

2[23.77 + 2.94]×10

=

( 23.77) 2

η h = 94.54%

D = 150 mm = 0.15m

L 0.3

L = 300 m = 0.3 m r = = = 0.15 m

2 2

N = 50 rpm

hd = 25m

Q = 4.2 litres/sec = 4.3 × 10-3 m3/sec

ld = 22 m dd = 100mm = 0.1 m

58 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Solution:

(i) Theoretical discharge

LAN

Qth =

60

π

0.3× ×(0.15) 2 ×50

= 4

60

P = WQth ( hs + hd )

= 9810 × 4.4178×10−3 (0 + 25)

= 1083 ⋅ 48 W

Pthe = 1.08 kW

(ii) Percentage slip

Qth − Qact

% slip = ×100

Qth

4.4178×10−3 − 4.2×10−3

= ×100

4.4178×10−3

% slip = 4.93%

Speed N = 1200 rpm

Inlet vane angle q = 20°

Outlet vane angle f = 30°

Internal diameter D1 = 200 mm = 0.2m.

External diameter D2 = 400 mm = 0.4m.

Solution:

Tangential velocity at inlet

πD1 N π× 0.2×1200

u1 = =

60 60

u1 = 12.56 m / sec

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2012) 59

πD2 N π× 0.4 ×1200

u2 = =

60 60

u2 = 25.13 m/sec

u2

vw2

β φ

vf2

v2 vr2

v1 = Vf1

vr2

α

θ

u1

vf1 vf1

tan θ = ⇒ tan 20° =

u1 12.56

from outlet triangle.

vf 2

tan φ =

u2 −Vω2

4.57

tan 30° =

25.13 −Vω2

60 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Vω2 u2

=

g

17.21× 25.13

=

9.81

W = 44.08 N-m

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION,

MAY/JUNE 2012

Third Semester

Mechanical Engineering

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

(Regulation 2008)

(Common to Aeronautical Engineering, Automobile

Engineering and Production Engineering)

Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

Answer ALL questions

PART A (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1. Two horizontal plates are placed 12.5 mm apart, the space between them

being filled with oil of viscosity 14 poise. Calculate the shear stress in

the oil if the upper plate moved with a velocity of 2.5 m/s. Define specific

weight.

2. Calculate the height of capillary rise for water in a glass tube of diameter

1 mm.

3. What are the minor losses? Under what circumstances will they be

negligible?

incorrect number of dimensionless group?

implied that they are also kinematically and geometrically similar?

7. What precautions are to be taken while starting and closing the centrifugal

pump?

62 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

PART B (5 × 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) (i) The space between two large flat and parallel walls 25 mm apart

is filled with a liquid of absolute viscosity 0.7 Pa.sec. Within this

space a thin flat plate, 250 mm × 250 mm is towed at a velocity

of 150 mm/s at a distance of 6 mm from one wall, the plate and

its movement being parallel to the walls. Assuming linear

variations of velocity between the plate and the walls, determine

the force exerted by the liquid on the plate. (8)

(ii) Eight kilometers below the surface of the ocean the pressure is

81.75 MPa. Determine the density of sea water at this depth if the

density at the surface is 1025 kg/m3 and the average bulk modulus

of elasticity is 2.34 GPa. (8)

Or

(b) (i) A 0.3 m diameter pipe carrying oil at 1.5 m/s velocity suddenly

expands to 0.60 m diameter pipe. Determine the discharge and

velocity in 0.6 m diameter pipe. (4)

12. (a) (i) A pipe line 20 cm in diameter, 70 m long, conveys oil of specific

gravity 0.95 and viscosity 0.23 N.sec/m2. If the velocity of oil is

1.38 m/s, find the difference in pressure between the two ends of

the pipe. (8)

(ii) Oil of mass density 800 kg/m3 and dynamic viscosity 0.02 poise

flows through 50 mm diameter pipe of length 500 m at the rate of

0.19 litres/sec. Determine

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2012) 63

Or

(b) (i) Obtain expression for Darcy-Weishbach friction factor f for flow

in a pipe. (6)

(ii) A smooth pipe carries 0.30 m3/s of water discharge with a head

loss of 3.0 m per 100 m length of pipe. If the water temperature

is 20°C, determine the diameter of the pipe. (10)

13. (a) The power required by the pump is a function of discharge Q, head

H, acceleration due to gravity g, viscosity m, mass density of the fluid

r, speed of rotation N and impeller diameter D. Obtain the relevant

dimension less parameters.

Or

(b) Model tests have been conducted to study the energy loss in a

pipeline of 1 m diameter required to transport kerosene of specific

gravity 0.80 and dynamic viscosity 0.02 poise at the rate of

2000 litre/sec. Tests were conducted on a 10 cm diameter pipe using

water at 20°C. What is the flow rate in the model? If the energy head

loss in 30 m length of the model is measured as 44.0 cm of water,

what will be the corresponding head loss in the prototype? What will

be the friction factor for the prototype pipe?

14. (a) A centrifugal pump discharges 2000 1/s of water per second

developing a head of 20 m when running at 300 rpm. The impeller

diameter at the outlet and outflow velocity is 1.5 m and 3.0 m/s

respectively. It vanes are set back at an angle of 30° at the outlet,

determine

(i) Manometric efficiency

(ii) Power required by the pump.

If inner diameter is 750 mm, find the minimum speed to start the

pump.

64 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Or

(b) An inward flow reaction turbine discharges radially and the velocity

of flow is constant, show that the hydraulic efficiency can be

expressed by

1

η =

0.5 tan 2 α

1+

tan α

1−

tan θ

15. (a) (i) Determine the percentage of work saved in one cycle when an air

vessel is provided on the delivery side of a single cylinder single

acting reciprocating pump. (8)

diagram in detail and state its advantages and disadvantages over

centrifugal pump. (8)

Or

(b) (i) A single cylinder double acting reciprocating pump has a piston

diameter of 300 mm and stroke length of 400 mm. When the

pump runs at 45 rpm, it discharges 0.039 m3/s under a total head

of 15 m. What will be the volumetric efficiency, work done per

second and power required if the mechanical efficiency of the

pump is 75%? (10)

construction of rotary pumps with neat diagram. (6)

Solutions

PART A

= 1.4 N-s/m2

du

\ τ = µ

dy

525

= 1.4 × = 0.28×10−3 N/m 2

12.5×10−3

τ = 0.28 KN / m 2

W

w=

V

4s

2. h=

wd

w = 9810 s = 0.075 N/m

4 × 0.075

h= = 0.03 m

9810 ×1×10−3

h = 0.03 m

3. The loss of energy caused on account of the change in velocity of flowing

fluid is called minor losses. It may be neglected when the pipes are long.

4. The inertia force and viscosity account for energy loss in laminar flow.

5. If the variables are wrongly taken then resulting functional relationship

is erroneous.

Lr

6. The time scale ratio is Fr = , so when the systems are dynamically

Vr

similar, then they are kinematically and geometrically similar.

7. The delivery value should be closed during starting and stopping. No air

pocket should be left while starting. Delivery value should be opened

after impeller reaches normal speed.

66 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

8.

1. All the potential engines are 1. Only a portion of fluid energy is

converted into kinetic energy by transferred into kinetic energy

nozzle before enters the turbine

2. Blades are only in action when 2. Blades are in action at all times

they are in front of nozzle

9. The non-return values are provided to avoided reverse flow of water in

the suction and delivery side.

10. The velocity of the piston and stroke length of the piston governs the

speed of reciprocating pump.

PART B

11. (a) (i) Given data:

Distance between walls h = 25 mm = 0.025 m

Plate area = 250 × 250 mm2 = 0.0625 m2

Dynamic viscosity m = 0.7 poise = 0.07 N-S/m2

Velocity du = 150 mm/s = 0.15 m/s

6 mm

25 mm 0.15 m/s

19 mm

Shear stress

du u du u

τ=µ =µ , τ=µ =µ

dy t1 dy t2

u u

τ = τ1 + τ 2 = µ +

t1 t 2

Force

F = Shear stress × Area

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2012) 67

1 1

= mu + × A

t1 t 2

1 1

= muA +

t1 t 2

t1 = 6 mm = 0.006 m t 2 = 19 mm = 0.019 m.

1 1

\ Force F = 0.07× 0.15× 0.0625 +

6 ×10 −3

19×10

−3

F = 0.1439 N

P2 = 81.75 Mpa = 81. 75 × 106 N/m2

r1 = 1025 Kg/m3.

K = 2.34 GPa = 2.34 × 109 N/m2

at surface pressure is atmospheric pressure.

P1 = 1.01 bar = 1.01 × 105 N/m2

dp dp

Bulk modulus K = − =

dv d r

v r

dr = r2 − r1

dp

K=

r2 − r1

r1

81.75×106 −1.01×105

2.34 ×10 9 =

r2 −1025

1025

8.369×1010

2.34 ×10 9 =

r2 −1025

68 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

d1 = 0.3 m

V1 = 1.5 m/s

d2 = 0.6 m

To find Q = ? V2 = ?

Solution:

Continuity equation

A1V1 = A2V2

p p

× 0.32 ×1.5 = × 0.6 2 ×V2

4 4

V2 = 0.375 m/s

p 2

Q = AV

1 1 = d1 ×V1

4

p

= × 0.32 ×1.5

4

Q = 0.106 m3 /sec

11. (b) (ii) The force acting on a fluid mass ‘m’ is given by Newton’s second

law of motion

F=m×a

where a is acceleration acting in the same direction of force ‘F’

dv

a=

dt

dv

\ F = m ⋅ [m is constant and can be taken inside the

dt differential]

d ( mv )

=

dt

The above equation is known as momentum principle.

F ⋅ dt = d ( mr )

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2012) 69

that impulse of force F acting on momentum d(mv) is direction

of force.

12. (a) (i) Given data

D = 20 cm = 20 × 10-2 m.

L = 70 m

Sp.gravity s = 0.95

m = 0.23 N-s/m2

V = 1.38 m/s

Discharge Q = A × V

p

= × D 2 ×V

4

p

= ×( 20 ×10−2 ) ×1.38

4

Q = 0.0434 m3 / sec

From Hagen poiuseulle’s equation

128µQL

P1 − P2 =

πD4

128× 0.23× 0.0434 × 70

=

π ×( 20 ×10−2 ) 4

P1 − P2 = 17.8×103 Pa

r = 800 kg/m3

m = 0.02 poise = 0.002 N

D = 50 mm = 50 × 10-3 m

L = 500 m

Q = 0.19 litres/sec = 1.9 × 10-4 m3/sec.

Solution

ρuD

(i) Reynold’s number Re =

µ

70 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Q 1.9×10−4

U= = = 4.838×10−3 m/s

A p −3

×50 ×10

4

800 × 4.838×10−3 ×50 ×10−3

\ Re =

0.002

Re = 96.76

(ii) Pressure gradient

∂ρ 128µQ

=

∂x πD4

128× 0.002×1.9×10−4

=

p ×(50 ×10−3 )

∂r

= −2.477

∂x

1 ∂ρ 2

U max = − R

4 µ ∂x

1

=− ×(−2.477) ×( 25×10−3 ) 2

4 × 0.002

U max = 0.1935 m/s

(iv) Loss of pressure in 500 m length

32muL

P1 − P2 =

D2

32× 0.002× 4.838×10−3 ×500

=

(50 ×10−3 ) 2

P1 − P2 = 61.93

(v) Wall shear stress

∂ρ R P1 − P2 R

τ0 = − ⋅ = ⋅

∂x 2 L 2

−3

61.93 25×10

= ×

500 2

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2012) 71

τ 0 = 1.548×10−3 N/m 2

(vi) Power required for flow

P = Q( P1 − P2 )

= 1.9×10−4 (61.93)

P = 0.011767 watts

4 FLV 2

12. (b) (i) Head loss h f =

2 gD

f - Darcy weishbach coeff of friction from the above equation

16

f = for Re < 2000

Re

0.079

f = for Re varying from 4000 × 106

(Re)0.25

Q = 0.3 m3/s

L = 100 m

T = 20°C

g = 0.0098 strokes = 0.0098 × 10-4 m2/sec for smooth pipe.

0.0791

f =

1

(Re)

4

UD

Re =

r

Q 0.3 0.38

U= = = 2 .

A p 2 D

D

4

0.38 / D 2 × D

Re =

0.0098×10−4

389767.2

Re =

D

72 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

0.0791

f = 1

389767.2 4

D

= (3.16 ×10−3 )( D1/ 4 )

4 fLV 2

hf =

2 gD

0.38

4 ×(3.16 ×10−3 )( D1/ 4 ) ×100 × 2

D

3=

2× 9.81× D

0.25

0.0245 D

3=

D3

122.5 = D −2.75

1

= −2.75

D

1

D −2.75 =

122.5

D = 0.174 m

P = f (Q, H , g , µ, ρ, N , D ).

\ f1 ( P , Q, H , g , µ, ρ, N , D ) = 0

No of variables

P = ML2T-3, Q = L3T-1, N = T-1, D = L, g = LT-2, H = L,

m = ML-1T-1, r = ML-3

Number of fundamental dimensions m = 3

Number of p terms = n - m = 8 - 3 = 5.

\ f1(p1, p2, p3, p4, p5) = 0

each p terms contains m + 1 variables.

D, N and r are repeating variables.

π1 = D a1 N b1 ρ c1 ⋅ P .

π2 = D a2 N b2 ρ c2 ⋅ Q.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2012) 73

π3 = D a3 N b3 ρ c3 ⋅ g .

π4 = D a4 N b4 ρ c4 ⋅ µ.

π5 = D a5 N b5 ρ c5 ⋅ H .

p1 term

π1 = D a1 N b1 ρ c1 ⋅ P

M 0 L0T 0 = La1 (T −1 )b1 ( ML−3 )c1 ( ML2T −3 )

= M 1+c1 La1 −3c1 + 2T −b1 −3

equating M ⇒ 0 = 1 + c1

L ⇒ 0 = a1 − 3c1 + 2

T ⇒ 0 = −b1 − 3

c1 = 0 a1 − 3c1 + 2 = 0

b1 = −3 a1 + 3 + 2 = 0

a1 = −5

π1 = D −5 N −3 ρ−1 ⋅ P.

P

π1 = .

DN ρ

p2 term

π2 = D a2 N b2 ρ c2 ⋅ Q

= La2 (T −1 )b2 ( ML−3 )c2 L−3T −1

M 0 L0T 0 = M c2 La2 −3c2 −3T −b2 −1

0 = c2 a2 - 3c2 - 3 = 0

-b2 - 1 = 0

c2 = 0 b2 = −1 a2 = 3

\ π2 = D 3 N −1 ρ 0 ⋅ Q

QD 3

p2 =

N

74 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

p3 term

π3 = D a3 N b3 ρ c3 ⋅ g

= La3 (T −1 )b3 ( ML−3 )c3 LT −2

M 0 L0T 0 = M c3 La3 −3c3 +1T −b3 −2

c3 = 0 a3 - 3c3 + 1 = 0 -b3 - 2 = 0

c3 = 0 a3 = −1 b3 = −2

\ π3 = D −1 N −2 ρ 0 ⋅ g

g

p3 =

ND

p4 term

π4 = D a4 N b4 ρ c4 ⋅ µ

= La4 (T −1 )b4 ( ML−3 )c4 ML−1T −1

M 0 L0T 0 = M c4 +1 La4 −3c4 −1T −b4 −1

0 = c4 + 1 a4 − 3c4 −1 = 0 −b4 −1 = 0

c4 = −1 a4 = −2 b4 = −1

\ π4 = D −2 N −1 ρ−1µ

µ

π4 = 2

D Nρ

p5 term

π5 = D a5 N b5 ρ c5 ⋅ H

M 0 L0T 0 = La5 (T −1 )b5 ( ML−3 )c5 L

= M c5 La5 −3c5 +1T −b5

0 = c5 0 = a5 − 3c5 + 1 0 = −b5

c5 = 0 a5 = −1 b5 = 0

\ π5 = D −1 N 0 ρ 0 ⋅ H

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2012) 75

H

p5 =

D

Q QD 3 g µ H

f1 = , , , 2 , =0

DN ρ N ND D N ρ D

P QD 3 g µ H

= φ , , 2 ,

DN ρ N ND D N ρ D

QD 3 g µ H

P = DN ρφ , , 2 ,

N ND D N ρ D

Sp = 0.8

Dp = 1 m

mp = 0.02 poise

Qp = 2000 lit/sec = 2 m3/sec

Dm = 10 cm = 0.1 m

Model fluid = Water

Prototype fluid = Kerosene

mm = 0.01 poise at 20°C

Wp = Density of kerosene = Sp × 1000 = 0.8 × 1000 = 800 kgf/m3

Wp800

rp = = = 81.54 N/m3

g 9.81

W 1000

rm = m =

g 9.81

ρm Vm Dm ρ p V p D p

=

µm µp

76 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Vm ρ p D p µm

= × ×

V p ρm Dm µ p

800 9.81 1 0.01

= × ×

1000 9.81 0.1 0.02

Vm

=4

Vp

Qp 2

Vp = = = 2.546 m/s

Ap p 2

(1x )

4

Vm = 4 ×V p

= 4 × 2.546

Vm = 10.184 m/s

Qm = AmVm

p

= ×(0.1) 2 ×10.184

4

= 0.0799 m3 /sec

Qm = 79.9 litres/sec

Lm = 30 m H m = 44cm of water

Qp

Linear scale ratio Lr =

Qm

3000

=

79.9

= 37.5

Hp

= Lr

Hm

H p = Lr H m

= 37.5× 44 ×10−2

H p = 16.5 m of water

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2012) 77

Lp

Lr = 37.5 =

Lm

\ L p = 37.5× Lm = 1125 m

4 fL pV p 2

Hp =

2 gD p

4 f ×1125×( 2.546) 2

\ 16.5 =

2× 9.81×1

f = 0.01109

H = 20 m

N = 300 rpm

D2 = 1.5 m

V f2 = 3 m/s

f = 30°

π D2 N

µ2 = 60

π ×1.5×300

=

60

µ2 = 23.562 m/s

V f2 3

tan f = ⇒ tan 30 =

U 2 −Vw2 23.56 −Vw2

Vw2 = 18.36 m/s

78 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Manometric efficiency

gH

hm =

Vw2 u2

9.81× 20

=

18.36 × 23.562

hm = 45.35%

P

h0 =

wQH

P

0.85 =

9.81× 2× 20

P = 333.54 kw

D1 = 750 mm

N min =

π[ D2 2 − D12 ]

120 × 0.4535×18.36 ×1.5

=

π[1.52 − (750 ×10−3 ) 2 ]

1498 ⋅ 726

=

5.3014

N min = 282.72 rpm

Velocity of radial and constant

V f = V f2 Vw2 = 0 V f = V2

1 2

V f1

tan ∝ = ⇒ V f1 = Vw1 tan ∝

Vw1

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2012) 79

u2

φ

vf2 = v2

vr2

v1 vf1

vr1

α θ

Vf

tan ∝ = 1

Vw1 − u1

Vf

(Vw1 − u1 ) = 1

tan q

Vw1 tan ∝

=

tan q

Vw tan ∝

u1 = Vw1 − 1

tan q

tan ∝

u1 = Vw1 1−

tan q

W.k.t.

