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Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF

MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION


Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 1 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

RESEARCH PROPOSAL FORM

I. Research Title: The Factors That Contribute to Student's Decision in Taking

STEM Strand as Perceived by Senior High School Students

II. Name of Researcher :Juhn Lorenz P. Amandy

: Alaine P. Laiño

: Louie Mel P. Rojo

:Peter Cortez II

: John Carlo De Torres

Degree : Grade 11

Strand : STEM

Researcher's Contact Details : 09953127409

Name of Research Adviser :Pauline-Louise Raymundo

III. Research Proposal

a) Abstract of the proposal (maximum of 250 words)

b) Background
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 2 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

Rationale of the Research

When presented with opportunities to make significant decisions in their schools,

students almost always test adults through parroting teachers and others; saying only

what they think adults want to hear; and testing adults by offering the most outlandish

possibilities. In the most dramatic form of resistance, students simply refuse to do things

they have been taught to believe should be done for them (Kohn, 1993).

When we start thinking about our future profession and career choice, we think

about several factors. The most important things are job description, required skills and

education, salary, career outlook. But there are many other meaningful factors that can

influence someone’s career choice. In this article, we discuss some of these factors. It’s

important to take them into account when you have to make a decision about your

future work. You need to make the right choice, weigh the pros and cons and it will help

you to find your perfect career path. There are so many factors which influence the

future career choice and have the effect on different levels: personality and interests,

cultural background, economic and social conditions of life, and financial status (The

Telegraphy, 2012).

Several factors influence decision making. These factors, including past

experience, cognitive biases, age and individual differences, belief in personal

relevance, and an escalation of commitment, influence what choices people make.

Understanding the factors that influence decision making process is important to


Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 3 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

understanding what decisions are made. That is, the factors that influence the process

may impact the outcomes (Deitrich C., 2010a).

The present paper will address students'decision making in choosing a specific

strand (STEM). According to Cindy Deitrich (2010b),factors that influence decision

making, several heuristics commonly researched and utilized in the process of decision

making. Further, the paper will explore what happens after the decision is made, as well

as how present decisions impact future behavior and decision making. Finally, summary

will be offered, with implications for future research and practical application of decision

making skills in teen students. This will guide as a basis for future students choosing

their strand.

Purpose of the Research

The main objective of this study is to assess the factors that contributeto

student’s decision in taking STEM strand in Senior High School.

Specifically, the study aims to answer the following questions:

1. What are the advantages of taking STEM strand in SHS?

1.1 Wide range of courses in college

1.2 Skills

1.3 Academic subject centered


Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 4 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

1.4 Adequate facilities

2. What are the disadvantages of taking STEM strand in SHS?

2.1 Subjects are more complex

2.2 Difficulties in time management

2.3 Overpopulated

2.4 Teacher Factors

3. What are the basis of a students decision in choosing STEM strand in senior high

school?

3.1 Interests

3.2 Financial status

3.3 Family

3.4 Friends

3.5 Ambitions

3.6 Others

4. What are the problems encountered by SHS students while taking up stem strand?
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 5 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
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QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

4.1 Location of school

4.2 Difficulty in subjects especially in Mathematics

4.3 Tasks given

5. What are the enrollment strategies and campaign/s done by the school that may

affect a students decision in choosing STEM?

Theoretical framework

This presents the theories that the researcher used in this study. The theories

help the researcher as well as the reader to analyze the factors that influence a student

in taking up STEM strand.

The Theory of Reasoned Action

The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provides a good framework for examining

the determinants of behavioral intention and actual behavior for a student's decision to

choose a course in senior high school. The subjective norms component of the model

refers to the student's perceived approval or disapproval from social referent towards

changing profile content. Social referents (family/peers, social, cultural), have some type

of influence in regards to student's decision making. Social referents for the context of

this study include parents, friends, classmates as well as media. For these social

referents to have an impact on the decision to choose STEM or other other strands,
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 6 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

their opinion must be valued by the student. Moreover, to understand behavior change,

it is important to identify the relative importance of attitudinal and normative

considerations for the intention to choose a course or strand (Jocson, J.,Magtibay J.,

Monton M., Pagara L., andRosales K., 2015).

