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Thesis

SUBMITTED TO THE
UNIVERSITY OF LUCKNOW

FOR THE DEGREE OF

Doctor of Philosophy
IN
PHYSICS

BY

Satya Prakash Singh

UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF

Dr. Daya Shanker

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS
UNIVERSITY OF LUCKNOW
LUCKNOW-226 007
INDIA
2014
Dedicated
to
My Parents
CERTIFICATE

This is certify that all the regulations necessary for the submission
of Ph.D. thesis of Mr. Satya Prakash Singh have been fully observed.

Dr. U.D. Mishra


(Head)
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that all the regulations necessary for the


submission of the Ph.D. thesis of Mr. Satya Prakash Singh have
been fully observed. The content of this thesis are original and have
not been presented anywhere else for the award of Ph.D. degree.

(Dr. Daya Shanker)


Supervisor
DECLARATION

I (Satya Prakash Singh) hereby, declare that the thesis entitled “Study
of szigetti effective charge on the surface of condensed materials at
nano scale parameter” being submitted to Lucknow university in
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Philosophy in Physics is
the original work of mine and has not previously formed the basis for the
award of any degree, diploma or any other similar title or recognition.

(Satya Prakash Singh)


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I (Satya prakash singh) am highly indebted to Dr. Daya Shanker


who supervised my research work. Without his valuable guidance, keen
interest and constructive criticism throughout the course of the
investigations, this thesis would probably never have appeared.

I would like to express my heartiest gratitude to Prof. U.D.


Mishra and Prof. Kirti Sinha, Head, Physics Department, Lucknow
University, Prof M. Husain (J.M.I, NDLS) for encouraging me in
carrying out this research thesis. I am also grateful to Dr. N.V.C. Shukla,
Deptt. of Maths, L.U. for valuable help to solve complicated
mathematical problems in this thesis.

Thanks are due to research fellows Dr. Hari Narayan , Dr.


Abhishek Tiwari and Mr.Sanjay Agrwal, Mr.Pradeep Sharma for their
assistance during writing and typing the present work.

Last but not least, I would like to mention the encouragement and
cooperation given to me by my family members specially my father,
mother& wife throughout the research work.

Satya Prakash Singh


Contents

Preface i-ii
Chapters Page No
1. Introduction 1-18
2. Theory of phonon,plasmons and polaritons 19-36
2.1 Surface phonon excitations
2.2 Modifed plasmon –matter interaction
2.3 Locally excited plasmons on the material surface
2.4 Theoritical & experimental study of plasmons
2.5 Excitation of surface polaritons on the surface of
Materials
3 Dielectric functions due to lattice vibrations 37-55
3.1 Dielectric constant and relative permittivity
3.2 Dielectric functions for materials
3.3 Polarization of dielectric materials
3.4 Dielectric function for polar semiconductor
3.5 Dielectric function for materials
4. Szigetti’s dielectric theory 56-75
4.1 Szigetti’s first relation
4.2 Anharmonic correction
4.3 Spectroscopic implication of Szigeti relation
4.4 Aspects of the szigetti charge
5 Filtering properties of materials 76-149
5.1 Modified Bloch’s hydrodynamical model
5.2 Special dispersion relations for two mode coupling
5.3Study of three mode coupling under special conditions
5.4 Local theory approximation for k>>1
5.5 Dielectric function on the surface of materials
5.6 Expression of szigetti effective charge for k>>1
5.7 Band attenuation properties of materials without
magnetic Field & with magnetic field
5.8 Comparitive study of filtering properties
5.9 Variation of the width of allowed band of polarized
materials with szigetti effective charge for k>>1
5.10 Advatages of szigetti effective charge study and Its
applications
6 Summary and conclusions 150-171
7. References 172-183
8. Publications 184
PREFACE

The study of surface polariton waves at the interface of isotropic, homogenous dielectric
media has recently recived considerable attention surface polaritons are defined as the coupled modes
of photons and elementary surface excitations of solids, so surface polariton waves propagates as
electromagnetic waves along the interface of two media but decay in non-oscillatory exponential
manner in a direction perpendicular to the interface. The surface properties of these modes depend
upon the type of materials that form interface .therefore these modes provide a sensitive probe for the
study of solid surface. the fact that the surface polaritons may be excited at some place on the surface
of a solid and detected at some other place on the surface so it makes it surface polaritons an extremely
sensitive tool for determining surface properties [v.m agranovich(1978)]

The frequency of the surface polariton waves depends upon the type of elementary surface
excitations to which the EM wave (photons) couples .The important elementary excitations in dielectric
media are plasnons, phonons, excitons etc. a study of these surface polariton mode give an insight into
the type of elementary excitations sustained by the medium .the presence of polariton waves at the
surface affect the optical properties of the medium , the study of dispersion of these surface waves
considering reflection and refraction at surface and interfaces ,which may be refraction at surfaces and
interfaces , which may be referred to as crystal optics of surfaces , plays a fundamental role in the
phyics of surfaces.

In view of the above discussion, in the present thesis, the Bloch’s Hydrodynamical model is
utilized to study the coupled surface polariton waves sustained by spatially –dispersive polar semi-
conductor medium for k≠0 bounded by a non-dispersive dielectric medium. Since the properties of
surface polariton waves are strongly dependent on the geometry of the interface and for spherical
geometry of the interface are derived and the effect of spatial dispersion and interface are divided and
the effect of spatial dispersion and interface geometry on surface polariton is studied. The dispersion
relation for both these cases is obtained by applying certain suitable boundary condition at the
interface. Also since the dielectric function plays important role in determining the dispersion constant
(wave vector) dependence of the dielectric function of the dispersive polar semiconductor medium is
also studied . Since the optical properties of the medium are affected by the presence of surface waves,
the refractive index of the polar semiconductor medium is also derived and its frequency &wave vector
dependence are studied . The inferences obtained from the study of the dielectric function and the
refractive index , when analyzed along with the dispersion curves obtained for surface polariton waves
leads to important conclusion regarding the effect of surface polariton waves on the optical properties
the of the polar semiconductor medium. Also the dispersion curves provide information regarding the
wave vector region for which the surface waves mixed photon-surface excitation character.

It is observed that the inclusion of spatial dispersion plays an important role in the study of
surface polariton waves at polar semiconductor dielectric interfaces. The surface polariton waves at the

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spherical interfaces become radius independent when spatial dispersion is neglected and as a result
becomes independent of the curvature of the interface. The exclusion of spatial dispersion , therefore
,will not give correct result for small spheres . For the plane interfaces too, the inclusion of spatial
dispersion effects is important, and leads to the infinite life-time of surface polaritons.

The effect of D.C Magnetic field on two mode coupling (SP-SOP) cylindrical polar
semiconductor for k=0 and k≠0 have been discussed by Dr. K.S. Srivastava and D.K Singh (1997). The
effect of D.C Magnetic field on spatial dispersion relation for three mode coupling in spherical polar
semiconductor for k≠0 gives an important result in the study of surface polariton waves at
semiconductor dielectric interface.

The theoretical study of polar semiconductor surface is essentially of importance because of


the great practical applicability of power semiconductor in solid state plasma devices. The foremost
characteristic property of the polar semiconductors which makes them suitable for experimental studies
and for their use in physical instrument, compared to metals and other non-polar semiconductor
compounds. The simultaneous existence of SP and SOP modes makes these materials stand apart from
the other and thus they are ideal for the study of coupling of these modes and the effects of these
coupling of these modes on the surface properties. Finally, by adequate doping, the electron
concentration can be adjusted leading to a wide range of frequency for which these materials can be
utilized.

Szigeti published four seminal papers on the dielectric behaviour of crystals during the
period 1949-1961. Szigeti’s theory is applicable to isotropic and anisotropic, ionic and covalent crystals
with different structures. Szigeti’s theory connects dielectric, spectroscopic and elastic properties. An
important outcome of Szigeti’s theory is the concept of the effective ionic charge (s). It is pointed out
that s correlates with a number of physical properties and is a measure of ionicity of the interatomic
bond. Since Szigeti’s work, several theoretical models have been proposed to account for the fact that s
< 1. These models provide an insight into the complex polarization mechanisms in solids. This review
summarizes Szigeti’s work and the work that followed; the implications and applications of Szigeti’s
theory are discussed.

ii
CHAPTER-
CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION

The study of the properties of surface plasmons [SP], surface


polaritons and surface optical phonon [SOP] has recently received
considerable attention. Surface plasmons are sustained by media having
appreciable free electron concentration i.e. metals, semiconductors and
polar semiconductors. Surface polaritons are the coupled photon and
elementary excitation modes localized at the surface or interface of two
media such that they propogate in a wave like manner along the interface
but decay to zero exponentially in a perpendicular direction to the
interface surfaces. Polaritons are sensitive probes for the study of solid
state surfaces as the intensity of the associate electromagnetic field is
maximum just on the surface.

If electromagnetic radiation of appropriate frequency is incident on


the surface of metal or semiconductor then surface plasmons may couple
with photons giving rise to surface plasmons- polariton modes. In the
case of polar semiconductor (i.e. compounds like InAs, InSb,MgO , InP
etc) the dielectric function is frequency dependent and for certain
frequency ranges they can sustain surface optical phonons along with
plasmons.

Surface polariton waves are electromagnetic waves that remain


localized within the thin surface layer or bound along the interface of two
media [1, 2]. Thus these waves can be which it turn of great scientific and
practical importance [3, 4] not only in the field of Physics but also in the
field of Chemistry and Bio-chemistry. Important physical phenomenon
like quantum hall effect [5] surface enhanced Roman effect [6, 7] etc and
applied fields like micro electronics and integrated optics are all directly

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related to study of solids. Maximum information regarding the surface
properties of a medium may obviously be obtained by studying the
propagation, not the bulk, but of surface electromagnetic energy just on
the surface.

There is great possibility of interaction between surface plasmon


and surface optical phonon leading to coupled plasmon – optical phonon
modes. The bound surface polariton are non radiative and the associated
electromagnetic field are irradiative and it away from the interface. The
phase velocity (vp) of these modes is less than the velocity of light (vp<c)
in the bounding medium and their surface wave vector (K) is greater then
that of light. As a result, surface polaritons can not be excited by direct
irradiation of smooth surface technique like the attenuated total reflection
(ATR) method and the periodic grating method have to be employed for
the excitation of these modes. The properties of surface polaritons are
strongly dependent upon the geometry of guiding surface.

When the dipole moment density and also the displacement field
depends not only on the value of electric field at a particular point but
also on the value assumed by the electric field in the near vicinity of that
point, then material is said to be exhibit “spatial dispersion”. The
inclusion of spatial dispersion in the study of surface polaritons leads to
important conclusion like the finite life time of the surface modes even
collision less plasma state..

When an EM wave is incident on a medium, then oscillating


electric and magnetic fields induce a polarization. In the medium leading
to the excitation of elementary dipoles excitation of medium like
plasmons [10], phonons [11], excitons [12], magnons [13] etc. The
incident EM field thus interacts with the medium via the polarization, it

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induces and the resulting wave that propogates in the medium consists of
EM field (photons) coupled with elementary excitations of the medium.
This coupling is stronger when the frequency of the incident waves is
comparable with the frequency of the elementary modes of the medium.
The EM waves that arise as a result of this coupling are termed as
polariton waves [14, 15].

The incident electromagnetic radiation can couple to more than one


type of elementary excitations simultaneously if their frequencies are
comparable. These waves arise as a result of coupling of the EM radiation
and those elementary surface excitations of the medium that may couple
on linear manner to the incident EM field by virtue of their electric of
magnetic character [16]. The predominant surface excitations in the case
of dielectric media are surface plasmons, surface phonon, surface
excitons etc. The fact that surface EM waves at a metal surface involves
the coupling of EM radiation .with surface plasmons was first explain by
Stern [17] . Also surface of optical lattice vibrations that exist at the
surface of ionic and polar materials have a great tendency to couple with
electromagnetic radiation. These vibrations lead to surface phonon,
polariton modes [18]. In case of polar semiconductors, surface Plasmon
modes[19] and surface Phonon modes [20] have comparable frequencies
so that there is a possibility of interaction between the two leading modes
i.e. surface plasmon & surface polariton modes [21,22]. Special
techniques like attenuated total reflection method (ATR) [26.27] and
periodic grating method [28.29] are employed to study these modes
experimentally. The above mentioned techniques have been successfully
employed by several workers [30-36] to study surface polariton modes in
metal, semiconductors and polar semiconductors for different interface
geometries. The frequency dependent dielectric function for metals and

3
semiconductors are well known and have been recently employed by
several workers [24, 37-39] to study these waves. The most widely used
effective methods that have been employed for obtaining the dispersion
relation, are the Maxwell’s equation method [39-41] and the quantum
mechanical random phase approximation [RPA] [42].

The Maxwell’s equations method has been used to study Surface


Polariton modes in metals as well as Semiconductors but this method is
effective and suitable within the local limit theory[43-44] where the
response of the medium to the incident EM waves is taken to be a
continuum, so the spatial variation of electric and magnetic field induced
in the medium is neglected. Where as in the non-local limit [8] the
dielectric function is dependent on the frequency as well as wave vector
[45].

Several worker have also studied the coupling between Phonon-


polaritons [135-147] phonons- polaritons damping [143, 144] scattering
of surface plasmons [135] non-local exchange effect on the bulk
plasmons dispersion relation [104]. Coupled EM modes coherent
structure in cylindrically bounded magnetised density plasma [106, 111,
112, 125, 145] have been studied by several workers. The effect of
electric and magnetic field on dispersion relation on cylindrical and
spherical surfaces [121-123, 126, 130-133] energy loss in thin film [124],
fluid dynamical mode [127] normal mode double branch dispersion
relation [128-129], collective excitation [133] are utilized to find the
spatial dispersion relation for three mode coupling. Optical properties of
interaction between plasmons, phonons and polaritons [140] and its
coupled dispersion relation [141], have been discussed. The dispersion
relation between phonons, polariton and plasmons in non local limit for

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polar semiconductors at plane surface [143] and cylindrical surface are
studied [144-145].

First principle of calculation of the plasmon resonance [146] and


optimization of surface plasmon enhanced magneto optical effect [147]
was investigated in surface plasmons in condensed materials. Infrared
surface plasmons [148], theoretical and experiment study of localized
plasmon [149] Szigeti dielectric theory [150] are recent study in this field.
Channel plasmon [151], single photon transistor [152], a hybrid
plasmonic wave guide [153], surface polariton of small coated cylinder
[154], have been investigated by several workers in condensed materials.
Light driven plasmonic switches [155], magneto-plasmons [156-157,
158] are recent research in surface plasmons. Non-local screening of
plasmons in grapheens [159-160].

Non relativistic local dielectric response theory has been used


with success for the interpretation on isotropic nanometer size particles
for different geometries such as slabs [47], spheres [48], layered spheres
[49-50], and sphere half way embedded in a supporting medium [51] and
cylindrical channels [52].

The matter is classified in three states- Solid, liquid and gas. The
distinction lies in difference in bond strength or the strength of
intermolecular forces which decreases considerably as substances change
from solid to liquid and the bonds break or intermolecular forces
practically disappear as liquid changes to gaseous state. Bonds can be
broken by increasing the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules, i.e. by
increasing the temperature of the substance. Sir William Crooks, in 1879,
studied electrical discharge of gases and observed that when the electrical
discharge was passed through the gas, the gas was ionized and the

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temperature was increased in the process and called this collection of
positive and negative ions as the fourth state of matter. Langmuir [53]
called this as “plasma” and defined it in a more comprehensive way as a
system containing high and approximately equal concentration of
positively and negatively charged particle which are relatively mobile and
interact with each other collectively via long range coulomb forces.

These conditions may be satisfied in other forms of matter (Solid


and liquid) also. The conduction electrons moving under the influence of
positive ion background in a metal and similarly free electrons (or holes)
of an extrinsic semiconductor or those of a doped semimetal, all are
examples of solid state plasma system. The solid state plasma differ from
gaseous plasma in that, they are characterized by high density of charge
carriers ( ≈ 1020 per cc) and low temperature. Therefore the solid state
plasma is degenerated and obeys quantum ‘Fermi-Dirac’ statistics. The
gaseous plasma, on the other hand, has low carrier density ( ≈ 1012 per igh
temperature. Hence the system is nondegenerate and obeys the classical
‘Maxwell-Boltzmann’ statistics.

Bloch introduced a comparatively simple classical form known as


Bloch’s hydrodynamical model [54] which is applicable for small wave
vectors. Recently the hydrodynamical model has been applied to two
dimensional electron gases [55] of small spheres [56] to one dimensional
quantum wires [57] and in the deviation of additional boundary
conditions at the interface between two conductors [58].

Bloch introduced a comparatively simple classical form known as


Bloch’s hydrodynamical model [120] which is applicable for small wave
vectors. Recently the Hydrodynamical model has been applied to two
dimensional electron gases [121] of small spheres [122] to one

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dimensional quantum wires [123] and in the deviation of additional
boundary conditions at the interface between two conductors [124].

The Bloch’s model has been used by Ritchie [78-81] to study


surface plasma excitations in metal film and later it was developed to
study the surface plasma oscillations in plane single surface [125]
interface between two metals [126] and in spherical geometry [127]etc.

A survey of literature shows that all these studies [ 81- 83] have
been made for metal, in which surface phonon waves are absent and
independent plasmons exist. Srivastava and Tondon [128] for the first
time modified the Bloch’s Hydrodynamical equations for metals [125]
to study the interaction between these two modes in semiconductors. The
modified Bloch’s equation for the semiconductor [128] may be written
as-

_
Dv  _ 1 _ _  _ _ _
d ρ (n' ) 
m = −e  E +  ∇× B  − mv ∇− ∇ ∫ 0n ( r ,t )  (1.1)
Dt  c  n' 

_
_ _
4π _ 1 ∂ D
∇× B = J+ (1.2)
c c ∂t

∂n _ _
= −∇ .(n v) (1.3)
∂t

_ _
4π e  _ _

∇.E = N ( r ) − n ( r , t) (1.4)
E 
+

The surface of polar semiconductor particle supported T.M.


surface polariton waves.

