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***** & *****

Prepared by The Interpreting Section

Danang 2018

A.Translation versus Interpreting

- Product of the transfer: Interpreting means “to transfer orally a text from one language to
another”  the product of interpreting appears in spoken form. Whereas, in translation or
translating, the product of this transfer appears in written form.
- Length of the text: The interpreter normally produces a text in the TL which is shorter than the
text in the SL. In contrast, the final product comes out invariably longer than the original in
- Access to reference books: the translator always has easy access to bilingual and monolingual
dictionaries, thesauri, encyclopedia and the like. This never happens for the interpreter. An
interpreter who consults a dictionary is, at times, looked at with suspicion.

B. The interpreter’s role and qualities

The interpreter’s role:
- The main purpose of interpreting is communication, which means transmitting thoughts from
one person to another. In this way, the interpreter can eliminate language barrier that separates
people, thus functioning as an instrument of understanding between them.
- In various interpreting modes, the interpreter is seen as instruments of mutual understanding
between nations (consecutive and simultaneous interpreting at international conferences, high
level meetings), facilitates the relationship between citizens in a community of different ethnic
extraction (community interpreting, liaison interpreting), and assists in promoting the
development of an individual, a company or a corporation (conversation, interview interpreting),
The interpreter’s qualities:
- proficient in two or more languages with special attributes as resistance, promptness of speech
and mind, and with several intellectual gifts as good memory, power of concentration
- high moral standards and a sense of responsibility (impartiality, confidentiality)
- ability to recognize the subject matter (wide knowledge of history, geography, economics, politics,
medical sciences, law, environment, and other subjects of special interest)
- good voice
- ability to work under pressure (long hours of working, tendency of losing confidence,
concentration or being distracted)
C. Modes of interpreting
1.Consecutive interpreting:
-the most exhaustive form of interpreting;
- consisting of listening to a speech in one language and translating or summarizing it orally
into another;
- the time lapse between the speech and the interpretation varies.
1.1. Sentence-by-sentence interpreting:
- known as dialogue interpreting
- commonly used at courts, commissions, at conferences, interviews and other ‘triangular
- requiring good memory training
1.2. Summarizing the whole speech:
- may last one, two, five, ten up to half an hour interpreting
- requiring excellent memory and note-taking skills, obtainable by training and exercise
2. Sight translation:
- reading aloud in one language of a text in another language
- time lapse between mental reading and its rendition approaches simultaneous
- the interpreter holds control of the SL
- used when a document emerges during an interpreting session (a letter or a telegram
produced in evidence in court, the translation of a contract or other documents which
concludes a meeting with a solicitor or a bank manager, etc.)
3. Simultaneous interpreting:
- used for large meetings, conferences and conventions
- interpreting the speech while listening
- requiring specialized training and equipments: sound-proof booths, headphones,
earphones, microphones, amplifiers, sound engineers to monitor and supervise the lot)
4. Whispered interpreting:
- rendering the interpretation for one speaker only while sitting next to them
- usually practised in court

D. Analysis of interpreting process

The work of an interpreter follows a logical sequence consisting of three main phases:

(of the SL) (of the SL text into TL text) (of the TL text)
Comprehension of the SL text is extremely important to ensure good interpretation. In the first
step, the interpreter must:
- have good hearing
- have thorough knowledge of the SL (with all possible variances such as regional
dialects, local accents, socially related peculiarities)
- know the culture of the country of the speaker
- know the subject matter of the speech or discussion, obtained through research or
preparation before the interpreting session or through years of dedicated study
For a good conversion of the SL message into the TL, the interpreter must:
- have thorough knowledge of the TL and its culture (culture-bound factors such as
proverbs, sayings, adages, jokes)

- have good memorizing and note-taking skill
- be able to handle the various situation that may occur
- pay attention to factors affecting conversion process: time (speed) and accuracy
 Time factor is understood as promptness and immediacy. Long pauses of one or two seconds
are allowed, but no more. Long gaps between the speech and the interpretation usually cause
nervousness and doubt in the audience of the interpreter’s capabilities.
 Accuracy varies inversely with speed. The longer one takes to translate, the more accurate the
product will be.
The following scale shows the difference in considering the two factors for differing modes
of interpreting (with 1 as the lowest and 5 the highest consideration):
Modes of Interpreting Time factor Accuracy of performance
- Written translation 1 5
- Consecutive (whole-speech) Interpreting 2 4
- Sentence-by-sentence Interpreting 3 3
- Sight translation 4 2
- Simultaneous interpreting 5 1
To carry out the delivery of the interpretation in a professional way, the interpreter must:
- obtain a number of skills needed through study and training, especially public
- use standard language with clear grammar, pronunciation, vocabulary as well as
- possess appropriate gestures and manner while interpreting (not imitating the
speaker’s gestures)
- know to maintain the speech flow by leaving as few pauses as possible
- try to make the interpretation always slightly shorter than the SL text (KISS: keep it
short and simple; interpret ideas not words)
- use direct speech form
E. Public speaking
Public speaking is an important part of any interpreters’ training program for several
reasons. First, many people despite their thorough grasp of working languages tend to be shy,
freeze up and develop mental block when faced with an audience. Second, when given
interpretation assignments in front of large audiences of important people, even those who are not
shy often feel extremely intimidated. Thus, in order to overcome such a fright stage, an interpreter
like an actor, or a news announcer should learn how to perform in public and effectively use
his/her voice.
Public speakers have usually acquired some proficiency in the art of persuasion, and an
interpreter must be able to mirror that skill and should be strive to be good public speakers. To
gain greater confidence and overcome the fright stage, interpreters should pay attention to
important aspects in public speaking.

1. Speech Structure
Opening speeches: Typical structure
- Welcoming audience, starting with special guests.
- Speak on the significance of the occasion to the audience
- Thank those involved in organization and mention keynote speakers
- Express wishes for successful session
Closing speeches: Typical structure
- Congratulate the participants on outcomes of the seminar/conference and describe some of
those outcomes.
- Speak on the significance of such conferences.
- Thank the organizers and participants.
- Announce the venues and date for the next conference/seminar.
- End on bright note that convey hope for the continued success of these seminars/more
conferences on this theme, etc.
2. Eye Contact: Eye contact is very important in public speaking.
- Do not skim over the audience, but take a little time with each person.
- If uncomfortable when looking people in the eye, use the bull’s eye techniques-look at the
person’s forehead, just above the eyes
- If interpreting in front of a large audience, establish eye contact with several people so that
they also feel included. This may also help to judge audience response.
3. Body Language
Nervous body language undermines the creditability of the speaker. Thus, it is
recommended to walk confidently and directly to the podium and hold your stomach in, your
shoulders back and your chest out. This projects confidence. And when you project confidence, you
usually end up feeling confident.
4. Posture: Posture is important in allowing good breath.
- Do not stoop or hunch, and do not stand stiffly.
- Place your weight evenly on both feet, without resting on either hip, position your
shoulders evenly.
- Do not tilt your head to the side, do not cross your legs, do not pull your head back with the
chin in, do not thrust your head forward with the chin out.
5. Facial Expressions
Interpreters should possess appropriate facial expressions. They should never be too sad or
too happy in the course of interpreting. Nor should they show too much enthusiasm or empathy
over an issue or problem.

6. Appearance
- Make sure your appearance (clothing, jewelry, hair, etc.) does not distract listeners from your
- Dress smartly and stylishly, but conservatively and unobtrusively, avoiding patterns.
7. Ways to relax
- In the minutes before the speech, when your nerves are at their worst, do some exercises to
release tension. Or try watch or visualize something funny as this will help you keep calm.
8. Voice
- Tape yourself. Evaluate your pace, speech control, volume control, rhythm, clarity, pronunciation,


Language to focus: Culture and Language

Questions to consider: Why does an interpreter need memory?

A. Types of memory:
Short-term memory (STM)
- used for sentence-by-sentence interpreting (dialogue, conversation)
- working in a straightforward manner
- items in STM decay quickly
Long-term memory (LTM)
- primary function for the interpreter because all items stored have passed through
- working as an active database providing the interpreter with information, knowledge,
helpful for the first step of interpreting process: understanding
- help the interpreter accumulate more information, knowledge in this database
B. Stages of memory
- Encoding: putting something in the memory, through either a visual or acoustic code (in a way
that one can understand)
- Storage: maintaining something in the memory (usually with limit to capacity called memory
- Retrieval: recovering something the memory, operating through sequentiality, hampered by
interference from other thoughts, involving displacement sometimes (when too much information
presented at the same time; new ideas displace the previous one and the interpreter can end up
interpreting only what is said at the end  Don’t let the party talk too much, especially in
sentence-by-sentence mode without note-taking)
C. Causes of memory failure
- Interference : audio, visual, mental
- Displacement
- Emotional factors (stress, anxiety, pressure)
D.Memory techniques
- Using semantic categorization – Giving it meaning!
- Visualization – Have a picture in your mind!
- Attention to key words
- Expanding knowledge base – Use knowledge!

Practice: Listen to the following short talks, use different techniques to remember the
information and do the interpretation.
1. Handshaking: In Brazil, when people meet, they shake hands. The handshake often lasts a long
time. People shake hands when they say ‘hello’ and they say ‘goodbye’. It’s important to have
eye contact with the person when you shake hands. Also, it’s important to shake the hand of
everyone in a room. In Brazil touching other people is OK. People touch other people’s arms,
elbows, and backs. Also, it’s OK to interrupt during a conversation. It shows that you’re

2. Valentine’s Day: On 14th February, St. Valentine’s Day, a lot of people send a card to the one
they love or someone whom they have fallen in love with. People usually do not sign these cards
and a lot time is spent trying to guess who has sent them.

3. CHRISTMAS: 25th December is the most important festival of the year. It combines the Christian
celebration of the birth of Christ with the traditional festivities of winter. On the Sunday before
Christmas, many churches hold a carol service where special hymns are sung. Sometimes you
can hear a carol singers singing on the streets as they collect money for charity. Most families
decorate their houses with coloured Christmas decorations and they usually have a Christmas
tree in the corner of the front room, glittering with coloured lights and decorations. People put
their gifts at the bottom of the Christmas tree.


Study the following words and phrases, and find the Vietnamese equivalents to them.
-proper manners -connected with ghosts
-discourage eye contact -dress up in strange costumes
-rude behavior -witches
-cut horrible faces in pumpkins
-a bucket of water
-Christmas decorations -dressed in white sheets
-wrap up their gifts -“trick” or “treat”
-a big turkey dinner -spilling flour on your front doorstep
-Christmas pudding -fancy dress parties
-delivers her traditional Christmas message -horror of the supernatural
-the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth -Gothic Rock bands
-go trick or treating
-a hot mince pie
-Halloween lanterns
-Boxing Day -apple harvest
-Vaupes River in South America -keeps evils away
-Vaupes River Indians -a spirit
-First foot -Day of the Death
-holy evening -graveyard


Listen to the following pieces of talks about cultural issues. Before you listen, discuss the
idea for each talk using the words and phrases given. Use memorizing techniques to
rephrase the ideas of the talk, and then interpret into Vietnamese.

What is considered normal in one culture can be considered strange or unacceptable in
another. For instance, in most western cultures, eye contact is considered to be proper
manners when communicating with others, because it means you are paying attention and
showing respect to the other person. But some eastern cultures discourage eye contact,
especially to elders. It might be viewed as rude behavior, for it can mean disrespect. Can you
think of other examples which cause the same problem in different cultures?


(a) Karen: One of the most important days for me is New Year because the new year is very
important. In fact it’s not so much New Year day, the 1 st of January, but the evening before, New
Year Eve. So, on the 31 st of December, at 7 o’clock in the evening, the cleaning begins. I
remember when I was a child, my mother spent hours cleaning the house to make sure
everything was special and ready for the New Year. And then when it gets to 12 o’clock and the
bell starts to ring, the first thing my mother does is go to open the door to let the New Year in
and everyone has something to drink, and we wait for the first foot. The first foot is the first
person who comes to your house in the New Year and they are very special because they bring
new luck for the whole year. The first foot has to bring three things. They bring soft bread, a
special kind of biscuit, they bring coal for warmth, and they bring something to drink.
(b)John: Chinese New Year is never the same every year because we follow a special calendar that
follows the moon. So, it’s sometimes at the end of January and sometimes the beginning of
February. At Chinese New Year, we like to wear our new clothes and eat special food which has
special meanings such as Chinese mushrooms, delicious sweets. Hoepfully, they bring us lots of
good luck and money. And it’s special for children because they get little red envelopes of
money from adults. What they do is they go to adults and say Happy New Year and they get red
envelopes. Because I’m not married, I also get a little red envelope.