V2 2 1

H− = (Vw1 u1 )

2g g

1 V2

H= Vw1 u1 + 2

g 2g

2

1 Vf

= Vw1 u1 + 1 [V2 = V f2 = V f1 ]

g 2g

80 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Sub V f1 and u1

2

1 1− tan ∝ (Vw1 tan ∝)

H = Vw1 ×Vw1 +

g tan q 2g

Vw1 2 tan ∝ tan 2 ∝

H= 1− +

g tan q 2

Vw1 u1 Vw1 u1

ηh = =

gH V tan ∝ tan 2 ∝

2

g⋅

w1

1− +

g tan θ 2

tan ∝

Vw1 ×Vw1 1−

tan θ

=

tan ∝ tan 2 ∝

Vw21 1− +

tan θ 2

tan ∝

1−

= tan θ

tan ∝ tan 2 ∝

1−− +

tan θ 2

1

ηh =

1

1+

0.5 tan 2 ∝

tan ∝

1−

tan θ

The velocity of water in delivery pipe with air vessel.

2 A ωr

V=

a π

Friction head loss

4 flV 2

Hf =

2 gd

2

4 fl 2 A ωr

=

2 gd a π

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2012) 81

2

4 fl 2 A ωr

W2 =

2 gd a π

We also know that the velocity of water in delivery pipe without

air vessels is

2

2 4 fl A ωr

W1 =

3 2 gd a π

W1 −W2

= ×100

W1

W2

= 1− ×100

W1

4 fl 2 A ωr

2

2 gd a π

= 1− 2

×100

2 4 fl A ωrr

3 2 gd a π

4 / π2

= 1− ×100

2/3

6

= 1− 2 ×100

π

• A Piston

• Suction and delivery pipe

• Crank and Connecting rod mechanism

In single acting cylinder reciprocating pump liquid acts on

one side of piston only. It is usually placed above liquid level

in pump. When crank rotates clockwise from inner dead centre

(IDC) to outer dead centre (ODC), the piston moves outward to

82 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

causes suction values to open and liquid is forced from jump

into left of piston.

Delivery pipe

Qi

hd

Delivery value Connecting road

IDC Crank

ODC

Piston cylinder

C

A

hs

Suction value

Suction pipe

Sump level

When crank rotates from ODC to IDC, the piston moves inward

to the left and a high pressure is built up in the cylinder. The

increase in pressure closes the suction value and opens the

discharge value, and delivers the liquid.

centrifugal pump.

More efficient

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2012) 83

D = 300 mm = 0.3 m

L = 400 mm = 0.4 m

N = 45 rpm

H = 15 m

hm = 75%

p

×(0.3) 2 × 0.4 × 45× 2

2 ALN 4

Qthe = = = 0.042 m 2 /sec

60 60

Volumetric efficiency

Qact

hv = ×100

Qthe

0.039

= ×100

0.042

hv = 91.95%

Work done per second

WALN

=2 (H )

60

p

9810 × × 0.32 × 0.4 × 4.5× 2

= 4 ×15

60

= 6241 N-m

P = w Q + n( H )

= 9810 × 0.042×15 = 6.18 Kw

84 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

P0 P

h mech = ⇒ 0.75 = 0

Pi 6.18

15. (b) (ii) Rotary pumps resemble like centrifugal pumps in appearance

but the working method differs. Uniform discharge and positive

displacement can be obtained by using rotary pumps.

The various types are

• External Gear Pump

• Internal Gear Pump

• Lobe Pump

• Vane pump

It has two identical intermeshing spur wheels A and B. One

wheel is connected to driving shaft and other one is driven. The

liquid is entrapped between teeth and allowed to discharge into

delivery pipe when the gear rotates.

These rotating gears itself set up sufficient pressure to force the

liquid.

Two intermeshing wheels are internally meshed. A crescent

shaped partition is made between these two wheels. This space

acts as a seal between suction and discharge. During rotation

the space between inner and outer wheel increases and liquid

fills the space. Due to continuous rotation the fluid is pushed to

delivery end.

Lobe Pump

This pump resembles like a gear pump in action but not in

appearance. The wheels inside the casing have two or more

lobes. The liquid is entrapped & flows to the delivery end when

lobe rotates. The lobes itself build up sufficient pressure to force

the liquid.

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (May/June 2012) 85

Vane Pump

A disc is eccentrically rotating inside the pump casing. Slots containing

vanes are provided in the disc. The vanes are moved against the casing due

to centrifugal force. Due to continuous rotations the liquid is entrapped and

forced to the delivery end with sufficient pressure.

86 B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Vane pump

Lobe pumps

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION,

APRIL/MAY 2010

Third Semester

Mechanical Engineering

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

Answer ALL questions

PART A (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1. A soap bubble is formed when the inside pressure is 5 N/m2 above the

atmospheric pressure. If surface tension in the soap bubble is 0.0125 N/m,

find the diameter of the bubble formed.

2. The converging pipe with inlet and outlet diameters of 200 mm and

150 mm carries the oil whose specific gravity is 0.8. The velocity of oil

at the entry is 2.5 m/s, find the velocity at the exit of the pipe and oil flow

rate in kg/sec.

enlarged to a diameter of 400 mm. Rate of flow of water through the pipe

is 250 litres/s.

at 900 rpm. Find the specific speed of pump.

7. The mean velocity of the buckets of the Pelton wheel is 10 m/s. The jet

supplies water at 0.7 m2/s at a head of 30 m. The jet is deflected through an

angle of 160° by the bucket. Find the hydraulic efficiency. Table Cv = 0.98.

at 1500 rpm. D1 = 100 mm, D2 = 300 mm, B1 = 50 mm, B2 = 20 mm,

V0 = 3 m/s. β2 = 60°. Find the velocity of flow at outlet.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 3

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 3 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:13:41

3:36:48 PM

4.4

5.4 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

PART B (5 × 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) A drainage pipe is tapered in a section running with full of water.

The pipe diameters at the inlet and exit are 1000 mm and 500 mm

respectively. The water surface is 2 m above the centre of the inlet

and exit is 3 m above the free surface of the water. The pressure at

the exist is 250 mm of Hg vacuum. The friction loss between the

inlet and exit of the pipe is 1/10 of the velocity head at the exit.

Determine the discharge through the pipe.

Or

(b) A pipe of 300 mm diameter inclined at 30° to the horizontal is

carrying gasoline (specific gravity = 0.82). A venturimeter is fitted

in the pipe to find out the flow rate whose throat diameter is 150 mm.

The throat is 1.2 m from the entrance along its length. The pres-

sure gauges fitted to the venturimeter read 140 kN/m2 and 80 kN/m2

respectively. Find out the coefficient of discharge of venturimeter if

the flow is 0.20 m2/s.

12. (a) For a turbulent flow in a pipe of diameter 300 mm, find the discharge

when the centre-line velocity is 2.0 m/s and the velocity at a point

100 mm from the centre as measured by pitot-tube is 1.6 m/s.

Or

(b) For a town water supply, a main pipe line of diameter 0.4 m is

required. As pipes more than 0.35 m diameter are not readily avail-

able, two parallel pipes of same diameter are used for water supply.

If the total discharge in the parallel pipes is same as in the single

main pipe, find the diameter of parallel pipe. Assume coefficient of

discharge to be the same for all the pipes.

13. (a) Using Buckingham’s theorem, show that the velocity through a

circular orifice in a pipe is given by v = 2 gH f {d / H , μ / ρcH }

where v is the velocity through orifice of diameter d and H is the

head causing the flow and ρ and µ are the density and dynamic vis-

cosity of the fluid passing through the orifice and g is acceleration

due to gravity.

Or

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 4

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:13:43

3:36:48 PM ME_S

2010)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (April/May 2010) 4.5

5.5

of the fluid, ω (angular velocity), d (diameter of rotor) and Q (dis-

charge). Express η in terms of non-dimensional parameters. Use

Buckingham’s Π theorem.

14. (a) In an inward radial flow turbine, water enters at an angle of 22° to

the wheel tangent to the outer rim and leaves at 3 m/s. The flow

velocity is constant through the runner. The inner and outer diam-

eters are 300 mm and 600 mm respectively. The speed of the runner

is 300 rpm. The discharge through the runner is radial. Find the

(i) Inlet and outlet blade angles

(ii) Taking inlet width as 150 mm and neglecting the thickness of

the blades, find the power developed by the turbine.

Or

(b) A Kaplan turbine working under a head of 20 m develops 15 MW

brake power. The hub diameter and runner diameter of the turbine

are 1.5 m and 4 m respectively. The guide blade angle at the inlet is

30°. η0 = 0.9 and η0 = 0.8. The discharge is radial. Find the runner

vane angles and turbine speed.

15. (a) The diameter and stroke of a single acting reciprocating pump are

120 mm and 300 mm respectively. The water is lifted by a pump

through a total head of 25 m. The diameter and length of delivery

pipe are 100 mm and 20 m respectively. Find out

(i) Theoretical discharge and theoretical power required to run the

pump if its speed is 60 rpm

(ii) Percentage slip, if the actual discharge is 2.95 I/s and

(iii) The acceleration head at the beginning and middle of the deliv-

ery stroke.

Or

(b) Explain the working of the following pumps with the help of neat

sketches and mention two applications of each.

(i) External gear pump

(ii) Lobe pump

(iii) Vane pump

(vi) Screw pump

6:48 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 5

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 5 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:13:44

3:36:48 PM

Solutions

PART A

1. Pressure = 5 N/m2

Surface tension, = 0.0125 N/m

8θ

P=

d

8θ 8 × 0.125

d= = = 2 cm

P 5

D2 = 0.15 m,V2 = ?

A1 V1 = A2 V2

(0.2)2

V2 = × 2.5

(0.15)2

V2 = 4.44 m/s

M = P1 A1 V1 = P2 A2 V2

π

M = 800 × (0.2)2 × 2.5

4

M = 62.83/kg/8.

bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant.

4. D1 = 200 mm = 0.2 m

π π

A1 = × D12 = (0.2)2

4 4

= 0.03141 m2

D2 = 400 mm = 0.4 m

π

A2 = × (0.4)2 = 0.12564 m 2

4

q = 250 liters/s = 0.25 m3/s

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 6

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 6 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:13:46

3:36:48 PM ME_S

2010)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (April/May 2010) 4.7

5.7

θ 0.25

V1 = = = 7.96 m/s

A1 0.03141

θ 0.25

V2 = = = 1.99 m/s

A2 0.12564

he = =

2g 2 × 9.81

he = 1.816 m of water.

Hm = 850 mm = 0.85 m

N = 900 rpm

N θ 900 0.02

Ns = =

H m3/ 4 (0.85)3/ 4

Ns = 143.78

are cm, kg.

Derived units are combinations of base units. For example, a meter per

second is a derived unit for velocity.

7. U = U1 = U2 = 10 m/s

q = 0.7 m3/s

Angle of deflection = 160°

Angle, f = 180° − 160° = 20°

Coefficient of velocity, Cv = 0.98

H = 30 m

V1 = Cv 2 gH

= 0.98 2 × 9.81 × 30

V1 = 23.77 m/s

Vω1 = V1 = 23.77

Vrl = V1 − U1 = 23.77 − 10

Vrl = 13.77 m/s

Vr 2 = Vr1 = 13.77 m/sec.

6:48 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 7

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 7 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:13:48

3:36:48 PM

4.8

5.8 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

Vω 2 = Vr 2 cos φ − U 2

Vω 2 = 2.94 m/s.

Hydraulic efficiency

2[Vw1 + Vw 2 ]

Nh = × U = 94.54 %

V12

8. D1 = 100 mm, B1 = 50 mm

D2 = 300 mm, B2 = 20 mm

Vf 1 = 3 m/s, B2 = 60°

N = 1500 rpm

θ θ

Vf 1 = =

A1 π D1 B1

3 = 0.0471 m3/s

θ

Vf 2 =

A2

0.04 − 71

= = 2.998 m/s

π × 0.1 × 0.05

9. The difference between the theoretical discharge and the actual discharge

of the pump is called slip of the reciprocating pump.

10. The Air-vessel stores excess quantity of water during the first half of the

delivery stroke and supplies excess quantity of water to the delivery pipe

during the second half of the stroke.

PART B

11. (a) The resisting force K depends upon

• Length, = l,

• Velocity, = V,

• Viscosity, = µ,

• Density, = p,

• Bulk modulus, = K.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 8

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 8 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:13:50

3:36:48 PM ME_S

2010)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (April/May 2010) 4.9

5.9

K Al a ⋅ V b ⋅ µ c ⋅ p d ⋅ K e ... (1)

Substituting the dimensions on both sides of the equation (1)

MLT −2 = ALa ( LT −1 ) b ⋅ ( ML−1T −1 )c ⋅ ( ML−3 )d ⋅ ( ML−1T −2 )e .

Power of M, 1=c+d+e

Power of L, 1 = a + b − c − 3d − e

Power of T, − 2 = − b – c – e

There are five unknowns but equations are only three. Expressing

the three unknowns in terms of two unknowns (µ and K).

∴ Express the value of a, b, and d in terms of c and e.

Solving

d =1-c–e

b = 2 - c – 2e

a = 1 – b + c + 3d + e

= 1 – (2 – c - 2e) + c + 3 (1 – c - e) + e

= 1 – 2 + c +2e + c + 3 – 3c – 3e + e

=2–c

Substituting these values in (1) we get

R = Al 2 − c ⋅V 2 − c − 2 e ⋅ μ c ⋅ ρ1− c − e ⋅ K e

= Al 2 ⋅V 2 ⋅ ρ(l − c ⋅V − c ⋅ μ c ⋅ ρ − c ) ⋅ (v −2 e ⋅ ρ − e ⋅ K e )

ρ p

⎛ μ ⎞ ⎛ K ⎞

= Al 2V 2 ρ ⎜ ⋅

⎝ ρVL ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ ρ v 2 ⎟⎠

⎡⎛ M ⎞ ρ ⎛ K ⎞ ρ ⎤

Rp = AρI 2V 2φ ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⋅⎜ 2⎟

⎥⋅

⎢⎣⎝ ρVL ⎠ ⎝ ρV ⎠ ⎥⎦

d2 = 150 mm = 0.15 m

S = 0.82

Z1 = 01 Z2 = 1.2 m

6:48 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 9

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 9 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:13:52

3:36:48 PM

4.10

5.10 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

P1 = 140 KN/m2

P2 = 80 KN/m2

q = 0.20 m2/s

⎛ p ⎞ ⎛p ⎞

h = ⎜ 1 = Z1 ⎟ − ⎜ 2 + Z 2 ⎟

⎝ pg ⎠ ⎝ pg ⎠

⎛ 140 × 103 ⎞ ⎛ 80 × 103 ⎞

h=⎜ − + 1.2⎟

⎝ 820 × 9.81⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 820 × 9.81 ⎠

6.25 m of gasoline

Theoretical discharge

a a

θth = 1 2 2 gh

a12 - a22

π π

a1 = × d12 = × 0.32 = 0.0707 m 2

4 4

π π

a2 = × d22 = × 0.152 = 0.177 m 2

4 4

θ act

cd =

θ th

0.0707 × 0.0177

θ th = × 2 × 9.81 × 6.25

(0.0707)2 − (0.0177)2

= 0.2 m3 /s

0.2

cd = =1

0.2

Coefficient of discharge of venturimeter cd = 1

12 (a) D = 0.3 m

0.3

R= = 0.15 m

2

Umax = 2 m/s

Velocity U = 1.6 m/s

Y = R − r = 0.15 − 0.10 = 0.05 m

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 10 10

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:13:54

3:36:49 PM ME_S

2010)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (April/May 2010) 4.11

5.11

U max − U

= 5.75log10 ( Rly )

U*

2 − 1.6 ⎛ 0.165 ⎞

= 575log10 ⎜

U* ⎝ 0.05 ⎟⎠

= 2.7434

0.4

U* = = 0.1458 m/s

2.7434

u −U

= 5.75log10 ( y /R ) 43.75

u*

Y = R, U becomes Umax

U max − U

∴ = 5.75log10 = U ( R /R) + 3.75

U*

= 3.75

2 −U

= 3.75

0.1458

U = 2 − (0.1458 × 3.75)

U = 0.4533 m/s

Discharge θ = Area × AV. Velocity

π

= D 2 × U − 1 Substituting the value

4

q = 0.1027 m3/s

(b) d = 0.4 m

4 f LV 2 4 f LV 2

h= =

2 gd 2 g (0.4)

V* = Velocity of each parallel pipe

D* = Diameter of each parallel pipe

4 f LV*2

h* =

2 g × d*

6:49 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 11 11

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:13:55

3:36:49 PM

4.12

5.12 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

h = h*

4 f LV 2 4 f × L × V*2

=

2 g (0.4) 2 g × d*

V 2 V*2 V 2 0.4

⇒ = ⇒ 2 = → (1)

0.4 d* V* d*

V × A = 2 × V * × A*

π π

V× (0.4)2 = 2 × V* × ( d* )2

4 4

π

2 × d *2

V 4 2d *2

= =

V* π 0.16

(0.4)2

4

Square on both sides

V2 4 d*4

= → (2)

V*2 0.0256

0.4 4 d*4

=

d* 0.0256

0.4 × 0.0256

d*5 = = 0.00256

4

d* = (0.00256)1/5 = 0.303 m.