Dispersion relation given by the author by using Blochs-


Hydrodynamical model is the most general dispersion for phonon,
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polariton and Plasmon for polar semiconductor of cylindrical interface
for k≠0.

Y[Y2-(az+b)Y+az] = 0 (1.5)

.Now the author study the surface of different materials(polar


semiconductors)for different parameters by using the relation given by
equation(1.5).

 For lower value of k nearly linear variation with wsp/wt for radius
1A. & 2A. .
 When radius increases then variation of wsp/wt with respect to K
shown lesser linear variation.
 Thus for higher value K it shows non linear variation. Hence for
higher value of K, it shows non linear agreement.
 But at radius 8A. It shows again perfect linear variation for high
value of K.
 Again linear variation between wsp/wt versus K disturb for radius
16A. for high value of K.
 Variation of wsp/wt versus K for different radius observe that
variation is either perfectly linear or not perfectly linear.
 When radius increases then it’s linear variation changes with
wsp/wt versus K, thus for high radius linear variation changes.

When radius increases then ratio of wsp/wt decreases. wsp/wt


inceases with increment in value of K. It mean for larger value of wave
vector K, more prominent wave passes through the substance KF in
epoxy resine medium.

Thus we conclude that with K Ratio of wsp/wt increases. It shows


linear variation for low radius but it deviates for high value of radius.

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Author observed that:

 In this graph we use different medium in 3D having constant radius


0.5 A. for KF substance.
 In this we take wsp/wt along one axis, wave vector K along another
axis and variation of different medium along different axis.
 In epoxy resine wsp/wt increases linearly with K but for transoil it is
not linear variation.
 All medium except transformer oil shows linear variation for KF
substance.
 wsp/wt increases linearly with increase in value of K.
 For same radius neoprene use a medium variation of wsp/wt initially
increases but as K=5, it changes abnormally again at K=7 it fallow
simillar path as in epoxy resine medium follow.
 When we increase K more than 9 (K > 9) than it increases rapidly.
 Except trans oil medium other medium like mica, quartz, Bee wax,
transformer oil and vaccum shows linear increment of wsp/wt with
K.
 Thus wsp/wt increases with increment in value of K
 For KF substance at .5A.radius. It is observed that trans oil
medium show different variation otherwise other seven medium
shows same kind of linear variation.

Ratio of wsp/wt increases for same value of K for when we consider


different medium [Epoxy resine, Neoprene, Mica, quarz, lice, Bee wax,
Transformer Oil & vaccum] i.e. minimum value for Epoxy resine and
maximum value for vaccum.

Thus author obverse that all medium shows same type of variation
only transoil shows different type of variation.

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Now Author observed that that

 In this graph we use different medium in 3D having constant radius


.5A. for Mgo substance.
 In this we take wsp/wt along one axis, wave vector K along another
axis and variation of different medium along different axis.
 In this graph we take different medium like Epoxy Resine,
Neoprene, Mica, Quartz, Lice, Bee Wax, Transformer Oil &
Vaccum.
 Ratio of wsp/wt increases when we move left to right for different
medium with constant value of K.
 For same medium wsp/wt increases when K increases.
 All medium like Epoxy Resine, Neoprene, Mica, Quartz, Lice, Bee
Wax, Transformer Oil & Vaccum share linear variation between
wsp/wt versus K. Thus for different medium variation are same.
 For lice medium Ratio of wsp/wt increases with increase in K but
when K>8 then decreases rapidly.
 Ratio of wsp/wt becomes constant at K = 9 or greater value for lice
medium.
 Even at wave vector K = 0 all medium have same value of wsp/wt.
 But when value of wave vector is higher (i.e. K>8) then for lice
medium its linear variation vanishes.

Thus for low value of K all medium shows linear variation while
for high value of K only lice shows different variation when we plot 3D
graph between wsp/wt versus K for different medium.

So author observe that all medium shows linear variation while lice
medium not shows linear variation.

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Again author observe for different radius that

 We plot graph between wsp/wt with propagation constant K for


Mgo substance in 3D for Epoxy resine medium. Graph plotted for
different radius of .5A. to 16 A. .
 In this 3D graph we take wsp/wt along one axis K, along other axis
while variation of different radius taken along new axis.
 We plot graph between wsp/wt versus K is exactly linear for
different radius for Mgo substances in Epoxy resine medium.
 When value of K increases then wsp/wt increases Radius of cylinder
increases then wsp/wt also increases.
 Ratio of wsp/wt is lowest at 5A. radius and wsp/wt is maximum are
in cylindrical shape increases then more space to pass waves. Thus
wsp/wt increases with increases in radius.
 For Mgo substance in epoxy resine medium there is constent
variation, It is free from radius.
 It has only single effect when radius is more then large amount of
wave pass trough it easily otherwise less amount of wave pass
trough it.
 When K = 0 then there is no propagation of waves value of K
increases then wave propagation also increases.
 wsp/wt has max value at 16A. means at this radius waves passes
easily through the cylindrical geometry. It cappers for highest value
of K = 10.

Thus for low value of K, wave propagation is not significant but


when radius and K both increases then significant wave passes through it.

In this graph at all radius wsp/wt verses K shows linear variation.

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Author observe at constant radius variation of InP:

 We plot graph between wsp/wt with propagation constant k for InP


in different medium having radius of cylinder is 0.5 A..
 In 3D graph we take wsp/wt along one axis K along other axis while
different medium along third dimensional.
 For fixed value of K the ratio of the frequency of surface plasmon
to transverse medium is minimum in epoxy resin and very high in
vaccum medium.
 wsp/wt versus K is almost linear increment in all medium except
lice medium.
 Value of wsp/wt is high in vaccum medium and low in epoxy resine
but the range is nearly equal for same value of K.
 When we plot graph wsp/wt versus K. Then InP substance for
cylindrical surface of 0.5 A. radius of different medium, then all
medium shows linear variation but lice shows different variation.
 In lice medium wsp/wt increases but its value remains constant at
5.040028. So for lice, wsp/wt increases with increment in K but for
K = 7 or more then this, wsp/wt deceases rapidly.

Thus for InP at lone value of K all medium including lice shows
linear variation but for higher value of K, only lice shows different
variation also for high value of K.

Author observe at different radius in Epoxy resine,It shows

 We plot graph for InP at different radius of 1 A. & 2 A. in epoxy


resine medium for cylindrical surface.
 We plot graph between wsp/wt with propagation constant K for
InP in epoxy resine medium having different radius.

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 In 3D graph we take wsp/wt along one axis. Wave vector K along
other axis while different radius consider along third dimension.
 The wsp/wt varies linearly with respect to K (1 A. - 10 A.) for
cylindrical surface of InP at different radius.
 At different radius InP medium shows same linear variation.
 wsp/wt increases vertically when we move from top to bottom,
while this ratio is decreases when we move Horizontally from left
to right.

We observe that for InP in epoxy resine medium variation of


wsp/wt is linear with K at different radius such that 1 A. & 2 A., Both
shows linear variation in the epoxy resine medium as in fig(5.6).

Coupled SP-SOP modes arise on the surface of a polar


semiconductor as a result of frequency and wave vector dependence of
the dielectric surface function of the lattice dielectric surface function of
polar semiconductor. These coupled SP-SOP modes on coupling with the
incident EM radiation of comparable frequency lead to the coupled
surface plasmon, polariton phonon modes on the surface. The dispersion
relation for these modes can be obtained from equation (1.6) by
substituting the frequency and wave vector dependent form of ε1 (kω ) we
get

12.3W6- (14.9+13.3K12) W4+(34.33K12+18.4)W2 - 18.4K12 = 0 (1.6)

Now equation (1.6) gives three values of w1 ,w2 and w3 for


different value of k1.

The comparative study for cylindrical surface of different substances like


KF, InP & MgO:

13
 In this graph we are comparing variation of wsp/wt with wave rector K
for different substances KF, InP & Mgo.
 wsp/wt in all substances increases from top to bottom when K
increases.
 wsp/wt is lower for KF but in other two substances InP & Mgo wsp/wt
increases rapidly [slightly greater value].
 When we plot comparative graph for cylindrical surface of different
substance like KF, InP & Mgo with respect to wave vector K at
same radius 1 A., then all substances have same linear variation.
 This dispersion curves shows that the frequency of the lower mode
changes slowly and frequency of the upper mode varies rapidly
with the wave vector K.

Thus wsp/wt verses K is almost linear increment of substances KF,


InP & Mgo at same radius cylindrical surface (1 A.) these behaves like
same nature.

Now comparative study of filtering property of different polar


semiconducting substances discussed as-

Author observed that

 In this graph we are comparing variation of wsp/wt versus K for


different substances KF, InP & Mgo.
 When we plot comparative graph for cylindrical surface of different
substances at equal radius 2A.. then all substances have same linear
variation.
 wsp/wt increases with increment in value of K.

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 For KF variation of wsp/wt with K varies with lesser effect where as
for other two substances InP Mgo show more effective linear
variation. At this radius (2 A.) both InP & Mgo having nearly same
value of wsp/wt in comparison to radius (1 A.).

Again author observed that

 In this graph we are comparing variation of wsp/wt with wave vector K


for same substances KF, InP & Mgo but his time at higher radius
(16 A.) of cylindrical surface.
 At this radius KF substances has lower value of wsp/wt even starts
from Zero. At this radius cylindrical surface has lower value.
 For KF substance it has lower effect, it means lesser wave propagate
through the surface.
 At this radius (16 A.) both InP & Mgo have same value of wsp/wt so
both have same type (kind) and equal linear variation.

Thus for these comparative study we observe that when radius of


cylinder increases then KF has lower linear variation and InP & Mgo
have greater linear variation.

The frequency of surface plasmon has very small variation in KF


compared to InP & MgO with respect to radius and propagation constant
(K). The reason is that KF is not a good conductor and it behaves like
polar semiconductor. Thus study is important in nanotechnology and
electronic communication.

But at higher electronic concentrations the frequency of this mode


become almost constant. It is clear that at the higher concentrations, the
lower mode become like pure SP mode and upper mode becomes like
pure sop mode. The coupling between SP and sop mode is stronger when

15
wsp = wsop i.e. where two uncoupled modes intersect. The stronger
coupling is observed at wsp/wt = 1.

Thus wsp and wt both are equal then coupling is stronger.

Thus the surface acts as band pass filter [BPF]. Agian their is no
propagation when ε(W) is negative.

 
for  , the surface become transparent again act as High pass filter
 

(HPF). from graph we observe band width (∆) of band pass filter is given
by

W
∆ 1
W

Thus the allowed band ∆ will also be differed for different


compounds. Similarly

W
∆ 1
W

Gives values at which the surface will act as high pass filter. from
study of Szigeti effective charge e∗ versus ∆ with the help of data in
table. from this the best fit of data we find the following relationship
between e∗ and ∆ as

∗
∆=0.074+0.099  (1.7)


The values of ∆ can be estimated for different compounds with the


∗
help of graphs. from these values can be calculated by using equation.


from table our calculated values agree well with the experimental values
of Hass and Henvis.

16
We can conclude that polar semiconductor surface acts as a band
pass filter for ω- <ω<ωt and as high Pass Filter for ωω+. The es2 is
measure of iconicity of polar semiconductors. thus width of band (∆)
increases with increase in ionicity. If there is more ionic character, band
of allowed frequency is wider and surface becomes high pass filter at
higher value of frequency ω.

There are some new features which are not seen when we observe
general effective charge in place of Szigetti effective charge so this
charge provides to be very useful tool in theoretical and experimental
study of Surfaces in the present work. The next chapter i.e. chapter-2
deals with elementary ideas of theory of phonon, Plasmon & polariton. In
this we study the existence of surface Plasmon and surface polariton in
polar semiconductor. Their interaction discussed with the help of its
dispersion relation.

Dielectric function and its effect due to lattice vibrations are


studied in chapter-3.The base of the thesis is szigetti effective charge
studied in chapter-4 i.e. Szigetti’s dielectric theory. Szigetti published
four papers on the dielectric behavior of crystals during the period 1949-
1961.This theory is applicable to isotropic and anisotropic, ionic and
covalent crystals with different structures. The method to solve the
problem is Bloch’s hydrodynamical model, which is explained in chapter-
5.The author solve his problem chapter-5,and investigated new recent
research work. The author also investigates expression of szigetti
effective charge for polar semiconductor also band attenuation properties
of polar semiconducting material in presence and absence of magnetic
field. In this chapter the author also study variation of allowed band
width of polarized materials with szigetti effective Charge. This is new
recent theory of Science. This study is new and can be utilized in
17
electronic communication system and is a measure of iconicity of polar
semiconductors. Thus width of band increases with increase in ionicity.
Author also explains his recent research problem in short as Summary
and conclusion in chapter-6.

18
CHAPTER-
CHAPTER-2
THEORY OF PHONON, PLASMONS & POLARITONS

In this chapter we study the existence of surface Plasmon and


surface polariton in polar semiconductor. Since both SP and SOP modes
exist in polar semiconductor.The possibility of their interaction will be
discussed with the help of its dispersion relation and also study the
plasma dielectric function, surface Plasmon, surface polariton and surface
phonon excitation.

Sir Willam Crooks, In 1879, studied electrical discharge passed


through the gas, the gas then gas ionized and the temperature increased in
the process. So the collection of positive and negative ions as the fourth
state of matter. Langmuir[53] called this as Plasma and defined it in a
more comprehensive way as a system containing high and approximately
equal concentration of positively and negatively charged particle, which
are relatively mobile and interact with each other collectively long range
Coulomb forces.

In the present work I shall study only the solid state plasma and
electron moving in a lattice of ions will be charge carriers. Due to the
motion of free electrons oscillations are set up in the system which are
known as plasma oscillation.

2.1 Surface phonon excitation:

Recently local probe techniques such as field emission microcopy


(FEM) [107, 108] scanning tunneling microcopy (STM) [109,110,111]
and atomic force microcopy (AFM) have given some insight into the
intriguing properties of those novel carbon based materials. Using FEM it
was possible to show that the tips of nanotubes are characterized by well
19
localized electron states form which the field emission takes place
preferentially [107,108] STM measurements allowed for the first time a
direct comparision of the electronic properties of a single wall carban
nanotubes with the calculated Density of states (Dos). Another
experimental set-up using STM principally for high resolution
characterization allowed multipurpose transport measurements to be
carried out on Single wall carban nanotubes [109,111] Another technique
giving complementary information about the electronic properties of
nanometer size particle is electron-energy loss Spectroscopy (EELS) in a
high resolution transmission electron microscope

Non-relativistic local dielectric response theory has been used with


success for the interpretation on isotropic nanometer size particular of
different geometrics such as thin Slabs, spheres [112, 113, 114, 115],
layered spheres [115], spheres halfway embedded in a supporting
medium and cylindrical channel [116]. Since a preliminary comparison of
experimental data with the simultaneous of the an isotropic spheres
(nested concentric-shell fullerenes) shows excellent qualitative agreement
between theory and measurement.

We consider the following equation to study the surface & volume


excitation.

e 

 (2.1)
∇ E = − ∫ δω = ∫  ∫ exp(− iωt )E ( x, ω )dω .dx
trajectory
2π −∞ 
dp (ω )

∇E = ∫ hω dω (2.2)
0

1 (2.3)
∇ 2V (r , ω ) = − ρ (r , ω )
ε oε
∇.[ε oε (ω )∇V (r , ω )] = − ρ (r , ω )
(2.4)

20
Basically equations (2.1) and (2.2) allow the total phonon excitation
probability to be determined using the solution of equations (2.3) and
(2.4). However, it is convenient to treat the surface and phonon
excitations separately for this purpose it can be noted that the general
solution of equation (2.3) and (2.4) is the sum of the homogeneous and
the particular solution of the problem. The two terms represent the
induced potential (Surface Phonon) and the direct potential (Volume
Phonon) respectively.

V (r , ω ) = V ind (r , ω ) + V p (r , ω ) (2.5)

Since the induced potential responsible for the surface losses can
be calculated separately. It is useful to introduce the notation of surface
Phonon excitation Probability dpsur (w)/dw. Starting from equations (2.1)
& (2.2) it can be shown that the surface excitation probability for the
geometry shown in figure 2.1 is given by the following expression.

dP sur e
∞ ∞
 iω (Y '−Y )  ind ro = (xo , y ' ,0 )
2 ∫
= dY ' ∫ dY lm exp V (r , r ) (2.6)
r = ( xo , y,0)
o
dω πhV − ∞ −∞  V

It is important to note that the time dependence of the problem has


been eliminated. V ind (r , ro ) is the induced potential at position r caused by
a stationary electron located at position ro. It is homogenous part of the
solution of

e
∇ 2V (r , ro ) = δ (r − r o ) (2.7)
ε oε (ω )

If the electron is traveling in an isotropic medium and of

e
∇.[ε (ω )∇V (r , ro )] = δ (r − ro ) (2.8)
εo

21
If it is an isotropic medium. The potential distribution therefore
is quasi-electrostatic and frequency dependent for each point along the
trajectory of the incident electron.

The volume phonon excitation in a uniaxial crystal such as


graphite has been treated theoretically by different workers [117,118].
For a uniaxial crystal with its axis inclined by an angle α with respect
to the optical axes of the microscopy (fig2.1) the volume phonon
excitation probability per unit path length is given by

d 2 P volume (ω ) e2
θc 2π  − qo
2 
4π 3V 2ε o h ∫0 ∫0  q p 2ε ⊥ (ω ) + qc 2ε II (ω )
= θd θ d φ  (2.9)
dωdY  

Where q p and qc are the projection of the transferred momentum


α on the coordinate system in which the dielectric tensor is a diagonal,
which is one of the unit vector parallel to the axis c of graphite and on the
plane perpendicular to the axis c respectively (fig 2.1)

Fig.2.1

The azimuthal angle φ and scattering angle θ and α angle between


the c axis of the crystal and the optical axis (2.1 fig)
22
[
q 2p = qo2 (θ E sin α − θ cos φ cos α ) + (θ sin φ )
2 2
] (2.10)
qc2 = qo2 [θ E cos α − θ cos φ sin α ]
2
(2.11)
ω
where θ E is given by θ E = ( 2.12)
2πVqo A

The integration over the angles θ and φ takes into account all
electrons scattered with in an angle smaller then the cut-off angle θc [119].