The Chirstmas season begins very early in Britain. By the end of October, you may see
Christmas decorations in the streets and Christmas cards and gifts in the shops.
Traditionally, people start to decorate their houses a week or two before 25 th December, which
is Christmas Day. There are a lot of traditions connected with Christmas. The most
important one is the giving of presents. Family members wrap up their gifts and leave them
at the bottom of the Christmas tree to be found on Christmas morning. Children leave a long
sock or stocking at the end of their bed on Christmas Eve, 24 th December, hoping that Father
Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and bring them small presents, fruits
and nuts. They are not usually disappointed. Sometimes on Christmas Day, the family will sit
down for a big turkey dinner and Christmas pudding. Later in the afternoon, they may
watch the Queen on television as she delivers her traditional Christmas message to the
United Kingdom and the Commonwealth. If they have room for even more food, they may
enjoy a piece of Christmas cake or eat a hot mince pie. 26th December is also a public holiday,
Boxing Day, and this is the time to visit friends and relatives or watch football.


(a) On 31st October is Halloween. Halloween means holy evening. It’s a more important festival in
the United States than in Britain, although it’s celebrated by many people in the UK. It’s
particularly connected with ghosts. At parties, people dress up in strange costumes and
pretend they are witches. They cut horrible faces in pumpkins and other vegetables and put
a candle inside which shines through the eyes. People play difficult games such as trying to
eat an apple from a bucket of water without using their hands. In recent years, children
dressed in white sheets knock on doors at Halloween and ask if you would like a “trick” or
“treat”. If you give them something nice, a “treat”, they go away. If you don’t, they play a trick on
you, such as making a lot of noise or spilling flour on your front doorstep.

(b)In the USA, Halloween is a special festival. It’s on the 31 st of October. Children and adults often
go to fancy dress parties. The theme of this party is usually horror of the supernatural.
Restaurants and pubs also have special events too. They prepare food and drink with the
Halloween theme, show horror films or invite Gothic Rock bands to play. Children often “go
trick or treating”. They wear scary costumes and visit friends and neighbours asking for
sweets and chocolates. They also make Halloween lanterns with candles inside and they play
traditional games. The festival comes just after the apple harvest, so the games often use
apples. There are a lot of different beliefs about Halloween. For example: some people think the
candle in our latern keeps evils away. If the candle goes out suddenly, a spirit is in the room.
And if the 31st of October is your birthday, that means you can see and talk to spirits. Other
countries have similar festivals at the same time of the year. For example: people in Mexico
celebrate a festival called the Day of the Death on the 2nd of November. Families go to the local
graveyard to visit their dead relatives and they often have picnics there. In some parts of
Mexico, they stay there all night.


It’s not unusual to learn and use more than one language. In many countries around the world,
almost everyone speaks more than one language. For example, in some parts of the USA (like
Florida), a lot of people speak Spanish as their mother tongue. Most of these people learn
English as well, and a lot of English speakers learn Spanish.
But perhaps the world’s best language learners are the Indians who live near the Vaupes River
in South America. About 10,000 of the Vaupes River Indians live in a small area of the Amazon
rainforest. In this area, there are more than 20 completely different languages. All of the
Vaupes River Indians speak three languages, often more than three. This is because when a
person wants to get married, he or she ahs to marry someone who speaks a different language.
So the children always learn three languages: their mother’s first language, their father’s first
language and also Tukano, the language that all the Vaupes Indians have in common. Then
when they are older, they have to marry someone who speaks a different language, and their
children have to learn at least three languages. The number is often higher, as the Vaupes
people often continue to learn more languages when they are teenagers and adults.
Before we go in to see the performance, I would like to tell you something about Japanese
traditional theatres. There are three different types of traiditional theatres performed in Japan.
These are Nok, Kabuki and Bunraku. Nok is a very old form of theatre dating back to the 14th
century ans was enjoyed by the higher social classes. The plays tell stories about Gods,
warriors, beautiful women and supernatural beings. The leading characters wear masks, and
speak and sing in a very monotonous way accompanied by a chorus and musicians playing
traditional drums and flutes. The wooden stage is usually outdoor and has a roof supported by
four columns, and there’s just a single pine tree as scenery.
Nok theatre is very slow and dramatic, but Kabuki is much more colorful and has a large cast.
The origin goes back to the seventeen century, and Kabuki is the popular culture of ordinary
people. The plays are often about historical events and relationship between men and women.
In the early years, both men and women acted in Kabuki plays, but later women were not
allowed, and so all the actors are now men. Unlike Nok theatre, in Kabuki no one wears a mask,
but the make-up is very elaborate and exaggerated. The stage is also different and equipped
with several gadgets like revolving sets and trapped doors through which the actors can
appear and disappear. Another speciality of the Kabuki stage is the footbridge, the hanamichi,
that leads through the audience and is used for dramatic entrances and exits.
Bunraku is a traditional Japanese puppet theatre that has its orgin in the Edo period; that is
from the early 17th century up until about 1850. The content of the Bunraku and Kabuki plays is
very similar and often deals with emotional conflicts, like when two lovers choose to commit
suicide. The puppets are about 1.2m tall and are manipulated by three people: the puppeteer
who wear a traditional formal dress and two assistants who are both in black. Each person is
responsible for a different part of the puppet. There’s also traditional music that’s performed
on an instrument called a samisen, which is a kind of guitar with three strings.


Listen to the following pieces of news in Vietnamese. Rephrase the news in your own
words using your memory, and then do the interpretation into English.
1.2.1 Toố i 5/10 taạ i Nhaà haá t lớán Haà noộạ i dieễ n ra leễ khai maạ c Những Ngày Văn hóa Nga taạ i Vieộạ t Nam.
Đaộ y laà diạp đeể khaá n giaả Vieộạ t Nam coá cớ hoộạ i thướảng thưác caá c giá trị văn hóa Nga voố n raố t đaặạ c saắ c,
phong phuá maà cuũ ng gaầ n guũ i vớái ngướài Vieộạ t Nam. Sưạ kieộạ n naà y cuũ ng laà minh chưáng cho thaố y hai
daộ n toộạ c luoộ n quan taộ m đeố n vaặ n hoá a cuả a nhau.
(Theo http:/ 06/10/2017)
1.2.2 Lễ hội hoa anh đào laà leễ hoộạ i truyeầ n thoố ng cuả a Nhaộạ t Baả n vớái teộ n goạ i hanami thướàng dieễ n ra
vaà o cuoố i thaá ng 3 haà ng naặ m. Đaộ y laà moộạ t trong nhưũng leễ hoộạ i laộ u đớài nhaố t ớả Nhaộạ t vaà laà moộạ t neá t đeạ p
khoộ ng theể thieố u trong vaặ n hoá a cuả a ngướài Nhaộạ t. Hanami trong tieố ng Nhaộạ t coá nghĩũa laà ngaắ m,
thướảng laũ m hoa (viewing). Hoa anh đaà o laà quoố c hoa cuả a đaố t nướác maặạ t trớài moạ c tướạng trưng
cho sưạ thanh khieố t, mong manh (putiry and impermanence of beauty).
(Theo Wikipedia)
1.2.3 Đaũ thaà nh thoộ ng leộạ , saá ng ngaà y 2/9 haà ng naặ m, soộ ng Hướng đoaạ n chaả y qua thaà nh phoố Hueố laạ i
trớả neộ n nhoộạ n nhiạp vớái Hội đua thuyền truyền thống chào mừng ngày Tết Độc lập cuả a daộ n
toộạ c. Naặ m nay, Hoộạ i đua thuyeầ n truyeầ n thoố ng tĩảnh Thưàa Thieộ n Hueố laầ n thưá 29 dieễ n ra soộ i noể i vớái
sự cổ vũ nhiệt tình cuả a haà nh ngaà n khaá n giaả . Hoộạ i đua thuyeầ n treộ n soộ ng Hướng đaũ trớả thaà nh moộạ t
nét đẹp văn hóa độc đáo tưà bao đớài nay cuả a ngướài daộ n vuà ng soộ ng nướác, đem laạ i nieầ m vui
trong diạp Quoố c khaá nh haà ng naặ m.

1.2.4. Lễ hội ẩm thực Châu Á 2018 (Asian Food and Culture Festival) laầ n đaầ u tieộ n seũ đướạc toể
chưác taạ i Vieộạ t Nam taạ i Haà Noộạ i vaà Quaả ng Ninh trong thaá ng 4 naặ m 2018. Trong caá c ngaà y dieễ n ra leễ
hoộạ i, seũ coá khoaả ng 100 gian hàng (food stalls) giớái thieộạ u caá c moá n ngon noể i tieố ng cuả a caá c quoố c
gia như Nhaộạ t, Haà n Quoố c, Singgapore, Myanmar, Champuchia, Laà o . Beộ n caạ n đoá , coà n coá caá c màn
biểu diễn nấu ăn (cooking demonstrations) cuả a caá c đaầ u beố p vaà caá c chương trình biểu diễn
nghệ thuật (art performances) cuả a Vieộạ t Nam vaà caá c nướác chaộ u AÁ .
(Theo 12/04/2018)

- Search for more practice of listening and interpreting from the following website:
- Practise interpreting the talk on The Meaning of Colour from Huong Dan Ky Thuat Phien Dich
Anh-Viet, Viet-Anh (2007) by Nguyen Quoc Hung, Ho Chi Minh City Publishing House.


Language to focus: Tourism / Places of Interest

A. Why to note
- provide support to the memory, when there are too many elements for the interpreter to
remember, particularly when the speech contains numbers, names, lists …
- help relieve memory and interpreters’ fatigue during the understanding of the speech
- help the interpreter reproduce the structure of the speech/ retrace how ideas are related and
separated from one another.
B. When to note
- start as soon as possible, arrange the notes later with various symbols or signs when having
understood the whole ideas (subject object)
- only during the speech; stop noting when the speaker finishes the speech
- avoid being left behind; adjust between timing and note-taking
- when anticipating that numbers or lists are going to be presented, the interpreter needs to be
highly attentive to the speech to note down the numbers and lists.
C. What to note
- main ideas  creating an outline for the interpretation. With a good memory, note-taking for
main ideas is not very important. However, it helps the interpreter to retrace the order of these
ideas as outlined
- linking words  forming the relations between ideas
- numbers/ figures (percentage, dates, measurement)  always with meanings (for example: 25
mil. pp = 25 million people)
- proper names (people, countries, organization, publications, events)  with accuracy. In case the
interpreter cannot write down the difficult names, note the sound of the names as originally
spoken in the SL, and then read it as exactly as possible
- lists  as sufficient as possible. In case the interpreter cannot note down all the items in the list,
try to have at least some of them, and use etc. during the interpretation. If the complete list is of
some importance, the interpreter can ask the speaker for the missing items and fill in the space of
the note.
D. How to note
a. Any way of taking notes is possible but it must be most convenient for the interpreter. For easy
reading and tracing back the ideas, the best way is to note in verticality and from left to right.
b. The interpreter can note the main ideas on the left and supporting ideas indented to the right.
Main idea 1
….. supporting idea 1
….. supporting idea 2
c. Draw a line to finish one idea and begin a new idea. Note linking words at the far left of the note
pad to show relations between the two ideas.
Because ------------------------------------------------------------------------
d. Note in verticality for a list. For example: Western London has suffered a series of natural
catastrophes, violent winter storms, flooding and earthquake.
catas: storm
e. Using symbols and signs, acronyms and abbreviations.
- Taking notes with abbreviations, symbols and signs is of personal taste. The interpreter can
develop his/ her own system of symbols, sign and abbreviations. For example:
increase, develop, rise *y last year
reduction, go down, decline, deteriorate y* next year
/ or (eg: husband/wife) /………./ a long time
 lead to, go to, release /…./ a short time
= equal to $ dollar, money
+ add to X destroy, get rid of, cancel
♥ love/ heart □ country
> more than/ over < less than
yr year econo economics
govt government coop cooperation
pp people mil million
- Learn some popular acronyms for the notes. For example:
GDP (Gross Domestic Product) UN (the United Nations)
LC (letter of credit) NGO(non-governmental org.)
WTO (World Trade Organization) WB (World Bank)
UNDP (United Nations Development Program)
IOC (International Olympic Committee)
Tips for Note-taking
1. Less is more: too much details causes interference.
2. Don’t write at the expense of listening: Great notes won’t help if you haven’t heard or
comprehended the message in the first place.
3. Analyse: Think about what the speaker is really saying, whether you need to write more in
some places, and whether what you write is enough to remember with.
4. Focus on ideas, not individual words: Write own ideas; words in isolation don’t mean
5. Focus on logical connection between ideas: vital for accurate communication of the
6. Memory: Remember what the speaker said and what your notes signify.
7. Beginning and end are important: Pay attention to the start and end of each speech section.
Failure to get these right can mean at best that you may not make the main points clearly,
and at worst you can derail the entire interpretation.
8. Symbols: Practise them until they are automatic. Add, modify and replace as necessary.
9. Spread downward across the page: Write downward, one point/ word to a line. This
facilitates comprehension as well as allows additions of things/ details/ words later.
10. Write BIG: Clear, uncluttered are easier to read.
11. Separate sentences and points: Drawing lines after each sentence or important point
help you to identify what needs to be interpret, and avoid confusion between
information from different sentences being used elsewhere in a different context.
12. Draw a line through when finished: To avoid confusion, draw a line through (at least)
the last of your notes when you finish interpreting. This help you know where to start
in the next segment and don’t omit or repeat anything.
13. Either LANGUAGE is okay: Notes can be TL or SL. A mixture of both is common.
 Anything goes as long as it works with you.