V = f (H, D, m, r, g)

(or)

f1 (V, H, D, m, r, g) = 0 (1)

From the above equation

Total number of variables, n = 6

Dimensions of each of the 6 variables:

V = LT −1 H = L

D=L m = M L −1T −1

r = ML−3 g = LT −2

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 12 12

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:13:58

3:36:49 PM ME_S

2010)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (April/May 2010) 4.13

5.13

∴ Number of p − terms = n − m = −3 = 3

Now, equation (1) becomes.

f1(p1, p2, p3) = 0 (2)

• Each p term contains m + 1 variables, where m = 3.

• So it contains 3 repeating variables.

• Since V is a dependent variable it should not be selected as

repeating variable.

Choosing H, g, r as repeating variables, the 3p terms are.

π 1 = H a ⋅ g b ⋅ ρ c ⋅V

1 1 1

π 2 = H a2 ⋅ g b2 ⋅ ρc ⋅ D 2

π3 = H ⋅ g ⋅ ρ ⋅ μ

a3 b3 c3

First p term: π1 = H a1 ⋅ g b1 ⋅ ρ c1 ⋅V

Substituting dimensions on both sides,

b1

M ° L°T ° = La1 ( LT −2 ( ML−3 )c1 ⋅ ( LT −1 )

Power of M, 0 = C, ∴C1 = 0

Power of L, 0 = a1 + b1 −3c1 + 1 a1 + b1 = −1

1

Power of T, 0 = −2b1 − 1, b1 = −

2

∴ a1 = −1 + /2 = −1/2

a1 = −1/2

∴ p1 becomes,

V

π1 = H −1/ 2 ⋅ g −1/ 2 ⋅ ρ° ⋅V =

gH

Second p term: π 2 = H a2 ⋅ g b2 ⋅ ρ c2 ⋅ D

Substituting the dimensions on both sides.

M ° L°T ° = La2 ⋅ ( LT −2 ) 2 ⋅ ( ML−3 )c2 ⋅ L

b

M 0 = C2 ∴C2= 0

L a2 + b2 – 3C2 + 1 = 0

6:49 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 13 13

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:01

3:36:49 PM

4.14

5.14 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

a2 + b2 = −1

T − 2b2 = 0

b2 = 0 ∴ a2 = −1

D

Thus, π 2 = H −1 ⋅ g ° ⋅ ρ° ⋅ D =

H

Third p terms: p 3 = H a3 ⋅ g b3 ⋅ ρ c3 ⋅ m

Substituting the dimensions on both sides.

M ° L°T ° = La3 ⋅ ( LT −2 )b3 ⋅ ( ML−3 )C3 ⋅ ML−1T −1

M 0 = c3 + 1

∴C3 = −1

L a3 + b3 – 3C3 − 1 = 0

a3 + b3 = −2

T – 2b3 – 1 = 0

b3 = −1 / 2 ∴ a3 = −2 + 1 / 2 = − 3/2

a3 = − 3/2

Multiplying and dividing by V

μ

=

Hf gH

μV μ

π3 = = ⋅ π1

HfV gH HfV

⎛ V D V ⎞

ρ1 ⎜ , π1

, =0

⎝ gH H HfV ⎟⎠

Or

V ⎡D μ ⎤

= φ ⎢ , π1 ⎥

gH ⎣H HfV ⎦

⎡D μ ⎤

⇒ V = 2 gH φ ⎢ , ⎥

⎣ H ρ VH ⎦

Multiplying by a constant does not change the character of p terms.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 14 14

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:04

3:36:49 PM ME_S

2010)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (April/May 2010) 4.15

5.15

(b) Given

h is a function of r, µ,w, D and Q

h = r (r, µ,w, D, Q)

(or)

r1 = (h, r, µ,w, D, Q) = 0 (1)

Hence, total number of variables n = 6

Number of fundamental dimensions, m = 3

Dimensions of each variable are

h = Dimensionless w = T −1

r = ML−3 D=L

m = ML T−1 −1

Q = L3 T −1

∴m=3

Number of p terms = n −m = 6 − 3 = 3

∴ (1) becomes, r1 (p1, p2, p3) = 0

Each p term contains m + 1 variables and m number of repeating

variables.

Choosing D, W and r as repeating variables, we have

π1 = D a ⋅ ω b ⋅ ρ c ⋅ η

1 1 1

π 2 = D a ⋅ ω b ⋅ ρc ⋅ η

2 2 2

π 3 = D a ⋅ ω b ⋅ ρc ⋅ Q

3

3 3

π1 = D a ⋅ ω b ⋅ ρ c ⋅ η

1 1 1

b

Power of M, 0 = c1 + 0 ⇒ c1 = 0

Power of L, 0 = a1 + 0, ⇒ a1 = 0

Power of T, 0 = −b1 + 0, ⇒ b1 =0

Substituting the values of a1 b1 and c1 in p we get,

π 1 = D ° ⋅ ω ° ⋅ ρ° ⋅ η = η

Second p term

π 2 = D a ω b ⋅ ρc ⋅ μ

2 2 2

6:49 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 15 15

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:06

3:36:49 PM

4.16

5.16 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

b2

M ° L°T ° = La2 ⋅ (T −1 ⋅ ( ML−3 )c 2 ⋅ ( ML−1T −1 )

Power of M, 0 = c2 + 1 ⇒ c2 = −1

Power of L, 0 = a2 – 3 c2 − 1

∴a2 = 3C2 + 1

= −3 + 1 = −2

Power T, 0 = −b2 – 1 ⇒ b2 = −1

Substituting the values of a2 b2 and c2 in p2,

μ

π 2 = D −2 ⋅ ω −1 ⋅ ρ −1 ⋅ μ =

D ωρ

2

Third p term

π3 = D a ⋅ ω b ⋅ ρc ⋅ Q

3 3 3

M ° L°T ° = La3 ⋅ (T −1 )b3 ⋅ ( ML−3 )c3 ⋅ L3T −1

Power of M, 0 = c3 ⇒ c3 = 0

Power of L, 0 = a3 = 3c3 – 3 = −3

⇒ a3 = 3c3 – 3 = −3

Power of T, 0 = −b3 −1,

b3 = −1

Substituting the values of a3, b3, and c3 in p3,

Q

π 3 = D −3 ⋅ ω −1 ⋅ ρ° ⋅ Q =

D 2ω

Substituting the values of p, p2 and p3 in equation (2),

⎛ μ Q ⎞ ⎡ μ Q ⎤

f1 ⎜ η, 2 , 2 ⎟ = 0 (or) η = φ ⎢ 2 , 2 ⎥

⎝ D ωρ D ω ⎠ ⎣ D ωρ D ω ⎦

Guide blade angle, α = 22°

Velocity of the flow, V f = V f = 3 m/s

1 2

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 16 16

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:09

3:36:49 PM ME_S

2010)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (April/May 2010) 4.17

5.17

D1 = 300 mm = 0.3 m

D2 = 600 mm = 0.6 m

Speed, N = 300 rpm

Discharge at outlet is radial,

∴ β = 90° and Vω = 0

2

FM − 47 = 0.15 mm

Solution

Tangential velocity of wheel at inlet,

π D1 N π × 0.3 × 300

u1 = = = 4.71m/s

60 60

Tangential velocity of wheel at outlet,

π D2 N π × 0.6 × 300

u1 = = = 9.43 m/s

60 60

Absolute velocity of water at inlet,

Vf

3

V1 = 1 = = 8.0084 m/s

sin α sin 22

Vω = V1 cos α = 8.0084 × cos 22

1

Vω = 7.4253 m/s

1

1

For runner blade angles:

From inlet velocity triangles,

Vf 3

tan θ = 1

= = 1.1048

Vω −u

7.4253 − 4.71

1 1

q = tan−1(1.1048) = 47.85°

q = 47.85°

6:49 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 17 17

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:11

3:36:49 PM

4.18

5.18 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

Vf 3

tan φ = 2

= = 0.3181

u 9.43

φ = tan −1 (0.3181)

φ = 17.65°

u2

f V2 = Vf 1 = Vf 2

Vr 2

V1

Vr1 Vf 1

a q

u1

uw1

Power developed,

P = ρ QVω × u1 = 1000 × 0.4241 × 7.4253 × 4.71

1

P = 14.83 kW

Result

(i) θ = 47.85°

φ = 17.65°

(ii) P = 14.83 KW

(b) Given data

Head, H = 20 m

Power, P = 15 MW

= 15000 kW

Outer diameter of runner, D0 = 4 m

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 18 18

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:13

3:36:49 PM ME_S

2010)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (April/May 2010) 4.19

5.19

Guide blade angle, a = 30°

Hydraulic efficiency, hh = 0.9 = 90%

Overall efficiency, h0 = 0.8 = 80%

Discharge is radial

∴ β = 90° & Vω = 0

2

θ=? φ=? N =?

Solution

P

η0 =

H

15000 × 103

0.80 =

1000 × 9.81 × Q × 20

θ = 95.56 m3 /s

We know that,

π

θ= ( D02 − Db2 ) × V f

4 1

π

95.56 = (4 2 − 1.52 ) × Vf

4 1

Vf = 8.8487 m/s

1

u2

Vw1 = 0 b f

V1 = V2

Vf 2

V1

Vr1

Vf1

q a

Vw1

u1

6:49 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 19 19

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:14

3:36:50 PM

4.20

5.20 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

Vf

tan α = 1

Vω

1

8.8487

tan 30° =

Vω

1

Vω = 15.33 m/s

1

Vω u1

Hydraulic efficiency, η = 1

h

gH

15.33 × u1

0.9 =

9.81 × 20

u1 = 11.5186 m/s

Vf

From velocity triangle, tan θ = 1

Vw − u1

1

8.8487

=

15.33 − 11.5186

= 2.3216

θ = tan −1 (2.3216)

θ = 66.69°

For Kaplan turbine, u1 = u2 = 11.5186 m/s

Vf = V f = 8.8487 m/s

1 2

Vf 8.8487

tan φ = 2

= = 0.7682

u2 11.5186

φ = tan −1 (0.7682)

φ = 37.53°

π D0 N

Peripheral velocity, u1 =

60

π ×4×N

11.5186 =

60

N = 54.9973 rpm

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 20 20

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:17

3:36:50 PM ME_S

2010)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (April/May 2010) 4.21

5.21

Result

(i) Runner vane angles, Inlet θ = 66.69°

Outlet, φ = 37.53°

(ii) Speed of the turbine, N = 54.9973 rpm

D = 120 mm = 0.12 m

L = 300 mm = 0.3 m

L 0.3

∴ r= = = 0.15 m

2 2

N = 60 rpm

Qactual = 2.95 litres/s = 0.00295 m3/s

hd = 25 m ld = 20 m

dd = 100 mm = 0.10 m

Solution

(i) Theoretical discharge,

ALN

Qth =

60

π

× 0.122 × 0.3 × 60

= 4 = 0.00339 m3 /s

60

Power required to run the pump,

P = wQth (hs + hd)

= 9810 × 0.00339 (0 + 25)

P = 0.8313 kW

(ii) Percentage slip

Qact

% slip Qth − × 100

Qth

0.00339 − 0.00295

= × 100

0.00339

% slip = 12.98%

(iii) Acceleration head at the beginning of the stroke

ld A 2 ⎡∵ θ = 0° ⎤

had = ω r⎢ ⎥

g ad ⎣cos 0 = 1⎦

6:50 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 21 21

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:19

3:36:50 PM

4.22

5.22 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

π

(0.12)2 2

20 4 ⎛ 2π × 60 ⎞

= × ×⎜ ⎟ × 0.15

9.81 π × (0.1)2 ⎝ 60 ⎠

4

= 17.38 m of water

Acceleration head at the middle of the stroke:

ld A 2

had = ω r cos 90°

g ar

had = 0

It has two identical intermeshing spur wheels A and B. These

two wheels are meshed with a fine clearance inside the casing.

When the fluid flows, it will make joint with the point of teeth

contact. Among these, one of the wheels is connected to the

driving shaft and the other one is driven. Before starting the

pump it is filled with liquid.

A B

into the delivery pipe when the gear rotates. These rotating

gears itself set up sufficient pressure to force the liquid. So,

each and every tooth on the wheels acts as a piston of a recip-

rocating pump.

This pump resembles like a gear pump in action but not in

appearance. The specially designed wheels are arranged inside

the casing. The wheels have two or more lobes. Here also, the

liquid is filled in the pump before it starts.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 22 22

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:20

3:36:50 PM ME_S

2010)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (April/May 2010) 4.23

5.23

A B

Lobe Pumbs

Lobe pumps

The liquid makes a tight joint at the point of contact. The liquid

is entrapped and flown to the delivery end when the lobes rotate.

The lobes itself build up sufficient pressure to force the liquid.

The main drawback is that the discharge is not uniform.

(iii) Vane pumps

Receiver

Rotating Drum

Vanes

Caring

Inlet

Lobe pumps

containing vanes are provided on the disc. The vanes are moved

against the casing due to centrifugal force when the disc rotates.

So, the liquid tight seal is formed. Due to continuous rotation of

disc, the liquid is entrapped and forced to the delivery end with

sufficient pressure. The vanes are generally hinged. In some

cases, springs are used to press the vanes against casing.

6:50 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 23 23

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:21

3:36:50 PM

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION,

NOV/DEC 2009

Third Semester

Mechanical Engineering

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

Answer ALL questions

PART A (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1. What is the variation of viscosity with temperature for fluids?

of Hg at normal conditions.

4. What is T.E.L?

cating pump?

PART B (5 × 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) Explain the properties of a hydraulic fluid.

Or

(b) A 0.5 shaft rotates in a sleeve under lubrication with viscosity 5

poise at 200 rpm. Calculate the power lost for a length of 100 mm,

if the thickness of the oil is 1 mm.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 24 24

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:22

3:36:50 PM ME_S

2009)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2009) 4.25

5.25

Or

(b) Determine the equivalent pipe corresponding to 3 pipes in series

with lengths and diameters l1, l2, l3, d2, d3 respectively.

sity, viscosity, angular velocity, diameter of the rotor and discharge

using Buckinghain Π theorem.

Or

(b) Classify models with scale ratios.

14. (a) Determine the hp of the Pelton wheel with tangential velocity

20 m/s. Head 50 m, discharge 0.03 m3/s, side clearance angle 15°.

Take CV as 0.975.

Or

(b) A reaction turbine at 450 rpm, head 120 m, diameter at inlet 120 cm,

flow area 0.4 m2 has angles made by absolute and relative velocities

at inlet 20° and 60° respectively. Find volume flow rate, H.P. and

efficiency.

15. (a) Determine the minimum speed for starting a centrifugal pump.

Or

(b) Explain the characteristic curves of a centrifugal pump.

6:50 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 25 25

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:23

3:36:50 PM

Solutions

PART A

1. Viscosity of liquids decrease when the temperature increases. Viscosity

of gases increases with increase in temperature.

• Sudden contraction

• Sudden enlargement

• Sudden obstruction in the pipe

• Loss of energy at the exit of pipe.

4. The total energy losses of the pipe plotted at different sections are joined

together to obtain the total energy line.

5. A relationship existing between two fluids flow when they have identi-

cal types of forces that one parallel at all the corresponding points, with

magnitudes related by a constant scale factor. Dynamic similarity makes

it possible to scale results from model tests to predict corresponding

results for the full scale prototype.

a characteristic velocity to a gravitational wave velocity. It also can be

defined as the ratio of a body’s inertia to gravitational forces.

V

Fr =

C

impellers as to their type and proportions. In imperial units it is defined

as the speed in revolutions per minute at which a geometrically similar

impeller would operate if it were of such a size as to deliver one gallon

per minute against one foot of hydraulic head.

• Straight divergent tube,

• Simple elbow type.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 26 26

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:24

3:36:50 PM ME_S

2009)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2009) 4.27

5.27

9. In some cases when the slip of the pump is a negative slip, the q act may

be higher than q and the Negative slip is possible when the delivery pipe

is short, suction pipe is long and pump is running at high speed.

• Atmospheric head

• Delivery head

• Acceleration head

• Suction head

PART B

11. (a) Properties of Hydraulic Fluid

Viscosity

Viscosity is a measure of a hydraulic fluid’s resistance to flow. It is a

hydraulic fluid’s most important characteristic and has a significant

impact on the operation of the system.

When a hydraulic oil is too thin (low viscosity), it does not seal suf-

ficiently. This leads to leakage and wear of parts. When a hydraulic

oil is too thick (high viscosity), the fluid will be more difficult to

pump through the system and may reduce operating efficiency.