2.2 Modified Plasmon Matter interaction

The electron density fluctuations i.e. the plasma oscillations which


occur at the surface of a material are known as surface plasma
oscillations and the quantum of their energy is called “surface plasmon”

As we know the dielectric function must be negative for surface


waves to exist, the frequency of this mode is always lesser than the bulk
plasma frequency.

Frequency of the surface plasmon can easily be deduced by


applying the boundary conditions i.e. normal components of Dielectric
displacement D and magnetic induction B and the tangential
components of electric field E and Magnetic field H of an
electromagnetic wave must be continuous at the interface two media
[76.77].

We shall calculate the frequency for a plane semi-infinite isotropic


plasma medium of background dielectric function ε L bounded by a non
dispersive medium of dielectric constant ε 2 as shown in fig (2.2)

The total dielectric function of the conducting medium is thus

23
ω 2p
ε 1 (ω ) = ε L − 2 (2.13)
ω

Since the normal components of electric displacement vector D must be


continuous at z=0. we have

Dz1 = Dz 2 at z=0 (2.14)

But we know that D = ε E , therefore

ε 1 (ω )Ez1 z = 0 = ε1 (ω )Ez 2 z =0 (2.15)

In absence of any external field, the electric field arises only due to
polarization charges and by symmetry it has the same magnitude but
opposite direction at the two sides of the interface, i.e.

E z1 = − E z 2 at z=0 (2.16)

For eqn (2.15) & eqn (2.16) we get

ε1 (ω ) = −ε 2

Substituting ε 1 (w) from (2.13) we obtain surface mode frequency.


The coordinate system ε1 (ω ) and ε 2 (w) are the dielectric functions of
conducting and non- dispersive media respectively.

ω 2p
εL − = −ε 2
ω s2
ω p2
= εL + ε2
ω s2
ω p2
ω s2 =
εL +ε2

24
Fig 2.2

ωp
or ωs = (2.17)
[ε L + ε 2 ]12

If we take the conducting medium as metal ε L = 1 and non-


dispersive medium as vaccum ε 2 = 1 .the above eqn(2.17) reduces to

ωp
ω s=
2

In both media are metals havings plasma of frequency ω p1 and ω p 2 ,


the surface plasma frequency at the interface is given by

ω + ω p 2 
wsp =  p1  (2.18)
 2 

The surface plasma excitation is a characterstic property of surface


and its frequency and dispersion depends on the nature and the geometry
of the surface and the properties of the bounding media.

25
R.H Rithcie [78] was the first to predict, theoretically, the
existance of surface plasmon in thin metallic foils and at the single plane
surface bounded by vaccum.

Later it was confirmed by stern and Ferrell. Both pointed out that a
part of plasmons excited in a thin metallic film by energetic electrons,
should be able to decay into photons of frequency equal to bulk plasma
frequency ω p .

Although the retardation effect was ignored in his derivation, his


result were found to be correct by more rigorous theories. Ferrel
recognized that the radiative mode must be of antisymmetric (normal)
type, from which it follws that the radiation is plane polarised.

2.3 Locally excited plasmans on the material surface

Suppose we consider a medium in which there occur a surface


vibrational excitation with which we can associate wavelength λ and an
angular frequency ω . Then for λ >> d , where’d’ is the mean inter atomic
spacing, the response of the medium to the excitation is essentially that of
continuum, since within the λ there exist a large numbers of atoms. This
response is called ‘local’ due to the following reasons.

For simplicity, we consider a bulk homogenous isotropic system.


The relation between the averaged electric field E (r , t ) and elastic
displacement D (r , t ) can be written as

( ) t
( ) ( )
D r , t = ∫ dt ' ∫ a 3r '∈RA r − r ' , t − t ' E ' r ' , t
0
(2.19)

where ∈RA (r − r ' , t − t ') is the real space, real time response function.
The displacement at a particular position r and at particular time t
26
depends upon electric field over a region of space about r (i.e. the
response of medium is non local or spatial dispersion has been included)
and at earlier time t ' . Thus

( ) ( )
ε R r − r ' , t − t ' = ε R r − r ' , t − t ' → for t ' < t (2.20)

=0 for t ' > t

Taking Fourier transforms of D, E and ε R from (r, t ) to (K , ω ) space

( ) ( )
D K , ω = ∫ d 3r ∫ dt D r , t e −ωt × ei K r (2.21)

E (K , ω ) = ∫ d r ∫ dt E (r , t )e × e
3 − ωt iK r
(2.22)

∈ (K , ω ) = ∫ d r ∫ dt ∈ (r , t )e × e
3
R
− ωt iK r (2.23)

multiplying eqn (2.22) and (2.23) we find with the help of (2.19)

( ) (
D K , ω =∈ K , ω E K , ω )( ) (2.24)

Hence for a non local system the response function (which is the
dielectric function) is a function of wave vector and frequency, In general
a tensor. However a local response can be imposed by requiring

( ) ( )
∈R r − r ' , t − t ' = δ r − r ' ∈R (t − t ') (2.25)

Where δ is Dirac delta function

(
δ r − r' = 1 ) for r = r ' (2.26)

=0 for r ≠ r '

Which implies that the displacement D at a particular position


depends on the electric field E at the same position or in other words the

27
wavelength λ is much larger (or K is very small) then depends on the
electric field. Since in this limit

( )
lim K → 0 ∈ K , ω =∈ (ω ) (2.27)

Equation (2.24) modified to

( ) (
D K , ω =∈ (ω )E K , ω ) (2.28)

Local dielectric function is therefore scalar and depends only on


the frequency. So locally excited plasmon on the material surface explain
by frequency. Now we shall derive the dielectric function of material
(ionic and partially ionic compounds e.g. Polar semi conductors) having
cubic structure of Nacl, CsCl or ZnS type.

2.4 Theoretical & Experimental study of plasmons:-

The diffraction limit of light is a major obstacle on the way of


achieving high degree of miniaturization and integration of optical
devices and circuits. The main approach to overcome this problem is
related to use of surface Nanostructures Such as rectangular metallic
nanostructures; nanostructures, nano strips, nano rods , nano chains .
parabolic metal wedges could also be used for the design of
subwavelength waneguides, though such a possibility has not been
specified , Recently a new type of strongly localized plasmons called
channel plasmon–polariton [cpp] has been investigated theoretically in
metallic groovs. The major features of CCPs in V grooves include a
unique combination of strong localization and relatively low dissipation ,
single- mode operation, possibility of nearly 100% transmission through
sharp bends , and high tolerance to structural imperfections.

28
Only very few experimental attempts to investigate different types
of plasmonic waveguides with subwavelengh locolization have been
under taken so far .

Fig 2.3 Fig 2.4

It has been shown that nanochain waveguides have very strong


dissipation and short propagation distance ( ≤ 200 nm). The numerical
analysis is carried out by means of the three dimensional finite difference
time domain (FDTD) algorithm. This has been extended to plasmanic
wave guides with negative permittivity by using the local Drude model.

Generation of surface plasmons and wedge plasmons (wp) occurs


at the point of the end fire excitation. Beyond this point, surface
plasmons experience significant diffractional divergence. Therefore, if
we place a small aperture into the wedge at some distance from the point
of end-fire excitation, so that it blocks the diverged surface plasmons and
lets only wp through, this should significantly reduce the beats. The
fourier analysis of the field at the tip behind the aperture shows that the
maximum due to surface plasmons disappear from the spectrum.
29
Fig (2.3) shows the effect of dissipation on wp. It can be determind
that the intensity of the wp drops e times within the propagation distance
Ltheory ≈ 2.25µm .Which is larger than the wavelength of the plasman and
thus is sufficient for a range of nano-optics applications.

The analysis of the end-fire excitation can only be conducted using


3D FDTD algorithm. At the same time the compact 2D FDTD provides
more accurate results for the field distribution and dispersion of localized
plasmons. The dependencies of the wp wave number on θ for a silver
wedge in vaccum, obtained in the compact-2D and 3D FDTD
formulation, demonstrate significant differences at θ < 30o [ fig 2.5a ] . This
is due to low accuracy and efficiency of 3D FDTD at small θ .

If θ = θ c , then q1 = q0 ≈ 1.025 × 107 m −1 and the wp has infinite


penetration depth (zero localization) along the sides of the wedge. If
θ > θ c wp does not exist as a structural eigen modes, since it looks into

surface plasmons. This is similar to the existence of the upper critical


angle for CPP modes in the metallic grooves.

The field distribution in the


fundamental wp mode in a cross
section of the 40o silver wedge is
presented in fig [2.5b] demonstrating
strong subwavelength localization
within the region of`~50nm.

Plasmon parameters and field


structure were determined by means Fig 2.5
of two different FDTD formulation. In particular, it has been shown that
wp modes do not exist. If the wedge angle is larger than critical angle.

30
Strong subwave length localization of wp modes has been
demonstrated and reasonable propagation distance have been predicted,
which makes wp modes a good candidate for the design of subwave
length plasmanic waveguides.

The first direct excitation of a nano-waveguide by bulk waves was


successfully counted. The predicted and experimentally observe
propagation distance are sufficient for design of nano-scale inter
connectors between nano optical devices.

2.5 Excitation of surface polaritons on the surface of materials

When an electromagnetic wave is incident an a solid, the electric


and magnetic fields associated with the waves tend to perturb the electron
density equilibrium and the lattice arrangement of the solid. This
perturbation lead to collective oscillation of electron density or lattice
vibrations, leading to excitation of plasmon modes or phonon modes
[79,80] in the crystal. other types of modes like exitons [81] magnons [82]
may also be excited by the incident radiation, but the types of modes
generated will depend upon the material and on the frequency of the
excited modes is comparable with the frequency of the incident radiation.
There is a possibility of interaction between the two leading to couple
modes that are termed as polariton modes [83, 84]. The generation of the
elementary excitations in the medium by the Incident electromagnetic
radiation is actually due to the polarization [85] induced in the medium
by the incident electromagnetic field. As a result, the coupled
polarization mode propagates in a crystal as an electromagnetic wave
consisting of incident oscillating electric and magnetic field
superimposed by the polarization induced in the medium by deriving
fields. The electromagnetic waves propagating in a medium thus a

31
complex entity. The energy stored in the wave is shared among the
incident field and the excitation induced in medium. Thus a polarization
wave is actually a composite wave or a coupled mode of the incident
electromagnetic field with the elementary excitations of the medium that
may coupled to electromagnetic field by virtue of their electric and
magnetic characteristics [86, 87]. Any elementary excitation of a medium
which gives rise to an electric and magnetic fields of the incident
Electromagnetic wave. The incident electromagnetic radiation can couple
simultaneously more then one predominant elementary excitation modes
of the medium if they have comparable frequencies.

Thus the term polariton is broad and general term for coupled
electromagnetic (EM) modes in solids [88]. However when a specific
designation is required for a particular case, For example, in the
frequency region where EM waves in a medium couple with optical
phonon or plasmon excitations of a dielectric medium, the coupled
modes are designated respectively as phonon- polariton or plasmon
polaritons as the case may be. Similarly in the case of magnetic materials,
the polarisation modes are termed as magnon polaritons. In the present
work only the polariton mode is non-magnetic, isotropic dielectric media
have been studied.

The properties of an isotropic, homogenous, dispersive dielectric


medium can be studied with the help of its frequency dependent
dielectric faction [89]. The nature of dielectric function gives a clear
insight into the type of elementary excitations that can be sustained by
the medium. The properties of Polariton waves can be studied with the
help of dispersion relation for these modes which depends upon the
dielectric function of the medium.

32
The coupled EM modes or polariton modes in a medium can be
both bulk modes [86,87] or surface modes [81] layer or are bounded
along the interface of two media such that they propagate without decay
in a wave like manner along the interface between two media having
different electrical or magnetic properties but decrease exponentially with
distance in the direction perpendicular to the interface.

These Surface modes are transverse magnetic in character and are


characterized by a negative value of the frequency dependent dialectic
function. The properties of surface waves are strongly dependent upon
the boundary medium and on the nature of the boundary at the interface
of two media along which they propagate. Thus surface polarizations can
participate in a number of physical processes that takes place near the
surfaces and interfaces and are an effective tool for the study of surfaces
and interface [90, 91]. On the other hand, bulk polarization modes are the
coupled modes of the elementary excitations of the medium and the
electromagnetic wave that are sustained in the whole volume of the solid
instead of being restricted to a particular surface or boundary between
two media. The incident electromagnetic wave in this case couples with
the bulk modes of the elementary excitations of the medium.

As discussed earlier the incident electromagnetic wave may excite


the bulk elementary modes in a medium. the surface excitations are
localized in a thin layer at the interface of the two dielectric media and do
not ordinarily link with the bulk elementary excitations of either medium,
but decay rapidly in directions perpendicular to the interface, when
frequency of incident electromagnetic radiation becomes comparable
with the frequency of the excited surface modes. Surface polarization
waves are obtained that propagates as electromagnetic waves along the
interface, but decay in a non oscillatory exponentially manner, in the
33
directions perpendicular to the interface [92]. As such, the surface
polarization waves represent pairs of plane waves, one on each side of
the boundary between two media having different electrical properties.
the phase velocity of these surface polarization modes is less than the
velocity of light in vaccum and thus these modes can not be excited
directly by striking light at the surface of solid, and therefore, do not
optically couple directly to the surrounding medium.

Similarly phase velocity of these surface polarization modes is also


less than that of bulk polariton modes and that the surface polarization
modes can not be couple to the bulk modes [82]. thus the surface
polariton mode remains localized at the surface. The properties of these
surface waves in a medium are depending upon the nature of the
boundary and the bounding medium [91, 93]. The properties of these
waves can be studies with the help of dispersion relation for these waves.
The dispersion relation for surface polariton waves can be obtained by
using the Maxwell’s equation [94] and applying suitable boundary
conditions [76, 77] This method has been used effectively by several
workers [94, 95] for metals as well as for semiconductors. Another
method, the quantum mechanical random phase approximation (R.P.A)
method [96] has been used to study the properties of surface polaritons.
Maxwell’s equations method has been found to be suitable and effective
for the study of surface polariton waves within the local theory limit [97,
98] only, where the dielectric functions of the dispersive medium that
sustain these modes is taken to be dependent only on frequency, so that
the form of the dielectric function is well known or can be easily derived
and can be used to obtain the dispersion relation. Difficulty arises when
the study of these surface polariton waves has to be extended to the non
local limit, where the dielectric function of the medium is dependent on

34
wave vector as well frequency. To understand this non-local limit [85], a
dispersive dielectric medium is considered in which there occurs a
surface vibrational excitation of frequency ‘ ω ’ due to an incident
wavelength ‘ λ ’ then for λ >>d.

Where ‘d’ is the inter atomic spacing. This type of response of the
medium to the incident radiation is called the local response of the
medium, under such circumstances the propagating polariton waves is to
be within the local theory limits. This condition is easily satisfied by the
long wavelength surface optical Phonon waves so that the surface phonon
polariton modes can be studied accordingly within the local theory limits.
In general the relation between the displacement field and the electric
field for homogenous dielectric medium is given by [85]

D (ω , k ) = ε (ω , K )E (ω , K ) (2.29)

i.e. dielectric function of the medium is dependent both on


frequency w and on wave vector K. however ,if the wavelength of the

surface waves is larger, the wave vectors  K =  tends to zero, so that



 λ 

( )
lim K =0 ∈ K , ω = ε (ω ) (2.30)

i.e. the dielectric function in the local limit is dependent only on


frequency ε (ω , K ) is called the non-local dielectric function .However
if the condition λ >> d is not satisfied i.e. the wavelength of the
incident radiation is not very large as compared to the inter atomic
spacing .

It is thus important to include the spatial dispersion effects in


the study of surface Plasmon polariton wave. There fore in order to

35
obtain the dispersion relation for surface Plasmon polariton waves
taking spatial dispersion into account the non-local form of the
dielectric function is required.

This non-local form of the dielectric function may be calculated


using the classical or the quantum mechanical method. However this
method requires complicated mathematical analysis. An alternative,
simple and effective approach is provided by the Bloch’s hydro-
dynamical method (101) for the inclusion of spatial dispersion in the
study of plasma system .This model will be discussed in detail in next
(chep-5) chapter.

The Bloch’s hydrodynamical model has been effectively used by


several workers (102,103) to study surface Plasmon polarition wave in
the case of metals, taking spatial dispersion into account .In the present
work, therefore, this problem is taken up for polar semiconductors
considering cylindrical geometry. There fore, deriving the dispersion
relations for surface polaritons, it is worth while to study first the plasma
oscillations and the phonon waves of the dispersive, dielectric medium
and to obtain the dielectric function of the medium.

36
CHAPTER-
CHAPTER-3
DIELECTRIC FUN
FUNCTIONS DUE TO LATTICE
VIBRATIONS

Dielectrics are insulating materials which are capable of storing


electrical energy. The dielectric materials do not have free electrons and
hence are good insulators. When they are placed in electric fields,
intertial fields are set up in the dielectric materials which oppose the
externally applied field, there by reducing the net electric field and hence
the potential difference. If these dielectrics are placed between plates of
capacitor,the potential difference will be reduced without affecting the
q
charge on the plates, the capacitance of capacitor (c = ) increases
v

Dielectric materials are essentially insulating materials. However,


the dielectric material store electric energy while, insulating material
obstruct the flow of current. This difference between dielectric material
and insulating material explains that the material to be used as dielectric
must have properties some of which may not be answered by a material
ordinarily use as an insulating material. The concept of dielectric was first
introduced by Faraday. He discovered that when a space between the
plates of a parallel place capacitor is filled with a dielectric material, Its
capacitance increases. It is due to the fact that when a dielectric material
is placed in an electric field its electric properties get modified. The
increase in capacitance is due to the reduction of electric field between
the plates. The external electric field has an ability to polarize the
dielectric material to create dipoles.The atoms and moleclues of
dielectrics are influenced by an external electric field and hence, the
positive charges are pushed in the direction of the field while the negative
charges in the opposite directions from their equilbrium position.
37
Hence ,dipoles are developed and they produce a field of their own in a
direction opposite to the direction of an external field. Consequently, the
resultant electric field between the capacitor plates is reduced.