EXAMPLE: The following pieces of information contain a lot of numbers, figures, proper
namses and facts. Practice taking notes and interpret into Vietnamese.
- Russia is by far the biggest country by area in the world – it is over 17 million square
kilometers. But China has a much bigger population, with nearly 1.4 billion people.
- The longest river in the world is the Nile at 6,995 kilometres, but it is only slightly longer than
the Amazon – the second longest river in the world, at 6,750 kilometres.
- Canada has by far the longest coastline in the world – it is approximately 244,000 kilometres
long. The second longest is in Indonesia, but it is a long way behind at only 55,000 kilometres.
- Chicago is the furthest north, although it is only slightly further north than New York. San
Francisco and Los Angeles are both in California, but Los Angeles is a lot further south - about
900 kilometres.
- Surprisingly it is China, not the USA that has the most fast food restaurants in the world. The
nation that drinks the most tea is not the Indians, or the English as you might think, but the
Irish, who drink around five cups a day.
- India has by far the most universities in the world with nearly 8,500. It also has the biggest
university in the world – the Kameshwar Singh Darbhanga Sanskrit University has over half a
million students.
- London Heathrow is the busiest airport in the world with around 65 million passengers a year.
While France is by far the most popular country with tourists, with nearly 75 million visitors a
year. The second most popular, the USA, is a long way behind with just 53 million.
- And the most popular theme park in the world isn’t in the USA either – it’s actually Disneyland
Tokyo, which attracts around 18 million visitors a year.


Study the following words, phrases and find the Vietnamese equivalents to them.
-an impressive collection of modern paintings -Palm House
-an amazing view of the entire city -Irsih folk music
-linen, rope-making, engirneering, tobacco, sea trade -minimum bus fare
-shipbuilding -a launderette
-set out on her fatal maiden voyage -a tumble drier
-Belfast Cathedral and City Hall -fantastic scenery in the film
-Ulster Hall -Lord of the Rings
-Ulster Museum -populous country
-immigration and low birth rate
-gold treasure of the 16th century Spanish warship
-the eastern Slavanic language group
the coast of Antrim -melodious
-Botanic Gardens -diversity of ethnic groups
-tropical plants -be stereotyped to one kind of
-rare plants appearance
-close-knit families of everal generations


2.1.1. Listen to some people talking about their cities. Use note-taking techniques and
interpret into Vietnamese.

a. Kyoto: For me Kyoto is the most beautiful city in the world, it’s also the oldest city. It has many
old, traditional buildings, and beautiful palaces, temples and gardens. The most famous temple
is the Golden Pavillon. There are also very good markets, and also really good shops and some
beautiful modern buildings too.
b. Venice: Of course there are lots to see in Venice. It’s one of the most famous cities in the world.
First of all, there are the canals. We don’t have cars in Venice, so you have to travel everywhere
by canal. The most famous place in Venice is the square, St Mark’s Square with St Mark’s
Cathedral. And there are lots of museums and palaces, and beautilful bridges too.
c. Istanbul: I think Istanbul is maybe the most beautiful city in the world, but of course I come
from Istanbul. The city is built on hills about Bosphros, and so there are beautiful views across
the water. From the water you can see mosques – the most beautiful is called the Blue Mosque –
and palaces and bridges. Istanbul also has a very famous market called the Grand Bazaard. But
today we also have many modern shopping centres and modern buildings and hotels. It’s a
really fantastic city.
d. Rio de Janeiro: Rio is one of the most exciting cities in South America … first of course we have
our famous beach, the Copacabana, and there are many mountains around Rio – the most
famous is the Sugar Plum Mountain, where you can see a big statue of Christ, and of course wee
have famous stadium – the Marcarana stadium, maybe the most famous football stadium in the
world … it’s really a great place.
e. St Petersburg: You will really love St Petersburg there are so many things to see. The most
famous is the Winter Palaca, where the Tsars lived, and the Hermitage Museum which is a
fantastic art gallery, and we have a very beautiful river too, the River Neva, and of course
churches and cathedrals. There’s so much to see!

2.1.2. Listen to some people introducing tours to different places. Take notes on the talks and
do the interpretation.


Today’s bus tour will take us all over this great city. First, we’ll go to the art museum, which has
an impressive collection of modern paintings. Before we leave, you’ll have a chance to buy
some postcards and art books at the gift shop. Then we’ll take an elevator to the top of the
city’s tallest building. You’ll have an amazing view of the entire city. Be sure to bring your
cameras. Afterwards, we’ll have a light lunch at a restaurant near the river. The tour will end at
the city mall, which is full of wonderful stores and little cafes. I highly recommend buying
pottery and jewelry there. It is some of the finest in the world.

Good morning everyone. Welcome to Belfast. Now I will give you some information about
Belfast. Belfast is one of the youngest captial cities in the world and it has grown incredibly
fast. Today the city has a population of 400,000, nearly a third of the entire population of
Northern Ireland, but in the 17 th century, it was only a village. Then, during the 18 th century, the
development of industries like linen, rope-making, engirneering, tobacco and sea trade

doubled the size every ten years. The city is well known for shipbuilding. It was here that the
“Titanic” was built and set out on her fatal maiden voyage.

Here is your brief tour around Belfast. This morning you will visit an art gallery, Belfast
Cathedral and City Hall. This afternoon, you will visit the zoo and this evening, you will go to a
concert at Ulster Hall. Tomorrow morning, you will visit Ulster Museum and see 9,000 years
of human history in Ireland and the gold treasure of the 16th century Spanish warship
which was recovered off the coast of Antrim in 1968. In the afternoon, you will go to the
Botanic Gardens and you will walk among rare plants. Some of the tropical plants are 100
years old. And then you will visit the Palm House. It was built in 1850. You will have a free
evening so you can go to some local pubs. It’s possible for you to find a really friendly
atmosphere and enjoy some Irsih folk music there. Next morning at 10, you will leave the
hotel and fly back to London. I hope you will enjoy the two-day tour. Thanks.

2.1.3. Listen to some people giving information about travelling to and living in different
places in the world. Take notes on the talks and do the interpretation.

When you travel to Britain by sea or air, it is likely that you will arrive in the Southeast. There
are two main airports in the London area. One is Heathrow Airport, the other is Gatwick.
Heathrow is the world’s busiest airport in international traffic. It is about 20 miles outside of
London. It’s located about 33 km west of central London. It has around 28 million passengers
per year. Gatwick is the second major airport. It’s about 30 miles, or 50 km to the south of
London. It has about 10 million passengers per year.

London has been called the most expensive city in the world, though like all other cities, if you
know your way around, you can always find lower prices that people normally pay. Transport is
expensive compared with other places. The minimum bus fare is 40p. This is only for about a
kilometre’s ride. If you want to go further, you have to pay more. The fares on the
underground are the same. The minimum fare is 50p, and if you want to go more than two or
three stations, it costs more. The minimum taxi fare is 2 pounds. If you want to go out of
London, you can take a coach. It is the easiest and most economical way to travel around
London by coach. A coach fare is about 1 pound 20.
In London, accommodation is another very expensive thing. You would pay about 40 pounds a
week for one room. If you want to rent a one-bedroom flat, it will cost more. You would
generally pay about 200 pounds per week for it.
Very few international students will have their own washing machines so it is likely that you
will have to do your washing at a launderette, which is a place where washing machines are
provided for the general public. Here are some prices for the use of a washing machine. It’s 2
pounds 50 for using a large washing machine and 1 pound 80 for using a small one. You have to
pay 1 pound 50 for using a tumble drier, about 2 pounds 40 for a medium-sized packet of
washing powder.

New Zealand is in the south of the Pacific Ocean. The nearest country to us is Australia, but
we’re not close neighbours, I think we’re more than 2,000 kilometres apart. We have two
islands which are called North Island and South Island. Actually it’s not really a big country; it’s
about the same size as Great Britain, just a little bit bigger in area. But we have a much much
smaller population, only about 3 and a half million. We have two official languages, English and
Maũ ori, which is the language of the original people here. I think now for a lot of people when
they think of New Zealand they think of the Lord of the Rings, which of course they filmed here,
and people think of the fantastic scenery in the film, some people say it is the most fantastic
scenery in the world, I don’t about that but it’s certainly an amazing place to visit. There are so
many different types of scenery and climate. In the north you’ve got fantastic beaches and
mountains, and volcanoes and even a small area of dessert. The climate here is very pleasant,
mostly very warm. The average is around 25 degrees in the summer, while in the south it’s a bit
colder during the winter and the scenery is like Norway or Canada, lots of glaciers, snow
covered mountains where you can go skiing. There are so many things to see.

Ukraine has a population of 47,000 million people. It is the second most populous country in
the Former Soviet Union after Russia, but its population is diminishing due to immigration
and low birth rate. 72% of Ukraine’s population is Ukrainian; other ethnic groups widely
spread in Ukraine are Russian 22%, Belarusian, Polish, Jews, Bulgarians, Hungarians, less than
1% each. More and more people are moving from villages to towns and cities. There are five
cities with the population of more than 1 million. The state language is Ukrainian; it belongs to
the eastern Slavanic language group. Many people believe that the Ukrainian language is
very melodious, the second most melodious language in the world after Italian. Ukrainians are
very kind and hospitable; they welcome visitors open-heartedly and treat them warmly and
generously. Because of diversity of ethnic groups, Ukrainians do not look alike, and cannot be
stereotyped to one kind of appearance. However, many people think that Ukrainian women
are attractive. Ukrainians usually have close-knit families of everal generations and like to
spend time with their families: dinning, walking, playing, going on holiday together.


2.2.1 Thuả đoộ Đan Maạ ch, Copenhagen, thướàng đướạc mieộ u taả laà moộạ t trong nhưũng thaà nh phoố xinh
đeạ p vaà soộ i đoộạ ng nhaố t theố giớái. Thaà nh phoố đầy sức trẻ - tuy đaũ tồn tại rất lâu đời – vớái nhieầ u
coộ ng vieộ n caộ y xanh vaà không gian mở, keộ nh raạ ch vaà moộạ t bến cảng ấm cúng và hiện đại.

2.2.2 Thánh địa Mỹ Sơn thuoộạ c xaũ Duy Phuá , huyeộạ n Duy Xuyeộ n, tĩảnh Quaả ng Nam, cách thành phố
Đà Nẵng khoảng 69 km vaà caá ch thaà nh coể Traà Kieộạ u khoaả ng 20 km, laà toể hớạp bao goầ m nhieầ u đền
đài Chăm Pa bao quanh bớải đoầ i nuá i. Khoộ ng đoầ soộạ , kyà vĩũ như AĂ ngkor (Campuchia), Pagan
(Myanma), Borobudua (Indonesia)... nhưng Myũ Sớn vaễ n coá moộạ t viạ trĩá raố t quan troạ ng trong neầ n
vaặ n hoá a ngheộạ thuaộạ t cuả a vuà ng Đoộ ng Nam AÁ . Thaá ng 12 naặ m 1999 khu đền tháp Mỹ Sơn đaũ đướạc
UNESCO ghi tên vào danh mục các di sản văn hóa thế giới.
2.2.3 Laà thaà nh phoố soộ i đoộạ ng nhaố t caả nướác, Saà i Goà n veầ đeộ m như khoộ ng nguả vớái nhưũng aá nh đeà n
thaắ p saá ng treộ n khaắ p caá c tuyeố n đướàng vaà toà a nhaà taạ o neộ n cảnh tượng lung linh. Vớái hớn 300
naặ m hĩành thaà nh vaà phaá t trieể n, Saà i Goà n ngaà y nay coá nhieầ u thay đoể i đeể trớả thaà nh moộạ t trong nhưũng
trung tâm kinh tế và chính trị cuả a caả nướác. Đieầ u deễ nhaộạ n ra laà nhưũng tòa nhà cao tầng ớả đaộ y
moạ c leộ n ngaà y caà ng nhieầ u. Mua saắ m laà moộạ t trong nhưũng hoaạ t đoộạ ng yeộ u thĩách cuả a du khaá ch đeố n
Saà i Goà n. Ngoaà i caá c khu chớạ, đaộ y cuũ ng laà nới coá nhieầ u trung taộ m thướng maạ i saầ m uaố t, mớả cưảa tưà
saá ng tớái toố i muoộạ n, đaá p ưáng khoộ ng chĩả nhu caầ u mua saắ m maà coà n caả aặ n uoố ng, giaả i trĩá.