Social Cognitive Career Theory

Utilizing a longitudinal, nationally representative sample, this study proposes a

conceptual framework for understanding postsecondary STEM fields of study among

recent high school graduates. Integrating prior literature and the Social Cognitive Career

Theory (SCCT), the theoretical model hypothesis that students' high school exposure to

math and science courses, math self-efficacy beliefs, and high school math

achievement influence their intent to major in STEM fields also is directly influenced by

students' high school math achievement and initial postsecondary experience (Wang X.,

2012a).

Transactional Model of Stress and Coping

The Transactional Model of Stress and Coping (as cited in Health

Communication, 2017a) is a good framework for evaluating the processes of coping

with stressful events in senior high school. Stressful experiences are construed as a

person-environment transaction due to change in the person’s life events. These

transactions depend on the impact of external stressors. The difficulties of the students

in some aspects add to their level of stress. In order to cope with this students need to
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 7 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

adapt within the complexity of the environment they are into. When faced with a

stressor, a person evaluates the potential threat (primary appraisal). Primary appraisal

is a person’s judgment about the significance of an event as stressful, positive,

controllable, challenging or irrelevant. Facing a stressor, the second appraisal follows,

which is an assessment of people’s coping resources and options.

Secondary appraisals address what one can do about the situation. Actual

coping efforts aimed at regulation of the problem give rise to outcomes of the coping

process (Health Communication, 2017b).

Literature Survey

The state of research on STEM education represents substantial efforts by

researchers to form a better understanding of the underlying factors that influence

student success along the STEM pipeline.

However, too few studies, especially those using nationally representative

samples, have focused on understanding entrance into STEM fields of study. The

boosters and barriers to students choosing STEM majors are unclear. As a result,

knowledge is scant on how to broaden STEM participation, which is essentially the first

critical step toward building a viable STEM pipeline. This study addresses these

limitations by focusing on entrance into STEM fields and identifying the characteristics

and factors associatedwith student decision to pursue STEM majors which is related to

our study which also assesses the factors of choosing STEM (Wang X., 2012b).
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 8 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

Career choice is a complicated process and involves a wide range of individuals

including high students, family members, university administrators and public policy

makers. Understanding why and how potential candidates seek university education

and determining which factors affect their choices is an important area of study.

Exploring what students regard as important to them or what influences when they

choose a career path and institutions. When making choices for their higher studies,

students decide for their future lives and professions and also make an immense impact

on the future planning and direction (Jocson J., et al. 2015).

Reasons for students’ academic and career choice in science and technology

have been studied by several researchers. There are a number of factors that influence

students’ career choice into science and engineering. Despite the students’ high school

background: mathematics and science performance, Grade 11 & 12 course selection

and school science experience that might influence their choice of career, other factors

also significantly influence students' career choice: job characteristics, family influence

and family responsibility. The topic of this study is highly relevant to our study because it

tackles more on career or track choices (Wang X., 2012c).

Stem Education

The process of STEM education is about much more than simply incorporating

these four subjects into a core curriculum. The key to successful, effective STEM

education is the actual integration of these disciplines into a single “meta-discipline.”

STEM can be defined as the creation of a discipline based on the integration of other
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 9 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

disciplinary knowledge into a new ‘whole’. This interdisciplinary bridging among discrete

disciplines is now treated as an entity, known as ‘STEM’ (Curr Tech Innovations, n.d.a).

STEM education provides students with science, math, and engineering

technology in sequences that build upon each other and can be used with real-world

applications. The concept of STEM was first introduced by Judith A. Ramaley, the

former director of the National Science Foundation’s education and human resources

division. Since 2001, the acronym has been a regular part of the vocabulary used in the

world of education (Curr Tech Innovations, n.d.b).

According to (DRPF Consults, n.d.a) the National Science Foundation estimates

that 80% of the jobs available during the next decade will require math and science

skills. InTech reports that according to 10-year predictions by the U.S. Bureau of Labor

Statistics, 15 of the 20 fastest growing fields will require significant math and science

preparation.