According to band theory of solids a dielectric is a material in


which the energy gap between valence band and conduction band is more
than 3ev and normally,no electron is able to cross this band gap.

Dielectric material can be solids, liquids or gases, hign vaccum can


also be useful,lossless dielectric even though its relative dielectric
constant is only unity. Solid dielectrics are perhaps the most commonly
used dielectrics.material is used extensively in electrical engineering.

Thus dielectric helps in the following three ways

It helps in maintaining two large metal plates at very small


separation.

It increases the potential difference which a capacitor can with


stand without breakdown.

It increases the capacitance of a capacitor.

3.1 Dielectric constant OR Relative permittivity

Dielectric constant define the following ways-

When a dielectric is placed between the plates of a capacitor its


capacity is increased. The ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor with
dielectric to the capacitance of the same capacitor without dielectric is
defined as dielectric constant. Thus

38
C
k=
C0

C = Capacitance of the condenser with dielectric

Co =Capacitance of the condenser without dielectric

It has been observed that the potential difference Vd between the


plates of the capacitor filled with dielectric is smaller than the potential
difference Vo without dielectric. Thus ratio of Potential difference without
dielectric Vo to the potential difference with dielectric Vd is defined as
dielectric constant.

Vo
hence k=
Vd

The ratio of permittivity of medium ( ε ) to the permittivity of free


space ( ε 0 ) is known as the dielectric constant (K) or relative permittivity
( ε r ) of the medium

ε
εr= k=
ε0

3.2 Dielectric function due to lattice vibration

The dielectric function ε (ω , k ) of electron gas, with its strong


dependence on frequency and wave vector, has significant consequence
for physical properties of solids. ε (ω , o ) describes the collective
excitations of the volume and surface plasmons when k →0. ε (o, k )
describes the electrostatic screening of the electron-electron, electron-
lattice and electron-impurity interactions in crystals when (ω → o ) .
Dielectric function of the ionic crystal has been used to derive the

39
polariton spectrum. Here the electron gas in metals has been taken the
dielectric constant ∈ of electrostatic is defined in terms of the electric field
E and the polarization P, the dipole moment density

D = ε o E+P (3.1)

The introduction of the displacement D is motivated by the


usefulness of this vector related to the external applied charge density ρ ext
in the same way as E is related to the total charge density

ρ = ρ ext + ρ i nd (3.2)

Where ρ ind is the charge density included in the system by ρ ext .


Thus divergence relation of the electric field is

divD = divεε o E = ρ ext (3.3)

ρ (ρ ext + ρ ind )
divE = = (3.4)
εo εo

The long wavelength dielectric response ∈ (ω , o ) or ∈ (ω ) of an


electron gas is obtained from the equation of motion of a free electron in
an electric field.

d 2x
m = −eE
dt 2

If x and E have the time dependence, then

eE
x=
mω 2

e2E
The dipole moment of one electron is − ex = −
mω 2

40
The polarization defined as the dipole moment per unit volume, it
is

ne 2
P = − nex = − E (3.5)
mω 2

Where n is the electron concentration.

The dielectric function at frequency ω is

D(ω ) P(ω )
ε (ω ) = =1+ (3.6)
ε o E (ω ) ε o E (ω )

Now from eqn (3.5) & (3.6)

ne 2
∈ (ω ) = 1 − (3.7)
ε o mω 2

Now plasma frequency ω p is defined as by the relation

ne 2
ωp = (3.8)
ε om

A plasma is medium with equal concentration of positive &


negative charges. In solid the negative charges of the conduction
electron are balanced by equal concentration of positive charge of the
cores. Now from eqn (3.7) & (3.8)

ω p2
∈ (ω ) = 1 − (3.9)
ω2

By above eqn (3.9) Dielectric function at frequency w calculated


when plasma frequency known for the substance.

41
3.3 Polarization of Dielectric materials

In atoms, because of their spherical symmetry, the centre of mass


of the electrons coincides with the nucleus. Therefore atoms do not have
permanent electric dipole moments. However when atoms are placed in
an electric field, they accuire an induced electric dipole moment in the
direction of the field. This process is called the electric polarization and
atoms are said to be polarized.

There are four different mechanisms by which electrical


polarization can occur in dielectric materials when they are subjected to
an external electric field. They are

Figure 3.1

Electronic polarization :- The electronic polarization occurs due to the


displacement of positive and negative charges in a dielectric material
when an external electric field is applied. This process occurs throughout
the material and the material as a whole is polarized. The electronic
polarization is independent of Temperature.

Ionic polarization :- Ionic polarization occurs in ionic materials when an


electric field is applied to an ionic material, cations and anions get
displaced in opposite directions, which gives rise to a net dipole moment.
The displacement causes an increases or decrease in the distance

42
separation between the atoms depending upon the location of ion pair.
This polarization is also independent of Temperature.

Figure 3.2

Orientational Polarization :- This type of polarization is found only in


substances that process permanent dipole moment e.g CH3Cl. When an
electric field is applied on such a molecule, then the dipoles tend to align
themselves in the direction of applied field. This polarization is
dependent on temperature. Polarization decreases with increasing
temperature.

SPACE-CHARGE Polarization :- Space charge polarization occurs due


to the accumulation of charges at the electrodes or at the interfaces in a
multiphase material. The ions diffuse over appreciable distance in
response to the applied field. This gives rise to redistribution of charges
in the dielectric medium. The Space-charge polarization is not an
important factor in most common dielectrics. This type is also known as
interfacial Polarization. This polarization is insensitive to temperature
charges.

43
Figure 3.3

Figure 3.4

The total polarization P of a multiphase material is equal to sum of


all types of polarization

p = p e + pi + po + p s

For a single phase dielectric

p = p e + pi + po

3.4 Dielectric function for Polar Semiconductor :-

In long optical vibrations, atoms of one type move as a body


against the atom of the other type by action of the field. For such a wave
the effective inertial mass per unit cell is reduced mass of +ve and –ve
ions.

1 1 1 M +M −
= + so M = (3.10)
M M+ M− M+ + M−

44
When external electric field is applied to a substance. It gets
polarized giving rise to a polarization field which always opposes to the
applied field. The macroscopic field in the insulator is

E = Ee − E p (3.11)

and is always lesser than applied field.

But the field which is actually responsible for polarizing individual


ion is the macroscopic field, also known as effective electric field


Eeff = E + P (3.12)
3

For a crystal with cubic symmetry. This field is always greater than
the macroscopic field. ‘P’ is known as Polarization vector.

To get an expression for the dielectric function we will first


determine the polarizability which characterizes the polarization of an
individual atom or molecule. Polarizability is defined as the dipole
moment an a molecule per unit effective electric field. In partially ionic
materials the dipole moment is due partly to the displacement of the ionic
charges of molecule and partly due to induced electric moments on the
ions.

When an ionic charge Ze is displaced by u , the net effect is as


through a charge - Ze has been placed at the undisplaced position to
annihilate the original charge and a fresh charge Ze has been created at
displaced position. The displacement is thus equivalent to the addition of
a dipole with the moment Ze . The induced electric moment on the other
hand, is produced due to the deformation of an atom or ion (electron are
displaced opposite to the field and no longer remain symmetrically

45
distributed about the nucleus). The dipole moment is proportional to the
effective field and is given by α + Eeff and α − Eeff on positive and negative

ions respectively. α + and α − are electronic Polarizability. The total dipole


moments on the two types of ions are thus

Z e u + + α + E eff

− Z e u − + α − E eff

The dipole moment on a molecules is

( )
P = Z e u + − u − + (α + + α − )E eff

in terms of polarization vector P , which can be defined as dipole


moment per unit volume, as

[
P = N Z e x + (α + + α − )E eff ] (3.13)

where N is the numbers of molecules (pairs of ions) per unit


volume and x = u + − u − is the relative displacement.

The eqn of motion for both type of ions are

(
M + u + = − µ u + − u − + Z e E eff ) (3.14)
(
M − u − = µ u + − u − − Z e E eff )

Multiplying equations respectively by M + and M − subtracting and


dividing the result by (M + + M − ) we get

( ) (
M u + − u − = − µ u + − u − + Z e Eeff ) (3.15)

M X = − µ X + Z e Eeff (3.16)

46
The frequency dependence of the dielectric function is considered
by taking A.C field as

E eff = Eo e − iωt (3.17)

X = X o e − iωt (3.18)

Substituting eqn (3.17) & (3.18) into eqn (3.16) we have

2
− M ω X = − µ X + Z e Eeff − M ω 2 X = − M ω 2 X + Z e Eeff (3.19)

µ
where ω = is optical mode frequency which the lattice would
m

have in the absence of Coulamb forces between the ionic charges ± Z e .


Therefore

1
X = (3.20)
(
M ω −ω2
2
)Z E
e eff

putting value of x in Eq (3.13), we have

 (Z )2 
P=N  e
+ (α + − α − ) Eeff (3.21)
 (
M ω2 − ω2 ) 

Hence the polarizability is

 (Z e )2 
α= + (α − α ) (3.22)
2
(
 M ω − ω
2
+
) −


Here the first term in the atomic or ionic polarizability and the
second term is electronic polarizability.

47
The dielectric function due to lattice ε l (ω ) or the background
dielectric function is related to polarizability α by Clausius Mossotti
relation

∈L (ω ) − 1 4π
= Nα (3.23)
∈L (ω ) + 2 3

using eqn (22) in above relation

∈L (ω ) − 1 4π  (Ze ) 
2

= N + (α + − α − ) (3.24)
∈L (ω ) + 2 (
2
3  M ω − ω 2 ) 

On applying an A.C field frequency ω , the system tries to respond to the


charge due to the field. Electrons are light so able to follow the field
instantly to high frequencies while the ions, because of their large mass
(104 times the mass of electron) are unable to follow high frequencies and
their polarizability tends to zero for ω >> ω where ω is in infrared
region. It is convenient to write the dielectric function ∈L (ω ) in terms of
low (ω << ω ) and high ( ω >> ω ) frequency dielectric constants, ∈o and
∈∞ , which are easily measurable.

∈o , the static dielectric constant is obtained by setting ω << ω in

eqn

∈L (ω ) − 1 4π  ( Ζe) 2 
= Ν α + + α − +  (3.25)
∈L (ω ) − 1 3  Μ (ω 2 − ω 2 ) 

and similarly ∈∞ , the high frequency dielectric constant by taking

∈0 −1 4π
ω >> ω , = Ν[α + + α − ] (3.26)
∈∞ +2 3

48
High frequency means the frequency high enough to render lattice
polarizability zero. This range comes out to be in optical region and
therefore is related to the index of refraction ‘n’. Thus ∈0 is greater than
∈∞ .

Form eqn (3.16) & (3.17) we have

∈0 −1 ∈∞ −1 4π  Ze 2 
= + Ν  (3.27)
∈0 +2 ∈∞ +2 3  Mϖ 2 

π ( Ze) 2 (∈0 +2)(∈∞ +2)


ω2 = 4 N (3.28)
3 M 3(∈0 − ∈∞ )

Thus eq (3.24) may be modified as

 
 
∈L (ω ) − 1 4π 4π  Ze 2 N
= N [α + + α − ] + (3.29)
∈L (ω ) + 2 3 3   ω 2 

 Mϖ 1 − 2  
2

  ϖ  

by eqn (3.26)_& (3.27) the eqn reduces to

 

∈ L (ω ) − 1 ∈∞ −1 ∈0 −1 ∈∞ −1   1 
= + −  2 
∈ L (ω ) + 2 ∈∞ +2 ∈0 +2 ∈∞ +2   ω
(1 − 2 ) 
 ϖ 

After simplification it gives

 2 ∈∞ +2 2 
∈∞ ω − ∈0 ∈ +2 ϖ 
∈L (ω ) =  0
 (3.30)
∈ +
 ω 2 − ∞ 2ϖ 2 
 ∈0 +2 

49
∈∞ +2 2
ωt 2 = ϖ (3.31)
∈0 +2

ωt is the transverse optical Phonon frequency. The distinction

between transverse optical and transverse acoustical waves in diatomic


lattice are illustrated by particles displacement for two modes.

3.5 Dielectric function for materials :-

In long wavelength (K=0) optical mode, the oppositely chargesed


ions on each primitive cell undergo oppositely directed displacement,
giving rise to a non vanishing polarization density. Thus by a
macroscopic electric field Ε and an electric displacement D , related by

D =∈ (ω ) E = E + 4π P (3.32)

Since there is no externally induced charge, we have

∇•D = 0

The macroscopic electric field is electrostatic hence it may be


expressed as the gradient of a scalar potential function

E= − ∇ψ (3.33)

or curl of E vanishes thus ∇ × E = 0

we have to choose P and ∈ (ω ) such that these two equations


are satisfied simultaneously. This can be achived in three different ways

div P = 0 ∈ (ω ) = ∞

curl P = 0 ∈ (ω ) = 0 (3.34)

div P = 0 curl P = 0

50
again in cubic crystal D is parallel to E (i.e D are parallel to
p ). So considering the spatial dependence

D  D0 
    i kr
 E  = Re  E 0  e (3.35)
   
 P  P
 0 

eqn (3.33) reduced to K ⋅ D = 0

D = 0 or D, Eand P ⊥ K (3.36)

Where as (3.36) reduced to

k × E = 0, i.e E = 0 or E , Dand P parallel to k.

So in order to satisfy both of these equtions simultaneously we must have

(a) E = 0 D, Eand P ⊥ K , (3.37 i)


(b) ) D = 0 D, Eand PIIK

for above conditions (a) & (b) in eqn (3.37(1) are combining, we
get

(a) E = 0 D, Eand P ⊥ K , ε (ω ) = ∞
(3.37ii)
(b) ) D = 0 D, Eand PIIK ε (ω ) = 0

(a) In this case the polarization density is ⊥ to the Propagation


vector therefore these are the transverse modes. The macroscopic electric
field E corresponding to these modes vanishes everywhere.

Therefore the effective electric field can be obtained by substuting


macroscopic electric field ( E ) equal to zero into eqn (12)

51
4π 4π
E eff = 0 + P ⇒ E eff = P (3.38)
3 3

Polarization density P (Eq 3.13) may be written with the help of


(Eq 3.26) equation of motion may be written as with the help of earlier
equations

3  ε∞ −1 
P = ZeNx +  ε + 2  E eff (3.39)
4π  ∞ 

3  ε ∞ − 1  4π
P = ZeNx + ε + 2  3 P (3.40)
4π  ∞ 

ε∞ + 2
then P = Zenx (3.41)
3

The equation of motion (Eq 3.20) may be written as with the help
of earlier equations

2 4π
M (ω 2 − ωt ) x = Ze P (3.42)
3

2 4π  ε ∞ + 2 
M (ω 2 − ωt ) x = Ze ZeN x
3  3 

2 ε∞ + 2
M (ω 2 − ωt ) = 4πN ( Ze) 2
9

ε∞ + 2 2
or ωt 2 = ω (3.43)
ε° + 2

with the help of Eq(3.28) this eq gives the transverse optical


phonon frequency which is exactly the value defined in equation ( 3.31)

(b) In the case the polarization density is parallel to the propagation


vector therefore these longitudinal modes the electric displacement
52
D vanishes every where. Hence the electric field for such modes is given

by

E = −4π P

their frequencies are gives by the zeros of the dielectric


function .They are called longitudinal bulk modes since they are
analogous to the longitudinal plane waves which can propagate in an
infinite medium of dielectric constant . ∈ (ω ).

for such modes the effective electric field is


E eff = −4π P + P
3


E eff = − P (3.44)
3

And polarization density (3.39) is

ε + 2
P = ZeN x ∞  (3.45)
 3 

The eqn of motion (3.20) for these modes is written as

( 2 2
)
M ωt − ω x = − Ze E eff (3.46)

 8π  8π  ε∞ + 2 
= − Ze − P = 8πZe P , ( 2
M ωl − ω 2 = )   N ( Ze) 2 (3.47)
 3  3 3  3ε ∞ 

Which with the help of equation (3.21) gives the longitudinal


optical phonon frequency as

53
∈o  ∈∞ +2  2
2
ωl =  ω (3.48)
∈∞  ∈o +2 

Equation (3.44 and 3.48) give the relation between the frequencies
of two modes as

∈o 2
ωl 2 = ωt (3.49)
∈∞

Which is known as Lyddance-sachs-Teller (LST) equation or


relation . The acting of long range coulomb interaction between ions
causes splitting in mode frequencies otherwise they were degenerated at
W. the transverse mode frequency is lesser and longitudinal mode
frequency is greater than ω for long wave length in polar semiconductors.

The frequency dependence of dielectric function (3.30) may also be


written as-

∈o − ∈ ∞
∈L (ω ) =∈ ∞ + (3.50)
ωt 2 − ω 2

In order to express separately the contributions due to electronic


and ionic polarizabilities .

For ionic compounds the static dielectric contant is greater than the
high frequency dielectric constant which also confirms with the help of
(3.49).

In case of metals, the valence electrons remain free and those of


inner shell from an intert gas configuration with the nucleus. They do not
respond at all to the lattice is zero giving the dielectric constant as unity
(from eq 3.24) which is equal to that of vacuum. Thus we see that the
dielectric function of a polar material depends on the field and the phonon
54
frequency but for a material or non – polar substance .It is a constant thus
the lattice is equivalent to uniform background for this case .

The frequency-dependent dielectric function due to phonons for a


diatomic polar crystal. This is valid for cubic crystal having a single long
wave length infrared active, transverse optical phonon frequency ω t.