2.2.4 Khu du lịch sinh thái Tràng An - naằ m trong quần thể danh thắng Tràng An, tĩảnh Ninh
Bĩành coá dieộạ n tĩách 2.168 ha, caá ch thuả đoộ Haà noộạ i hớn 90 km veầ phĩáa Nam, đaũ thưạc sưạ trớả thaà nh
điểm đến mơ ước cuả a nhieầ u du khaá ch trong vaà ngoaà i nướác. Toaà n caả nh khu sinh thaá i laà moộạ t
vùng núi non hùng vĩ vaà caá c hang đoộạ ng, caá c thung luũ ng hoang sớ, kyà bĩá vaà đeạ p đeố n laạ thướàng.

2.2.5 Đaà Naẵ ng hieộạ n nay đướạc bieố t đeố n như laà moộạ t điểm đến thú vị cuả a du khaá ch trong vaà ngoaà i
nướác. Vớái noễ lưạc cuả a ngướài daộ n vaà chĩánh quyeầ n thaà nh phoố , Đaà Naẵ ng dướàng như đang mang bộ
mặt mới so vớái caá ch đaộ y 10 naặ m. Đướàng phoố đaũ đướạc mớả roộạ ng, xanh hớn, saạ ch hớn. Nhieầ u toaà
nhaà , khaá ch saạ n cao taầ ng moạ c leộ n khaắ p nới. Tuy nhieộ n, đieể m nhaố n cuả a thaà nh phoố laà nhưũng caộ y
caầ u mớái đeạ p vaà hieộạ n đaạ i.


Language Focus: Environment and Nature

Study the following words, phrases and find the Vietnamese equivalents to them.
-rainfall -thunderstorms
-drought -hurriances
-a shooting star -global temperatures
-space junk -sea levels
-space missions -coastal cities
-grass fires -global warming
-trained firefighters -floods and resulting landslides
-exporter of wood and paper -hardest hit countries
-lightning -mountain villages
-National Earthquake Information Centre in Golden -intense rain
-The magnitude 6.8-quake -affected countries
-in serious condition -estimate thousands of millions of dollars of
-hospital treatment for minor injuries -damage
-tornadoes -overflowing rivers
-‘twisters’ -Roads and railroads are underwater
-whirlwinds -historic city of Dresden
-one side of the world’s climate changes -reached its highest level


Listen to some talks about environmental and natural issues. Use memorizing and note-
taking techniques to interpret the talks into Vietnamese.


The Amazon River is the second longest river in the world. It also gets a lot of rainfall, this is
why it holds the largest amount of water in one place. However, the Amazon has recently been
facing drought. A lot of fish and animals have been dying because of the disappearing water.
This is a very big problem as many people depend on the water of the Amazon. Scientists do
not really why this is happening but they suspect global warming and pollution are the main


In June 2003, people saw a bright light in the sky above Tasmania in Australia. Nobody knew
where it came from. Some thought it was a shooting star, but others thought it was space
junk. Some scientists are worried about junk on earth. But other scientists are worried about
junk in space. There is a lot of junk in space. Scientists know of 9,000 pieces of junk. There are
three questions people ask: Is this junk dangerous for people on space missions? Is it
dangerous for people on earth? Is there anything we can do about it? Space junk hasn’t hurt
anyone yet. But it may hurt someone in the future. Scientists are keeping records of Scientists
know what to do about it, but nobody wants to do anything because it could cost too much.


There are thousands of forest fires in Canada every year. It’s not surprising because there are a
lot of forests in Canada. Canada spends millions of dollars fighting there fires. The fires usually
start in April with grass fires. Then in May or June the forest fires begin. By September, about
2,000 square kilometers burn with 9,500 fires across the country. During those six months
Canada hires hundreds of firefighters. Some are trained firefighters. Others are college
students who need a job. The government spends millions of dollars protecting the trees. And
with good reason: Canada is forest nation. It is the world’s largest exporter of wood and
paper. More than half of the fires (58%) are caused by humans. The rest are caused by
lightning. We know that as long as there is fire, there will be forest fires.


A strong earthquake hit Seattle at 10.54 a.m on Wednesday. According to the National
Earthquake Information Centre in Golden, the magnitude 6.8-quake was centred 125
kilometres southest of Victoria and 56 kilometres southwest of Seatle. About 250 people were
reported injured in Seattle and Olympia; at least three of them are in serious condition. In
Victoria, the earthquake caused buildings to sway and shook pictures off walls, but damage was
minimal. K. Smith who was on the eighth floor of a downtown Victoria office building: I thought
the building was going to sway and topple over”, yet other didn’t feel a thing. A spokesman said
that at least two local people had hospital treatment for minor injuries.


Tornadoes, sometimes called ‘twisters’, are whirlwinds with speeds of up to 400 km per hour.
In the USA there are 1,000 tornadoes every year. They look fascinating and dramatic when
we’re watching them on TV, but they can kill. In Britain, there were very few tornadoes in the
past, now there are more than 50 tornadoes a year. Tornadoes are only one side of the world’s
climate changes, there are many others. The number of thunderstorms is increasing and
there are more hurriances. There are more floods in some parts of the world, and there’s
much less rain in others. We know these things happen because global temperatures are
rising, and many people believe the weather will get worse in the future. The problem of
climate change won’t go away unless we do something about the causes.

Scientists still do not know enough about the reasons for these temperature changes. Some say
that these types of climate changes are natural, but most scientists think human activity is the
problem. Cutting down trees, burining too much oil, and the increase in the number of cars and
planes are some of the things that cause the problems. Scientists believe that if the
temperatures continue to rise, the ice at the poles will melt. If the ice melts, sea levels will rise.
Some islands might disappear completely, and there might be floods in coastal cities. All this
means that unless we do something to stop global warming now, there may be many other
dramatic changes in the future.


Severe weather is affecting people in many countries. In areas of south and east Asia, about 700
people have been killed in floods and resulting landslides during the past months. The
hardest hit countries include North and South Korea, Vietnam, India, Nepal and Bangladesh.
In India, the flooding is the worst the country has experienced in 25 years. Areas in Assam and
Bihar states have suffered from heavy rains and flooding. 20 million people have been
affected. Indian officials say more than 300 people have died as a result of the weather
conditions. The number of deaths in Nepal is even higher. More than 400 people have been
killed in flood and landslides in mountain villages there. Another 150 people have died in
similar weather in Bangladesh. Flooding was also severe in China this year where about 900
people have died.

The intense rain has also done great damage in Austria. Other affected countries include
Italy, Spain, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, Hungary and Ukraine. Officials estimate
thousands of millions of dollars of damage across Europe. The rain and overflowing rivers
also have damaged hundreds of smaller towns and villages in the Czech Republic. Roads and
railroads are underwater in a number of places. Bridges have been carried away by water.
Czech officials estimate hundreds of millions of dollars in damage. The rain floods are also
damaging parts of Germany. Thousands of people have been removed from the historic city of
Dresden. The Elbe River in Dresden reached its highest level in more than 150 years.


Listen to the following pieces of news in Vietnamese and do the inerpretation into English.

3.2.1 Tĩành traạ ng oộ nhieễ m taạ i thaà nh phoố Hoầ Chĩá Minh đaũ đến mức báo động (to be at alarming
level/ to reach alarming level). Haà ng ngaà y khi bướác chaộ n ra đướàng moạ i ngướài cho duà laà giaà hay
treả , baố t keể laà nam hay nưũ đeầ u phaả i thủ saẵ n cho mĩành moộạ t chieố c khaể u trang đeể tưạ baả o veộạ mĩành
trướác khoá i xe vaà buạ i baặạ m.
3.2.2 Lieộ n Hieộạ p Quoố c ướác tĩánh 1 trieộạ u ngướài daộ n Pakistan đang biạ aả nh hướảng bớải đợt lũ lụt tồi tệ
naà y ( severe flood/ severe flooding). Hớn 3,700 ngoộ i nhaà biạ cuoố n troộ i (carry/wash away), moộạ t
dieộạ n tĩách lớán đaố t canh taá c ( a large area of farming/ cultivation/ agricultural land) biạ nhaố n chĩàm
trong bieể n nướác (to be underwater). (intense rain/ heavy rain) Mưa như truá t nướác tieố p tuạ c gaộ y
lớả (landslide) đaố t treộ n dieộạ n roộạ ng, coộ laộạ p nhieầ u vuà ng daộ n cư (residential areas/ neighboouhoods).
Nướác luũ cuũ ng phaá huả y hoaà n toaà n ĩát nhaố t 45 caộ y caầ u. Malakand laà huyeộạ n biạ aả nh hướảng naặạ ng neầ
nhaố t vớái 102 ngướài thieộạ t maạ ng.
(Báo Tuổi Trẻ 2/8/2010)
3.2.3 Động đất kép ở Indonesia
IÁt nhaố t 1.000 ngướài treộ n đaả o Sumatra, Indo đaũ thieộạ t maạ ng vaà biạ thướng trong trận động dất
mạnh 7,6 độ Richter (7.6-Richter-scale earthquake) tĩánh đeố n chieầ u 1/10. Cuà ng ngaà y, nhaộạ t baá o
Jakarta Post cho bieố t moộạ t traộạ n đoộạ ng đaố t khaá c maạ nh 6,8 đoộạ Richter đaũ xaả y ra ớả thaà nh phoố Jambi
treộ n quaầ n đaả o naà y gây ra thêm một số thiệt hại mới. Theo Bộ trưởng Y tế Indonesia, ướác đoaá n soố
naạ n nhaộ n coà n coá theể tăng hơn trên 1.000 người.
( /2 / 10/ 2009)
3.2.4 Giờ Trái đất laà sưạ kieộạ n quoố c teố haà ng naặ m do Quỹ Quốc tế Bảo vệ thiên nhiên phaá t đoộạ ng.
Vớái muạ c đĩách khuyeố n khĩách, keộ u goạ i caá c hoộạ gia đĩành vaà cớ sớả kinh doanh taắ t đeà n đieộạ n vaà caá c thieố t
biạ đieộạ n khoộ ng aả nh hướảng lớán đeố n sinh hoaạ t trong 1 giớà, tưà 8 giớà 30 đeố n 9 giớà 30 toố i (giớà điạa
phướng) ngaà y thưá baả y tuaầ n thưá 3 cuả a thaá ng 3 haà ng naặ m. Sưạ kieộạ n Giớà traá i đaố t baắ t đaầ u tưà naặ m
2007 ớả Sydney (Australia), soố ngướài tham gia chĩả khoaả ng 2 trieộạ u ngướài. Sưạ kieộạ n naà y nhaằ m nâng

cao nhận thức cho cộng đồng trong vieộạ c tieố t kieộạ m đieộạ n naặ ng, giảm lượng khí thải CO2
(carbon emission) ra moộ i trướàng.
( 26 / 3/ 2018)

3.2.5 Ngaà y 12/6 toể ng soố ngướài cheố t do lớả đaố t, lũ và sét đánh (thunderstorm/ lightning) taạ i mieầ n
đoộ ng nam Bangladesh đaũ leộ n đeố n 107 ngướài. Hớn 50 ngướài vaễ n coà n mất tích (missing). Khu
vưạc biạ aả nh hướảng naặạ ng nhaố t laà moộạ t khu ổ chuột đông đúc (a crowded slum) ớả thaà nh phoố
Chittagong nhieầ u đoầ i nuá i. Nhieầ u khu vưạc cuả a Chittagong vaễ n tieố p tuạ c mất điện hoặc nước (to
suffer power and water cut) do caá c trạm cấp điện và nước (power and water stations/ plants)
biạ nhaố n chĩàm trong nướác luũ . (BBC News, 12/06/2007)

- Search for more practice of listening and interpreting from the following website:


Language to focus: Health Issues


Study the following words, phrases and find the Vietnamese equivalents to them.