All hydraulic fluids must be able to retain optimum viscosity during

operation in cold or hot temperatures, in order to consistently and

effectively transmit power.

Compressibility

Compressibility is a measure of the amount of volume reduction due

to pressure. Although hydraulic oils are basically incompressible,

slight volume reductions can occur under certain pressure ranges.

Compressibility increases with pressure and temperature and has

significant effects on high-pressure fluid systems. It causes servo

failure, efficiency loss, and cavitation; therefore, it is important for a

hydraulic oil to have low compressibility.

Wear Resistance

Wear resistance is a hydraulic fluid’s ability to reduce the wear rate

in frictional boundary contacts. Antiwear hydraulic fluids contain

antiwear components that can form a protective film on metal surfaces

6:50 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 27 27

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:25

3:36:50 PM

4.28

5.28 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

enhance lubricant performance and extent equipment life.

Oxidation Stability

Oxidation stability is a hydraulic oil’s resistance to heat-induced

degradation caused by a chemical reaction with oxygen. Hydraulic

oils must contain additives that counteract the process of oxidation,

improve the stability and extend the life of the fluid. Without these

additives, the quality of the hydraulic oil will deteriorate quickly.

Thermal Stability

Thermal stability is the ability to resist breakdown at elevated tem-

peratures. Antiwear additives naturally degrade over time and this

process can be accelerated at higher temperatures. The result of poor

thermal stability is the formation of sludge and varnish which can

clog filters, minimize flow and increase downtime. In addition, as

these antiwear agents decompose at high temperatures, acids are

formed which attack bronze and yellow metals in piston pumps and

other hydraulic system components. Hydraulic oils can be formu-

lated with very high levels of thermal stability to minimize these

issues and help extend the life of the hydraulic fluid and the compo-

nents of the hydraulic system.

Filterability

Water can react with additives in hydraulic fluids forming oil insol-

uble material. These contaminants can precipitate from the lubricant

and block filters, valves and other components resulting in decreased

oil flow or the system going on bypass. Blockage can eventually

result in unplanned downtime. Hydraulic fluids are designed to be

filtered with modern filtration systems without fear of the additive

being depleted or removed from the system. This enables systems

to stay clean without sacrificing critical performance requirements

such as antiwear, rust protection or foam inhibition.

Rust and Corrosion Protection

In many systems, water can enter as condensation or contamination,

and mix with the hydraulic oil. Water can cause rusting of hydrau-

lic components. In addition, water can react with some additives

to form chemical species which can be aggressive to yellow met-

als. Hydraulic oil formulations contain rust and corrosion inhibi-

tors which prevent the interaction of water or other chemical species

from attacking metal surfaces.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 28 28

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:26

3:36:50 PM ME_S

2009)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2009) 4.29

5.29

Foam Resistance

Foam results from air or other gases becoming entrained in the

hydraulic fluid. Air enters a hydraulic system through the reservoir

or through air leaks within the system.

A hydraulic fluid under high pressure can contain a large volume of

dissolved or dispersed air bubbles. When this fluid is depressurized,

the air bubbles expand and produce foam. Because of its compress-

ibility and poor lubricating properties, foam can seriously affect the

operation and lubrication of machinery.

Proper foam inhibitors modify the surface tension on air bubbles so

they more easily break up.

Demulsibility

Water that enters a hydraulic system can mix or emulsify with the

hydraulic oil. If this ‘wet’ fluid is circulated through the system, it can

promote rust and corrosion. Highly refined mineral oils permit water

to separate or demulsify quickly. However, some of the additives used

in hydraulic oils promote emulsion formation, preventing the water

from separating and settling out of the fluid. Demulsifier additives

are incorporated to promote water separation from hydraulic fluids.

Hydrolytic Stability

When hydraulic fluids come into contact with water, the water can

interact with the additive system of the hydraulic oil resulting in

the formation of acids. Hydraulic fluids that lack hydrolytic stability

hydrolyze in the presence of water to form oil insoluble inorganic

salts that can block filters and valves inhibiting oil flow. This can

result in hydraulic system failure. Properly formulated hydraulic flu-

ids are designed to contain additives that are resistant to interactions

with water, helping to extend the life of the equipment.

Seal Compatibility

Leaking hydraulic fluids can cause many issues from simple house-

keeping problems to more serious safety concerns and lubrication

failures. Most hydraulic systems utilize rubber seals and other elas-

tomers to minimize or prevent hydraulic oil leakage. Exposure of

the elastomer to the lubricant under high temperature conditions can

cause the rubber seals to harden, crack and eventually leak. On the

other hand, hydraulic oil exposure can seal to swell excessively pre-

venting hydraulic valves and pistons from moving freely. Hydraulic

oils are tested against a variety of seal materials to ensure that the

hydraulic fluid will be compatible with seals under various conditions.

6:50 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 29 29

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:27

3:36:51 PM

4.30

5.30 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

(b) µ = 5 poise

Ns

= 0.5

m2

Diameter D = 0.5 m.

Speed N = 200 rpm.

Sleve length L = 100 mm = 0.1 m

Thickness of oil film f = 1mm = 10−3 m

π DN π × 0.5 × 200

u= = ≤ 5.23 m/s

60 60

du

τ=μ

dy

5.23

τ = 0.5 × = 2615 N/m 2

10 −3

Shear force

F = τ × Area

= 2615 × πD × L

= 2615 × π × 0.5 × 0.1

= 410.76 N

Torque

D 0.5

T =F× = 410.76 × = 102.69 Nm

2 2

2π NT 2π × 200 × 102.69

Power lost = = = 2150.75 w.

60 60

Losses in Pipe

It is often necessary to determine the head loss, hL, that occur in a

pipe flow so that the energy equation, can be used in the analysis of

pipe flow problems.

The overall head loss for the pipe system consists of the head loss

due to viscous effects in the straight pipes, termed the major loss and

denoted hL-manjor.

The head loss in various pipe components, termed the minor loss

and enoted hL-minor.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 30 30

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:29

3:36:51 PM ME_S

2009)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2009) 4.31

5.31

That is,

hL = hL-major + hL-minor

ily reflect the relative importance of each type of loss.

For a pipe system that contains many components and a relatively

short length of pipe, the minor loss may actually be larger than the

major loss.

Major Losses

The head loss, hL-major is given as;

lV 2

hL -major = f

D2 g

where f is friction factor.

Above mention equation is called the Darcy-Weisbach equation. It

is valid for any fully developed, steady, incompressible pipe flow,

whether the pipe is horizontal or on hill.

Friction factor for laminar flow is;

64

f =

Re

Friction factor for turbulent flow is based on Moody chart.

It is because, in turbulent flow, Reynolds number and relative rough-

ness influence the friction.

ρVD

Reynolds number Re =

μ

ε

Relative roughness =

D

(Relative roughness is not present in the laminar flow.)

The Moody chart is universally valid for all steady, fully developed,

incompressible pipe flows.

The following equation form Colebrook is valid for the entire non-

laminar range of the Moody chart. It is called Colebrook formula.

1 ⎛ε/D 2.51 ⎞

= −2.0 log ⎜ + ⎟

f ⎝ 3.7 Re f ⎠

6:51 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 31 31

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:31

3:36:51 PM

0.1 5.32

4.32

0.09 Wholly Turbulent Flow

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb

0.08

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd

0.07 0.05

32 32

0.04

0.06

0.03

0.05

0.02

0.015

0.04

0.01

0.008

0.006

0.03 ∋

f 0.004

D

B.E./B.Tech.

0.025

0.002

0.02 0.001

B.E./B.Tech. Question

Laminar 0.0008

0.0006

Flow 0.0004

0.015

Question Papers

Papers

Smooth 0.0002

Transition Range 0.0001

0.00005

0.01

0.009

0.008 0.00001

2(103) 4 6 8 2(104) 4 6 8 2(105) 4 6 8 2(106) 4 6 8 2(107) 4 6 8

103 104 105 106 107

rVD

Re = m

4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:32

ME_S 3:36:51 PM

2009)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2009) 4.33

5.33

Minor Losses

The additional components such as valves and bend add to the over-

all head loss of the system, which in turn alters the losses associated

with the flow through the valves.

Minor losses termed as,

V2

hL - min or = KL

2g

Each geometry of pipe entrance has an associated loss coefficient.

Entrance flow conditions and loss coefficient.

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

A1 A1

Condition: = 0 or =∞

A2 A2

6:51 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 33 33

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:33

3:36:51 PM

4.34

5.34 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

(2)

(1)

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

A1 A1

Condition: = 0 or =∞

A2 A2

Losses also occur because of a change in pipe diameter.

For sudden contraction:

0.6

V22

A1 A2 hL = KL

2g

0.4

KL

0.2

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

A2/A1

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 34 34

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:35

3:36:51 PM ME_S

2009)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2009) 4.35

5.35

2 2 2

⎛ A⎞ ⎛ A⎞ ⎛ 1⎞

K L = ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ = ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ = ⎜1 − ⎟

⎝ A1 ⎠ ⎝ Ac ⎠ ⎝ Cc ⎠

1.0

V12

0.8 A1 A2 hL = KL

2g

0.6

KL

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

A1/A2

2

⎛ A⎞

K L = ⎜1 − 1 ⎟

⎝ A2 ⎠

A compound pipe consisting of several pipes of varying diameters

and length may be replaced by a pipe of uniform diameter which is

known as equivalent pipe.

For equivalent pipe, the loss of head and discharge are equal to the

loss of head and discharge of compound pipe.

Let L1, L2, L3 ⇒ Length of compound pipe

D1, D2, D3 ⇒ Diameters of compound

4 f ⎡ LV 2

LV2 LV2 ⎤

H= ⎢

1 1

+ 2 2 + 3 3 ⎥ (1)

2 g ⎣ D1 D2 D3 ⎦

Q = A1V1 = A2 V2 = A3 V3

Q Q 4Q

V1 = = =

A1 π D 2 π D12

4 1

Similary

4Q

V2 =

π D22

6:51 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 35 35

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:37

3:36:52 PM

4.36

5.36 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

4Q

V3 =

π D32

Substituing V1, V2, V3 in (1),

4f ⎡ L ⎛ 4Q ⎞ 2 L ⎛ 4Q ⎞ 2 L ⎛ 4Q ⎞ ⎤

H= ⎢ 1⎜ ⎟ + D ⎜ π D2 ⎟ + D ⎜ π D2 ⎟ ⎥

2 3

2g ⎢⎣ D1 ⎝ π D12 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 3 ⎝ 3 ⎠⎥⎦

2 ⎡ L L3 ⎤

4 × 16 + Q L2

H= ⎢ 5 + 5 + 5⎥

1

(2)

π × 2 g ⎣ D1 D2 D3 ⎦

2

4 fLV 2

H=

2 gn D

where,

4Q

V=

π D2

2

4 f L ⎛ 4Q ⎞

H=

2 g D ⎜⎝ π D 2 ⎟⎠

4 × 16 f Q 2 ⎡ L ⎤

H=

π 2 × 2 g ⎢⎣ D 5 ⎥⎦

Substituting value of H in equation (2),

4 × 16 f Q 2 ⎡ 2 ⎤ 4 × 16 f Q 2 ⎡ L1 L2 L3 ⎤

= ⎢ 5 + 5 + 5⎥

π 2 × 2 g ⎢⎣ D 5 ⎥⎦ π2 × 2 g ⎣ D1 D2 D3 ⎦

L L L L3

= 15 + 25 + 5

D 5

D1 D2 D3

where L = L1 + L2 + L3

The above equation is known as Dupit’s equation.

h is a function of ρ, µ, ω, D and Q

h = f (ρ, µ, ω, D, Q)

f1 (η, ρ, µ, ω, D, Q) (1)

Hence total number of variables, n + 6

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 36 36

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:39

3:36:53 PM ME_S

2009)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2009) 4.37

5.37

Dimensions of each variable are

η = Dimension less

ρ = ML−3

µ = ML−1 T −1

ω = T −1

D=L

Q = L3 T −1

∴m = 3

Number of Π terms = n − m = 6 − 3 = 3

∴ (1) becomes.

f1 (π1, π2, π3) = 0

Each π term contains m + 1 variables and m number of repeating

variables.

Choosing D, ω and ρ and repeating variables, we have

π1 = D a ⋅ ω b ⋅ ρ c ⋅ η

1 1 1

π2 = D ⋅ω ⋅ ρ ⋅ μ

a2 b2 c2

π 3 = D a ⋅ ω b ⋅ ρc ⋅ Q

3 3 3

π 1 = D a ⋅ ω b ⋅ ρ c ⋅ η.

1 1 1

Equating powers on both sides,

Power of M , 0 = c1 + 0 ⇒ c1 = 0

Power of L1 0 = a1 + 01 ⇒ a1 = 0

Power of T1 0 = −b1 + 0 ⇒ b1 = 0

π1 = D 0 ⋅ ω 0 ⋅ ρ 0 ⋅ η = η

Second p term

π 2 = D a ⋅ ω b ⋅ ρ c ⋅ μ.

2 2 2

6:53 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 37 37

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:42

3:36:53 PM

4.38

5.38 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

Power of M , 0 = c2 + 1 ⇒ c2 = −1

Power of L, 0 = a2 − 3 c2 − 1

∴ a2 = 3 c2 + 1

= −3 + 1 = −2

Power of T , 0 = − b2 − 1 ⇒ b2 = −1

μ

π 2 = D −2 ⋅ ω −1 ⋅ ρ −1 μ =

D ωρ

2

Third p term

π 3 = D a ⋅ ω b ⋅ ρc ⋅ Q

3 3 3

M 0 L0T 0 = La3 ⋅ (T −1 )b3 ⋅ ( ML−3 )c3 ⋅ L3T −1

Power of M , 0 = c3 , ⇒ c3 = 0

Power of L, 0 = a3 − 3 c3 + 3

⇒ a3 = 3 c3 − 3 = −3

Power of T, 0 = − b3 − 1,

b3 = − 1

Substituting the values of a3, b3 and c3 π3.

Q

π 3 = D −3 ⋅ D −3 ⋅ ρ a − Q =

D 3ω

Substituting the values π, π2 and π3 is equation (2),

⎛ μ Q ⎞

f1 ⎜ η, 2 , 3 ⎟ =0

⎝ D ω ρ D ω⎠

⎡ μ Q ⎤

η=φ⎢ , 3 ⎥

⎣ D 2

ω ρ D ω⎦

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 38 38

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:44

3:36:54 PM ME_S

2009)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2009) 4.39

5.39

1. Reynolds Model Law

(Re) model = (Re) prototype

ρmVm Lm ρ pV p L p

So, = (1)

μm μp

ρp Vp Lp 1

⇒ × × × =1

ρm Vm Lm (μ p /μ m )

ρrVr Lr

=1

μr

Lr

Time scale ratio, Fr = [∵ F = m × a]

Vr

Vr

= mr ×

Tr

Qr = ρr ArVr = ρr L2r Vr

(Fr)m = (Fr)p

Vm Vp

= (2)

g m Lm g p Lp

gm = gp

Vm Vp

=

Lm Lp

Vp Lp

= = Lr

Vm Lm

Vp

= Vr

Vm

∴Vr = Lr

6:54 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 39 39

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:46

3:36:55 PM

4.40

5.40 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

Tp Lp Vm

Time scale ratio, Tr = = ×

Tm Vp Lm

Lp Vm 1 L

= × = Lr × = r

Lm Vp Vr Lr

Tr = Lr

Discharge scale ratio, ar = Lr5/2

( Eu ) m = ( Eu ) p

Vm Vp

=

Pm /ρm Pp /ρ p

Vm Vp

= (If ρm = ρ p )

Pm Pp

(We ) m = We

Vm Vp

=

σ m /Pm Lm σ p /ρ p L p

Vm Vp

= (If ρm = ρ p )

σ m /Lm σ p /L p

( M )m = ( M ) p

Vm Vm

=

K m /ρ m K /ρ p

Vm Vp

= (If ρm = ρ p )

Km Kp

Vm, Km, rm are velocity, elastic force and density of fluid in model

similarly Vp, Kp, rp are corresponding parameters of prototype.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 40 40

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:49

3:36:56 PM ME_S

2009)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2009) 4.41

5.41

H = 50 m

Q = 0.03 m3/s

u = 20 m/s

f = 15˚

Cv = 0.975

Solution

V1 = Cv 2 gH

= 0.975 × 2 × 9.81 × 50 = 29.755 m/s

Power, P = u (V1 − u) (1 + cos f)

= 20 (29.755 − 20) (1 + cos 15)

= 383.55 W

(b) Given,

N = 450 rpm, H = 120 m, D1 = 1.2 m,

A = 0.4 m2, a = 20°, q = 60°.

Solution

π D1 N

u1 =

60

π × 1.2 × 450

= = u = 28.27 m/s

60

From inlet velocity triangle,

Vf

tan α = 1

Vω

1

Vf

tan 20° = 1

Vω

1

V f = Vω

1 1

1 1 1 1

We know that,

Vf

tan θ = 1

Vω − u1

1

0.364Vω

tan 60° = 1

− 28.27

Vω

1

6:56 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 41 41

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:50

3:36:56 PM

4.42

5.42 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

0.364Vω

1.732 = 1

Vω − 28.27

1

1.368 Vω = 48.96

1

u2

f V2 = Vf 1 = Vf 2

Vr2

V1

Vr1 Vf 1

a q

u1

uw1

Vω = 35.789 m/s

1

1

1

= 0.4 × 13

= 5.2 m3/s

(ii) Power developed P = ωQH

= 9.81 × 5.2 × 120

P = 6135.57 kW

Vω u1

(iii) Hydraulic efficiency ηh = 1

gH

35.789 × 28.27

=

9.81 × 120

ηn = 0.864 (or) 86.4%

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 42 42

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:53

3:36:57 PM ME_S

2009)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2009) 4.43

5.43

According to Euler’s equation, the theoretical Eulerian head of a

centrifugal pump,

1

He = (V u − V u )

g ω 2 2 ω1 1

1 ⎡ 2

He = (u − u12 ) + (V22 − V12 ) + (Vr2 − Vr2 ) ⎤⎥

2 g ⎣⎢ 2 1 2 ⎦

During starting of the pump, the fluid flow will not be there. So, the

fluid flow velocities become zero. It means the velocity due to kinetic

energy and flow velocity are zero. Only the pressure head caused by

(u 2 − u12 )

rotation of rotor will be real which is 2 . Pumping of fluid

2g

will start, when the speed of the pump attains the manometric head.