55
CHAPTER 4
SZIGETI’S DIELECTRIC THEORY

Szigeti published four seminal papers on the dielectric behaviour of


crystals during the period 1949-1961. Szigeti’s theory is applicable to
isotropic and anisotropic, ionic and covalent crystals with different
structures. Szigeti’s theory connects dielectric, spectroscopic and elastic
properties. An important outcome of Szigeti’s theory is the concept of the
effective ionic charge (s). It is pointed out that s correlates with a number
of physical properties and is a measure of ionicity of the interatomic
bond. Since Szigeti’s work, several theoretical models have been
proposed to account for the fact that s < 1. These models provide an
insight into the complex polarization mechanisms in solids. This review
summarizes Szigeti’s work and the work that followed; the implications
and applications of Szigeti’s theory are discussed. Some new results are
also included.

The electric polarization P in a crystal is related to the applied electric


field E by the relation

P = αE, (1)

where α is the polarizability. The dielectric constant ε is related to


the polarizability through the relation

ε − 1 = 4πα. (2)

This relation does not take into account of the internal field. When
the internal field is included, the Clausius–Mosotti relation

56
(ε − 1)/(ε + 2) = (4π/3)α. (3)

The Clausius–Mosotti equation is valid when the environment


around every ion has tetrahedral symmetry as in the alkali halides.
Further, it applies only to cubic crystals. The polarizability α is made up
of two components, the atomic polarizability αa arising out of the ionic
displacements and the electronic polarizability αe arising out of the
displacement of the electron cloud relative to the nucleus. With proper
substitution for αa and αe we get

[(εs − 1)/(εs + 2)] − [(ε∞ − 1)/(ε∞ + 2)] = (4π/3)αa, (4)

Where εs and ε∞ are the static and high frequency dielectric


constants. But this extended Clausius–Mosotti equation also does not
work well and alternate theories have been proposed to account for the
dielectric behaviour of solids. These theories are dependent on the details
of the polarization mechanisms considered in each theory. Thus,
assuming that the ions are rigid (non-deformable) and non-overlapping,

Born and Mayer [1] obtained

εs = ε∞ + (z2e2N)/π µt ν2 (5)

Where z is the valency, e the electron charge, N the number of


molecules in unit volume and νt the transverse optical frequency. µ is the
reduced mass given by

µ -1=m1-1+m2-1 (6)

m1 and m2 being the masses of the positive and negative ions.


Equation (5) is valid for an ionic crystal with two different ions having a

57
single transverse optic infrared active mode. Agreement of eq. (5) with
experiment is not satisfactory.

4.1 Szigeti’s first relation:

Szigeti developed a theory which resulted in a relation between the


dielectric constant and the lattice frequency. The derivation of the relation
is to be found in Szigeti’s paper [2] and also in Born and Huang [6] and
Brown [7]. The main features of Szigeti’s theory are:

(i) The ions are deformable and they overlap.


(ii) The polarization in dielectric crystals has two parts: the infrared
polarization and the ultraviolet polarization.
(iii) While the ultraviolet polarization is the same as the electronic
polarization, the infrared polarization has contributions from both
electronic and atomic polarizations.
(iv) The atomic and electronic polarizations are not independent but
there is an interaction between them. This interaction is separated
into short-range and long-range effects.
(v) The total dipole moment M is split into two parts:

M = Mi +Mu, (7)

where Mu is the contribution of the electronic oscillators with


ultraviolet frequencies and Mi is the infrared part. Mi is written as

(8)

where the Qj ’s are normal coordinates. The summation is over


normal modes of infinite wavelength as only such waves contribute to
macroscopic dielectric properties. It is to be noted that Szigeti included

58
only first-order terms in the summation. Szigeti [2] obtained the
following relation:

εs = ε∞ + [(ε∞ + 2)/3]2[s2(ze)2N/πµνt2 ]. (9)

Equation (8) is known as Szigeti’s first relation. The first term on


the right-hand side (ε∞) is the contribution of the ultraviolet polarization
and the second is due to infrared polarization. Szigeti’s relation (eq. (9))
contains two factors not present in Born’s relation (eq. (5)); both arise out
of the electronic contribution to the infrared polarization. The factor [(ε∞
+ 2)/3]2 is due to the fact that the long range interaction does not vanish
for transverse waves. The other new factor is s which represents the
short-range interaction of electronic and atomic displacements. The term
sze is equivalent to replacing ze by an effective charge ze*; then sze = ze*
and s = (ze*/ze). In subsequent literature, s has come to be known as the
‘effective ionic charge’ or the ‘Szigeti charge’. As Szigeti’s theory was
developed mainly for the alkali halides. It is convenient to rewrite eq. (9)
as

s = (9πµ/N)1/2(εs − ε∞)1/2(ε∞ + 2)−1(νt/ze). (10)

The value of s for some alkali halides calculated by Szigeti [2] are
given in table 1. The input data (εs, ε∞, νt) used by Szigeti was from
earlier sources [8,9]. Values calculated by Lowndes and Martin [10] from
their own more recent and accurate data are also included in table 1. The
values in both sets are mutually consistent.

59
A common feature in the s values is that they are significantly less
than unity. Szigeti [2] himself pointed out that the deviation of s from
unity could be due to a partial homopolar (partial ionic) character or due
to interpenetration of the ions. In deriving eq. (9), a harmonic crystal was
assumed as implied by eq. (8). Szigeti [3] qualitatively surmised that this
may not affect the s values. However, he examined this aspect rigorously
in 1959 [4]. These and other aspects will be considered in later sections.

4.2 Anharmonic correction to S

Szigeti [4] considered the effect of anharmonicity on s. For this, he


expressed the dipole moment M as

60
(11)

where the Q’s are the normal coordinates and α0, βij and γijk
are constants. Q0 is the transverse optic infrared active mode. Here the
first term contains the effect of displacement of ions and also the
electronic distortions while the second and third terms are due entirely to
electronic deformation. Similarly, he expressed the potential energy W as

W = Wh +W’ (12)

Wh = (1/2)Σi ωi2Qi2 (13)

and

(14)

Here Wh represents the harmonic and W’ the anharmonic terms.


(ωi/2π) is the frequency νi of the ith mode and bijk and cijkl are constants.
While macroscopic polarization arises only out of long wavelength
modes, the summation in eqs (13) and (14) involves normal modes of all
wavevectors. W is the potential energy with respect to all forces arising
from lattice displacements. Therefore,

W = potential energy of lattice + EextM. (15)

where M and W are given by eqs (11) and (12) and Eext is the
external field. Writing the Hamiltonian and applying perturbation theory,
Szigeti [4] showed that

εs − ε∞ = η + G, (16)

61
where η is the harmonic and G the anharmonic contributions. η is
the second term in eq. (9) whereas G is a function of the two dielectric
constants and the constants in eqs (11) and (14). where α is the linear
coefficient of thermal expansion, ψ the compressibility and T the
temperature. s, the Szigeti charge corrected for anharmonicity is given by

s’ = s(1 − δ)1/2, (17)

where δ is the an harmonicity correction G/(εs − ε∞). The


importance of Szigeti’s work lies in relating the anharmonic correction to
experimentally measured quantities like thermal expansion coefficient
and compressibility without assuming any detailed model for the
anharmonic forces. Szigeti [5] estimated the anharmonic correction G/(εs
−ε∞) only for three alkali halides (NaCl, KCl and LiF) as the required
experimental data was available only for these crystals. From the results,
Szigeti [5] concluded that the anharmonic correction (i) is very small, of
the order of 10−2, (ii) affects the s value by about 2% and (iii) enhances,
though very slightly, the deviation of s from unity. [11] extended these
calculations to crystals with CsCl structure. His results showed that the
anharmonic correction G/(εs- ε∞) is negative for these crystals and it
reduces the difference between s and unity. As mentioned, due to the
availability of limited data, Szigeti [5] could estimate the anharmonic
correction only for three alkalihalides. Further, he did not report the value
of s’. Recently, data on all the quantities in eq. (16) for several alkali
halides have been compiled by Sirdeshmukh et al [12]. Using these data,
the present authors have estimated the anharmonic correction G/(εs − ε∞)
and the corrected Szigeti charge s_ from eqs (16) and (17) for a number
of alkali halides. These results are included in table 1. It is seen that the
anharmonic correction G/(εs − ε∞) has a small value and the s_ values are
only slightly different from the s values. Thus, the neglect of
62
anharmonicity in the derivation of Szigeti’s first relation (eq. (10)) is not
the cause of the difference between s and unity. It can also be seen that
the anharmonic correction has different signs for different crystals. Thus,
it is negative for LiBr and the cesium halides and positive for the other
alkali halides. The negative value is of significance. It is observed [11,13]
that crystals with a negative anharmonic correction have a negative value
for the temperature derivative of static dielectric constant.

4.3 Spectroscopic implication of the Szigeti relation

Lyddane et al [14] derived the following relation:

(εs/ε∞) = (ωl2 /ωt2 ), (18)

where ωl and ωt are the longitudinal and transverse optical phonon


frequencies respectively. This relation is referred to as the Lyddane–
Sachs–Teller (LST) relation. Combining the LST relation with Szigeti’s
relation (eq. (10)), we get

s2 = (9µ/4πNz2e2)[ε∞/(ε∞ + 2)2][ωl2 − ωt2 ]. (19)

This relation relates s with the splitting (ωl2−ωt2 ) of the optical


mode. This splitting is an essential consequence of Szigeti’s relation.
Mitra and Namjoshi [15] comment that ‘no matter how one defines
ionicity of a crystal, its only manifestation is in the splitting of the
longitudinal and transverse optic phonon frequencies at k ~ 0’.

Although the term s in eq. (9) was attributed by Szigeti to the


short-range interaction of electronic and atomic displacements, the fact
remains that the term was introduced by Szigeti almost arbitrarily to bring
about equality between the two sides of eq. (9). The value of s was not
evaluated by Szigeti independently, but rather from eq. (9). An evaluation

63
of s independently of Szigeti’s relation was certainly desirable. Several
models were developed to account for the s values and, more particularly,
to account for the deviation of s from unity. These models are discussed
in this section. Yamashita [16] and Yamashita and Kurosawa [17] treated
the problem by a quantum mechanical variation method. They calculated
the ionic charge for LiF. Narasimhan [18] extended Yamashita’s method
to MgO. Yamashita’s method has not found further application as it
involves more parameters than can be evaluated from experimental data.
Szigeti [3] himself suggested that the mutual distortions of the ions due to
their overlap could be a cause of the s values being <1.

Born and Huang [6] pointed out that such distortions would result
in a ‘distortion dipole moment’ m(r) and that this dipole moment would
cause s to be <1. However, the treatment of Born and Huang was
qualitative. Lundquist [19] used the Heitler–London approach to evaluate
the overlap distortion moment for NaCl. Dick and Overhauser [20]
reexamined Szigeti’s theory. They pointed out that apart from the
electronic polarization and polarization due to displacement of ions
included in Szigeti’s theory, it is necessary to include ‘some further
polarization’. Thus, they introduced the concepts of short-range
interaction polarization and exchange charge polarization into the theory.
These arise from charge redistributions which occur when ions move with
resulting changes in electron overlap. Formulating their theory in terms of
the shell model, Dick and Overhauser calculated the integrals Sij
necessary to estimate the exchange charge. Here e_, A, µ and λ are
parameters occurring in the theory; these can be theoretically estimated
for each crystal. The values of s calculated from eq. (17) are given in
table 2. These values follow the same general trends as the original
Szigeti (or Lowndes and Martin) values but are seen to be systematically

64
larger and hence closer to unity. Dick and Overhauser concluded that the
short-range interaction polarization and the exchange charge polarization
are responsible for the deviation of s from unity. Hanlon and Lawson [21]
observed that the values of the Szigeti charge s of alkali halides lie on a
smooth curve when plotted against the difference in the polarizabilities of
the negative and positive ions. In order to explain this empirical
observation, Hanlon and Lawson modified Szigeti’s theory by including
the contribution of a mechanical polarization. When an electric field is
applied, each ion will be polarized in the direction of the field. But the
ions will also move relatively closer. Their electron shells will
mechanically repel one another, resulting in a relative shift of each
electron cloud with respect to its nucleus. This shift corresponds to an
additional polarization. In the positive ion, this mechanical polarization
enhances the electrical polarization, but in the negative ion it detracts.
Hanlon and Lawson showed that this mechanical polarization contributes
to the value of s.

65
The concept of the deformation dipole moment originally
introduced to explain the Szigeti charge values was applied by Hardy to
the problem of lattice dynamics of alkali halide crystals. Hardy [24]
included the interactions due to the deformation dipole moment in the
dynamical matrix for KCl to obtain the dispersion curves. This method
was applied to study the lattice dynamics of several other alkali halide
crystals with NaCl and CsCl structures [25,26].

Goyal et al [28] examined the close dependence of the effective


ionic charge upon the lattice vibration model. They derived expressions
for s corresponding to the Lundquist (LM), simple shell (SM) and three-
body shell (TSM) models. The values are given in table 2. They are of the
same order and differ only slightly from those calculated by Lowndes and
Martin [10] from Szigeti’s relation (eq. (10)). In recent years, Mahan [29]

66
has revived the deformation dipole model originally introduced by Hardy
in the 1960s. Mahan [29] made ab initio calculations of the
polarizabilities of alkali ions and used them to calculate the refractive
index and the effective ionic charge by employing improved
‘calculational technology’. Mahan derived the perturbation equations for
the deformation dipole tensor by the combined use of self-consistent
treatment of local density approximation and the spherical solid model.
The effective ionic charge s is calculated from

s = (1 − τ) (20)

and

τ = 2(γl + 2γt). (21)

Here γl and γt are the longitudinal and transverse components of the


tensor. Mahan [29] calculated the values of s for alkali halides excluding
the iodides. Recently, Michihiro et al [30] extended Mahan’s method to
the alkali iodides. The resulting s values are included in table 2. Mahan
concluded that the deformation dipole model can explain the origins of
the deviation of s from unity. The attempts described above have
introduced some sophistication into Szigeti’s theory and have provided a
deeper insight into the polarization mechanisms. However, as far as the
effective charge is concerned, the values given by the simple Szigeti
relation have remained essentially unaltered.

4.4. Aspects of the Szigeti charge

4.4.1 Values of s for various crystals

The most important aspect of Szigeti’s theory is the concept of the


effective ionic charge s. This is also called the Szigeti charge and is often

67
denoted by q*. Though Szigeti [2] had mainly the alkali halides in view,
he evaluated the value of s for

Several other cubic diatomic crystals like TlCl, MgO and ZnS,
triatomic crystals like CaF2 and anisotropic crystals like TiO2. In the same
spirit, the Szigeti charge has been evaluated by several workers for
crystals belonging to different structures. Mitra and Marshall [31] quoted
values for the fully covalent diamond-type crystals and to several
partially covalent crystals like ZnS. s values for several crystals are given
in table 3.

4.4.2 Szigeti charge and ionicity

It can be seen from tables 1 and 3 that, in general, s ≤ 1. Some


views regarding the factors that contribute to the difference (1 − s) have
been discussed in §2.4. Szigeti [2] himself suggested that one of the

68
factors could be that ‘the bond has a partial homopolar character’ but he
did not pursue this possibility in any of his later papers. However, from
time to time, the view has been expressed that the Szigeti charge is a
measure of the ionicity of the bond in the crystal [15,36,41,43]. There are
several measures of the ionicity. A commonly employed measure is the
Phillips ionicity fi [44]. Phillips plotted fi against an effective charge S
and obtained a linear plot. However, the effective charge S used by
Phillips has a different definition and, further, he considered only crystals
with the zinc blende structure. Gervais [39] examined the correlation of fi
and the Szigeti charge s by plotting s against exp(fi) for over 60 crystals
belonging to several structures. The plot (figure 3) was linear with data
points evenly scattered around the straight line. Thus, the Szigeti charge s
can be considered as a measure of ionicity of the bond.

4.4.3 Empirical relation between the Szigeti charge and physical


properties of crystals

Apart from being an ionicity parameter, the Szigeti charge s is now


considered an independent physical entity and correlations have been
proposed between s and several physical properties. Some of them are
discussed in this section. 3.3.1 s and interionic distance r: Ram Niwas et
al [45] plotted log s against log r and obtained linear plots (figure 4) for
each ion. They proposed the relation

s = krm, (22)

69
Where m is 0.5 for all plots and the constant k has a different value
for each ion. From the plots it is seen that k increases with the size of the
anion. Lowndes and Martin [10] found that a plot of s and the radius ratio
(r+/r−) for the alkali halides is a smooth curve (figure 5) with a separate
curve for each halogen (or alkali ion). Koh [43] obtained linear s vs.
(r−/r) plots (figure 6). Assuming equations of the type

s = a(r−/r) + b, (23)

Koh obtained values of a and b for each cation. s and


polarizabilities: Hanlon and Lawson [21] plotted s against the
polarizability difference (α+0− α−0) for the alkali halides and obtained a
smooth curve (figure 7) in the form of a hyperbola. Sirdeshmukh [46]
used this curve to estimate values of s for the lithium halides which were
not otherwise known at that time. On the other hand, Mitra and Marshall
[31] found that the s vs. (α+0− α−0) plot is linear (figure 8) for the II–VI
and III–V compounds with ZnS structure.3.3.3 s and thermal expansion:
Sirdeshmukh [46] proposed the following relationbetween s and the
linear coefficient of thermal expansion α:

70
αs2 = constant. (24)

This relation holds well in the case of the alkali halides with NaCl
structure. Earlier, Megaw [47] proposed the relation

αq2 = constant. (25)

Here q is the ‘electrostatic share’ given by the ratio of ionic charge


ze to the coordination number C of an ion. Thus eq. (25) becomes

(αz2e2/C) = constant. (26)

71
This relation explains the difference in the thermal expansion of
crystals with different valencies. Sirdeshmukh [46] pointed out that, in
view of Szigeti’s theory, eq. (26) reduces to eq. (24).

s and the hyperfine coupling constant A: The hyperfine coupling


constant (hfc) A of a crystal doped with ions can be theoretically
estimated. It has been established that A is related to the degree of
covalency in the bonding in the host lattice. Motida [51] calculated the
hfc for a number of divalent crystals doped with Mn++ ions and found that

72
the plot of A and (1−s) (figure 11) was linear. A linear plot was also
obtained for (1 − s) and A of alkali halides doped with Cr+ ions.