-heart disease - be attended by a trained health care worker

-stretching exercises -leading preventable cause of death
-well-being foods -heart disease, stroke
-losing weight all of a sudden -American Cancer Society
-sugary snacks, sugary drinks -esophagus, kidney, bladder and pancreas
-sugar-free juices -Smokeless tobacco, cigars
-Whole-grain bread, pasta -rates of infection
-Sumo wrestlers -economic, social, political and military systems
-burns off the calories -the highest estimate of any country
-calorie concentration -Risky sexual activity
-high/ medium/ low in calories -High-risk groups
-discover a sensible balance -to increase public understanding
-severe health care crisis -the release of soldiers from the armed forces
-a serious lack of health care workers -public health services
- in limited supply -illegal drug use
-Repairs at health centers -the release of large number of infected prisoners
-sufer from poor nutrition -rising number sex workers
-die during childbirth -unsafe methods in the collection and sale of blood


4.1.1 Listen to the following small talks in English on healthy living. Use note-taking
techniques and interpret into Vietnamese.

Exercising can be one of the best things you can do for yourself. Lack of exercise can cause you
a lot of problems, such as heart disease. If we do not use our muscles, then we will become
weaker and can face problems later. Exercising does not have to be in the gym. We take a walk
in the park, or skip rope in our backyard. We can even just do some stretching exercises. So
long as we move our muscles, we are exercising.

Everyone is talking about how to be healthy. People are trying to lose weight and eat well-
being foods. But before we simple buy any well-being food that we see, we should always learn
about it before trying it. We need to control our food slowly. Being healthy does not mean
losing weight all of a sudden. We also need to start exercising bit by bit. It can be dangerous
to have a sudden change in our body or daily life.
Eating well is so important these days. There are so many choices and so many different ideas
about what is healthy and what is not, so it can get a little confusing. If you want to live a long
and healthy life, you need to watch what you eat. Too many sugary snacks, sugary drinks rot
your teeth and could make you gain weight. So it’s better to eat fruit and vegetable sticks
between meals, or drink water or sugar-free juices. Also you should try to avoid fatty foods

such as potato chips and pastries. Eat as many vegetables as you like, and eat a lot of fruit too.
Whole-grain bread and pasta are also good. If you combine this healthy eating with regular
exercise, you’ll live a long and healthy life.

Some people want to get fat – Japanese Sumo wrestlers, for example. Their typical meal is
called chakonabe, a mixture of rice, meat and vegetables. It’s healthy, but it has a lot of calories.
It’s difficult to thorow a very heavy man to the floor! This is why Sumo wrestlers eat a lot of
food and go to bed straight after eating. Some Sume wrestlers weigh 250 kilograms, a few of
them even 280 kilograms!
But most people want to keep their weight down. In Britain and the USA, doctors are worried
that a lot of teenagers are over weight. They often eat unhealthy food and spend a lot of time
sitting in front of the television or the computer.
Here’s some advice:
Have some vegetables or some fruit in every meal. Eat five small meals a day instead of two to
three large meals. It’s a good idea to eat snacks, but don’t eat a lot of sugar. Don’t eat fried food
very often. Have some rice or some pasta instead. Drink a lot of water. If you want a sweet
drink, have some fruit juice. So some exercise every day. Exercise burns off the calories and
makes you fit. So come on – get up and ride you bike, swim, run, go for walks. Finally,
remember – there’s not need to be skinny. Enjoy your food and have fun when you’re


Good morning, every one, and welcome to our regular programme on health issues. Today I’m
going to talk about ways of staying healthy and slim. Some people seem to eat to stay alive
while for other eating is a hobby. Do you enjoy your food? Are you careful about what you eat,
or do you eat what you enjoy? Here’s a very simple way to choose the foods that will keep you
slim and in shape and feeling great. And you don’t have to count calories. Let’s divide the main
types of food into three groups according to their calorie concentration.
Frist, we will use red for food that is high in calories. Secondly, we’ll use yellow for food that is
medium in calories. Then, we’ll use the green colour for the food that is low in calories. Now,
let’s look at the red group. You will find sugar, chocolate, cake, puddings, honey, jam, cream,
butter, chips, peanuts and soft drinks. Because these foods are high in calories, you should stop
and think before you eat them. In fact you should try to avoid them as much as possible. Moving
on to the yellow group, you will find fatty meats, sausages, liver, eggs, milk, cheese, nuts, wine,
beer and salt. When you eat these kinds of food, you should be careful and not to eat too much
of them. Then, we come to the last group, the green one. This group includes fresh fruit, salads,
vegetables, seefood, yogurt, skimmed milk, bread, low-calorie soft drinks, teas and water. When
you eat these foods, you can go ahead and eat lots of them.
You should use these 3 groups to discover a sensible balance that suits you. Remember, it is
easier to saty slim than to lose weight once you have put it on. A little care choosing what you
eat and enough regular exercise will go a long way to get you feeling great.

4.1.2 Listen to the following small talks in English about health issues. Use note-taking
techniques and interpret into Vietnamese.


Afghanistan is facing a severe health care crisis. There is not enough food, shelter and
clothing for all the people. There is also a serious lack of health care workers. In addition,
drugs, medical equipment and fuel are in limited supply. Repairs at health centers are also
needed. The World Health Organization estimates six-million people in Afghanistan cannot get
any health care.
Life expectancy for the people in Afghanistan is among the lowest in the world. Men live to be
about 45 years old while women live to be about age 47. Also, more than 25% of all children in
Afghanistan die before the age of five. More than half of these young children suffer from poor
nutrition. The WHO also says the number of women in Afghanistan who die during
childbirth is the second highest in the world. This is partly because fewer than 50% of all
births in the country are attended by a trained health care worker.
In the United States, about 47 million adults currently smoke. American health experts say
tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death nationwide. This year, more than
430,000 Americans will die of diseases linked to smoking. Smoking tobacco is the leading
cause of lung disease. Smoking also has been linked to heart disease, stroke and many kinds
of cancer. The American Cancer Society says smoking is responsible for more than 80% of all
lung cancers in the United States. The group adds that smoking is a major cause of cancers of
the mouth, esophagus, kidney, bladder and pancreas. Scientists have identified more than
40 chemicals in tobacco smoke that cause cancer in humans and animals. Smokeless tobacco
and cigars also have been linked to cancer.


A new American report warns that the rates of infection from the AIDS virus will rise sharply
in China, India, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Russia, by the year 2010. The report estimates that the
number of people infected in those countries could increase to between 50 million and 75
million. That is three times the number currently estimated. It also is far more than the number
of AIDS cases expected in central and southern Africa. That number is expected to increase to
as many as 35 million people.

The AIDS virus is spreading at different rates in the five countries. Risky sexual activity is
increasing infection rates in all five. The problem is reported to be most severe in Nigeria and
Ethiopia. For example, in Nigeria the virus has spread from high-risk groups to the general
population. Nigeria's government has attempted to increase public understanding of the
virus that causes AIDS. The report warns that the disease could affect one-fourth of all adults in
the country within eight years.

In Ethiopia, the release of soldiers from the armed forces has greatly influenced the
spread of the disease. The report says Ethiopia and Nigeria have few public health services to
fight the disease. The main cause of rising AIDS infection in Russia is illegal drug use. The
release of large number of infected prisoners and rising number of sex workers are
helping the disease to spread. In China, one reason the disease is increasing is because of
unsafe methods in the collection and sale of blood.


4.2.1 Soố t reá t (malaria) laà moộạ t trong nhưũng căn bệnh gây tử vong (deadly disease) cao nhaố t
treộ n theố giớái. Moễ i naặ m treộ n toaà n theố giớái coá khoaả ng 1 trieộạ u ngướài cheố t vĩà caặ n beộạ nh naà y. Đa soố
ngướài maắ c beộạ nh laà treả em soố ng ớả vuà ng nuá i taạ i caá c nướác đang phaá t trieể n. Moộạ t baá o caá o mớái đaộ y
cuả a toể chưác Y teố theố giớái cho bieố t caá c chướng trĩành choố ng soố t reá t (campaign against malaria/
anti-malaria campaign) đaũ khoộ ng đướạc thưạc hieộạ n trieộạ t đeể ớả nhưũng khu vưạc naà y.

4.2.2 Theo keố t quaả nghieộ n cưáu mớái cuả a Vieộạ n Sưác khoả e toaà n caầ u Barcelona (ISGlobal), ăn tối
sớm giuá p giaả m nguy cớ maắ c ung thư vú và ung thư tuyến tiền liệt. Keố t quaả nghieộ n cưáu cho
thaố y, nhưũng ngướài aặ n toố i trướác 21g coá nguy cớ maắ c ung thư vuá vaà ung thư tuyeố n tieầ n lieộạ t thaố p
hớn 20% so vớái nhưũng ngướài aặ n toố i sau 22g hoaặạ c đi nguả ngay sau khi aặ n toố i. Khaả o saá t naà y coá yá
nghĩũa trong vieộạ c hướáng daễ n phoà ng choố ng ung thư, trong đoá thớài gian duà ng bưũa toố i đoá ng vai troà
quan troạ ng. ( - 02/08/2018)

4.2.3 170 trieộạ u treả em treộ n toaà n caầ u biạ suy dinh dướũng. Đoá laà thoộ ng baá o cuả a Giám đốc Quỹ nhi
đồng Liên hiệp quốc Carol Bellamy taạ i phieộ n khai maạ c hoộạ i nghiạ quoố c teố ớả Pakistan ngaà y 15/11
nhaằ m baà n veầ caá c biện pháp cải thiện chăm sóc sức khoẻ cho trẻ em (measures/ ways to
improve children’s healthcare) toaà n caầ u. Theo baà Bellamy, tình trạng suy dinh dưỡng
(malnutrition/ poor nutrition) vaà thiếu hiểu biết (lack of childcare knowledge) đaũ laà m
gaầ n 10 trieộạ u treả em dướái 5 tuoể i treộ n theố giớái cheố t moễ i naặ m do các căn bệnh có thể ngăn ngừa
(preventable diseases) đướạc như sởi, tiêu chảy (measles, diarrhea). Hieộạ n coà n coá hớn 120
trieộạ u thanh thieố u nieộ n đa phaầ n laà caá c beá gaá i chưa bao giớà đướạc đeố n trướàng.

4.2.4. Theo ướác tĩánh cuả a WHO tưà nay đeố n naặ m 2010 taạ i caá c nướác chaộ u AÁ seũ coá khoaả ng 140 trieộạ u
ngướài maắ c bệnh tiểu đường (diabetes), trong đoá coá Vieộạ t Nam. Theo Giaá o sư Nguyeễ n Maạ nh
Phan, chuả tiạch Hội tim mạch thành phố Hố Chí Minh (Ho Chi Minh City Heart Association),
beộạ nh tieể u đướàng taặ ng nhieầ u nhaố t laà taạ i caá c thaà nh phoố lớán, ướác chưàng 5% daộ n soố .
4.2.5 Hoộạ i nghiạ toaà n caầ u veầ phoà ng choố ng caặ n beộạ nh theố kyả AIDS đaũ baắ t đaầ u laà m vieộạ c taạ i thuả đoộ
Mexico City cuả a Mexico sau nhưũng caả nh baá o raằ ng khaả naặ ng chieố n thaắ ng caặ n beộạ nh naà y coà n xa
vớài. Cho đeố n nay đaũ coá hớn 25 trieộạ u ngướài cheố t vĩà caặ n beộạ nh theố kyả AIDS keể tưà khi caặ n beộạ nh laầ n
đaầ u tieộ n xuaố t hieộạ n naặ m 1981. Hieộạ n coá khoaả ng 33 trieộạ u ngướài đang soố ng chung vớái caặ n beộạ nh naà y
vaà 90% trong soố đoá laà ớả caá c nướác ngheà o. Trong hai naặ m qua đaũ coá moộạ t noễ lưạc lớán đeể giuá p đớũ
nhưũng ngướài maắ c beộạ nh, nhưng đeố n nay mớái coá khoaả ng 3 trieộạ u beộạ nh nhaộ n đướạc tieố p xuá c vớái
thuoố c choố ng laạ i sưạ phaá t trieể n cuả a virus HIV. (Tuổi Trẻ 05/ 08/ 2008)

4.3. Group presentation

Pick up some pieces of news on the topic of health care and diseases in either English or
Vietnamese. Work in group of four or five, process the information and present it in your own way.
Have your friends in the same group interpret it into the target language.