So, the condition will be,

(u22 − u12 )

≥ Hm

2g

Vd2

Where manometric head H m = hs + hd + h f + h f +

s d

2g

If Vd = 0 and no friction losses in both suction and delivery pipes,

Hm = hs + hd

If manometric efficiency ηm is considered, then the minimum speed

to commence the flow will be,

(u22 − u12 )

= ηm H e

2g

2 2

⎛ π D2 N ⎞ ⎛ π D1 N ⎞

⎜⎝ 60 ⎟⎠ − ⎜⎝ 60 ⎟⎠ = 2 gηm H e

2

⎛πN ⎞

⎟ ( D2 − D1 ) = 2 gηm H e

2 2

⎜⎝

60 ⎠

If D1 = 0.5 D2 and ηm = 0.75 are assumed,

84.64 H e

N=

D2

The curves which are plotted from the series of a number of tests on the

centrifugal pumps are known as characteristic or performance curves.

6:57 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 43 43

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:55

3:36:57 PM

4.44

5.44 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

pared for the centrifugal pumps.

• Main characteristic curves

• Operating charactering curves

• Constant efficiency or mescal curves

• Constant head and constant discharge curves

1. Main Characteristic Curves

To obtain main characteristic curves of a pump, it is run at a constant

speed and the discharge is varied over the desired range measure-

ments which are taken for head (Hm) and shaft power (P) for each dis-

charge. Calculations are mode for the pump efficiency (η0). Curves

are then plotted for head, power and efficiency against discharge.

N = 1000 rpm

00

20

Power, P

00

15

Head, Power, Efficiency

2000

m

rp

0 0

10

=

N

20

N

=

00

15

10

00

00

rp

m

Head, H

Discharge, Q

Design Conditions

Head, Power, Efficiency

Efficiency h

Shaft Power, P

Head, H

Discharge, Q

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 44 44

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:56

3:36:57 PM ME_S

2009)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2009) 4.45

5.45

occurs when the pump operates at the design speed. A particular

set of main characteristics corresponding to the design speed is

called operating characteristics. The operating characteristics help

to obtain the design discharge and heads, this corresponding to the

point of maximum efficiency.

3. Constant Efficiency or Mitchell Curves

These curves are also called as Iso efficiency curves. It depicts the

performance of a pump over its entire range of operation. The data

used for these curves is obtained from the main characteristic curves

namely h Vs Q and Hm Vs Q. For a given efficiency, the values

of discharge obtained for various speeds from the below figure.

A curve for the best performance is obtained when the peak points

to various Iso efficiency curves are joined.

Constant

Efficiency Lines

N5

Head, A

Speed Increasing

N4

N3

N2

N1

Best Speed Line

Discharge, Q

Hmano (Head)

Q (Discharge)

N (Speed) N (Speed)

6:57 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 45 45

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:57

3:36:57 PM

4.46

5.46 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

speed variation can be obtained by these curves. When the pump has

a variable speed, the plotted graph between Q and N and Hm and N

may be obtained. In the first case, Hm is kept constant and in second

case Q is kept constant.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 46 46

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:58

3:36:57 PM ME_S

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION,

NOV/DEC 2007

Third Semester

Mechanical Engineering

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

Answer ALL questions

PART A (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1. How does the dynamic viscosity of (a) liquids and (b) gases vary with

temperature?

of a centrifugal pump?

PART B (5 × 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) (i) When a pressure of 20.7 MN/m2 is applied to 100 litres of

a liquid and its volume decreases by one litre, find the bulk

modulus of the liquid and identify this liquid.

6:57 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 47 47

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:14:59

3:36:57 PM

4.48

5.48 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

Or

(b) (i) The barometric pressure at sea level is 760 mm of mercury while

that on a mountain top is 735 mm. If the density of air is assumed

constant at 1.2 kg/m3, what is the elevation of the mountain top?

(ii) Calculate the capillar effect in millimetres in a glass tube of

4 diameter, when immersed in (1) water and (2) mercury. The

temperature of the liquid is 20ºC and the values of surface tension

of water and mercury at 20ºC in contact with air are 0.0735 N/m

and 0.51 N/m respectively. The contact angle for water

q = 0 and for mercurcy q = 130º. Take specific weight of water

at 20ºC as equal to 9790 N/m3.

coordinates.

(ii) The two dimensional stream function for a flow is Y = 9 + 6x –

4y + 7xy. Find the velocity potential.

Or

(b) (i) State if the flow represented by

u = 3x + 4y and v = 2x – 3y

is rotational or irrotational. Find the potential function, if the

flow is irrotational and vorticity, if it is rotational.

(ii) A 300 mm × 150 m venturimeter is provided in a vertical pipe

line carrying oil of relative density 0.9, the flow being upwards.

The differential U tube mercury manometer shows a gauge

deflection of 250 mm, calculate the charge of oil if the coef-

ficient of meter is 0.98.

13. (a) Obtain an expression for Hagen Polseuille Sow. Deduce the condi-

tion of maximum velocity.

Or

(b) A flat plate 1.5 m × 1.5 m moves at 50 km/h in a stationary air of

density 1.15 kg/m3. If the coefficient of drag and lift are 0.15 and

0.75 respectively, determine

(i) the lift force

(ii) the drag force

(iii) the resultant force and

(iv) the power required to set the plate in motion.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 48 48

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:01

3:36:58 PM ME_S

2007)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2007) 4.49

5.49

14. (a) Obtain an expression for the workdone per second by water on the

runner of a Polton wheel. Hence derive an expression for maximum

efficiency of the Pelton wheel giving the relationship between the jet

speed and bucket speed.

Or

(b) (i) A Pelton wheel in having a mean bucket diameter of 1 m and

is running at 1000 rpm. The non-head on the Pelton wheel is

700 m. If the side clearance angle is 15° and discharge through

nozzle is 0.1 m3/s, find

• Power available at the nozzle and

• Hydraulic efficiency of the turbine. Take C = 1.

(ii) A turbine is to operate under a head of 25 m at 200 rpm. The

discharge is 9 m3/s. If the efficiency is 96% determine specific

speed of the machine, power generated and type of turbine.

15. (a) (i) A centrifugal pump delivers water against a net head of

14.5 meters and a design speed of 1000 rpm. The vanes are

curved back to an angle of 30° with the periphery. The impeller

diameter is 300 mm and outlet width 50 mm. Determine the

discharge of the pump if manometric efficiency is 95%.

(ii) A single acting reciprocating pump running at 50 rpm, delivers

0.01 m3/s of water. The diameter of the piston is 200 mm and

stroke length 400 mm. Determine the theoretical discharge of

the pump, coefficient of discharge and slip and the percentage

slip of the pump.

Or

(b) (i) Explain the working principles of same pump and gear pump

with neat sketches.

(ii) A reaction turbine works at 450 rpm under a heat of 120 m.

Its diameter at inlet is 120 cm and the flow area is 0.4 m. The

angles made by absolute and relative velocity at inlet are 20°

and 60° respectively, with the tangential velocity. Determine

the volume flow rate, the power developed and the hydraulic

efficiency.

6:58 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 49 49

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:02

3:36:58 PM

Solutions

PART A

1. (a) The viscosity of liquids decrease with the increase in temperature.

(b) The viscosity of gases increase with the increase in temperature.

• It is defined as the pres- • It is defined as the pressure

sure which is measured with which is measured with the help

reference to absolute vaccum of measuring instrument, in

pressure. which atmospheric pressure is

taken as datum.

• Absolute pressure = • Gauge pressure = Absolute pres-

atmospheric pressure + Gauge sure − atmospheric pressure.

pressure.

3. A stream line may be defined as an imaginary line within the flow so that

the tangent at any point on it indicates the velocity at that point. Equation

of stream line in 3-D flow

dx dy dz

= =

u v w

Streamline

P2 V 2

4. + + z = Constant

ρg 2g

P

= Pressure Head

ρg

V2

= Kinetic Head

2g

Z = Potential Head.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 50 50

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:04

3:36:58 PM ME_S

2007)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2007) 4.51

5.51

fluid and the viscous force of the fluid.

Raynold’s number for pipe flow

ρVd

Re =

μ

r = Density of fluid

V = Velocity

d = dia. of the pipe

µ = Viscosity of fluid.

For laminar flow Re < 2000

For turbulent flow Re > 4000.

6. Drag

The component of the total force (FR) in the direction of motion is called

drag. This component is denoted by (FD). Thus, drag is the force exerted

by the fluid in the direction of motion.

Lift

The component of the total Force (FC) in the direction perpendicular

to the direction of motion is known as lift. This is denoted by FL. Thus,

lift is the force exerted by the fluid in the direction perpendicular to the

direction of motion.

7. Pumps Turbines

• In pumps flow takes place • In turbines flow takes place

from the low pressure to high from high pressure to low

pressure. pressure.

• Pump flow is accelerated • In turbine, there is a decelarated

flow. flow.

• It is energy absorbing • It is energy producing machine.

machine.

deliver one cubic meter of liquid per second against a head of the metre.

N Q

NS = .

H max

3/ 4

6:58 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 51 51

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:05

3:36:58 PM

4.52

5.52 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

The ratio of the manometric head to the head imparted by the impeller to

the water is known as manometric efficiency.

Output of the Pump

ηmano =

Power Imparted by the Impeller

Mechanical efficiency

The ratio of power available at the impeller to the power at the shaft is

called mechanical efficiency

Power at Impeller

ηm = .

Power at theShaft

10. Slip of a pump is defined as the difference between theoretical and actual

discharge.

Slip = Qth – Qact.

PART B

11. (a) (i) Given

Increase in pressure (dp) = 20.7 MN/m2

= 20.7 × 103 KN/m2

Initial volume (v) = 100 litres

Decrease in volume (dv) = 1 litres.

⎛ dv ⎞ 1

Volumetric strain ⎜ − ⎟ =

⎝ v ⎠ 100

“(−) sign means the volume decreases with increase of pressure”

dp

Bulre modulus (K ) =

⎛ dv ⎞

⎜⎝ − ⎟⎠

V

20.7 × 103

=

⎛ 1 ⎞

⎜⎝ ⎟

100 ⎠

K = 20.7 × 105 KN/m 2 .

static fluid is equal in all directions. This is proved as:

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 52 52

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:08

3:36:58 PM ME_S

2007)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2007) 4.53

5.53

The fluid element is of very small dimension, i.e., dx, dy and ds.

Consider an arbitrary fluid element of wedge shape in a fluid

may at rest as shown in the figure below. Let the width of the

element perpendicular to the plane of paper is unity and Px,

Py and Pz are the pressures or intensity of pressure acting on

the face AB, AC and BC respectively. Let ∠ABC = 0. Then the

forces acting on the element are:

• Pressure forces normal to the surfaces.

• Weight of element in the vertical direction.

The forces on the faces are:

Force on the face AB = px × Area of face AB

= px × dy × 1

Similarly force on the face AC = py × dx × 1

Face on the face BC = pz × ds × 1

Weight of element = (Mass of element) × g

⎛ AB × AC ⎞

= (Volume × ρ ) × g = ⎜ × 1⎟ × PX

⎝ 2 ⎠

Resolving the forces in x-direction, we have

px × dy × 1 – r (ds × 1) sin (90º − q) = 0

or px × dy × 1 – pz ds × 1 cos q = 0

But from the figure ds cos q = AB = dy

∴ px × dy × 1 – pz × dy × 1 = 0

or px = pz (1)

Y

B

q Pz.ds.1

q

Px.dy.1 dy X

dx

C

A

Z

Py.ΔX.1

6:58 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 53 53

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:10

3:36:59 PM

4.54

5.54 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

dx × dy

p y × d x × 1 − pz × ds × 1cos (90° − θ ) − ×1× p × g = 0

2

dxdy

or p y × d x − pz ds sin θ − × p× g = 0

2

But ds sin q = dx and also the element is very small and hence

weight is negligible.

∴ py dx – pz × dx = 0 or py = pz

From equations (1) and (2), we have

px = py = pz.

The above equation shows that the pressure at any point in x, y

and z directions is equal.

Since the choice of fluid element was completely arbitrary,

which meas the pressure at any point is the same in all directions.

760

= × 13.6 × 1000 × 9.81 N/m 2 = 101396 Np

1000

Pressure at mountain P = 735 mm of Hg.

735

= × 13.6 × 1000 × 9.81 = 98060 N/m 2

1000

Density of air P = 1.2 kg/m3

Let h = Height of the mountain from sea level.

We know that as the elevation above the sea-level increases, the

atmospheric pressure decreases. Here the density of air is given

as constant, hence the pressure at any height ‘h’ above the sea-

level is given by the equation

p = P0 − P × g × h

P0 − P 101396 − 98060

or h = = = 283.33 m.

P×g 1.2 × 9.81

Here pressure head (Z) is given as 760 mm of Hg.

Hence (P/Pg) = 760 mm of Hg.

The density (r) for mercury = 13.6 × 1000 kg/m3.

Hence pressure (P) will be equal to r × g × Z

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 54 54

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:13

3:36:59 PM ME_S

2007)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2007) 4.55

5.55

760

i.e., 13.6 × 1000 × 9.81 × N/m2 . mm

1000

(ii) Given:

d = 4 mm = 4 × 10−3 m.

4σ cos θ

Capillary effect = h = .

p× g×d

where, s → Surface tension in kgf/m.,

q → Angle of contact r = density.

Capillary effect for water:

σ = 0.0735 N/m

θ = 0° C

ρ = 9790 N/m3 ⇒ 9790 × 9.81 kg/m3

= 96039.9 kg/m3

0.735 × cos 0°

h = 4× = 7.8 × 10 −4 m.

96039.9 × 9.81 × 4 × 10 −3

∴ h = 0.78 mm

Capillary effect for mercury:

σ = 0.51 N/m θ = 130°

ρ = 13.6 × 1000 = 13600 kg/m 2

0.51 × cos130°

∴h = 4 ×

13600 × 9.81 × 4 × 10 −3

= −2.457 × 10 −3 m

= −2.46 mm (capillary depression)

12. (a) (i) Consider a fluid element of lengths dx, dy and dz in the direc-

tion of x, y and z. Let u, v, and w are the inlet velocity compo-

nents in x, y and z directions respectively. Mass of fluid entering

the face ABCD per second.

= r × Velocity in x-direction × Area of ABCD

= r × u × (dy × dz)

The mass of fluid leaving the face EFGH per second

∂

= ρudydz + ( ρudydz ) dx

∂x

6:59 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 55 55

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:16

3:36:59 PM

4.56

5.56 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

= Mass through ABCD – Mass through EFGH per second

∂

= ρudydz − ρudydz − ( ρudydz ) dx

∂x

∂

= − ( ρudydz ) dx

∂x

∂

= − ( ρu ) dxdydz

∂x

Similarly the net gain of mass in y-directions

∂

=− ( ρV ) dxdydz

∂y

∂

and in z-direction = − ( ρw ) dxdydz

∂z

∴ Net gain of masses

⎡∂ ∂ ∂ ⎤

= − ⎢ ( ρu ) + ( ρv ) + ( ρw ) ⎥ dxdydz

⎣ ∂ x ∂ y ∂ z ⎦

D H

A E

x dz

C G

B

F

dy

y dx

Since the mass is neither created not destroyed in the fluid ele-

ment, the net increase of mass per unit time in the fluid element

must be equal to the rate of increase of mass of fluid in the ele-

ment. But mass of fluid in the element is r. dx.dy.dz and its rate

of increase with time is

∂ ∂ρ

( ρ dx ⋅ dy ⋅ dz ) or ⋅ dxdydz

∂t ∂t

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 56 56

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:18

3:37:00 PM ME_S

2007)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2007) 4.57

5.57

⎡∂ ∂ ∂ ⎤ ∂ρ

or − ⎢ ( ρu ) + ( ρv ) + ( ρw ) ⎥ dxdydz = ⋅ dxdydz

⎣ ∂ x ∂ y ∂ z ⎦ ∂t

∂ρ ∂ ∂ ∂

or + ( ρu ) + ( ρ v ) + ( ρ w ) = 0

∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

Equation is the continuity equation in Cartesian co-ordinates in

its most general form. This equation is applicable to

• Steady and unsteady flow,

• Uniform and non-uniform flow, and

• Compressible and incompressible fluids.

∂ρ

For steady flow, = 0 and hence equation becomes as

∂t

∂ ∂ ∂

( ρu ) + ( ρv ) + ( ρw ) = 0.

∂x ∂y ∂z

If the fluid is in compressible, then P is constant and the above

equation becomes as

∂u ∂v ∂w

+ + = 0.

∂x ∂y ∂z

This equation is the continuity equation in the three-dimensions.

For a two-dimensional flow, the component w = 0 and hence

continuity equation becomes as

∂u ∂v

+ = 0.

∂x ∂y

(ii) Y = 9 + 6x − 4y + 1xy.

The velocity potential function = f.

− ∂ψ ∂ψ

u= ;v= .