4.4.4 Temperature variation of s

By differentiating s in eq. (10) with respect to the temperature, Kim


et al [54] obtained, z is assumed to be 1, i.e., the equation applies to alkali
halides. The results of the calculations for four alkali halides are shown in
figure 13. The characteristic features are seen in the case of LiF. At low
temperature (1/s)(ds/dT) is negative. With increasing temperature, the
value increases to become positive, passes a peak and becomes negative.
The derivative, (1/s)(ds/dT) may be written as

(1/s)(ds/dT) = (1/s)(∂s/∂T)V + (1/s)(∂s/∂V )T(3αV ). (27)

The first term is due only to change in temperature and the second
represents change due to thermal expansion. The net value of (1/s)(ds/dT)
is due to the result of the two competing contributions at different
temperatures.

4.4.5 Pressure variation of s

Attempts to estimate the pressure (or volume) variation of s were


made by Jones [55], Barron and Batana [56], Mitra and Namjoshi [15],
and Batana and Faour [57]. The starting point in all these works is the
differential form of eq. (10):

(V/s)(ds/dV ) = 0.5 − γt − V (∂ε∞/∂V )[(ε∞ + 2)−1 + (1/2)(εs − ε∞)−1]


+(1/2)V (εs − ε∞)−1(∂εs/∂V ). (28)

73
The results obtained by them were provisional as they used
theoretical values for the mode Gruneisen parameter γt. Shanker et al
[58], on the other hand, calculated γt from the experimental data of
Lowndes and Rastogi [59] on temperature variation of the transverse
optical phonon frequency. Using these experimental γt values, they
calculated (V/s)(ds/dV ) from eq. (43). These values of (V/s)(ds/dV ) are
given in table 4. Shanker et al [58] also calculated (V/s)(ds/dV ) from
various dielectric models. These values are also given in table 4. The data
given in table 4 reveal the following features:

(i) The experimental as well as model-based values of (V/s)(ds/dV )


are positive without exception. This implies that the decrease in
crystal volume due to pressure increases overlap and distortion of
ions, thereby causing a decrease in the effective ionic charge.
(ii) The values of (V/s)(ds/dV) obtained from the shell model and the
Lawaetz model [53] are systematically smaller than experimental
values, almost by a factor of 1/2.
(iii) The values obtained from the exchange charge model and the
deformation dipole model are comparable with each other and with
the experimental values.

4.4.6 Szigeti charge of mixed crystals

The composition dependence of physical properties of mixed


crystals differs from property to property and from system to system.
Using experimental data on εs, ε∞, N and νt, the Szigeti charge s has been
calculated as a function of composition for a few mixed crystal systems
having NaCl structure. The conclusions from these studies the
composition dependence is linear in all cases. It may be noted that in the
KCl–KBr system, the composition dependence is linear when the

74
frequency data of Ferraro et al [65] is used while it is non-linear with the
data of Fertel and Perry [66]. Thus, the frequency data plays an important
role.

75
CHAPTER 5
FILTERING PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

Surface plasmons and Surface Optical phonons may interact with


each other in polar semiconductors if their frequencies are of the same
order. Surface properties of different geometrical surface of materials can
be studied with the help of the dispersion relation which can be obtained
by various methods. The hydrodynamical model is one of the various
methods to study the behavior of polariton, phonon and plasmons on the
geometrical surface of materials for two mode coupling or three mode
coupling. A Filtring property of matrials is the most important property of
surfaces of materials.

5.1 Modified Bloch’s Hydrodynamical Model

The modified Bloch’s equation for the semiconductor [128] may be


written as-

_
Dv _ 1 _ _  _ _ _
d ρ (n ')  (5.1)
m = − e  E +  ∇ × B  − m v ∇ − ∇ ∫ 0n ( r , t ) 
Dt  c  n' 

_
_ _
4π _ 1 ∂ D
∇× B = J+ (5.2)
c c ∂t

∂n _ _
= − ∇ .(n v) (5.3)
∂t

_ _
4π e  _ _

∇.E = N ( r ) − n ( r , t) (5.4)
E 
+

D
Equation (5.1) is the Euler’s equation of motion. The operator is co-
Dt
moving time derivative given by-

76
D ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
= + Vx + Vy + Vz (5.5)
Dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z

_
Where Vx , Vy and Vz are the components of velocity V ( r , t ) in x, y
Dv
and z directions respectively. gives the acceleration of an electron in
Dt
the fluid and may be written with the help of equation (4.5) as-

Dv ∂v _
= + (v. ∇)v (5.6)
Dt ∂t

The first term on the right hand side of equations (5.1) is force
exerted on a free electron by the electromagnetic field which is produced
due to the density of fluctuations of the electron gas. The electric and
magnetic fields may be written in terms of scalar and vector potential as-

_
_ _
1∂A
E = −∇ Φ − (5.7)
c ∂t

_ _ _
B = ∇× A (5.8)

The second term of equation (5.1) is the restoring force due to the
short range interactions with the background i.e. the interaction of the
electrons with lattice vibrations. υ represents the collision frequency and
is assumed to be constant. The last term represents the force due to
pressure ‘P’ and an electron in the mass of the fluid. The pressure is taken
to be of Fermi type assuming that the electrons are totally free i.e.

5
h 2 (3π 2 )2 3 n 3 5
P ( n) = = ξn 3
(5.9)
5m

h 2 (3π 2 ) 2 / 3
And ξ = (5.10)
5m

77
With these substitutions eqn. (5.1) reduces to

_
∂ v
m
∂t
(5.11)
 1 ∂ A  e
n ( r ,t )
d ρ ( n ') 
= e 

+ ∇φ  − v × ( ∇ × A ) − m ( v .V ) v − m v V − ∇ ∫ 
  c t  c 0
n ' 

Where ‘m’ and ‘e’ represent the mass and charge of a free electron
and n( r , t ) is the instantaneous electronic concentration at a position r .

Equation (5.2) is the Maxwell’s equation for displacement current


for non-magnetic materials considered in the present study the magnetic
permeability ‘ υ ’ is equal to unity i.e. H = B . Now substituting electric
and magnetic fields with the help of equation (5.7),(5.8) in equations
(5.2) we obtain.

 2 ε ∂2  ε  ∂φ  4π e
∇ − 2 2  A = ∇ + nv (5.12)
 c ∂t  c  ∂t  c

Where ε is the dielectric function of the medium.

Equation (5.3) is the continuity equation giving the current flow


due to the oscillations of free electrons. Equation (5.4) is the Poisson’s
equation for free electrons moving in the background of positive charges.
N + (r ) = ∑ ziδ (r − r i ) . Where r i is the effective position of vector and z i is
i

the effective charge of the ith ion. Since this equation describes the
motion of free electrons only or independent plasma oscillations, the
dielectric equation used is approximated to the frequency independent
value ε with the help of equation (5.7) and choosing the gauge ∇. A = 0
equation (5.4) reduces to –

78
4π e
∇ 2φ =  
n( r , t ) − N + ( r )  (5.13)
ε 

Now equation (5.3), (5.11) and (5.13) may be simplified by


introducing a scalar velocity potential according to –

e
−∇ψ = V − A (5.14)
mc

Then equation of motion (5.11) becomes-

∂ψ

∂t
2 n (5.15)
1  e  e  e  1 dP(n ')
= ∇ ∇ψ − A − ∇φ + v  A − ∇ψ  + ∇ ∫
2  mc  m  mc  m 0 n'

By using the identity

2
V × ∇ × Α  = ∇ ∇ψ −
e 1 e 
( ) V .∇ V +
mc   2  mc 
(5.16)

The high frequency solid state plasma is characterized by collision


less region ω >> v , therefore, author can neglect the collision term, and
then equation (5.15) reduces to-

2 n
∂ψ 1  e  e 1 dp(n ')
= ∇ψ − A − φ + ∫ (5.17)
∂t 2  mc  m m 0 n'

And equation (5.12), (5.3) and (5.13) respectively change to-

 2 ε ∂2  ε  ∂φ  4π e  e 
∇ − 2 2  A = ∇ + n  −∇ψ + A (5.18)
 c ∂t  c  ∂t  c  mc 

∂n   e 
= ∇.  n  ∇ψ − ( A)   (5.19)
∂t   mc 

79
4π e
and ∇ 2ψ =  
n( r , t ) − N + ( r )  (5.20)
ε 

Here author shall give only non relativistic treatment that is the
speed of electromagnetic propagation c has been taken to be much larger
than phase velocity v of surface wave. Therefore, for c>> v equations
(5.14) and (5.17) to (5.20) reduce to

v = −∇ψ (5.21)

n
∂ψ 1 eφ 1 dP(n ')
= ( ∇ψ ) − + ∫
2
(5.22)
∂t 2 M m 0 n'

∂n
= ∇[ n∇ψ ] (5.23)
∂t

4π e
∇ 2φ = ( n − N+ ) (5.24)
ε

Hence φ (r , t ) represents the self consistent electrostatic potential


due to the system of ions plus the electron gas, n( r , t ) is the instantaneous
electronic concentration and is a function of position and time.

There is no externally induced charge present in the system and the


free electron gas is homogeneous and capable of maintaining self
sustained oscillations then one can use the standard method for linearising
equations (5.22) to (5.24) by expanding n,φ and ψ as

n(r ,t ) = n0 (r ) + λ n1 (r , t ) + λ 2 n2 (r , t ) + -----------+----------

φ (r ,t ) = φ0 ( r ) + λφ1 (r , t ) + λ 2φ2 (r , t ) + -----------+----------- (5.25)

ψ (r ,t ) = ψ 0 (r ) + λψ 1 (r , t ) + λ 2ψ 2 (r , t ) + -----------+------

80
Where n0 >> n1 >> n2 so that only first perturbation is sufficient to
describe the system, λ is a parameter and is a measure of perturbation.

Substituting the expansions in equations (5.25) into equation (5.22)-


(5.24) and equating separately the coefficients of various powers of ‘ λ ’
one finds- In zero order

e 1 n dP ( n ')5 / 3
φ0 = ξ ∫ (5.26)
m m 0 n'

After substituting P(n) from equation (5.18), then

e 5
φ0 = ξ n2 / 3 (5.27)
m 2m

4π e
and ∇ 2φ = [ n0 − N + ] (5.28)
ε

In first order

n
∂ψ e 1 dP (n ')5/ 3 ∂ψ 1 e 5
= φ1 + ξ ∫ or = φ1 + ξ n1/0 3 n (5.29)
∂t m m 0 n' ∂t m 3m

∂n1
= ∇(n0 ∇ψ T ) (5.30)
∂t

4π e
and ∇ 2φ1 = n1 (5.31)
ε

n0 is the equilibrium electronic density and n1 (r , t ) is a small

perturbation term and is responsible for charge density fluctuations i.e.


inside the semiconductor

n0 (r ) = n0 (5.32)

81
Equations (5.29) to (5.31) then modify for semiconductor to give-

∂ψ 1 e 5
= − φ1 + ξ n1/ 3 n1 (5.33)
∂t m 3m

∂n1
= n0 (∇ 2ψ 1 ) (5.34)
∂t

4πe
∇ 2φ1 = n1 (5.35)
ε

Now eliminating ‘ ψ ’, equations (5.33) and (5.34) and with the


help of equation (5.35), The eq.(5.33)can be written as

 ∂2 vF 2 
2
 2 + ω p − ∇  n1 = 0 (5.36)
 ∂t 3 

Where ω p is the bulk plasma frequency for polar semiconductor


and vF is the Fermi velocity given by

1/ 2
 5ξ 
vF =  n02/ 3  (5.37)
m 

Equation (5.36) is the differential equation for volume plasma


oscillations in a semiconductor. Time dependence of the density
fluctuations n1 (r , t ) is taken as–

n1 ( r , t ) = Neik .r − iωt (5.38)

Where k is the wave vector; ω is the wave frequency and N is a constant.


Substituting this equation (5.35), it is obtained

 2 vF2 k 2  2 vF2 2 2
 −ω + ω 2
p +  n1 ( r , t ) = 0 or ω =ω + k p (5.39)
 3  3

82
This is the dispersion relation for bulk plasma. It shows that the
plasma energies are shifted by a term k 2 . If one takes into account the
finite speed of propagation of hydrodynamic disturbance in the electron
gas. For a metal as ε = 1 , one has only to modify ω p from the value

1/ 2 1/ 2
 4π n0 e 2   4π n0 e 2 
  to  
 εm   m 

The relation (5.39) differs from the bulk plasma dispersion relation
of Pines [129], obtained by using quantum mechanical treatment of
random phase approximations viz.

vF2 2 h 2 k 2
ω 2 = ω p2 + k + +−−−−−−− (5.40)
3 4m 2

It has no higher order terms of wave vector k other than square


which confirm the point made out earlier that the hydrodynamic treatment
is only for small wave vector limit, so that higher order terms of k are
negligible.

Secondly, the hydrodynamic theory gives a factor vF2 , in the second


term of R.H.S. instead of (3/ 5)vF obtained by the microscopic RPA
theory. These terms are represented by β which signify the average
speed of free electrons of a solid in acoustic and in optical region. This
shows that the hydrodynamic theory is valid only for two plasma
frequencies that is ω << v in the characteristics of hydrodynamic
equations.

Now the difficulty arises when the author want to apply the
hydrodynamic equations to solid state electron gas for relatively high
plasma frequencies. Futter [130] has considered this point in his study of

83
layered plasmas and suggested that for a Fermi gas of D dimensions, the
factor 3 in the value of β = vF / 3 should be replaced by ‘D’ and to use β

at high frequencies, it must be multiplied by [3D /( D + 2) ] . Since in our

case D=3, therefore the low frequencies value β = (3 / 5)vF .Moreover,


Klienman [131] has shown that the surface plasma dispersion equation
contain an effective β 2 equal to 0.53vF2 , which is sufficiently close to
(3 / 5)vF2 = .6vF2 .

The difficulties regarding the applicability of hydrodynamics when


ω << vF have been discussed by Ginzburg [103]. It is pointed out that in

spite of accepted colloquial references to a hydrodynamic model as (5.2)


is a quasi hydrodynamics description with a form that is similar to a
hydrodynamic equation. It is permissible to use it either ω << vF or when
ω >> vF . If ω << vF ,then β is the familiar hydrodynamic speed of

acoustic (sound) wave, but when ω >> vF ,then β becomes the speed of
optical wave. Therefore in this region the term due to restoring force
equation (5.15) may be neglected safely.

Considering these factors Boardman et.al. [132] have described the


properties of plane metal interface, by using β = (3 / 5)vF and their values
agree well with those measured by electron loss spectroscopy [133, 134],
making the above modification our equation (5.39) and (5.36)
respectively become

ω 2 = ω 2p + β 2 k 2 (5.41)

 ∂2 
And  2 + ω p2 − β 2∇ 2  n1 (r , t ) = 0 (5.42)
 ∂t 

84
Where

β = (3 / 5)vF Or β =   3π 2 n0 
3 h 1/ 2

5 m

This is a function of electronic concentration.

The equation (5.42) is a differential equation for volume plasma


oscillations and may be used to derive the dispersion relation for volume
plasmons in a polar semiconductor. The dispersion relation for surface
plasma oscillations at the interface between the two media is obtained by
applying the boundary conditions which should be satisfied in the
interface.

5.2 Special Disperssion relation for two mode coupling for k ≠ 0

The surface of polar semiconductor particle supported T.M.


surface polariton waves. The Bloch’s Hydrodynamical model be
employed in the case of cylindrical interface by obtaining their solution in
cylindrical co-ordinates (r,θ ,φ ) . These equations are as follows:-

(β ∇
2 2
+ ω 2 − ω p2 ) ∇.E = 0 ( 5.43)

And (c ∇ 2 2
)
+ ε Lω 2 − εω p2 ∇ × E = 0 (5.44)

The time and position dependence of the electromagnetic field

may be written as exp ( ik .r − iω t ) .