- Search for more practice of listening and interpreting from the following website:


Language to focus: Progress and Life Quality

Study the following words, phrases and find the Vietnamese equivalents to them.

to measure the progress of nations market researchers GfK NOP

United Nations Human Development Program door-to-door surveys
yearly study respondents
made progress overall quality of life
lost progress the “very happy” stakes
problems with economic reforms got the wooden spoon
UN Food and Agriculture Organization key determinants
hunger and malnutrition reveal a link
malnourished children Less happy population
on the verge of starvation lower income groups or the unemployed
provided adequate aid financial security
poverty-stricken people Material comforts
diarrhea, malaria and measles gadgets
ranked comparatively low


Listen to the following talks in English, use memorizing and note-taking techniques to
interpret into English.

5.1.1. The United Nations Human Development Program has released its yearly study on the
quality of life for people around the world. The UN report was started in 1990 to measure the
progress of nations based on the lives of their citizens. This year’s report lists 173 countries. It
is based on the length of time citizens are expected to live, their education level and the amount
of money they earn. Norway was listed as the country providing the best quality of life for the
second year. It was followed by Sweden, Canada, Belgium, Australia and the United States. The
24 countries at the bottom of the list are all in Africa.
The report says many countries in East Asia have made progress since 1990. They include
China, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand and Malaysia. In Latin America and the Caribbean, as
many as nine countries improved since 1990. They include Chile, Costa Rica and Panama. At the
same time, many countries in Eastern and Central Europe and the Former Soviet Union lost
progress in the quality of life for their citizens. This was because of problems with economic
reforms. They include Russia, Ukraine, Moldova and Tajikistan.

5.1.2. According to a new report by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization, despite it being
the twenty-first century, hunger and malnutrition still kill six million children a year. A
surprising fact is that there are more malnourished children in sub-Saharan Africa today than
in the 1990s. The UN report says there were 107.4 million people on the verge of starvation
in 1992, a number that grew to 203.5 million in 2002.

The report states that hunger and malnutrition are the primary causes of poverty, illiteracy,
disease and deaths in developing countries. It also highlights that the developed world has not

provided adequate aid to the poverty-stricken people. Many children die from easily
preventable diseases such as diarrhea, malaria and measles.

5.1.3. According to a new survey undertaken by market researchers, Australians are the
happiest people in the world. The marketers conducted door-to-door surveys and interviews
with 30,000 people in 30 countries. They asked respondents how satisfied they were with
their overall quality of life. 46% of Australians proclaimed to be “very happy” and expressed
optimism about their future. Following them in the “very happy” stakes was the USA (40%),
Egypt (36%), India (34%) and the UK and Canada (32%). Hungary got the wooden spoon,
finishing the bottom of the happiness chart. 35% of its citizens said they were either
“disappointed” or “very unhappy”, followed by Russians at 30%.

The research demonstrated that money and age were key determinants in how happy people
are. Although the study could not prove money could buy happiness, it did reveal a link
between a lack of money and unhappiness. Less happy population were found among lower
income groups or the unemployed. The study suggested the older we become, the less happy
we are. Globally, teenagers are the happiest people. The age group with the lowest level of
happiness was 50-59 – only 16% of those in their fifties said they were very happy. The things
that make us happy include good health, financial security and a happy marriage. Material
comforts such as cars, clothes and gadgets ranked comparatively low.


Listen to the following pieces of news in Vietnamese, use memorizing and note-taking
techniques to interpret into English.

5.2.1. Hai trieộạ u ngướài biạ ngheà o do sóng thần. Đoá laà keố t quaả nghieộ n cưáu do Ngaộ n haà ng theố giớái vưàa
mớái coộ ng boố . Cuũ ng theo nghieộ n cưáu naà y tĩành traạ ng ngheà o khoể do soá ng thaầ n gaộ y ra seũ phaả i maố t
nhieầ u naặ m mớái khaắ c phuạ c đướạc. Traộạ n đoộạ ng đaố t hoộ m 26/12/2004 đaũ cướáp đi sinh maạ ng cuả a
273.000 ngướài vaà laà m 2 trieộạ u ngướài khaá c laộ m vaà o caả nh ngheà o đoá i. Indonesia biạ aả nh hướảng naặạ ng
neầ nhaố t vớái hớn 1 trieộạ u ngướài ngheà o.

5.2.2. Taạ p chĩá Economist vưàa công bố kết quả khảo sát chất lượng sinh sống cuả a 111 nướác treộ n
theố giớái dựa trên các tiêu chí như thu nhập bình quân đầu người, mưác đoộạ thaố t nghieộạ p, thớài
tieố t, tĩành hĩành sưác khoeả , an ninh, sự ổn định chính trị, bình đẳng giới tính, đớài soố ng gia đĩành,
coộạ ng đoầ ng, … Theo đoá , Ireland đướạc xeố p haạ ng cao nhaố t, keố đeố n laà Thuyạ Sĩũ, Na Uy, Luxemburg.
Caá c nướác chaộ u AÂ u chieố m đa soố trong top 10. Theo Economist thĩà Ireland laà nới sinh soố ng toố t
nhaố t nhớà hoộạ i tuạ đướạc caá c yeố u toố maà nhieầ u nướác haằ ng mong ướác như tĩả leộạ thaố t nghieộạ p thaố p, tự
do chính trị cuũ ng như bảo tồn được các giá trị truyền thống veầ đớài soố ng gia đĩành vaà coộạ ng
đoầ ng.
5.2.3. Viện Kinh tế và Hòa bình (Institute of Economics and Peace-IEP), coá truạ sớả taạ i Sydney,
Australia mớái coộ ng boố chỉ số Hòa bình Toàn cầu 2015 (Global Peace Index) taạ i 162 quoố c gia
vaà vuà ng laũ nh thoể theố giớái. Theo đoá , Vieộạ t Nam xeố p haạ ng 56 , cao hớn nhieầ u quoố c gia khaá c như: Myũ
(xeố p thưá 94), Trung Quoố c (xeố p thưá 124)... Baả ng xeố p haạ ng veầ chĩả soố Hoà a bĩành Toaà n caầ u naặ m
2015 treộ n đướạc xaộ y dưạng treộ n cớ sớả 23 tieộ u chĩá khaá c nhau tưà mức độ tội phạm bạo lực
(violence and crime rate) vaà chi tiêu quân sự (military spending) tớái moố i quan heộạ vớái caá c
nướác laá ng gieầ ng vaà toộ n troạ ng nhaộ n quyeầ n.
5.2.4. Baá o caá o veầ chĩả soố Phát triển con người (Human Development Index Report) naặ m 2006
cuả a UNDP đaũ nhaắ c tớái Vieộạ t Nam như moộạ t vĩá duạ thaà nh coộ ng trong lĩũnh vưạc phaá t trieể n con ngướài,
nêu bật tiến bộ của VN trong đaầ u tư nướác vaà veộạ sinh. HDI laà thướác đo toể ng hớạp cuả a ba yeố u toố
phaá t trieể n con ngướài: soố ng khoả e vaà soố ng laộ u (đo baằ ng tuoể i thoạ ), đướạc hoạ c haà nh (đo baằ ng tyả leộạ
bieố t chưũ ớả ngướài lớán – adult literacy rate vaà tyả leộạ nhaộạ p hoạ c ớả caá c caố p – enrolment rate at all
levels) vaà coá mưác soố ng toố t (theể hieộạ n qua mưác thu nhaộạ p).

5.3. Group presentation:

Pick up some pieces of news on the topic of Life quality and progress in either English or
Vietnamese. Work in group of four or five, process the information and present it in your own way.
Have your friends in the same group interpret it into the target language.

- Search for more practice of listening and interpreting from the following website:


Language to focus: Education Issues

Study the following words, phrases and find the Vietnamese equivalents to them.

- Fulbright grants -Fulbright scholars or “Fulbrighters”

- graduate students, to scholars and professionals living costs
Administrators -foreign governments and private
- - leaders in areas like business, technology and politics groups
- - Fulbright scholars or “Fulbrighters” -impressive progress
-living costs -closing the education gender gap
-foreign governments and private groups. -slipped backwards
-Fulbright grants -stayed in place
-graduate students, to scholars and professionals -rooted in culture and politics,
administrators -attitude towards education for women
-leaders in areas like business, technology and politics -to care for the younger siblings


Listen to the following talks in English about education issues, use memorizing and note-
taking techniques to interpret into Vietnamese.


Fulbright grants are given to graduate students, to scholars and professionals, and to
teachers and administrators. Today about 6,000 people each year receive the grants. People
come to the United States to study or teach, while Americans go to other countries. The
Fulbright program operates in about 150 countries. Around 275,000 people have taken part
over the past 60 years. Some have gone on to become Nobel Prize winners and leaders in areas
like business, technology and politics. Those who take part in the program are called Fulbright
scholars or “Fulbrighters”. They receive money for travel, education and living costs. The
program is paid for by the United States government and by foreign governments and
private groups.


The Homestay Programme is designed to promote friendship and language learning. We try to
provide the opportunity for cultural exchange between Canadians and international students
who attend the university. Local people open their homes to students so that they may
experience an exchange of friendship across cultures. Many friendships that last a lifetime
have developed from these stays. All kinds of families participate in this Homestay Programme.
There are single people with or without children, as well as coulpes with or without children.
They are Canadians of many races and cultures, for example, they may be originally from
Asian countries, so do not expect that your hosts will be Caucasian. But all hosts will speak
English fluently, but some may have accents. The homestay coordinator has visited each
family and provides information on the programme and explains the responsibilities of the
host. They look for people who are kind and frineldy and enjoy meeting students from other

countries. They make sure the hosts understand that this programme is not designed for their
financial gain. If you are interested, you can apply for this programme.


Today I’d like to talk about how to be a successful student. First, you should discover who you
are and what you want to be. We all have our own personalities, qualities, characters and
relationships. All those things together make us who we are. It’s time to ask yourself: what kind
of person do you want to be? Then ask yourself, what would you want to do? And what would
your future look like? How can you make your dream come true? One thing to do is to set a goal
and make a plan to achieve your goals.

We all know that good things don’t happen overnight, but you have to be prepared. Write down
your short-term goals and break them into weekly goals so you know exactly what you need to
do each week. You will be surprised how helpful this can be. Some projects are small and can be
completed in a day. But then, there are big projects like essays, reports, personal goals, …
difficult things that require planning, time and effort.
When you finish, you plan you shold start to do it. Once you get going, it’s much easier to
continue. You can reward yourself with a treat, for example some healthy snack or game, for
making progress on a project. You can work with a friend and encourage each other. You can
design your own study schedule and stick to it. But be in control. Don’t interrupt your study
time for phone calls or TV shows. When you finish studying, you should review and check all
completed tasks, mark unfinished tasks with a future date and get ready to do it the next day.


While some countries have achieved impressive progress towards closing the education
gender gap, others stayed in place or even slipped backwards. A new study of 132 countries
shows that the gender gap in education is especially wide in some parts of the Middle East,
South East Asia and sub Saharan Africa. In 51 countries where the education gender gap is
significant, 75 million fewer girls than boys are enrolled in school. For example, in Pakistan
almost all little boys go to primary school but fewer than half of girls do. The study also shows
that the differences in school enrolment rates are often rooted in culture and politics,
especially in attitude towards education for women. In India, for example, there’s a saying
that educating a girl is like watering your neighbour’s garden. Sometimes, girls have to leave
school early to get married or care for the younger siblings.


Listen to the following pieces of news in Vietnamese and interpret into English .