∂y ∂x

∂

∴u = − (9 + 6 x − 4 y + 7 xy )

∂y

= − ( −4 + 7 x )

= (4 − 7 x ) (1)

7:00 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 57 57

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:20

3:37:01 PM

4.58

5.58 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

v = 0 + 6 + 7y

= (6 + 7 y ) (2)

We know that,

∂φ ∂φ

= −u & = −v

∂x ∂y

∂φ

⇒ = (7 x − 4) (3)

∂x

∂φ

= ( − 6 − 7 y) (4)

∂y

On integrating,

⇒ ∫ dφ = ∫ (7 x − a) dx

7x2

⇒φ = − 4x + c (5)

2

Different (5) with respect to y,

∂φ ∂c

⇒ = .

∂y ∂y

∂φ

But from (4) = −6 − 7y

∂y

∂c

∴ = −6 − 7y

∂y

∴ c = ∫ ( −6 − 7 y ) dy

7 y2

⇒ −6y − .

2

On substituting c value in (5), we get,

7x2 7 y2

φ= − 4x − 6 y − .

2 2

∴ The velocity potential function,

7x2 7 y2

φ= − 4x − 6 y − .

2 2

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 58 58

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:22

3:37:02 PM ME_S

2007)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2007) 4.59

5.59

1 ⎛ ∂v ∂u ⎞

− = 0.

2 ⎜⎝ ∂x ∂y ⎟⎠

∂v ∂u

⇒ =2: = 4.

∂x ∂y

1 1

⇒ (2 − 4) = ( −2) = −1⋅ ≠ 0

2 2

∴ The flow is rotational.

∴ Potential function exists.

∂φ ∂φ

⇒ = −u & = −v

∂x ∂y

⇒ φ = ∫ ( −3x − 4 y ) dx

3x 2

=− − 4 xy + c

2

Difference with respect to y,

∂φ ∂c

⇒ = − 4x + ⇒ 3y − 2x

∂y ∂y

∂c 3 y2

⇒ = 3y + 2x ⇒ c = + 2 xy

∂y 2

3x 2 3 y2

∴φ = − − 4 xy + + 2 xy.

2 2

3x 2 3 y2

φ=− − 2 xy + .

2 2

π

∴ Area a1 = (30)2 = 706.85 cm 2

4

Diameter at throat d2 = 15 cm

π

∴ Area a2 = (15)2 = 176.7 cm 2

4

Let section (1) represents inlet and section (2) represents throat.

Then Z2 − Z1 = 30 cm

Specific gravity of oil S0 = 0.9

7:02 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 59 59

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:24

3:37:03 PM

4.60

5.60 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

Reading of different manometer, x = 25 cm

The differential head, h is given by

⎡P ⎤ ⎡P ⎤

h = ⎢ 1 + Z1 ⎥ − ⎢ 2 + Z 2 ⎥

⎢⎣ ρ g ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ρ g ⎥⎦

⎡S ⎤ ⎡13.6 ⎤

= x ⎢ m − 1⎥ = 25 ⎢ − 1⎥ = 352.77 cm of oil.

⎣ 0S ⎦ ⎣ 0.9 ⎦

a1 a2

• The discharge, Q of oil = Cd × 2 gh

a12 − a22

= × 2 × 981 × 352.77

(706.85)2 − (176.7)2

101832219.9

= = 148790.5 cm3 /s

684.4

= 148.79 litres/s.

• Pressure difference between entrance and throat section

⎡P ⎤ ⎡P ⎤

h = ⎢ 1 + Z1 ⎥ − ⎢ 2 + Z 2 ⎥ = 352.77

⎣ ρ g ⎦ ⎣ ρ g ⎦

⎡ P1 P2 ⎤

or ⎢ − ⎥ + Z1 − Z 2 = 352.77

⎣ ρg ρg ⎦

But Z 2 − Z1 = 30 cm

⎡P P ⎤

∴ ⎢ 1 − 2 ⎥ − 30 = 352.77

⎣ ρg ρg ⎦

P P

∴ 1 − 2 = 352.77 + 30 = 382.77 cm of oil.

ρg ρg

= 3.8277 m of oil.

(or) (P1 – P2) = 3.8277 × rg

But density of oil = Specific gravity of oil × 1000 kg/m3

= 0.9× 1000 = 900 kg/cm3

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 60 60

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:26

3:37:03 PM ME_S

2007)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2007) 4.61

5.61

N

∴ ( P1 − P2 ) = 3.8277 × 900 × 9.81

m2

( P1 − P2 ) = 3.3795 N/cm 2 .

13. (a)

+ dm

é ú

t êP × dx ù

ë dx û

r

tric cylindrical fluid element of radius ‘r’ and length dx.

Forces action on fluid

Pressure force (P × pr2) in left face.

∂P

(P + ⋅ dx ) π r 2 on right face.

∂x

Shear force (τ ⋅ 2π r dx ) acting on the periphery of the cylinder

opposing the motion.

For equilibrium condition,

⎛ ∂P ⎞

pπ r 2 − ⎜ p + ⋅ dx ⎟ π r 2 − τ × 2π r × dx = 0

⎝ ∂x ⎠

∂P

− ⋅ dx π r 2 − τ × 2π r × dx = 0

∂x

∂P

− ⋅ r − 2τ = 0

∂x

∂P

− ⋅ r = 2τ

∂x

∂P r

τ=− ⋅ (1)

∂x 2

If r = 0 ; τ = 0

∂P R

If r = R ; τ = − ⋅

∂x 2

7:03 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 61 61

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:28

3:37:04 PM

4.62

5.62 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

(Max)

Γ(Max)

du du

τ = μ⋅ = −μ ⋅ (2)

dy dr

Equation (1) and (2)

∂P r du

− ⋅ = −μ ⋅

∂x 2 dr

du 1 ∂P r

= ⋅ ⋅ .

dr μ ∂x 2

Integrating the above equations with respect to r

1 ∂P

∫ du = ∫ dr

μ ∂x

1 ∂P ⎛ r 2 ⎞

u= ⎜ ⎟ +C

μ ∂x ⎝ 2 × 2 ⎠

1 ∂P 2

u= r +C (3)

4 μ ∂x

u = 0; r = 0

u = 0; r = R

1 ∂P 2

0= ⋅R +C

4 μ ∂x

1 ∂P 2

C=− ⋅ ⋅R (4)

4 μ ∂x

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 62 62

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:31

3:37:04 PM ME_S

2007)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2007) 4.63

5.63

1 ∂P 2 1 ∂P 2

u⇒ ⋅ ⋅r − ⋅R

4 μ ∂x 4 μ ∂x

1 ∂P 2

u=− ⋅ [R − r2 ] U(Max)

4 μ ∂x

if r = 0 then

1 ∂P 2

μ=− ⋅ ⋅R

4 μ ∂x

The quantity of fluid flowing per second through the pipe, dQ is

obtained by considering the flow through a circular ring element r.

dQ = Area × Velocity

dQ = 2pr dr × u

⎡ 1 ∂P 2 ⎤

= 2π r ⋅ dr ⎢ − ( [ R − r 2 ]⎥

⎣ 2 μ ∂x ⎦

dr

r R

R

Total discharge a = ∫ dQ

0

R πr ⎡ ∂P ⎤

=∫ − dr ⎢ ( R2 − r 2 ) ⎥

0 2μ ⎣ ∂x ⎦

π ∂P ⎡ R 2 2

( R − r )r ⋅ dr ⎤

2 μ ∂x ⎣⎢ ∫0

=− ⋅

⎦⎥

R

π ∂P ⎡ R 2 r 2 r 4 ⎤

=− ⋅ − ⎥

2 μ ∂x ⎢⎣ 2 4 ⎦0

π ∂P ⎡ R 4 R 4 ⎤

=− − ⎥

2 μ ∂x ⎢⎣ 2 4 ⎦

π ∂P 4

Q=− ⋅ ⋅R

8 μ ∂x

7:04 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 63 63

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:33

3:37:05 PM

4.64

5.64 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

D

R=

2

4

π ⎡ ∂P ⎤ ⎡ D ⎤

Q= −

8μ ⎢⎣ ∂x ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ 2 ⎥⎦

π ⎡ ∂P ⎤ 4

Q=− D

128μ ⎢⎣ ∂x ⎥⎦

∂P 128μ Q

− =

∂x π D4

Discharge Q

Mean velocity u = =

Area A

⎡ ∂P ⎤ 4

π / 128 ⎢ ⎥ D

⇒− ⎣ ∂x ⎦

π ⋅ D2

4

1 ⎡ ∂P ⎤

u = − μ ⎢ ⎥ D2

32 ⎣ ∂x ⎦

32 μ ⋅ u ⋅ dx

∂p = −

D2

−32 μ ⋅ u

∫ ∂p = ∫ D 2 dx

−32 μ ⋅ u

p1 − p2 = ⎡x − x ⎤

D2 ⎣ 1 2 ⎦

32 μ ⋅ u

p1 − p2 = ⎡x − x ⎤

D2 ⎣ 2 1 ⎦

32 μ ⋅ u

p1 − p2 = [ L]

D2

32 μ ⋅ u

p1 − p2 = L

D2

Pressure head

P1 − P2

hL =

ω

32 ⋅ μ ⋅ a ⋅ L

hL =

ω D2

Hagen Poiseuilley equation.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 64 64

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:36

3:37:06 PM ME_S

2007)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2007) 4.65

5.65

Velocity of the plate

50 × 1000

U = 50 km/hr = m/s = 13.89 m/s

60 × 60

Density of air P = 1.15 kg/m3

Co-efficient of drag CD = 0.15

Co-efficient of lift CL = 0.75

• Lift Force (FL), using equation

PU 2 1.15 × 13.892

FL = C L A × = 0.75 × 2.25 × N

2 2

= 1.87.20 N.

• Drag Force (FD), using equation

PU 2 1.15 × 13.892

FD = C D × A × = 0.15 × 2.25 × N

2 2

= 37.44 N.

• Resultant Force (FR), using equation

FR = FD + FL = 37.44 2 + 187 20 2

2 2

Force in the direction of motion × Velocity

P= KW

1000

F × U 37.425 × 13.89

= D = KW = 0.519 KW.

1000 1000

= Hg − hf

4 fLV 2

Where H g = Gross head and h f = .

D * X 2g

D = Diameter of the wheel, d = Diameter of the jet.

Then V1 = Velocity of jet at inlet = 2 g H

7:06 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 65 65

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:38

3:37:06 PM

4.66

5.66 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

π DN

u = u1 = u2 =

60

The velocity triangle at inlet will be a straight line where

Vr1 = V1 – u1 = V1 – u

Vw1 = V1; α = 0 and q = 0

From the velocity triangle at outlet, we have

Vr = Vr and Vw = Vr cos φ − u2

1 1 2 2

given by equation as

Fx = ρaV1 [Vw + Vw ].

1 2

is the case of series of varies, the mass of water striking is ra V1 and

not ra Vr1. In equation, ‘a’ is the area of the jet which is given as

π

a = Area of jet = d2.

4

Now work done by the jet on the winner per second

= Fx × u = ρaV1 [Vw + Vw ] × u Nm/s

1 2

ρaV1 ⎡⎣Vw + Vw ⎤⎦ × u

= 1 2

KW

1000

u2 Vw2

f b

V2

Vf1

Vr2

Angle of

V1 Defletion

A B

Inlet u1 V1

Vw1

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 66 66

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:41

3:37:07 PM ME_S

2007)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2007) 4.67

5.67

ρaV1 ⎡⎣Vw + Vw ⎤⎦ × u

= 1 2

ρaV1 ⎡⎣Vw + Vw ⎤⎦ × u 1⎡

= 1 2

= V + Vw ⎤ × u

ρaV1 × 8 8 ⎣ w1 2 ⎦

The energy supplied to the jet at inlet is in the form of kinetic energy

1

and is equal to = mV 2

2

1

∴ K.E of jet per second = ( ρaV1 ) × V12

2

Work done per second

∴ Hydraulic efficiency, ηh =

K.E of jet per second

ρaV1 ⎡⎣Vw + V w ⎤⎦ × u 2 ⎡Vw1 + Vw ⎤

= 1 2

= ⎣ 2 ⎦

×u

1 V12

( PaV1 ) × V12

2

Now Vw = V1 , Vr = V1 − u1 = (V1 − u )

1 1

∴ Vr 2 = (V1 − u )

and Vw = Vr cos φ − u2 = Vr cos φ − u = (V1 − u) cos φ − 1

2 2 2

2 ⎡V + (V1 − u ) cos φ − u ⎤⎦ × u

ηh = ⎣ 1 2

V1

2 ⎡V − u + (V1 − u ) cos φ ⎦⎤ × u 2(V1 − u ) [1 + cos φ ] × u

= ⎣ 1 =

V12 V12

d d ⎡ 2u (V1 − u ) (1 + cos φ ) ⎤

(ηh ) = 0 or ⎢ ⎥=0

du du ⎣ V12 ⎦

(1 + cos φ ) d d

or (2uV1 − 2u 2 ) = 0 or ⎡2uV1 2u 2 ⎤⎦ = 0

V12 du du ⎣

⎛ 1 + cos φ ⎞

⎜∵ V 2 ≠ 0⎟

⎝ 1 ⎠

V1

or 2V1 − 4u = 0 or u =

2

7:07 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 67 67

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:44

3:37:08 PM

4.68

5.68 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

maximum when the velocity of the wheel is half the velocity of the

jet of water at inlet. The expression for maximum efficiency will be

V

obtained by substituting the value of a = 1 in equation

2

⎛ V 1⎞ V

2 ⎜V1 − ⎟ (1 + cos φ ) × 1

⎝ 2⎠ 2

∴ Maximum ηh =

V12

V1 V

2× (1 + cos φ ) 1

= 2 2 = (1 + cos φ ) .

V12 2

Speed of wheel N = 1000 r.p.m

∴Transential velocity of the wheel,

π DN π × 1.0 × 1000

u= = = 52.36 m

60 60

Net head (or) turbine H = 700 m

Side clearance angle φ = 15°

Discharge, Q = 0.1 m3/s

Velocity of jet at inlet V1 = Cv 2gH = 1 × 2 × 9.81 × 700

Or V1 = 117.17 m/s.

• Power available at the nozzle is given by equation as

W ×H ρ×g×Q×H

W .P = =

1000 1000

1000 × 9.81 × 0.1 × 700

= = 686.7 KW .

1000

• Hydraulic efficiency is given by equation as

2(V1 − u ) (1 + cos φ )u

ηh =

V12

2(117.18 − 52.36) (1 + cos15) × 52.36

=

117.19 × 117.19

2 × 64.83 × 1.966 × 52.36

= = 0.9718 = 97.18%.

117.19 × 117.19

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 68 68

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:46

3:37:09 PM ME_S

2007)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2007) 4.69

5.69

(ii) Head H = 25 m

Speed N = 200 r.p.m

Discharge Q = 9 cumec = 9 m3/s

Efficiency η0 = 90% = 0.90

(Take the efficiency as overall η)

Now using relation

Power Developed P

η0 = =

Water Power ρ × g × Q×H

1000

ρ× g×Q×H

P = η0 ×

1000

0.90 × 9.81 × 1000 × 9 × 25

= = 1986.5 kW

1000

• Specific speed of the machine (NS)

Using equation

N P 200 × 1986.5

NS = = = 159.46 rpm

H 5/ 4 255/ 4

• Power generated P = 1986.5 KW.

• As the specific speed lies between 51 and 255, the turbine is

a Francis turbine.

Speed N = 1000 rpm

Vane angle at outlet φ = 30°

Impeller diameter means the diameter of the inmpeller at outlet.

∴ Diameter D2 = 300 mm = 0.30 m

Outlet width B2 = 50 mm = 0.05 m

Manometric efficiency, hman = 95% = 0.95

Tangential velocity of impeller at outlet

π D2 N π = 0.30 × 1000

u2 = = = 15.70 m/s

60 60

gH m

Now using equation hman =

VW2 × u2

7:09 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 69 69

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:49

3:37:09 PM

4.70

5.70 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

9.81 × 14.5

∴ 0.95 =

VW × 15.70

2

0.95 × 14.5

∴VW = = 9.54 m/s

2 0.95 × 15.70

From outlet velocity triangle, we have

Vf Vf Vf

tan φ = 2

or tan 30° = 2

= 2

2

2

∴ Discharge φ = π D B2 × Vf

2 2

=0.1675 m3 /s.

Actual discharge Qact = 0.01 m3/s

Diameter of piston D = 200 mm = 0.20 m

π

∴ Aera A = ⋅ (0.2)2 = 0.031416 m2

4

Storage, L = 400 mm = 0.40 m.

• Theoretical dishcarge for single-acting reciprocating pump

is given by equation as

A × L × N 0.031416 × 0.40 × 50

Qth = = = 0.01047 m3 /s.

60 60

• Coefficient of discharge is given by

φact 0.01

Cd = = = 0.955.

φih 0.01047

Slip = φth − φact = 0.01047 − 0.01 = 0.00047 m3 /s

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 70 70

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:51

3:37:10 PM ME_S

2007)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2007) 4.71

5.71

= × 100 = × 100

φth 0.01047

0.00047

= × 100 = 4.487%.

0.01047

It is a rotary pump in which two gears mesh to provide the

pumping action. This type of pump mostly used for cooling

water and pressure oil to be supplied for lubrication to motors,

turbines, machine tools, etc.

Gear pump consists of two identical intermeshing gears work-

ing in a fine clearance inside a casing. One of the gear is keyed

to a driving shaft. The other gear revolves due to driving gear.

The space between teeth and the casing is filled with oil. The oil

is carried round between the gears form the suction pipe to the

delivery pipe.

Casino

Delivery

Suction

The mechanical contact between the gears does not allow the

flow from inlet to outlet directly. The outer radius tips of the

gears and sides of the gears form apart off moving oil.