Therefore

(∇ 2
− γ 2 ) ∇.E = 0 (5.45)

85
(∇ 2
− γ 2 )∇× E = 0 (5.46)

ω p2 − ω 2
Where γ= (5.47)
β2

ε (kω )ω p2 − ε L (kω )
α= (5.48)
c2

the solution of eqn (5.45) and eqn (5.46) can be written in terms of
scalar potential function ψ γ and ψ α [96]

E γ = ∇ψ γ (5.49)

α
ˆ ψα )
E 1 = ∇ × ( rr (5.50)

α 1 (α )
E2 = (∇ × E ) (5.51)
α
r
Where r is radius of cylinder and r̂ the unit vector along r . The
scalar potential functions ψ γ and ψ α can be expanded in terms of
cylindrical harmonics, as

ψ γ (r ) = ∑ψ γ l (r )γ lm (θ ).ei k .r (5.52)
l ,m

And ψ α = ∑ψ α (r )Y
l ,m
l
m
(θ ).eik .r (5.53)

where l, m are integer

∇ 2 the Laplacian operator for cylindrical harmonics is

86
∂2 1 ∂2 ∂2 1 ∂
∇2 = + + + (5.54)
∂r 2 r 2 ∂θ 2 ∂z 2 r ∂r

For the cylindrical polar semiconductor the equilibrium


electronic polar semiconductor function ψ γ (r ) must satisfy the following
condition

ψ γ 0 (r ) = ψ 0 for r<R (5.55)

=0 for r>R (5.56)

Now using equation (5.49) and equation (5.54)

∇.E = ∇.(∇ψ γ ) = ∇2ψ γ

 ∂2 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 ∂2 
= 2 + + 2 2
+ 2 ψ γ (5.57)
 ∂ r r ∂r r ∂θ ∂Z 

The derivative with respect to r is

∂ ∂
ψ γ = ∑ψ γ l ( r ) Yl m (θ ) eikr
∂r ∂r lm

= ∑ψ γ l ( r ) Yl m (θ )( ik ) eik .r + ∑ ψ rl ( r ) Yl m (θ ) eikr
lm l ,m

The second derivative with respect to r is

∂2 ∂
ψ γ = ∑ψ γ l ( r ) Yl m (θ )( ik ) eik .r + ∑ψ rl' ( r ) Yl m (θ ) eikr 
∂r 2
∂r  lm l ,m 

87
( lm
m '2
= ∑ψγ l ( r ) Yl (θ )( ik ) e + ∑ψ rl ( r ) Yl (θ )( ik ) e
ik .r m
l ,m
ikr
)
2
+ ∑ψ γ' l ( r ) Yl m (θ )( ik ) eik .r + ∑ ψ rl'' ( r ) Yl m (θ )( ik ) eikr
lm l ,m

But

∇.E = ∇ 2ψ γ

 ∂2 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 ∂2 
= 2 + + 2 2
+ 2  ∑ψ rl ( r ) Yl m (θ ) eikr
 ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ ∂Z  lm

∂2
(
= 2 ∑ψ γ l ( r ) Yl m (θ ) eikr +
∂r lm
1 ∂
)
∑ψ γ l ( r ) Yl m (θ ) eik .r
r ∂r lm ( )
1 ∂2 ∂2
+ 2
r ∂θ 2

lm
(
ψ γl ( r ) Yl
m
(θ ) e ikr
+ 2
∂z lm
)
∑ψ γ l ( r ) Yl m (θ ) eik .r (5.58)

Since z is constant the last term becomes zero

 
∇.E =  ∑ψ γ l (r ) ylm (θ ) + ∑ψ γ' l (r ) ylm (θ )  (ik )2 eikr
 lm lm 
 
+  ∑ψ γ' l (r ) ylm (θ ) + ∑ψ γ'' l (r ) ylm (θ )  (ik )eikr
 lm lm 
1 
+  ∑ψ γ l (r ) ylm (θ )(ik )eikr + ∑ψ γ' l (r ) ylm (θ )eikr 
r  lm lm 

''
1
+
r2
∑ψ γ l (r ) ylm (θ )(ik )eikr
lm
(5.59)

Neglecting the derivative of ψ γ (r ) and ψ γml (r ) because they have very


small values Thus eqn. (5.59) can be written as

1
∇.E = ∑ψ γ l (r )Yl m (θ )(−k 2 )eikr + ∑ ψ γ l (r )Yl m (θ )eikr
lm r lm

88
= ∑ψ γ l ( r )Yl m (θ )(ik − k 2 )eikr (5.60)
lm

(ik − k 2 ) = a* then eqn.(5.60) becomes

∇.E = ∑ a*ψ γ l ( r )Yl m (θ )eik .r (5.61)


lm

Now from eqn. (5.45), we get

(∇ 2
− γ 2 ) ∇.E = ( ∇ 2 − γ 2 ) ∑ a*ψ γ l ( r )Yl m (θ )e ik .r = 0
lm
(5.62)

Further for cylindrical geometry, the Laplacian operator is

 ∂2 1 ∂ 1 ∂2
2 ∂2 
∇ = 2 + + + 
 ∂r r ∂r r 2 ∂θ 2 ∂Z 2 

(∇ −γ ) ∑aψ (r)Y (θ)e


2 2 *
γl l
m ik.r

lm

 ∂ 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 ∂2 2 
2
= 2 + + 2 2 + 2 −γ .∑a*ψγl (r)Ylm(θ)eik.r = 0
 ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ ∂Z  lm

Taking z as constant for cylindrical geometry

 ∂2 1 ∂ 
(∇ 2
−γ 2
)∑a ψ *
γl ( r )Yl (θ )em ik .r
= 2 +  .∑ a ψ γ l ( r )Yl (θ )e
* m ik .r

lm  ∂r r ∂r  lm
1 ∂2
+
r 2 ∂θ 2
∑ a ψ γ (r )Y
lm
*
l l
m
(θ )eik .r − (γ 2 )∑ a *ψ γ l ( r )Yl m (θ )eik .r = 0
lm

 ∂2 1 ∂   ∂2 1 ∂ 
 ∑ a ψ γ l ( r )Yl (θ )e
* m ik . r
 2+  2 +
 ∂r r ∂r   ∂r r ∂r  lm
−(γ 2 )∑ a*ψ γ l ( r )Yl m (θ )eik .r
lm

89
1 ∂2
2 ∑
=- 2 a*ψ γ l (r )Yl m (θ )eik .r (5.63)
r ∂θ lm

Let us suppose that

r2
×
∑ a*ψ γ l (r )Yl m (θ )eik .r
lm

 ∂ 2 1 ∂   2
 ∑ a ψ γ l (r )Yl (θ )e − (γ )∑ a ψ γ l (r )Yl (θ )e  = l
* m ik .r 2 * m ik .r
 2 +
 ∂r r ∂r  lm lm 

Then

 ∂2 1 ∂ 
 ∑ a ψ γ l (r )Yl (θ )e
* m ik . r
 2+
 ∂r r ∂r  lm
 l2 
−  γ 2 + 2  ∑ a*ψ γ l ( r )Yl m (θ )eik .r
 r  lm
l2
= 2 ∑ a*ψ γ l (r )Yl m (θ )eik .r
r lm

 ∂2 1 ∂ 
 ∑ a ψ γ l (r )Yl (θ )e
* m ik .r
 2+
 ∂r r ∂r  lm
 2 l2  (5.64)
−  γ + 2  ∑ a*ψ γ l (r )Yl m (θ )eik .r = 0
 r  lm

Now

∂  
 ∑
∂r  lm
a*ψ γ l ( r )Yl m (θ )eik .r 

(a)
= ∑ a*ψ γ l (r )Yl m (θ )(ik )eik .r + ∑ a*ψ γ' l (r )Yl m (θ )(ik )eik .r
lm lm

And

90
∂2  
2 ∑
a*ψγ l (r)Yl m (θ )eik.r  = ∑a*ψγ l (r)Yl m (θ )(ik)2 eik.r
∂r  lm  lm
+∑a*ψγ' l (r)Yl m (θ )(ik)eik.r + ∑a*ψγ' l (r)Yl m (θ )eik.r
lm lm

+∑a ψγ l (r)Yl (θ )e
* '' m ik .r

lm

 ∂2 ∂ 
= ∑ a  2 ψ γ l + 2(ik ) ψ γ l − k 2ψ γ l Yl m (θ )eik .r
*
(b)
lm  ∂r ∂r 

∂ ∂2
Substituting the values of and 2 from (a) and (b) in eqn (5.64)
∂r ∂r

 ∂2 1 ∂ 
 ∑ a ψ γ l (r )Yl (θ )e
* m ik .r
 2+
 ∂r r ∂r  lm
 2 l2 
−  γ + 2  ∑ a*ψ γ l (r )Yl m (θ )eik .r = 0
 r  lm

 ∂ 2 ∂ 2  m ik .r

 2 ψ γ l (r ) + 2(ik ) ψ γ l (r ) − k ψ γ l (r )  Yl (θ )e 
 ∂r ∂r  
 1  ∂  m 
∑ a*
  γl
+
r 
ψ ( r )(ik ) +
∂r
ψ γl ( r ) Y
 l

(θ )eik .r
=0 (5.65)
lm  
  l 
2 
−  γ 2 + 2  ∑ a*ψ γ l (r )Yl m (θ )eik .r 
  r  lm 

For l mode only

91
 ∂2 ∂ 
 2 ψ γ l (r ) + 2(ik ) ψ γ l (r ) − k 2ψ γ l (r ) 
 ∂r ∂r 
 1  ∂  
m ik .r −ω t
  γl
+ ψ ( r )(ik ) + ψ γl ( r )   Y (θ )e =0
 r ∂r   (5.66)
  l 
2 
−  γ + 2  ∑ a ψ γ l (r )
2 *

  r  lm 

Equating real and imaginary parts separately

∂2 1 ∂  2 2 l2 
ψ γ l (r ) + ψ γ l (r ) −  γ + k + 2 ψ γ (r ) = 0 (5.67)
∂r 2 r ∂r  r 

∂ 1 
2(ik )  ψ γ (r ) + ψ γ (r )  = 0 (5.68)
 ∂r r 

2 2 2
Let us assume that γ + k = q

∂2 1 ∂  2 l2 
ψ γ (r ) + ψ γ (r ) −  q + 2 ψ γ (r ) = 0 (5.69)
∂r 2 r ∂r  r 

Eqn (5.43) is a modified form of Bessel’s differential equation. Its


solution is

ψ γ ( r ) = ΑΙ l ( qr )

2 2 2
where q = γ + k (5.70)

I γ (qr ) is modified Bessel’s function for integer γ and depend on

(qr ) Hence solution be

92
ψ γ l (r , t ) = ∑ ΑΙ l ( qr )Yl m (θ )ei ( kr −ωt ) r<R
l ,m

=0 r>R (5.71)

The solution for electrostatic potential function

 4πe 
∇ 2φl (r , t ) =  ψ rl (r , t ) (5.72)
 ε 

Let us assume that

φl (r , t ) = ∑ φl (r )Yl m (θ )e i ( kr −ωt ) (5.73)


l ,m

ψ l ( r , t ) = ∑ ΑΙ l ( qr )Yl m (θ )e i ( kr −ωt ) (5.74)


l ,m

Now

4πe  i ( kr −ωt ) 
∇ 2 ∑ φl (r )Yl m (θ )e i ( kr −ωt ) = ∑ l ΑΙ ( qr )Yl
m
(θ )e 
l ,m ε  l ,m 

 ∂2 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 ∂2 
 2 + + 2 2
+ 2 ∑φl (r )Yl m (θ )e i ( kr −ωt )
 ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z  l ,m

4π e  i ( kr −ωt ) 
∑ ΑΙl (qr )Yl (θ )e
m
= 
ε  l ,m 

After eqn. (5.63)

 ∂2 1 ∂ 1 ∂2 
 2 + + ∑ φ l ( r )Yl m (θ )e i ( kr −ωt )
 ∂r r ∂r r 2 ∂θ 2  lm

93
= ∑ Α1Ι l (qr )Yl m (θ )ei ( kr −ωt ) (5.75)
l ,m

Taking z as constant

 ∂2 1 ∂ 
 2 + ∑ φl (r )Yl m (θ )e i ( kr −ωt ) − ∑ Α1Ι l (qr )Yl m (θ )e i ( kr −ωt )
 ∂r r ∂r  lm l ,m

1  ∂2 
= 2  2  ∑ φl (r )Yl (θ )e
m i ( kr −ωt )
(5.76)
r  ∂r  lm

r2  ∂ 2 1 ∂   i ( kr −ωt )
 2 + φ
 l ( r ) − Α Ι ( qr ) e
∑ φl (r )ei (kr −ωt )
lm
 ∂r r ∂r 
1 l

1  ∂2  m
= m  2  Yl (θ ) (5.77)
Yl (θ )  ∂r 

Again L.H.S. of eqn (5.77)) is a function of r only and R.H.S. is


function of θ only. Therefore, each side must be equal to the same
constant l 2

 ∂ 2 1 ∂  
 2 +  φl (r )  i ( kr −ωt ) 2
2
r
 ∂r r ∂r  e =l (5.78)
∑ φl (r )ei ( kr −ωt ) −Α Ι ( qr ) 
lm  1l 

l 2 ∑ φ l (r )e i ( kr −ωt )
 ∂ 2
1 ∂ 
 2 + φ l (r ) − Α1Ι l (qr ) = lm
e i ( kr −ωt ) (5.79)
 ∂r r ∂r  r 2

or

 ∂2 1 ∂ l2 
 2 + − 2 φl (r ) = Α1Ι l ( qr )e i ( kr −ωt ) (5.80)
 ∂r r ∂r r 
94
On Simplifying, we get

∂2 2 ∂  2 l2 
φl ( r ) + φl ( r ) − k + 2  φl (r )
∂r 2 r ∂r  r 
(5.81)
∂ 1 
+2(ik )  φl (r ) + φl (r )  = ΑΙ l (qr )ei ( kr −ωt )
 ∂r r 

Equating real and imaginary parts of the equation, we get

∂2 2 ∂  2 l2 
φl (r ) + φl (r ) − k + 2 φl (r ) = Α1 I l (qr ) (5.82)
∂r 2 r ∂r  r 

∂ 1
φl ( r ) + φl ( r ) = 0 (5.83)
∂r r

The solution of the equation (5.83) may be taken as

C
φl (r ) = (5.84)
r

The LHS of equation (5.84) is independent of l. in other words the


solution of equation (5.82) can be written as

φ l ( r ) = C .F + P.I (5.85)

By solving the eqn, the C.F is obtained as

CF = BIl (qr) + CKl (qr) (5.86)

Where I l (qr ) and K l (qr ) are modified cylindrical Bessel function of first
and second kind respectively. The value of these modified cylindrical
Bessel function may be calculated in terms of the following relation

95
π 
I l ( x) =   I 1 (5.87)
 2x  l+ 2

π 
K l ( x) =   K 1 (5.88)
 2x  l+ 2

Where I l (x ) and K l (x) are cylindrical Bessel functions of first


and second kind respectively.

The P.I of the eqn (5.83) is given by

Α1 I l ( qr )
P.I = (5.89)
q2 − k 2

Substituting the eqn (5.89) and (5.86) in eqn (5.85), we get the
general solution as

Α1 I l (qr)
φl (r ) = BI l (qr) + CKl (qr) + (5.90)
q2 − k 2

4πeΑ
Where B and C are constant and Α1 =
2 2 2
and q = γ + k
ε

Thus ψ γl (r ) represent the scalar potential function φl (r ) , and then we can


write

Α1 I l ( qr )
ψ γl ( r ) = + BI l (qr ) + CK l ( qr ) (5.91)
q2 − k 2

The boundary conditions are

φli r =R
= φle r=R (5.92)

96
And

∂  ∂ 
ε1  φli  = ε 2  φle  (5.93)
 ∂r  r = R  ∂r  r = R

B1 = M 1 Α (5.94)

C1 = N1 Α (5.95)

Where

1  pε I l (qr ) K l (kr ) − ε B kI l (qr ) K l' ( kR) 


M1 = 2   (5.96)
kγ  ε B I l ( kr ) K l' (kr ) − ε kI l' (kr ) K l (kR ) 

1  1 
N1 =  M 1 I l (kR) + 2 I l (qr ) (5.97)
K l (kR)  r 

This with the help of eqn (5.94) and eqn (5.95), equation (5.91) can be
written as

ψ γl ( r ) = ΑI l ( qr ) + BI l ( kr ) + CK l ( kr ) (5.98)

ψ γl (r ) = ΑI l (qr ) + ΑM 1 I l (kr ) + ΑN1 K l (kr )

= Α[I l ( qr ) + M 1 I l ( kr ) + N 1 K l ( kr ) ]

= ΑX l (γkr ) (5.99)

Where X l (γkr ) = I l ( qr ) + M 1 I l ( kr ) + N 1 K l ( kr )

Now from eqn (5.53), we get

97
ψ γ = ∑ψ γl Yl m (θ )e ikr = ∑ ΑX l (γkr )Yl m (θ )e ikr (5.100)
lm lm

Now electric and magnetic field components may be obtained from


eqn (5.50), (5.51) and (5.52)


Erlγ = ∇ψ γ =  ΑX l (γ kr )Yl m (θ ) 
∂r


or Erlγ =  ΑX l (γ kr )Yl m (θ )  (5.101)
∂r

∂  ∂ m 
Eθγl =  Α. X l (γ kr ) ∂θ Yl (θ )  (5.102)
∂r

Also the magnetic components are related to the electric field as

1
B= (∇ × E ) (5.103)

From eqn (5.50) and eqn (5.101) and (5.102) it is clear that

Brlγ = 0 (5.104)

γ
And Bθ l = 0 (5.105)

Similarly eqn (5.52) along with eqn (5.51) yields the electric and
magnetic field components as

Erl(α2 ) = l 2 Α2Yl (α kr )Yl m (θ ) (5.106)

r Α 2Yl (α kr ) ∂ m
Eθ(αl2 ) = Yl (θ ) (5.107)
iα r ∂θ

98
and

Brl(α2 ) = 0 (5.108)

αΑ 2Yl (α kr )
Bθ(αl2 ) = (5.109)
ω sin θ

The function

ψ α l (r ) = Α 2 [ I l (α r ) + N 2 K l (kr ) + M 2 I l (kr ) ] (5.110)

ψ δ l (r ) = Α3 [ hl (δ r ) + N 3 K l (kr ) + M 3 I l ( kr ) ] (5.111)

where

 pε Il' ( pR) Kl (kR) − ε B I l ( pR) Kl' (kR) 


M2 =
1  
(5.112)
k ε B I l (kR) Kl (kR) − ε I l (kR) Kl (kR) 
' '

1
N2 = [ M1I l (kR) + Il ( p1R)] (5.113)
kl (kR)

1  p2 ε h p (δ R ) K l ( kR ) − ε B hl (δ R ) K l ( kR ) 
' '

M2 = (5.114)
k ε B I l ( kR ) K l' ( kR ) − ε I l' ( kR ) K l' ( kR ) 

Where p = kR (5.115)

2 ω2
δ = εB (5.116)
c2

99
Where p1 = α 2 + k 2 and p2 = δ 2 + k 2 hl (δ R ) is the
cylindrical Hanke function and given in equation (5.111) and ε B is the
dielectric of the bounding medium.

The field component in the region outside and inside will be

δ l 2ψ δ l (r )Yl m (θ )
Erl =
iδ (5.117)

2
rψ (r ) δ Yl m (θ )
E = δl
δ
θl (5.118)
iδ r ∂θ

Brlδ = 0 (5.119)

δ ∂ψ δ l (r )∂Yl m (θ )
B =
θl (5.120)
ω sin(θ )∂ 2θ

Now the field component in polar semiconductor and the


bounding medium are known, the dispersion relation may be obtained by
applying the boundary conditions which are

Eθ P
= Eθ B
at r=R (5.121)

Dr P
= DB at r=R (5.122)

Bθ P
= Bθ B
at r=R (5.123)

Equation (5.122) may also be written as

ε L (kω ) Er P = ε B (kr ) Er B at r=R (5.124)

100
Where the subscript ‘P’ and ‘B’ denotes the polar semiconductor
and bounding medium respectively. ‘R’ represents the boundary of the
polar semiconductor cylinder and the bounding medium such that

r<R represents polar semiconducting medium

r>R represents the bounding medium

and r=R represents the interface of the media.