6.2.1 Theo baá o caá o mớái đaộ y cuả a Tổ chức văn hoá, khoa học, giáo dục LHQ (UNESCO) treộ n theố
giớái hieộạ n coá 100 trieộạ u ngướài mù chữ. Trong đoá 45,5% laà daộ n chaộ u AÁ Thaá i Bĩành Dướng. Caá c nướác
coá tyả leộạ muà chưũ cao nhaố t chaộ u luạ c naà y laà AẤ n đoộạ (34,6%), Bangladesh (6,8%), Pakistan (6,2%) vaà
Indonesia (2,4%).
Baả n baá o caá o coá teộ n laà Giám sát tình hình giáo dục toàn cầu 2006 (2006 Survey on Global
Education) cho bieố t caá c quoố c gia như Trung Quoố c, Brunei, Macao, Maldivies, Singapo vaà Thaá i
Lan seũ nhanh choá ng giaả m bớát soố ngướài muà chưũ do nhưũng noễ lưạc veầ giaá o duạ c cuả a mĩành. Theo
UNESCO, ngoaà i taá c đoộạ ng cuả a thieộ n tai, thĩà mưác hoạ c phĩá cao (high school fee, tuition fee), chaố t
lướạng giaá o duạ c keá m (poor education quality) vaà ngaộ n saá ch giaá o duạ c ĩát oả i (limited education
budget) đaũ đaể y tyả leộạ muà chưũ taặ ng cao.
( Thanh Niên, 05/ 09/ 2005)

6.2.2 Trong naặ m hoạ c 2007-2008, chĩánh phuả Bĩả dành 40 suất học boể ng toaà n phaầ n cho coộ ng daộ n
Vieộạ t Nam muoố n theo hoạ c caá c chướng trĩành đaà o taạ o thaạ c sĩũ vaà tieố n sĩũ (master and doctor/ Ph.D
program) phoố i hớạp taạ i caá c trướàng đaạ i hoạ c cuả a Bĩả. Hoạ c boể ng bao goầ m phuạ caố p haà ng thaá ng, veá
maá y bay khưá hoầ i, baả o hieể m y teố cớ baả n, hoạ c phĩá vaà caá c khoaả n leộạ phĩá baắ t buoộạ c khaá c. Trong moộạ t soố
trướàng hớạp, caá c chi phĩá nghieộ n cứu thực địa (field study) cuũ ng seũ đướạc hoễ trớạ. Theo ướác tĩánh,
hieộạ n nay coá khoaả ng hớn 38,000 hoạ c sinh Vieộạ t Nam đang hoạ c taộạ p taạ i caá c nướác treộ n theố giớái.

6.2.3 Ngaà y 4/1, Đại sứ quán Hoa Kỳ tại Việt Nam thoộ ng baá o Chướng trĩành hoạ c boể ng Fulbright laố y
baằ ng thaạ c sĩũ taạ i Myũ naặ m hoạ c 2017- 2018 (Fulbright Scholarship Program for master degree
for academic year 2017-2018). Hoạ c boể ng bao goầ m toaà n boộạ hoạ c phĩá, trớạ caố p haà ng thaá ng, veá
maá y bay khưá hoầ i đeố n Myũ vaà baả o hieể m y teố . Ngướài đướạc caố p hoạ c boể ng seũ theo hoạ c chướng trĩành
thaạ c sĩũ taạ i caá c trướàng đaạ i hoạ c Hoa Kyà baắ t đaầ u vaà o naặ m hoạ c 2017-2018. Chướng trĩành Fulbright
đướạc thaà nh laộạ p naặ m 1946 vớái nguoầ n taà i trớạ tưà chĩánh phuả Myũ vớái muạ c tieộ u tăng cường hiểu
biết lẫn nhau (enhance mutual understanding) thoộ ng qua trao đổi văn hoá và giáo dục
(cultural and educational exchanges).

6.3. Group presentation:

Work in group and process the information from an article on the topic of education (the article
will be given by the teacher or chosen by the class). Present the information in a form of a
speech or talk show. Students from the other groups will work as interpreters for the speaker.

- Search for more practice of listening and interpreting from the following website:


1. Moộạ t soố hoaạ t đoộạ ng đaá ng chuá yá trong sưạ kieộạ n naà y bao goầ m triển lãm vớái chuả đeầ Thiên nhiên
miền bắc nước Nga, vaà chướng trĩành hoà a nhaạ c cuả a caá c ngheộạ sĩũ thĩánh phoà ng noể i tieố ng. Nhưũng
Ngaà y Vaặ n hoá a Nga taạ i Vieộạ t Nam seũ dieễ n ra taạ i Haà noộạ i vaà thaà nh phoố Hoầ Chĩá Minh tưà ngaà y 5 đeố n
ngaà y 10/10.
2. Tuạ c leộạ ngaắ m hoa anh đaà o coá tưà thớài Nara caá ch đaộ y caả ngaà n naặ m, nhưng đeố n đaầ u theố kyả 17
cuả a thớài kyà Edo hoa anh đaà o mớái đướạc troầ ng phoể bieố n taạ i caá c coộ ng vieộ n taạ o thaà nh nhưũng
laà ng hoa anh đaà o, nới dieễ n ra caá c leễ hoộạ i hoa ngaà y nay. Trong caá c leễ hoộạ i, ngướài daộ n Nhaộạ t
thướàng toể chưác picnic, ngaắ m hoa, troà chuyeộạ n ca haá t caả ngaà y laễ n đeộ m. Hoạ thướảng thưác caá c
moá n aặ n truyeầ n thoố ng như sushi vaà uoố ng rướạu sake.
3. Leễ hoộạ i AẨ m thưạc vaà Vaặ n hoá a Chaộ u AÁ 2018 seũ laà moộạ t điểm nhấn đáng chú ý trong Naặ m du liạch
quoố c gia 2018 (National Touris Year) vớái chuả đeầ “Haạ Long Di saả n, Kyà quan – Đieể m đeố n thaộ n
thieộạ n” (Ha Long Heritag , Wonder – Friendly Destination) . Leễ hoộạ i naà y seũ đướạc toể chưác haà ng
naặ m nhaằ m thu huá t ngaà y caà ng nhieầ u du khaá c quoố c teố đeộ n vớái Vieộạ t Nam cuũ ng như đaá p ưáng
nhu caầ u vui chới - aể m thưạc cuả a ngướài Vieộạ t.
4. Đeố n thaặ m khu du liạch sinh thaá i Traà ng An, du khaá ch seũ traả i nghieộạ m tưàng cung baộạ c caả m xuá c,
khaá m phaá veả đeạ p tuyeộạ t vớài cuà ng vớái baầ u khoộ ng khĩá voộ cuà ng thanh loạ c. Sưạ keố t hoạ p cuả a caá c
loaạ i hĩành du liạch như: du lịch sinh thái, du lịch tâm linh, du lịch khám phá di tích lịch
sử, đaũ taạ o neộ n nhưũng tour du liạch phong phuá , haố p daễ n. Sưạ phuạ c vuạ nhieộạ t tĩành, chu đaá o, thaộ n
thieộạ n cuả a đoộạ i nguũ hướáng daễ n vieộ n vaà ngướài daộ n điạa phướng luoộ n laà m haà i loà ng du khaá ch.

5. Saà i Goà n khoộ ng chĩả noể i tieố ng bớải nhưũng toà a nhaà choạ c trớài hay nhưũng khu trung taộ m mua saắ m
traá ng leộạ , noá coà n đướạc bieố t đeố n vớái một nền ẩm thực phong phú, đa dạng. Caá c moá n ngon
khoộ ng chĩả đướạc phuạ c vuạ trong nhưũng nhaà haà ng, quaá n aặ n sang troạ ng maà ngay caả treộ n vĩảa heà .
Caá c moá n aặ n vaặạ t vĩảa heà Saà i Goà n coá moộạ t mưác giaá bĩành daộ n nhưng hướng viạ moá n aặ n ngon tuyeộạ t
maà ai đaũ tưàng neố m qua thĩà khoộ ng deễ daà ng queộ n đướạc.

6. Theo Bộ Xã hội Indonesia, soố ngướài thieộạ t maạ ng ớả Padang vaà caá c vuà ng xung quanh đaũ taặ ng
đeố n 529 ngướài. Nhieầ u trướàng hoạ c, khaá ch saạ n, beộạ nh vieộạ n vaà haà ng ngaà n ngoộ i nhaà bị sập hoàn
toàn coà n chôn vùi nhieầ u ngướài dưới đống đổ nát. Thoộ ng tin lieộ n laạ c bị cắt đứt vaà mưa lớán
đang gaộ y khoá khaặ n cho công tác cứu hộ vaà thống kê tổng thiệt hại trong vuà ng đoộạ ng đaố t.
7. Sưạ kieộạ n Giớà traá i đaố t baắ t đaầ u tưà naặ m 2007 ớả Sydney (Australia), soố ngướài tham gia chĩả
khoaả ng 2 trieộạ u ngướài. Sau đoá , nhớà caá c phương tiện truyền thông cuà ng vớái thông điệp ý
nghĩa thiết thực, đeố n nay đaũ coá hớn 1 tyả ngướài vaà gaầ n 4.000 thaà nh phoố treộ n theố giớái tham
gia. Maặạ c duà moễ i quoố c gia coá nhưũng hoạt động, tuyên truyền khaá c nhau, song taố t caả đeầ u
hướáng đeố n muạ c tieộ u chung nhaằ m nâng cao nhận thức cho cộng đồng trong vieộạ c tieố t kieộạ m
đieộạ n naặ ng, giảm lượng khí thải CO2 (carbon emission) ra moộ i trướàng.
8. Saá ng nay mưa tieố p tuạ c trút xuống thaà nh phoố sau khi taạ m ngớát vaà o toố i 11/6, gaộ y ngaộạ p luạ t trớả
laạ i ớả nhieầ u khu vưạc. Hieộạ n chưa coá baá o caá o veầ các vụ lở đất mới. Nhaà chưác traá ch đaũ sớ taá n
haà ng traặ m ngướài đeố n caá c trướàng hoạ c xaộ y baằ ng beộ toộ ng. (evacuate/ remove) Chĩánh phuả vaà

caá c toể chưác tưà thieộạ n đaũ phaộ n phaá t nướác vaà thưạc phaể m cho khoaả ng 1.000 ngướài biạ maố t nhaà
9. Theo nhaộạ n xeá t cuả a caá c chuyeộ n gia Nhaộạ t Baả n đeố n khaả o saá t tĩành traạ ng ô nhiễm môi trường
taạ i Vieộạ t Nam hoầ i thaá ng 7 vưàa qua, moộ i trướàng nướác ta coá nhieầ u vaố n đeầ nghieộ m troạ ng. Nạn ô
nhiễm nước, không khí và lượng rác thải gia tăng (increasing amount of garbage) laà moộạ t
soố vaố n đeầ raố t đaá ng lưu taộ m (major concern) cuả a Vieộạ t Nam.

10. Beộạ nh soố t reá t chuả yeố u do muỗi truyền, coá lieộ n quan chaặạ t cheũ vớái moộ i trướàng soố ng. ỞỞ Vieộạ t
Nam, beộạ nh naà y xaả y ra quanh naặ m, nhưng taộạ p trung nhaố t laà vaà o muà a mưa, beộạ nh lưu haà nh chuả
yeố u ớả vuà ng rưàng, cao nguyeộ n, đoầ i nuá i. Beộạ nh soố t reá t khi xuaố t hieộạ n, neố u khoộ ng coá nhưũng bieộạ n
phaá p ngaặ n chaặạ n kiạp thớài trong coộạ ng đoầ ng seũ gaộ y ra nhưũng tĩành traạ ng laộ y lan roộạ ng raũ i.

11. Caá c nhaà nghieộ n cưáu đaũ phaộ n tĩách dưũ lieộạ u tưà 621 trướàng hớạp ung thư tuyeố n tieầ n lieộạ t vaà 1.205
trướàng hớạp ung thư vuá . Beộ n caạ nh đoá , 2.000 ngướài khoộ ng biạ ung thư (caả nam laễ n nưũ) cuũ ng
đướạc đưa vaà o dưũ lieộạ u nghieộ n cưáu. Keố t quaả nghieộ n cưáu cho thaố y, nhưũng ngướài aặ n toố i trướác
21g coá nguy cớ maắ c ung thư vuá vaà ung thư tuyeố n tieầ n lieộạ t thaố p hớn 20% so vớái nhưũng ngướài
aặ n toố i sau 22g hoaặạ c đi nguả ngay sau khi aặ n toố i. Caá c taá c giaả cuả a nghieộ n cưáu lưu yá raằ ng, đieầ u
naà y coá theể taá c đoộạ ng maạ nh đeố n caá c neầ n vaặ n hoá a, chaẳ ng haạ n như ớả Nam AÂ u – nới ngướài daộ n coá
xu hướáng aặ n toố i treễ .