The oil pushed into the delivery pipe, cannot back into the suc-

tion pipe due to the meshing of the gears.

7:10 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 71 71

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:52

3:37:11 PM

4.72

5.72 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

Receiver

Rotating Drum

Vanes

Caring

Inlet

Vane Pump

A disc is eccentrically rotating inside the pump casing. Shoes

containing vanes are provided on the disc. The vanes are moved

against the casing due to centrifugal force when the disc rotates.

So the liquid tight seal is formed.

Due to continus rotation of disc, the liquid is entrapped and

forced to the delivery and with sufficient pressure. In some

cases springs are used to press the waves against the casing. But

vanes are generally hinged.

Head H = 120 m

Diameter at inlet D1 = 120 cm = 1.2 m

Flow area π D × B1 = 0.4 m 2

1

Angle made by the relative velocity at inlet, q = 60°

Whirl at outlet, VW = 0

2

π D1 N π × 1.2 × 4.50

u1 = = = 28.27 m/s.

60 60

From inlet velocity triangle

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 72 72

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:54

3:37:11 PM ME_S

2007)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2007) 4.73

5.73

Vf Vf Vf

tan α = 1

or tan 20° = 1

or 1

tan 20° = 0.364

Vw Vw Vw

1 1 1

1 1

u2

Vw2

b

Vr2 f

V2 Vr1

Vane

V1 + L1 V1 = LV1

q L

u1

Vf 0.364 Vw

Also tan θ = 1

= 1

(∵V f = 0.364Vw )

Vw − u1 Vw − 28.27 1 1

1 1

0.364 Vw

or 1

= tan θ = tan 60° = 1.732

Vw − 28.27

1

1 1 1

1

48.96

∴ Vw = = 35.789 = 35.79 m/s.

1

(1.732 − 0.364)

Vf = 0.364 × Vw = 0.364 × 55.79 = 13.027 m/s

1 1

Q = π D B1 × Vf

1 1

1

7:11 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 73 73

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:56

3:37:11 PM

4.74

5.74 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

= ρ ⋅ Q [Vw u1 ] (∵ Vw = 2)

1 2

∴ Power developed in KW

Work done per second 5272402

= = = 5272.402 KW.

1000 1000

• The hydraulic efficiency is given by equation as

Vw u1 35.79 × 28.27

ηh = 1

= = 0.8595 = 85.95%.

gH 9.81 × 120

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 74 74

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:57

3:37:12 PM ME_S

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION,

NOV/DEC 2005

Third Semester

Mechanical Engineering

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

Answer ALL questions

PART A (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1. What is viscosity? What is the cause of it in liquids and in gases?

4. Define circulation.

6. Define lift.

PART B (5 × 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) Describe the working and principles of a reciprocating pump.

Or

(b) What is priming in a centrifugal pump? Why is it necessary?

12. (a) (i) Define the term pressure. What are its units?

7:12 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 75 75

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:15:58

3:37:12 PM

4.76

5.76 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

4 mm diameter, when immersed in (1) water and (2) mercury

when the temperature of the liquid is 20°C and the value of sur-

face tension of water and mercury at 20°C in contact with air

are 0.0735 N/m and 0.51 N/m respectively. The contact angle

for water q = 0 and for mercury q = 130°. Take specific weight

of water at 20°C as equal to 9790 N/m3 and specific gravity of

mercury is 13.6.

Or

(b) (i) What do you mean by surface tension? If the pressure differ-

ence between the inside and outside of the air bubble of diam-

eter, 0.01 mn is 29.2 kPa, what will be the surface tension at air

water interface? Derive an expression for the surface tension

in the air bubble and form it, deduce the result for the given

conditions.

(ii) Define capillarity.

13. (a) (i) The ‘x’ component of velocity is u = x2 + z2 + 5 and the ‘y’ com-

ponent is v = y2 + z2. Find the simplest component of velocity

that satisfy continuity.

(ii) The two dimensional stream function for a few is Ψ = 9 + 6x –

4y + 7xy. Find the velocity potential.

Or

(b) (i) The resisting force (R) of a supersonic flight can be considered

as dependent upon the length of the air craft ‘l’, velocity ’v’

air viscosity ‘µ’, air density ‘p’ and bulk modulus of air is ‘k’.

Express the functional relationship between these variables and

the resisting force.

(ii) An orificemeter with orifice diameter 15 cm is inserted in a pipe

of 30 cm diameter. The pressure of the upstream and down-

stream of orificemeter is 14.7 N/cm2 and 9.81 N/cm2. Find the

discharge, if Cd = 0.6.

14. (a) Derive Hagen–Poiseuille equation and state the assumptions made.

Or

(b) (i) A pipe line 10 km long delivers a power of 50 kW at its outlet

ends. The pressure at inlet is 5000 kN/m2 and pressure drop per

km of pipeline is 50 kN/m2. Find the size of the pipe and effi-

ciency of transmission. Take 4f = 0.02.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 76 76

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:00

3:37:12 PM ME_S

2005)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2005) 4.77

5.77

length of the pipe is 500 m. Find the loss of head due to friction,

if f = 0.008.

15. (a) (i) Give the comparison between impulse and reaction turbine.

(ii) In a hydroelectric station, water is available at the rate of 175

m/s under head of 18 m. The turbine run at a speed of 150 rpm,

with overall efficiency of 82%. Find the number of turbines

required, if they have the maximum specific speed of 460.

Or

(b) (i) With the help of a neat diagram explain the construction and

working of a Pelton wheel turbine.

(ii) What is the condition for hydraulic efficiency of a Pelton wheel

to be maximum?

7:12 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 77 77

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:01

3:37:12 PM

Solutions

PART A

1. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed

by either shear stress or tensile stress.

“pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is trans-

mitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid such that the pressure

ratio (initial difference) remains the same.

∂u ∂v ∂w

3. + + =0

∂x ∂y ∂z

u, v and w = inlet velocity components

x, y and z = Directions.

4. Circulation is the line intergral around a closed curve of the fluid velocity

circulation is denoted by Γ = ∫

terms are descriptive of the flow because, in laminar flow

• layers of water flowing over one another at different speeds with virtu-

ally no mixing between layers,

• fluid particles move in definite and observable paths or streamlines,

and

• the flow is characteristic of viscous (thick) fluid or is one in which

viscosity of the fluid plays a significant part.

Turbulent flow is characterized by the irregular movement of particles

of the fluid. There is no definite frequency as there is in wave motion.

The particles travel in irregular paths with no observable pattern and no

definite layers.

6. A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts surface force on it. Lift

is any component of this force that is perpendicular to the oncoming flow

direction.

pump impellers as to their type and proportions. In imperial units it is

defined as the speed in revolutions per minute at which a geometrically

similar impeller would operate if it were of such a size as to deliver one

gallon per minute against one foot of hydraulic head.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 78 78

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:04

3:37:13 PM ME_S

2005)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2005) 4.79

5.79

• Tangential flow turbine

• Radial flow turbine

• Axial flow turbine

• Mixed flow turbine

and where delivery pressure is quite large.

10. One of the main purposes of a volute casing is to help balance the

hydraulic pressure on the shaft of the pump. However, this occurs best at

the manufacturer’s recommended capacity. Running volute-style pumps

at a lower capacity than the manufacturer recommends can put lateral

stress on the shaft of the pump, increasing wear-and-tear on the seals and

bearings, and on the shaft itself.

PART B (5 × 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) Reciprocating Pump

Principle

Reciprocating pump operates on the principle of pushing of liquid

by a piston that executes a reciprocating motion in a closed fitting

cylinder.

Delivery

hd Pipe

Connecting Crank

Delivery Cylinder w

Rod

Valve L Piston Rod

q r

I.D.C. O.D.C.

Suction Stroke

hS Piston

x Delivery Stroke

Suction Valve x

Suction L = 2r

Pipe

I.D.C. = Inner Dead Centre

O.D.C. = Outer Dead Centre

Sump Well

7:13 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 79 79

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:05

3:37:13 PM

4.80

5.80 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

Components of reciprocating pumps

• Piston or plunger: A piston or plunger that reciprocates in a

closely fitted cylinder.

• Crank and Connecting rod: Crank and connecting rod mecha-

nism operated by a power source. Power source gives rotary

motion to crank. With the help of connecting rod we translate

reciprocating motion to piston in the cylinder.

• Suction pipe: One end of suction pipe remains dip in the liquid

and other end attached to the inlet of the cylinder.

• Delivery pipe: One end of delivery pipe attached with delivery

part and other end at discharge point.

• Suction and Delivery value: Suction and delivery values are

provided at the suction end and delivery end respectively. These

values are non-return values.

Working of Reciprocating Pump

Operation of reciprocating motion is done by the power source

(i.e. electric motor or engine, etc). Power source gives rotary motion

to crank; with the help of connecting rod we translate reciprocating

motion to piston in the cylinder (i.e, intermediate link between con-

necting rod and piston). When crank moves from inner dead centre

to outer dead centre, vacuum will create in the cylinder. When piston

moves outer dead centre to inner dead centre and piston force the

water at outlet or delivery value.

Expression for Discharge of the Pump

ALN

Q=

60

Where

Q: discharge in m3/sec

A: cross-section of piston or cylinder in m2

L: length of stroke in meter

N: speed of crank in r.p.m

(b) All centrifugal pumps must be primed by filling them with water

before they can operate. The objective of priming is to remove a suf-

ficient amount of air from the pump and suction line to permit atmo-

spheric pressure and submergence pressure to cause water to flow

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 80 80

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:07

3:37:13 PM ME_S

2005)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2005) 4.81

5.81

into the pump when pressure at the eye of the impeller is reduced

below atmospheric as the impeller rotates.

When axial-flow and mixed-flow pumps are mounted with the pro-

pellers submerged, there is normally no problem with re priming of

these pumps because the submergence pressure causes water to refill

the pumps as long as air can readily be displaced. On the other hand,

radial-flow pumps are often located above the water source, and they

can lose prime. Often, loss of prime occurs due to an air leak on the

suction side of the pump. Volute or diffuser pumps may lose prime

when water contains even small amounts of air or vapor. Prime will

not be lost in a radial-flow pump if the water source is above the eye

of the impeller and flow of water into the pump is unrestricted.

In some cases pumps are primed by manually displacing the air in

them with water every time the pump is restarted. Often, by using a

foot value or a check valve at the entrance to the suction pipe, pumps

can be kept full of water and primed when not operating. If prime is

lost, the water must be replaced manually, or a vacuum pump can be

used to remove air and draw water into the pump.

A self-priming pump is one that will clear its passages of air and

resume delivery of liquid without outside attention. Centrifugal

pumps are not truly self-priming. So called self-priming centrifu-

gal pumps are provided with an air separator in the form of a large

chamber or reservoir on the discharge side of the pump. This sepa-

rator allows the air to escape from the pump discharge and entraps

the residual liquid necessary during re priming. Automatic priming

of a pump is achieved by the use of a recirculation chamber which

recycles water through the impeller until the pump is primed, or by

the use of a small positive displacement pump which supplies water

to the impeller.

• Impeller top must be submerged with the process fluid or water

without any air.

• If you want to pump the air in case of a centrifugal pump, pump-

ing water, operating at the speed of 2900 RPM, then you have to

run the pump at a speed of [2900 × 800] as the ratio of specific

gravity of air to water is 1/800. And it is practically impossible.

• If you don’t prime the pump and start the pump, then you will

not get the flow, pump will run dry and ultimately damage the

mechanical seal or gland packing.

7:13 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 81 81

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:08

3:37:13 PM

4.82

5.82 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

12 (a) (i) Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction

perpendicular to the surface of an object. The SI unit pressure is

the pascal (Pa), equal to one newton per square meter (N/m2 or

kg.m–1.s–2).

(ii) d = 4 mm = 0.004 m

Surface tension at 20°C

qwater = 0.0735 N/m

qmercury = 0.05 N/M

Specific weight of water = 9790 N/m3

4 σ cos θ

h=

wd

• Water:

4 × 0.07351 cos 0°

h= θ water = 0

9790 × 0.004

=0.751 × 10-3m

h = 7.51 mm/(rise)

• Capillary effect of mercury

4 × 0.051 × cos130˚

h = θ 130˚

(13.6 × 9790) × 0.004 mercury

= – 2.46 × 10–3m

= – 2.46 mm

h = 2.46 mm.

(b) (i) Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that allows

it to resist an external force. It is revealed, for example, in the

floating of some objects on the surface of water, even though

they are denser than water, and in the ability of some insects

(e.g. water striders) to run on the water surface. This property

is caused by cohesion of similar molecules, and is responsible

for many of the behaviors of liquids. Surface tension has the

dimension of force per unit length, or of energy per unit area.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 82 82

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:10

3:37:13 PM ME_S

2005)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2005) 4.83

5.83

π

π× ⋅ d 2 = σ (π d )

4

p×d

σ=

4

29.2 × 103 × 0.01 × 10 −3

σ=

4

σ = 0.073 N/m

(ii) Capillary action, or capillarity, is the ability of a liquid to flow

in narrow spaces without the assistance of, and in opposition to

external forces like gravity. The effect can be seen in the draw-

ing up of liquids between the hairs of a paint-brush, in a thin

tube, in porous materials such as paper, in some non-porous

materials such as liquified carbon fiber, or in a cell. It occurs

because of inter-molecular attractive forces between the liq-

uid and solid surrounding surfaces. If the diameter of the tube

is sufficiently small, then the combination of surface tension

(which is caused by cohesion within the liquid) and adhesive

forces between the liquid and container act to lift the liquid.

13. (a) (i) The continuity equation for in compressible fluid is given by

∂u ∂v ∂w

+ + =0

∂x ∂y ∂z

u = x2 + z2 + 5

v = y2 + z2

∂u

= 2x

∂x

∂v

= 2y

∂y

∂u ∂v

Substituting the values of and in continuity equation

∂x ∂y

∂w

2x + 2 y + =0

∂z

∂w

= −2x − 2y

∂z

Integration of both sides given

∫dw = ∫( – 2x – 2y)dz

7:13 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 83 83

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:12

3:37:13 PM

4.84

5.84 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

where constant of integration cannot be a function of z. But it

can be a function of x and y that is f (x,y)

w = ( − 2xz – 2yz) + f (x, y).

−∂ψ −∂

u= = (9 + 6 x − 4 y + 7 xy )

∂y ∂y

= −( −4 + 7x)

= 4 − 7x

∂ψ ∂

v= = (9 + 6 x − 4 y + 7 xy )

∂x ∂x

= 6 + 7y

We know

∂φ

= −u

∂x

= − (4 − 7x)

= − 4 + 7x ...(i)

∂φ

= −v

∂y

= − (6 + 7y)

= − 6 − 7y ...(ii)

∫ dθ = ∫ ( −4 + 7 x)dx

7x 2

φ = −4x+ +C ...(iii)

2

where C is a constant which is independent of ‘X’ but can be

function of Y.

Differentiating equation (3) with respect to ‘Y’, we get

∂φ ∂C

=

∂y ∂Y

But from (2)

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 84 84

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:14

3:37:14 PM ME_S

2005)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2005) 4.85

5.85

∂φ

= −6 − 7 y

∂y

∂C

= −6 − 7 y

∂y

Integrating this equation, we get

C = ∫ ( −6 − 7 y ) dy

7 y2

C = −6 y − .

2

Substituting the value of C in equation (3) we get

7x 2 7y 2

φ = −4 x + − 6y −

2 2

7x 2

7y 2

φ= − 4x − − 6 y.

2 2

(b) (i) Refer answer 11(a) from April/May 2010 Question paper.

(ii) Pressure difference = P1 – P2

= 14.7 – 9.8

= 4.9 N/cm2 = 49 kN/m2

Pressure

Lead of water =

Specific weight of water

49

= = 5m of water

9.81

Theoretical Discharge = a 2 gh

π

= × 0.152 2 × 9.81 × 5

4

Qth = 0.175 m3 / sec.

= 0.6 × 0.175

Qact = 0.105 m3/sec.

14. (a) Refer answer 13(a) from Nov/Dec 2007 Question paper.

(b) (i) Given data

Length of pipe L = 10 km

7:14 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 85 85

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:16

3:37:14 PM

4.86

5.86 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

Power transmitted = 50 kw

Pressure at inlet P = 5000 kN/m2

Pressure drop = 50 kN/m2 = 50 × 103 N/mm2

50 × 103

∴Loss of head hf =

1000 × 9.81

= 5.096 m

4f = 0.02

P 5000 × 103

Pressure head at inlet, H = = = 509.6 m

ρg 1000 × 9.81

Head available at the end of the Pipe = H – hf

= 509.6 – 5.096

= 504.5 m

Let the diameter of the Pipe = d

Now Power transmitted is given by,

pg × Q( H − h f )

P= kw

1000

50kw=1000 × 9.81 × Q × 504.5

1000

50 × 1000

Q=

1000 × 9.81 × 504.5

Q = 0.0101

Discharge Q = Area × Velocity

= π/4d2 × V

π/4d2 × V = 0.0101

4 × 0.0101

V=

π d2

0.01286

V=

d2

The head lost due to friction,

4 f × L ×V 2

hf =

d × 2g

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 86 86

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:19

3:37:14 PM ME_S

2005)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2005) 4.87

5.87

0.02 × 10 × 103 × V 2

5.096 =

d × 2 × 9.81

200V 2

5.096 =

19.62 d

10.19 × V 2

=

d

2

10.19 ⎛ 0.01286 ⎞

= ×⎜

d ⎝ d 2 ⎟⎠

0.001685

5.096 =

d5

1/3

⎛ 0.001685 ⎞

d=⎜

⎝ 5.096 ⎟⎠

d = 0.2013 m

d = 201.3 mm

Efficiency of power transmission is given by

H − hf

η=

H

509.6 − 5.096

=

509.6

= 0.99

η = 99%.