Benefits

Since its implementation, critics have questioned the program’s ability to teach all

students equally. This argument is a difficult one to hold, since it has been proven that

the education system in general has been tailored to the needs of female students over

the past twenty-five years in its focus on verbal concepts. All students benefit from the

STEM program because it teaches independent innovation and allows students to

explore greater depths of all of the subjects by utilizing the skills learned; these skills are

going to be required in order for today’s students to be tomorrow’s global leaders. All

jobs are requiring workers to have a greater ability to think critically, work as a member
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 10 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

of a team and independently, and close the performance gap between our American

students and those being produced in other countries (DPRF Consults, n.d.b).

Parents

Parents want the best for their children. Parents can best support their students

by facilitating the decision making process. That doesn't mean making the decision for

them--even if you are footing the bill. But most decisions are influence by parents. Since

childhood, children value what their parents say and suggest. The respect to who is

refers something to students to a particular stand in an argument, decision making for

example, plays a huge part in influencing the decision maker. Students may also make

their parents as a model of their future career. Students tend to follow the footsteps of

their parents in some instances (Fioriello P., 2017).

Teacher

It is often said that a good teacher will inspire students to take up careers in

these subjects. They give advice, encouragement, and has the skills to teach efficiently.

Teachers, administrators, and school staff can be advocates for students while they are

in school. Good science teachers had a positive effect at persuading students to

continue with the sciences and also bad teachers can cause students to lose interest

and fail the subjects (Teach Hub, 2009).

Teachers may attract students to a subject or repel them because initially many

students assume that Mathematics and Science are unexciting or hard subjects.

Teachers are important in a variety of ways. They interpret the curriculum and they

interact with students on a daily basis. They influence the way students conceive of
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 11 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

subjects and because of their evaluations of performance, teachers influence how

students think about their own abilities (Cox J., 2009).

Interest in Field

Some students grow up knowing what they want to do in life. These are the

students who will go the extra mile to reach their dream job. However, students often

settle on a different path due to many factors they can’t control. Students will research

their chosen career path and explore everything about it. Science Technology

Engineering and Mathematics covers up a wide range of possible jobs in the future. For

students aspiring to be engineers, architects, doctors and many other STEM related

future jobs are what gets the interest of students which they find those jobs in demand

for a rising country with modern technology. However, there are a few students who

pursue their dreams (Mcglynn, 2007).

Abilities

Many students choose their track based on their abilities. However, some

students do not have the ability to succeed in some parts that may require more study

than other fields of studies. These students may find a better fit in a less work intensive

strand that requires fewer difficult classes. This affects the career paths of these

students. Other students have the ability to handle strands with greater workloads and

choose the career path that will lead to a college course they will fit in (Beggs, 2008).
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 12 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
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QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

Even though, the STEM field is quite challenging, these kind of education should

be the focus of many young professionals. These jobs offer the possibility to contribute

to the development of the current economy and drive innovation, which is a great

change for every young ambitious person. In addition to that, STEM jobs offer a very

lucrative salary, which is another motivator to take on such a position. However, there is

still a long-lasting gap between job offers and staffing because pursuing a career in the

STEM sector requires a specific skill set (Academy Cube, 2015).

Economic Stability

Many students believe that to live a comfortable lifestyle they need to be

economically stable. When these students look into a major or a career path, they seek

out the higher salary jobs or they look for majors that involve the most job security. The

11 financial aspects that students consider include high earning potential, benefits, and

opportunities for advancement. Given the current economy, many students think they

need a high paying job to make it in society these days. Along with stability during their

career, some students may even look ahead to retirement. Students want to make sure

they are secure for the rest of their lives, and may look into careers that have benefits to

help them in the long run (Wildman and Torres, 2008).

Outside Factors

There are many outside factors that can affect how a young man or woman will

choose their career. The environment in which a student grows up plays a vital role in
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 13 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

their choice of career path. If a student grows up in an environment where all young

men and women go straight to work after a high school, that student will be more likely

to go straight into the workforce as well . Some students have more opportunities than

others; some have scholarships to go to college, some have the connections to help

them go further, and some come from wealthier families. These things make it easier for

a student to choose any career path they might like, compared to a student who does

not have these opportunities (as cited by Darren Fizer, 2013).