12. Baả ng xeố p haạ ng veầ chĩả soố Hoà a bĩành Toaà n caầ u naặ m 2015 treộ n đướạc xaộ y dưạng treộ n cớ sớả 23 tieộ u
chĩá khaá c nhau tưà mức độ tội phạm bạo lực (violence and crime rate) vaà chi tiêu quân
sự (military spending) tớái moố i quan heộạ vớái caá c nướác laá ng gieầ ng vaà toộ n troạ ng nhaộ n quyeầ n.
Theo baả ng xeố p haạ ng GPI 2015, chaộ u AÂ u laà khu vưạc coá nhieầ u quoố c gia hoà a bĩành nhaố t theố giớái.
Trong đoá , Iceland laà quoố c gia hoà a bĩành nhaố t theố giớái. Ngướạc laạ i, Syria laà nướác baạ o loaạ n nhaố t
theố giớái khi đưáng ớả viạ trĩá 162 trong baả ng xeố p haạ ng.

13. Theo ướác tĩánh, hieộạ n nay coá khoaả ng hớn 38,000 hoạ c sinh Vieộạ t Nam đang hoạ c taộạ p taạ i caá c nướác
treộ n theố giớái. Hoạ c sinh, sinh vieộ n Vieộạ t Nam thướàng mong muoố n đi hoạ c taạ i caá c nướác Anh, Myũ,
Canada, Australia. Gaầ n đaộ y hoạ coá xu hướáng đi sang caá c nướác chaộ u AÁ như Nhaộạ t Baả n, Trung
Quoố c, Haà n Quoố c, Singapore, Thaá i Lan, Malaysia. Ngoaà i ra coà n moộạ t soố nướác khaá c ớả chaộ u AÂ u
như Phaá p, Đưác, Haà Lan, Thuyạ Sĩũ, Nga. Thoộ ng tin tưà caá c cuoộạ c trieể n laũ m du hoạ c cho thaố y soố
ngướài muoố n hoạ c taạ i Myũ chieố m khoaả ng 26,3%, Anh 18,7%, Australia 10%, Singapore 9% …

14. Chướng trĩành Fulbright đướạc thaà nh laộạ p naặ m 1946 vớái nguoầ n taà i trớạ tưà chĩánh phuả Myũ vớái
muạ c tieộ u tăng cường hiểu biết lẫn nhau (enhance mutual understanding) thoộ ng qua
trao đổi văn hoá và giáo dục (cultural and educational exchanges). Chướng trĩành
Fulbright khuyeố n khĩách caá c ngaà nh khoa hoạ c xaũ hoộạ i vaà nhaộ n vaặ n như Hoa Kyà hoạ c, giaá o duạ c,
truyeầ n thoộ ng, baá o chĩá, quan heộạ quoố c teố , coộ ng taá c xaũ hoộạ i, chĩánh saá ch coộ ng, kinh teố , sưác khoeả
coộạ ng đoầ ng, giaả ng daạ y tieố ng Anh, nghieộ n cưáu veầ giớái vaà phuạ nưũ… Ướác tĩánh haà ng naặ m coá
khoaả ng 20 -25 hoạ c boể ng du hoạ c toaà n phaầ n đướạc trao taặạ ng. Keể tưà naặ m 1992, coá khoaả ng 500
sinh vieộ n Vieộạ t Nam đaũ đướạc choạ n lưạa tham gia chướng trĩành.

15. Nghieộ n cưáu mớái đaộ y cuả a caá c nhaà khoa hoạ c Haà Lan cho thaố y nhưũng ngướài thướàng xuyeộ n tieố p
xuá c vớái khoộ ng khĩá biạ oộ nhieễ m seũ coá nguy cớ qua đớài sớám hớn so vớái nhưũng ngướài khaá c. Theo
như 22 nghieộ n cưáu veầ sưác khoả e cuả a 367.000 ngướài ớả 13 quoố c gia Taộ y AÂ u, caá c chuyeộ n gia
thuoộạ c Đaạ i hoạ c Utrecht, Haà Lan, cho bieố t coá khoaả ng 29.000 ngướài đaũ cheố t trong giai đoaạ n tưà
naặ m 1990 cho đeố n nay.

16. Theo baá o caá o mớái nhaố t cuả a Chương trình Liên Hợp quốc về HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) vaà Toể
chưác Y teố theố giớái (WHO), trong naặ m 2006 theố giớái laạ i coá theộ m 4,3 trieộạ u người nhiễm mới
HIV, trong đoá coá 3,8 trieộạ u laà ngướài lớán vaà hớn 500 ngaà n treả em dướái 15 tuoể i. Đeố n naặ m 2007,
theố giớái đaũ đướng đaầ u vớái AIDS đuá ng 26 naặ m. Nhiều việc đã làm, nhiều nghiên cứu đã triển
khai, nhiều tiền của đã được chi ra, nhiều lực lượng đã được huy động… Taố t caả chĩả đeể ngaặ n
chaặạ n loaạ i vi rút quái ác naà y.

17. Nhưng dướàng như nhưũng gĩà con ngướài laà m mớái chĩả laà bướác đaầ u, daễ u raằ ng ớả moộạ t vaà i nới, “toố c
đoộạ ” laộ y lan cuả a diạch HIV đaũ biạ chaộạ m laạ i. Khu vưạc Sahara cuả a Chaộ u Phi vaễ n laà nới biạ HIV taố n
coộ ng naặạ ng neầ nhaố t, hieộạ n vaễ n chieố m 63% toố ng soố ngướài đang mang HIV cuả a theố giớái; 72% soố
ngướài cheố t do AIDS trong naặ m 2006 laà ngướài daộ n cuả a khu vưạc naà y.

18. Baá o caá o cuả a UNAIDS vaà WHO nhaộạ n xeá t, quan hệ tình dục cùng giới, tình trạng mua bán
dâm không an toàn laà nhưũng yeố u toố laà m taặ ng diạch HIV/AIDS ớả Đoộ ng Nam AÁ . Taạ i Trung
Quoố c, nướác đoộ ng daộ n nhaố t theố giớái, trong naặ m 2006 maặạ c duà caá c cớ quan chưác naặ ng đaũ coá
nhưũng noễ lưạc lớán trong vieộạ c taặ ng cướàng caá c bieộạ n phaá p chưũng laạ i diạch, nhưng diạch HIV vaễ n
tieố p tuạ c laộ y lan trong caá c nhoá m coá nguy cớ cao nhaố t như: ngướài tieộ m chĩách ma tuyá, ngướài
baá n daộ m vaà tưà đoá laộ y ra coộạ ng đoầ ng. Baằ ng chưáng laà soố phuạ nưũ nhieễ m HIV ngaà y caà ng taặ ng leộ n.

19. Hieộạ n taạ i ướác tĩánh coá 7,5 trieộạ u ngướài biạ nhieễ m HIV ớả chaộ u AÁ TBD. Caá c chuyeộ n gia y teố cho raằ ng
beộạ nh AIDS đang laộ y lan ớả caá c nướác chaộ u AÁ nhanh hớn baố t kyà khu naà o treộ n theố giớái.Chĩả coá 3
nướác coá tĩả leộạ nhieễ m beộạ nh AIDS hớn 1%, moộạ t soố nướác khaá c coá tĩả leộạ nhieễ m cưạc cao ớả moộạ t soố
nhoá m daộ n cư.

20. Theo caá c chuyeộ n gia, coá raố t nhieầ u nguyeộ n nhaộ n laà m laộ y lan caặ n beộạ nh AIDS ớả khu vưạc naà y bao
goầ m: quan heộạ tĩành duạ c khoộ ng an toaà n, sưả duạ ng ma tuá y, cho vaà baá n maá u khoộ ng an toaà n. Hoạ
cho raằ ng tĩành hĩành nhieễ m beộạ nh khoộ ng chĩả giớái haạ n trong caá c nhoá m coá nguy cớ cao naà y. Vieộạ c
laộ y lan beộạ nh AIDS đeố n caá c nhoá m daộ n thướàng seũ sớm xaả y ra. Caá c nướác chaộ u AÁ TBD caầ n coá
ngay nhưũng chướng trĩành phoà ng choố ng AIDS hieộạ u quaả đeể coá theể ngaặ n ngưàa sưạ buà ng phaá t
naà y.

21. Vieộạ t Nam vưàa đướạc toể chưác News Economics Foundation (NEF) coá truạ sớả ớả Anh xeố p vaà o top
5 nướác haạ nh phuá c nhaố t theố giớái naặ m 2009 vaà laà nướác chaộ u AÁ duy nhaố t coá maặạ t trong top
10.Theo baả ng xeố p haạ ng “Happy Planet Index” (Chĩả soố Haà nh tinh Haạ nh phuá c - HPI) cuả a NEF,

Costa Rica laà nới haạ nh phuá c nhaố t đeể soố ng. Con ngướài taạ i Costa Rica, quoố c gia Myũ Latinh chĩả
coá 5 trieộạ u daộ n, đướạc cho laà coá caá c chĩả soố haà i loà ng veầ cuoộạ c soố ng cao nhaố t theố giớái.
22. Ngoaà i đưáng đaầ u veầ chĩả soố haạ nh phuá c, Costa Rica coà n đưáng thưá hai veầ tuoể i thoạ - chĩả sau
Canada. Đieầ u ngaạ c nhieộ n laà trong Top 10 quoố c gia coá chĩả soố HPI cao nhaố t, coá đeố n 9 nướác Myũ
Latinh (9 out of 10 countries with the highest HPI rankings): Sau Costa Rica laà Dominica,
Jamaica, Guatemala, Colombia, Cuba, El Salvador, Brazil vaà Honduras.

23. HPI đướạc xem laà caá ch đaá nh giaá toố t hớn caá c chĩả soố như GDP (Toể ng saả n phaể m noộạ i điạa) hay HDI
(Chĩả soố phaá t trieể n con ngướài). Nhưũng khaá c bieộạ t theể hieộạ n qua HPI cho thaố y, con ngướài vaễ n coá
theể soố ng thoạ vaà haạ nh phuá c nhưng taá c đoộạ ng đeố n moộ i trướàng ĩát hớn. Theo nghieộ n cưáu naặ m
nay cuả a NEF, ngướài daộ n ớả Myũ Latinh tieộ u thuạ ĩát taà i nguyeộ n hớn vaà coá cuoộạ c soố ng gia đĩành cuà ng
nhưũng moố i gaắ n keố t xaũ hoộạ i toố t đeạ p hớn so vớái caá c nướác phướng Taộ y.

24. Vieộạ t Nam xeố p ớả viạ trĩá thưá 5 veầ chĩả soố haạ nh phuá c vaà laà quoố c gia chaộ u AÁ duy nhaố t coá maặạ t trong
top 10 naà y. ỞỞ chaộ u AÁ , Trung Quoố c đưáng thưá 20 trong baả ng xeố p haạ ng HPI, Singapore thưá 49,
Haà n Quoố c thưá 68, Nhaộạ t Baả n thưá 75. Nướác giaà nh viạ trĩá cao nhaố t cuả a khu vưạc chaộ u AÂ u laà Haà
Lan - soố 43. Myũ đưáng 114 trong soố 143 quoố c gia đướạc nghieộ n cưáu trong danh saá ch naà y.

25. HPI khoộ ng tĩánh đeố n khĩáa caạ nh giaà u coá laà m tieộ u chuaể n haạ nh phuá c duy nhaố t, maà taộạ p trung vaà o
caá c nhaộ n toố khaá c như tuoể i thoạ , mưác đoộạ thoả a maũ n cuoộạ c soố ng cuả a ngướài daộ n so vớái mưác đoộạ
tieộ u hao taà i nguyeộ n vaà khaả naặ ng taá i taạ o cuả a heộạ sinh thaá i.

1. Gentile, A., Ozolins, U. & Vasilakakos, M. (1996). Liaison Interpreting: A Handbook. Carlton
South, Victoria: Melbourne UP.
2. Ginori, L., Scimone, E. (1995). Introduction to Interpreting: Background Notes to Interpreting
as a Profession in a Multicultural Society. Bexley, N.S.W.: Lantern Publications.
3. Hung, N., (2007). Huong Dan Ky Thuat Phien Dich Anh-Viet, Viet-Anh. Ho Chi Minh City
Publishing House.
4. Slater, S., Millen, D., and Tyrie, P. (2003), IELTS on Track. Ho Chi Minh City Publishing House.
5. Tan, L. (2006). IELTS- Listening Strategies for the IELTS Tests. Ho Chi Minh City Publishing
6. Puchta, H., Stranks, J. English In Mind 1, 2, 3. Cambridge Unviersity Press.
7. English From A to Z
8. Bin, L. Y., (2010). Basic IELTS Listening. Beijing Language and Culture Press.
9. e-listening TOELF IBT
10. m-listening TOEFL IBT
11. Various types of printed newspapers and magazines and online news.