Length of Pipe l = 500 m

Velocity of flow V = 5 m/s

Coefficient of friction f = 0.008

Darcy formula

4 f LV 2

hf =

d × 2g

4 × 0.008 × 500 × 52

hf =

2.2 × 2 × 9.81

hf = 101.94 m.

7:14 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 87 87

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:21

3:37:14 PM

4.88

5.88 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

1. All the potential energy Only a portion of the

is converted into kinetic fluid energy is trans-

energy by nozzle before ferred into kinetic energy

entering to turbine before the fluid enters

runner. the turbine.

2. Flow regulation is pos- Flow regulation is pos-

sible wWithout loss. sible with Loss

3. Flow is regulated by Flow is regulated by

means Of a needle valve means of a guide-vane

fitted into tThe nozzle. assembly.

4. Water may be allowed to Water is admitted over

enter a part or whole of the circumference of the

the wheel circumference. wheel.

5. Wheel does not run full Water completely fills

and air has free access to the vane passages

the buckets. throughout the operation

of the turbine.

6. Unit is installed above Unit is kept entirely sub-

the tail rRace. merged in water below

tail race.

7. Blades are only in action when Blades are in action at all

tThey are in front of nozzle. the time.

H = 18 m

N = 150 rpm

η0 = 82%

Ns = 460

Number of turbines required

Specific speed of the turbine

N P

Ns =

H 5/ 4

150 P

460 =

(18)5 / 4

Power available at turbine shaft,

2

⎡ 460 × (18)5/ 4 ⎤

p=⎢ ⎥⎦ = 12927.5 kW

⎣ 150

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 88 88

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:23

3:37:14 PM ME_S

2005)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2005) 4.89

5.89

= 9.81 × 175 × 18 × 0.82

= 25339.23 kW

25339.23

No. of turbines required =

12927.5

= 1.96 ≈ 2 Nos.

Pelton Wheel or Pelton Turbine is a Tangential Flow Impulse

Turbine. This Turbine is used for High Heads and is named after

L.A Pelton. The water strikes the bucket along the tangent of

the tangent of the runner. The energy available at the inlet of

the turbine is only Kinetic Energy. The pressure at the inlet and

outlet is atmospheric pressure. The nozzle increases the kinetic

energy of the water flowing through the penstock. At the out-

let of the nozzle, the water comes out in the form of a jet and

strikes the buckets (vanes) of the runner. Pelton Wheel Turbine

is used for High Heads. Pelton Wheel Turbine has a Specific

Speed less than 30 (S.I) for single jet and between 30 and 60

(S.I) for multi-jet.

Construction

The main parts of Pelton Turbine are:

Nozzle and Flow Regulating Arrangement

The amount of water striking the buckets is controlled by pro-

viding a spear in the nozzle. The spear is a conical needle oper-

ated in the axial direction depending upon the size of the unit.

When the spear is pushed forward, the amount of water striking

the runner is reduced and when the spear is pushed back, the

amount of water striking the runner increases.

Runner and Buckets

Runner consists of a circular disc on the periphery of which a

number of buckets evenly spaced are fixed. The space of the

buckets is of a double hemispherical cup or bowl. Each bucket

is divided into two symmetrical parts by dividing wall which

is known as Splitter. The Splitter divides the jet into two equal

parts. The buckets are shaped in such a way that the jet gets

deflected through 160° or 170°. The buckets are made of cast

7:14 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 89 89

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:25

3:37:15 PM

4.90

5.90 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

head at the inlet of the turbine.

Casing

The function of water is to prevent the splashing of water and

to discharge water to tail race. The casing of Pelton Wheel does

not perform any Hydraulic function.

Breaking Jet

When the nozzle is completely closed by moving the spear

in the forward direction, the amount of the water striking the

runner reduces to zero. But the runner due to inertia goes on

revolving for a long time. To stop the runner in a short time, a

small nozzle is provided which directs the jet of water on the

back of vanes. This jet of water is called Breaking Jet.

Break Nozzle

Runner

Buckets

Pen Stock

Nozzle

Water

Casing

Penstock

Nozzle

Wheel

This is

Connected to

Runner

Splitter

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 90 90

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:27

3:37:15 PM ME_S

2005)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2005) 4.91

5.91

• The velocity of the jet at inlet is given by

V1 = Cv 2 gH

H = Net head on turbine

• The velocity of (u) is given by

u = φ 2 gH

0.43 to 0.48

• The angle of deflection of the jet through the buckets is taken

at 165° if no angle of deflection is given.

• The mean diameter or the pitch diameter D of the pelton

turbine is given by

π DN 60u

u= ⋅ or ⋅ D =

60 πN

Jet Ratio

It is defined as the ratio of the pitch diameter (D) of the pelton

turbine to the diameter of the jet (d). It is denoted by m and is

given as

m = D/d ( = 12 for most cases)

Number of bucket on a runner is given by

D

Z = 15 + = 15 + 0.5m

2d

Where m = jet ratio

Number of Jets

It is obtained by dividing total rate of flow through the turbine

by the rate of flow of water through a single jet.

when the velocity of the wheel is half the velocity of the jet of

water at inlet.

7:15 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 91 91

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:28

3:37:15 PM

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION,

APRIL/MAY 2011

Third Semester

Mechanical Engineering

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

Answer ALL questions

PART A (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1. Define surface tension and express its unit.

Q = Cd ⋅ a 2 gh .

metres?

PART B (5 × 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) Explain in detail the Newton’s law of viscosity. Briefly classify the

fluids based on the density and viscosity.

Give the limitations of applicability of Newton’s law of viscosity.

Or

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 92 92

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:30

3:37:15 PM ME_S

2011)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (April/May 2011) 4.93

5.93

(b) State the law of conservation of mass and derive the equation of con-

tinuity in Cartesian co-ordinates for an incompressible fluid. Would

it alter if the flow were unsteady, highly viscous and compressible?

whether the flows is laminar or turbulent. For the lubricating oil

µ = 0.1 Ns/m2 and r = 930 kg/m3. Calculate also transition and tur-

bulent velocities.

Or

(b) A smooth flat plate with a sharp leading edge is placed along a free

stream of water flowing at 3 m/s. Calculate the distance from the

leading edge and the boundary thickness where the transition form

laminar to turbulent flow may commence. Assume the density of

water as 1000 kg/m3 and viscosity as 1 centipoise.

13. (a) What is the significance and the role of the following parameters?

(i) Reynolds number

(ii) Froade number

(iii) Mach number

(iv) Weber number.

Or

(b) An agitator of diameter D rotates at a speed N in a liquid of density

p and viscosity µ. Show that the power required to mix the liquid is

expressed by a functional form

P ⎛ pND 2 N 2 D ⎞

= f ⎜⎝ μ , g ⎟⎠

pN 2 D 5

14. (a) A gas turbine operates between 1000 k and 650 K temperature lim-

its taking in air 20 kg/s at 125 m/s and discharging at 3000 m3/s.

Estimate the power developed by the turbine. Given Cp = 995 J/kg k.

Or

(b) Explain in detail about the performance curves for pumps and

turbines.

7:15 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 93 93

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:31

3:37:15 PM

4.94

5.94 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

and stroke of 20 cm. If the speed of the pumps is 30 rpm and it

delivers to 6.5 lit/s of water, find the coefficient of discharge and the

percentage slip of the pump.

Or

(b) Write briefly on the following.

(i) Rotary pumps and their classifications.

(ii) Indicator diagram for reciprocating pump.

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 94 94

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:32

3:37:15 PM ME_S

B.E./B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION,

NOV/DEC 2010

Third Semester

Mechanical Engineering

FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY

Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

Answer ALL questions

PART A (10 × 2 = 20 marks)

1. Suppose the small air bubbles in a glass of tap water may be on the order

of 50 µ m in diameter, what is the pressure inside these bubbles?

summer? To what property does the term lighter refer?

equations.

and a multistage pump?

9. What is an air vessel? List the objectives that would be fulfilled by the

use of air vessels.

7:15 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 95 95

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:33

3:37:15 PM

4.96

5.96 B.E./B.Tech. Question

B.E./B.Tech. Question Papers

Papers

PART B (5 × 16 = 80 marks)

11. (a) (i) A U-tube is made of two capillaries of diameter 1.0 mm and

1.5 mm respectively. The tube is kept vertically and partially

filled with water of surface tension 0.0736 N/m and zero contact

angle. Calculate the difference in the levels of the menisci

caused by the capillary.

(ii) Lateral stability of a long shaft 150 mm in diameter is obtained

by means of a 250 mm stationary bearing having an internal

diameter of 150.25 mm. If the space between bearing and shaft

is filled with a lubricant having a viscosity 0.245 Ns/m2, what

power will be required to overcome the viscous resistance when

the shaft is rotated at a constant rate of 180 rpm?

Or

(b) (i) A pipeline 60 cm in diameter bifurcates at a Y-junction into two

branches 40 cm and 30 cm in diameter. If the rate of flow in the

main pipe is 1.5 m3/s, and the mean velocity of flow in the 30 cm

pipe is 7.5 m/s, determine the rate of flow in the 40 cm pipe.

(ii) Derive the energy equation and state the assumptions made

while deriving the equation.

oil of viscosity 8.5 poise and specific gravity 0.92 at the rate of

1200 lit./min. The first 30 m of the pipe is laid along the ground

sloping upwards at 10° to the horizontal and remaining pipe is laid

on the ground sloping upwards 15° to the horizontal. State whether

the flow is laminar or turbulent? Determine the pressure required to

be developed by the pump and the power required for the driving

motor if the pump efficiency is 60%. Assume suitable data for fric-

tion factor, if required.

Or

(b) Two pipes of diameter 40 cm and 20 cm are each 300 m long. When

the pipes are connected in series and discharge through the pipe line

is 0.10 m3/sec, find the loss of head incurred. What would be the loss

of head in the system to pass the same total discharge when the pipes

are connected in parallel? Take f = 0.0075 for each pipe.

13. (a) (i) The resisting force F of a plane during flight can be consid-

ered as dependent upon the length of aircraft (1), velocity (v),

air viscosity (m), air density (r) and bulk modulus of air (K).

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 96 96

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:35

3:37:15 PM ME_S

2010)

Fluid Mechanics and Machinery (Nov/Dec 2010) 4.97

5.97

using dimensional analysis. Explain the physical significance

of the dimensionless groups arrived.

Or

(b) The drag force (F) on a partially submerged body depends on the

relative velogity (V) between the body and the fluid, characteris-

tic linear dimension (1), height of surface roughness (k), fluid

density (r), the viscosity (m) and the acceleration due to gravity (g).

Obtain an expression for the drag force, using the method of dimen-

sional analysis.

below.

Discharge (lit/sec) 0 10 20 30 40 50

Head (meters) 25.3 25.5 24.5 22.2 18.7 12.0

The pump delivers fresh water through a 500 m long, 15 cm diam-

eter pipeline having friction coefficient of f = 0.025. The static life is

15 m. Neglecting minor losses in the pipe flow, find (i) the discharge

of the pump under the above conditions (ii) driving power of the

pump motor. Assume a pump efficiency of 72%.

Or

(b) An inward flow reaction turbine having an overall efficiency of 80%

is required to deliver 136 kW. The head H is 16 m and the peripheral

velocity is 3.3 H . The radial velocity of flow at inlet is 1.1 H .

The runner rotates at 120 rpm. The hydraulic losses in the turbine

are 15% of the flow available energy. Determine

• Diameter of the runner,

• Guide vane angle,

• The runner blade angle at inlet and

• The discharge through the turbine.

15. (a) Explain the working principle of single and double acting recipro-

cating pumps with neat diagram in detail. Also explain the effects of

inertia pressure and friction on the performance of the pump using

indicator diagrams with and without air vessel.

Or

(b) Explain the working principle of screw pump and gear pump with

neat diagram in detail.

7:15 PM FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 97 97

ME_Semester-III_Ch05.indd 4/23/2014

7/20/2012 9:16:36

3:37:15 PM

FMM_ME3_FINAL.indb 98 4/23/2014 9:16:36 PM

- Week_3Uploaded byaya khazraji
- dynamics of compressive fluid flow.pdfUploaded byEmpowered Ganwar
- fmUploaded byrajavel777
- ExtDies06.pdfUploaded byLucas Valentim
- MPP Presentation Part02Uploaded byVijay Rajaindran
- Fm&Hms Lab ManualUploaded byamarparimi
- Multistage Centrifugal Pumps - Assessment of a Mixing Plane Method for Cfd AnalysisUploaded byinternational@kishorpumps.com
- Chapter1-cfdUploaded byMohammed Gamal
- r ProblemsUploaded byTrolldaddy
- OH02NUploaded byProff Mji
- promag53_instrUploaded byBalasudarshan Ponnam
- Pump PresentationUploaded byBhuneshwar Chelak
- Basic Prop FluidsUploaded byKetul Shah
- 1 River Flow2Uploaded bykrpar
- Numerical Method for Incompressible FlowUploaded byKian Chuan
- Group2plottedisobesticUploaded bySnow Drop
- A Closed Form Sol for Hydrodyn Pressure of GDs Reservoir w Effect of Viscosity Under Dyn Loading (2009) - Paper (5)Uploaded byJulio Humberto Díaz Rondán
- Oilfield Products Catalog Gates 2012 LRUploaded byMurali Sambandan
- PipeFlow2Multi-phaseFlowAssuranceUploaded byTarcísio Porto
- Echometer_GasSeparatorSimulationProgram_Information_2014_SWPSC.docxUploaded byJuan Karlos Esposo Vela
- ListUploaded byiftikharalisaqib
- 255Uploaded byrazor169
- EVERDIGM ECP56CS_1601Uploaded byLrac Det Sartaed
- Fluid Flow AnalysisUploaded byKrishna Sodari
- Shoham Mechanistic ModelingUploaded byibo
- pll_1397.pdfUploaded bypamururamu
- PGE-Ulubelu ReportUploaded bytiantaufik
- Fluid Mechanics 230 Semester 1 2012 Miri Sarawak CampusUploaded byWRay Tan
- Sucker Rod Pumps Bombeo mecanicoUploaded byGabriel José Gonzalez Granela
- 2015 Johnson Screens Passive Intake ScreensUploaded byrogervieira1979

- PHPNOTES.txtUploaded byGopik Anand
- 4Uploaded byGopik Anand
- MatlabUploaded byDINESHKUMARMCE
- PE Lab Exp1Uploaded byGopik Anand
- Reass Reval n Redo FormatUploaded byGopik Anand
- C# in one day.epubUploaded byJin Senko
- C# in one day.epubUploaded byJin Senko
- Introduction to MatlabUploaded byGopik Anand
- programs.docxUploaded byGopik Anand
- DocumentUploaded byGopik Anand
- Power Systems Laboratory EELR17 2018 B.tech.(EEE) III Year Section-BUploaded byGopik Anand
- programs.docxUploaded byGopik Anand
- ImoUploaded byGopik Anand
- Resume GuidelinesUploaded byharsha
- programs.docxUploaded byGopik Anand

- (Cambridge Monographs on Applied and Computational Mathematics) Grétar Tryggvason, Ruben Scardovelli, Stéphane Zaleski-Direct Numerical Simulations of Gas-Liquid Multiphase Flows-Cambridge University .pdfUploaded byFireblade Fast
- ass1Uploaded byDeepak Tholia
- Creeping Flow 1Uploaded byradwaelhadad
- Munson, 7th ed, Review ProblemsUploaded byUmairZahid
- Navier Stokes Eq.Uploaded byAnthoni Raj
- Finite Element Developments for General Fluid Flows With Structural InteractionsUploaded bymariostructural2010
- Biological Fluid Dynamics, Non-Linear Partial Differential EquationsUploaded byÓscarillo Valdés
- FULLTEXT02.pdfUploaded bymohit
- Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A-2004-Ribe-3223-39Uploaded bymsphix
- chap9Uploaded bysubhajit
- HES2340 Fluid Mechanics 1, Semester 1, 2012, Assignment 1 - Basic Concepts of Fluid FlowUploaded byStephenPYBong
- 3D Simulation(5MW) of Wind Turbine Rotors at Full Scale. Part I- GeometryUploaded byAbdel Salam Alsabagh
- Prieve a Course in Fluid Mechanics With Vector Field TheoryUploaded byAnonymous 9rJe2lOskx
- litrature1Uploaded bymohit
- Ch 6 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow part III viscous flow.pptUploaded byMujtaba Rizvi
- CFDUploaded byFaizan Ahmed
- modeling arterial blood flow with navier-stokesUploaded byapi-358127907
- 1 Aerodynamics Lecture- Viscous FlowUploaded byRicardo Ccoyure Tito
- 3D Simulation of Wind Turbine Rotors at Full Scale. Part I.geometry Modeling and AerodynamicsUploaded bymetawfik
- Mathematics - A Course in Fluid Mechanics With Vector FieldUploaded byprashanthreddyh
- Conjugate Forced Convection and Heat Conduction in Circular MicrochannelsUploaded byAndres Mauricio
- Computational Fluid Dynamics for Naval Engineering ProblemsUploaded byandevari
- Boundary Element and Finite Element MethodsUploaded byticoncoolz
- Turbulence ModelsUploaded byashoku2
- Passivating Pickling EnUploaded bySinan Yıldız
- Workbook FMUploaded bySubhash Jhurawat
- Analisis de la reologia de chocolate cascadaUploaded byKiara Betzaura
- _Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)Uploaded bySuta Vijaya
- ME582 Thermofluid Finite ElementsUploaded bylarasmoyo
- Physics of the granite sphere fountainUploaded byKelvin