Significance of the Research

The findings of this study will redound to the benefit of the society and the

students considering that the STEM education graduates will play an important role in

Science and Technology in the near future. The society is growing fast and becoming

more modern. The greater will be the demand for graduates with scientific and

mathematical knowledge justifies the need for more STEM students. The current and

the future senior high students are the major beneficiaries from this study. They will

have knowledge on what is needed in STEM education and also its privileges. This

study will be beneficial to the researchers as well as future researchers that will be

researching about the STEM education.

Definition of Terms

Acquire is used to mean “to achieve as a result of one’s action or behavior and to learn

or develop (a skill, habit or quality)” (Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, 1828).


Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 14 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

Analyze is used to mean “to examine methodically and in detail the constitution or

structure of typically purposes of explanation and interpretation” (Merriam-Webster’s

Dictionary, 1828).

Analysis is used to mean “detailed examination of the elements or structure of

something” (Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, 1828).

Behavioral intention is used to mean “a person’s perceived likelihood or subjective

probability that he or she will engage in a given behavior” (Merriam-Webster’s

Dictionary, 1828).

Cognitive bias is used to mean “a mistake in reasoning, evaluating, remembering, or

othercognitive process, often occurring as a result of holding onto one's preferences

and beliefs” (Merriam-Webster’sDictionary, 1828).

Demandis used to mean “a strong need for something” (Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary,

1828).

Essential is used to mean “absolutely necessary or extremely important” (Merriam-

Webster’s Dictionary, 1828).

Examining is used to mean “to investigate thoroughly” (Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary,

1828).
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 15 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

Perception is used to mean “to regard, understand, or interpret something; a mental

impression” (Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, 1828).

Privilege is used to mean “the unique advantages or the benefits that one can get from

something” (Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, 1828).

Scientifically literate is used to mean “to have knowledge and understanding of

scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision making, participation

in civic and cultural affairs, and economic productivity” (Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary,

1828).

Social referents is used to mean “people or group of people which someone may refer

to in his or her decision making” (Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, 1828).

Subjective norms is used to mean “the perceived social pressure to perform or not to

perform the behavior” (Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary, 1828).

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The focus of this study is on finding out the factors that contribute to student’s

decision in choosing stem strand in senior high school. At 16 years of age students are

capable of making realistic career decisions (as cited by Abegail Lane, 2013). Since

senior high students are at the stage of making decisions, they go through a process of

weighing the significance of various factors. Therefore, this study can provide some
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 16 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

information about factors influencing their academic and career decisions. The data that

will be gathered will be coming from the perception of senior high school students in the

means of interviewing. This study is limited focusing only in STEM strand and students

within it. Researcherswill be selecting some STEM students to participate in the data

gathering and interviewing for our study. Thus, the interview will be carefully conducted

to avoid exploiting personal information.

Statement of desired outcomes

By the end of this study, researchers will be able to report research findings on

current topics in a professional manner. Researchers will be able to know the factors

that contribute to students decision in choosing STEM strand. Students will have a basis

of knowledge on what factors is necessary to choose STEM as a strand. The study will

be effective for future researchers to use to aide them on their own study..

Target Beneficiaries of Research Results

Target Beneficiaries Total


1.Grade 11 students 3
2.Grade 12 students 3
3.Teachers/Professors
4.Future Researchers
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 17 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
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Description of method or approach

Research Design

This study utilized the phenomenological method. This method describe the

study of lived experiences. Also aims to determine why such creature (person,

organization, thing, or event) acts, behaves, occurs or exists in a particular manner. In

this study, it described the profile of the participants and it looked into the significant

difference and relationship in the factors that affect students’ decision in choosing their

senior high school course.

Data Gathering Procedures

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Research Instrument

Direct One-on-one Interview

The study will be administered to the selected students of senior high school in

Lucena, City. Researchers will use direct one-on-one interview to gather data for our

topic.

Prior to the social validity of the interview the researchers will first sought

permission from the research adviser. Upon the approval of the request, the
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 18 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

researchers will personally orient the participants with regard on how they will answer

the questions that will be given and the survey interview part. Researchers will conduct

a live one-on-one interview with the participant. Follow up questions will be asked to get

much clearer information.

Respondents/Units of analysis/Subjects of the Study

The grade 11 and grade 12 students will be the primary respondents to the study

that will be conducted. They will be the primary factors to get information. Researchers

chose them to be the respondents because they will be also the primary beneficiaries of

the study. Researchers will only include the information they will be giving and exclude

the personal information about them (age, social status, interest, etc) to provide the

respondents with a secure and confidential collection of data and interview.

Sampling Design and Procedures

The researchers used purposive sampling wherein they choose selected senior

high school participants in the STEM strand which also has the ability to correspond to

the subject of the research. By means of one-on-one interview to gain further

information. If the respondents withdraw from their participation in the study, the

information given by them won’t be used in the study. By doing so, the researchers will

be selecting another interviewee for the data gathering of the study.


Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 19 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

Assumptions or Hypotheses

Researchers assume that the main basis for a students choice and decision is

based on the social referents and the self basis. There are significant difference on the

factors in choosing a strand in senior high depending on the participants.There are also

significant difference on the factors in choosing a strand in senior high depending on the

participants.There are significant relationships between the factors that affect senior

high students’ decision making in the percent of the participants.Researchers also

assume that among all the factors that affect students’ decision in choosing their senior

high school course, parents and financial stability have the most significant impact on

the decisions students make.

Data Analysis Plan

In this study, researchers used descriptive type of research with participants from

senior high school grade 11 STEM strand. The data is gathered through the use of

direct interview. Thematic analysis is used to analyze the data and interpret the

information that is collected by the researchers. An audio recorder was used by them for

the interview to save the information and further understand the given data.

Research Paradigm/Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework shows the factors that contribute in choosing STEM

strand of the future and present senior high school students. The students will have go

through the process of decision making as they choose STEM strand. The students will
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 20 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

decide based on the 1) social referents (which are the influence or opinions of the

family, friends, peers, classmates or media) and 2) self based decisions (ambition,

interests, and financial status). The strategies and campaigns done by the school may

also be a basis if it influences the students’ decision. The advantages are considered as

a major factor in decision making as well as the disadvantages whether the student will

choose stem or not. The problems encountered are connected to the disadvantages.

BASIS CHOOSING STEM GR.10 AND


1)Social Referents STRAND 11
 Family STUDENT
 Friends S
 Peers
 Classmates
 Media
DECISION
2)Self-Basis
MAKING
 Ambitions DISADVANTAGE
 Interests  Complex
 Financial Subjects
Status  Time
ADVANTAGE Management
 College  Overpopulated
courses
 Skills
 Academic
Subjects PROBLEMS
Centered ENCOUNTERED
STRATEGIES AND  Facilities  School
CAMPAIGNS DONE BY Location
THE SCHOOL  Tasks Given
 Difficulty in
Math

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the study

Stematic representation (conceptual framework)


Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 21 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

c) References: The APA sixth edition style should be followed scrupulously


throughout. Please remain consistent with citation format throughout the proposal

IV. Research Governance and Ethics

Please describe how you will ensure that the


activity will be carried out to the highest
standards of ethics and research integrity.

Please describe how potential ethical health


and safety issues arising as part of this
research have been considered and how
they will be addressed.

Will the proposed research involve research


on animals, human participants, human
tissue or patient/participant data?

Has the proposed research been reviewed


by the research ethics committee of the
institution?

V.Expected Outputs and Deliverables (This refers to the products of the research
which would contribute and increase the stock of knowledge.)
Document Code: DCAVRKMI-F-GRPF
MANUEL S. ENVERGA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION
Lucena City Document Title: Undergraduate Research Proposal Form
An Autonomous University Page No.: Page 22 of 22
Revision No.: 2
DR. CESAR A. VILLARIBA RESEARCH AND Effectivity Date: July 2016
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE Prepared by: DCAVRKMI
Reviewed by: QMR
QUALITY FORM Approved by: President

VI. Target Beneficiaries of Research Results: (who and how many are the direct /
indirect beneficiaries of the study, what are the benefits that are likely to accrue in
the short or long term)

Target Beneficiaries Total


1.Grade 11 students
2.Grade 12 students
3.Teachers/Professors

VII. Dissemination Plan: (what is the plan for sharing / communicating research
results to different stakeholders / possible beneficiaries; please mention specific
activities)

Activities Strategy
1.
2.
3.

VIII. Activities
Activities Months
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

IX.Curriculum Vitae of the Researcher

Description of the competence, qualifications and experience of the researcher

X. Research Instruments