Now let us assume that from equation (5.110) and (5.111), we get

ψ rl (r ) = Α2 yl (α kr ) (5.125)

And ψ δ l ( r ) = Α3 zl (α kr ) (5.126)

Where zl (δ kR ) = hl (δ R ) + M 3 K l ( kR ) + N 3 I l ( kR ) (5.127)

And yl (α kR) = I l (α R) + M 2 K l (kR) + N 2 I l (kR) (5.128)

Now applying boundary condition (5.121), (5.122), (5.123) and


(5.124) at interface r=R using eqn (5.101) to eqn (5.117) to eqn (5.120)
with the help of eqn (5.98) and eqn (5.126), we get

ε1(kω)l2Α2Yl (αkR)Ylm(θ) Rε1(kω)Α1Xl' (γ kR)Ylm(θ) εB(kω)l2Α3zl (δkR)Ylm(θ)


' '
[ RΑ2Yl (αkR)] ∂Ylm(θ) Α1Xl (γkR) ∂Ylm(θ) [ RΑ3zl (δkR)] ∂Ylm(θ) = 0 (5.129)
iαR ∂θ R ∂θ δR ∂θ
2 m 2 m
α Α2Yl (αkR)∂Yl (θ) iδ Α3z(δkR)Yl (θ)
0 −
ωsinθ ωsinθ

Reduced form will be

101
ε1 (kω )l 2Yl (α kR ) Rε1 ( kω ) X l' (γ kR ) ε B (kω )l 2 zl (δ kR )
' '
[ RYl (α kR)] X l (γ kR ) [ Rzl (δ kR)] =0 (5.130)
iα 2Yl (α kR ) 0 −i 2δ 2 z (δ kR )

On solving the 3 × 3 determinant, we get

ε1 (kω)l 2Yl (α kR)  X l (γ kR) ( −i 2δ 2 z(δ kR) − 0)


[ RYl (α kR)] ( −i 2δ 2 z(δ kR) ) 
−ε1 (kω) X l' (γ kR)  
− [ Rzl (δ kR)] iα Yl (α kR) 
' 2
 

−ε B (kω)l 2 zl (δ kR) 0 − X l (γ kR) × iα 2Yl (α kR) = 0 (5.131)

Where the prime (‘) denotes differentiation w.r.to θ, and α, γ ,δ are in


units of c / ωP and given by

α 2 = ε (kω ) − ε1 (kω ) − Ω 2  (5.132)

2 1 − Ω2
γ = (5.133)
ξ2

And δ 2 = ε B ( kω ) − Ω 2 (5.134)

Now the two mode coupling eqn of SP-SOP electro state surface
modes by taking the limit ∝R→O,  R → O.

102
 
ε ε̅ l Ω ω  
 ω

So that eqn becomes


ϵ∞Ω ε ω   l  ε l  1 Ω ω Ω 'ε̅ l 


ω ω  !"#$ γ%
 !"&$ γ%

ε l  1(Ω  )ε∞ Ω ε  l  ε l  1 Ω


ω  ω 
ω ω 

* Ω + 0 (5.135)
ω 
ω 

Where use has again been made of recurrence relations given by


equation

 [Il-1(x) - Il+1(x) ]
-

I1(x) = (5.136)



and I' (x) = [Il-1(x) + (l+1) Il+1(x)] (5.137)

The equation (5.135) become

ω 1
.'ε l  1  ϵ∞ l('1   ! (0   .'ε l  1 ϵ∞ I 
 !"#$ /%
 "&$ /% ω 

ω  
ε̅ l   0 '1   ! (0    .ε̅ l'1   ! (
 !"#$ /%  !"#$ /%
 /%  "&$ /%
ω
ω "&$ ω 

ω  
.'ε l  1'1 (0   +0
!"#$ /%
!"&$ /% ω
(5.138)

The equation (5.138) is the dispersion relation for the SP-SoP


modes of the spastically dispersive medium [54]. optical phonon
frequency has easily be obtained for the neglecting geometry of the
interface. This is obtained by neglecting the contribution due to plasma in
eqn (5.138) i.e. by taking ωP=0, So that eqn becomes-

ε3 ε4 
ε∞  ε4 
ω2SOP = ωt 2 (5.139)

103
The uncoupled surface plasma frequency may also be obtained
from eqn (5.101) by neglecting the contribution due to surface optical
phonon modes i.e. setting ωt=0 and ε∞ 6666
, ε so eqn (5.138) becomes

1
7 !  18   + 1 ε̅ε
 !"#$ /% ω9 4 ε ε̅  !"#$ /%
 "&$ /% ω 4  !"&$ /%
(5.140)

The dispersion relation (5.140) for coupled modes at the spherical


polar semiconductor surface matches exactly with the relation obtained
by Srivastava et. All [(59], plotted the reduced surface mode frequency

ω  . The SP modes decreased with increase in radius, whereas the SOP


ω


mode remains constant, i.e. independent of frequency. For both the


coupled branches also the surface mode frequency decreases as radius
increases.

Now again the equation (5.138) has been considered after


simplifying and arranging the terms, we get

!"&$ /% !"#$ /% ε4 ω


!"&$ /% .ε;  ε4 0ω #."<ε &ε̅=ω
=
4 

!"&$ /% > ?  ε4 ω


.ε;  ε4 ω 0 .ε 
!"&$ /% !"#$ /% ε4 ω
or =

since ω>>ωp, we put ε@ =ε, then we get

!"&$ /% > ω  ε4 ω


.ε;  ε4 ω 0 .ε 
!"&$ /% !"#$ /% ε4 ω
==

subtracting 1 on both sides, we get

. !"&$ /% !"#$ /%0 AB$ BC A ω B6


!"&$ /% !"#$ /% ABC ω BC
=[ ] -

104
AB$  ABC D B6
ABC D E BC
(l+1)B = [ ] -

l(l+1) FG H + .IFG  I  1F 0 - F̅ [- F̅ ) - FG H ] +  C  $  ω2


D  B B
DE A A A

=0 (5.141 )

If KJ0, then from the Bessel's modified equation, we get

 KL&$ MN KL&$ MN


A AKL&$ MN A KL#$ MN
- = (5.142a)

 OL&$ KN OL#$ KN


A AOL&$ KN A OL#$ KN
and = (5.142b)

OL&$ PN OL#$ PN


AOL&$ PN OL#$ KN AOL#$ KN
B= (5.143)

The equation (5.139) becomes

.F̅ - F̅G 0 QR


KL&$ KN KL#$ KN OL&$ PN OL#$ PN
AKL&$ KN A KL#$ KN AOL&$ PN OL#$ KN AOL#$ KN

+ .FG - F ] Q =0 (5.144)
OL&$ KN OL#$ KN KL&$ KN KL#$ KN
AOL&$ KN A OL#$ KN AKL&$ KN A KL#$ KN

This equation (5.144) is required dispersion relation for


surface phonon and plasma coupled mode. thus it is clear that the
dispersion relation given by the author is the most general dispersion for

interface for KJ 0.
phonon, polar ton and Plasmon for polar semiconductor of cylindrical

substituting the dielectric function of semiconducting medium F in


The frequencies of coupled SP-SOP modes by

eqn(5.144), we get F as

105
DE
F = FS - F̅
D
(5.145)

FS =
B∞ TBU
T
where

Y =  & Z =   
D DE
DV DV
(5.146)

then from equation (5.144), we get

(F̅W FG H) Q X + [FG Y -{ F̅ }A] ω2 =0


B∞ TBU Z
T T

(F̅W FG H)   + [FG Y -{ F̅ }A]  = 0


DE B∞ TBU Z D
DV T T DV
or

Then on simplifying by taking FG =1 as vacuum we get

Y[Y2-(az+b)Y+az] = 0 (5.147)

GB6[ BB∞[
B  B∞[ \  B∞[
Where a = , b= (5.148)

only Y=0 , does not give any meaningful solution, then we get

y2 - (az+b)Y+az =0 (5.149)

The above equation is quadratic in Y and for each mode l gives two
roots for the given value of the constant a,b for Z.

l=1 mode l=2 mode

KU KN K KN K$ KN K] KN


KU KN K KN K$ KN K] KN
A= A=

OU ^N O KN O$ ^N O] ^N


OU ^N O KN O$ ^N O] ^N
B= B=

106
OU KN O KN O$ KN O] KN
OU KN O KN O$ ^N O] KN
C= C=

where P = √`   a 

and ` is given by[68] equation(5.48)

`+ [(   - Bc B 0/


DV DE B B
b DV 
(5.150)

QR + i = j Vf =j m 3o  pq /k
1efc g k k
B6 h l l
and

the values of cylindrical Bessel function In (x) and Kn (x) for n = 0, 1, 2,


3 are

rq s = aq s =
tuf v w tuf v w
w w

r s = a s =
xyt v w tuf v w xyt v w tuf v w
w w w w
- -

r s = ry s - I1(x) a s = ay s - K1(x)
k k
w w

rk s = r s - I1(x) ak s = a s - K1(x)
l l
w w

for the Insb cylindrical bounding by vaccum, we have

Fy = 17.70, F∞ = 15.60, F̅ = Fy  F∞ = 16.65

ωt = 1.39x1012sec-1

py = 2.0x1017/CC(at room temp 300o K) and ωp = 6.18x1012

then Z = [(   0= (4.46)2 = 19.89, ` = 3.7 x 10-2/A°


DE
DV

107
from eqn(5.149) We get

Y2=(az+b)Y-az (5.151)

Using the above data and the dispersion relation, we have


calculated the frequency of two coupled mode SP-SOP modes arise on
the surface of polar semiconductor as a result of frequency and wave -
vector dependence of the lattice dielectric surface function of polar
semiconductor. These coupled SP-SOP modes, a coupling with the
incident EM radiation of comparable frequency lead to the coupled
surface plasmon, polariton - phonon modes on the surface.Now the author
study the surface of different materials(polar semiconductors)for different
parameters by using the relation given by equation(5.149).

 We plot graph between wsp/wt with propagation constant k for KF


substance in 3D.
 Graph plotted for different radius ranges from 1A. to 16A. as
shown in fig (5.1)
 In this graph along one axis wsp/wt taken along other axis k taken
while variation of different radius taken along third axis.
 We observe that graph between wsp/wt versus k is nearly linear.
When value of k increases from o to 9 than its linear variation
changes.
 For lower value of k nearly linear variation with wsp/wt for radius
1A. & 2A. .
 When radius increases then variation of wsp/wt with respect to K
shown lesser linear variation.
 Thus for higher value K it shows non linear variation. Hence for
higher value of K, it shows non linear agreement.

108
 But at radius 8A. It shows again perfect linear variation for high
value of K.
 Again linear variation between wsp/wt versus K disturb for radius
16A. for high value of K.
 Variation of wsp/wt versus K for different radius observe that
variation is either perfectly linear or not perfectly linear.
 When radius increases then it’s linear variation changes with
wsp/wt versus K, thus for high radius linear variation changes.

When radius increases then ratio of wsp/wt decreases. wsp/wt


inceases with increment in value of K. It mean for larger value of wave
vector K, more prominent wave passes through the substance KF in
epoxy resine medium.

Thus we conclude that with K Ratio of wsp/wt increases. It shows


linear variation for low radius but it deviates for high value of radius.

Conclusion of the graph as shown in fig (5.2) is given as :-

 In this graph we use different medium in 3D having constant radius


0.5 A. for KF substance.
 In this we take wsp/wt along one axis, wave vector K along another
axis and variation of different medium along different axis.
 In epoxy resine wsp/wt increases linearly with K but for transoil it is
not linear variation.
 All medium except transformer oil shows linear variation for KF
substance.
 wsp/wt increases linearly with increase in value of K.

109
 For same radius neoprene use a medium variation of wsp/wt initially
increases but as K=5, it changes abnormally again at K=7 it fallow
simillar path as in epoxy resine medium follow.
 When we increase K more than 9 (K > 9) than it increases rapidly.
 Except trans oil medium other medium like mica, quartz, Bee wax,
transformer oil and vaccum shows linear increment of wsp/wt with
K.
 Thus wsp/wt increases with increment in value of K
 For KF substance at .5A.radius. It is observed that trans oil
medium show different variation otherwise other seven medium
shows same kind of linear variation.

Ratio of wsp/wt increases for same value of K for when we consider


different medium [Epoxy resine, Neoprene, Mica, quarz, lice, Bee wax,
Transformer Oil & vaccum] i.e. minimum value for Epoxy resine and
maximum value for vaccum.

Thus we obverse that all medium shows same type of variation


only transoil shows different type of variation.

Conclusion of the graph as shows in fig (5.3) is given as :-

 In this graph we use different medium in 3D having constant radius


.5A. for Mgo substance.
 In this we take wsp/wt along one axis, wave vector K along another
axis and variation of different medium along different axis.
 In this graph we take different medium like Epoxy Resine,
Neoprene, Mica, Quartz, Lice, Bee Wax, Transformer Oil &
Vaccum.

110
 Ratio of wsp/wt increases when we move left to right for different
medium with constant value of K.
 For same medium wsp/wt increases when K increases.
 All medium like Epoxy Resine, Neoprene, Mica, Quartz, Lice, Bee
Wax, Transformer Oil & Vaccum share linear variation between
wsp/wt versus K. Thus for different medium variation are same.
 For lice medium Ratio of wsp/wt increases with increase in K but
when K>8 then decreases rapidly.
 Ratio of wsp/wt becomes constant at K = 9 or greater value for lice
medium.
 Even at wave vector K = 0 all medium have same value of wsp/wt.
 But when value of wave vector is higher (i.e. K>8) then for lice
medium its linear variation vanishes.

Thus for low value of K all medium shows linear variation while
for high value of K only lice shows different variation when we plot 3D
graph between wsp/wt versus K for different medium.

So we observe that all medium shows linear variation while lice


medium not shows linear variation.

Conclusion of the graph shows in fig (5.4) is given as below :-

 We plot graph between wsp/wt with propagation constant K for


Mgo substance in 3D for Epoxy resine medium. Graph plotted for
different radius of .5A. to 16 A. .
 In this 3D graph we take wsp/wt along one axis K, along other axis
while variation of different radius taken along new axis.
 We plot graph between wsp/wt versus K is exactly linear for
different radius for Mgo substances in Epoxy resine medium.
 When value of K increases then wsp/wt increases Radius of cylinder
increases then wsp/wt also increases.

111
 Ratio of wsp/wt is lowest at 5A. radius and wsp/wt is maximum are
in cylindrical shape increases then more space to pass waves. Thus
wsp/wt increases with increases in radius.
 For Mgo substance in epoxy resine medium there is constent
variation, It is free from radius.
 It has only single effect when radius is more then large amount of
wave pass trough it easily otherwise less amount of wave pass
trough it.
 When K = 0 then there is no propagation of waves value of K
increases then wave propagation also increases.
 wsp/wt has max value at 16A. means at this radius waves passes
easily through the cylindrical geometry. It cappers for highest value
of K = 10.

Thus for low value of K, wave propagation is not significant but


when radius and K both increases then significant wave passes through it.

In this graph at all radius wsp/wt verses K shows linear variation.

Conclusion of the graph as shown in fig(5. 5) is given as

 We plot graph between wsp/wt with propagation constant k for InP


in different medium having radius of cylinder is 0.5 A..
 In 3D graph we take wsp/wt along one axis K along other axis while
different medium along third dimensional.
 For fixed value of K the ratio of the frequency of surface plasmon
to transverse medium is minimum in epoxy resin and very high in
vaccum medium.
 wsp/wt versus K is almost linear increment in all medium except
lice medium.
 Value of wsp/wt is high in vaccum medium and low in epoxy resine
but the range is nearly equal for same value of K.

112
 When we plot graph wsp/wt versus K. Then InP substance for
cylindrical surface of 0.5 A. radius of different medium, then all
medium shows linear variation but lice shows different variation.
 In lice medium wsp/wt increases but its value remains constant at
5.040028. So for lice, wsp/wt increases with increment in K but for
K = 7 or more then this, wsp/wt deceases rapidly.

Thus for InP at lone value of K all medium including lice shows
linear variation but for higher value of K, only lice shows different
variation also for high value of K.

Conclusion of the graph as shows in fig (5.6) is given as

 We plot graph for InP at different radius of 1 A. & 2 A. in epoxy


resine medium for cylindrical surface.
 We plot graph between wsp/wt with propagation constant K for
InP in epoxy resine medium having different radius.
 In 3D graph we take wsp/wt along one axis. Wave vector K along
other axis while different radius consider along third dimension.
 The wsp/wt varies linearly with respect to K (1 A. - 10 A.) for
cylindrical surface of InP at different radius.
 At different radius InP medium shows same linear variation.
 wsp/wt increases vertically when we move from top to bottom,
while this ratio is decreases when we move Horizontally from left
to right.

We observe that for InP in epoxy resine medium variation of wsp/wt is


linear with K at different radius such that 1 A. & 2 A., Both shows linear
variation in the epoxy resine medium as in fig. no. 6.

113
Calculation

0.576112 0.458197
0.945957 0.814658 0.758192 0.753698 0.753417
1.344748 1.268568 1.257262 1.256526 1.25648
1.768659 1.733666 1.730612 1.73042 1.730408
2.210058 2.195285 2.194229 2.194164 2.19416
2.660146 2.65354 2.653105 2.653078 2.653076
3.112725 3.109517 3.109312 3.109299 3.109299
3.565661 3.563975 3.563869 3.563863 3.563862
4.018341 4.017393 4.017334 4.01733 4.01733
4.470037 4.470037 4.470038 4.470036 4.470036

Graph between Wsp/Wt vrs K in 3D of different radius


of KF in Epoxy resine

5
4
Wsp/Wt---------

1A
3 2A
2 4A
1 8A
0 16A
1 3 5 7 9

Fig. 5.1

114
Calculation

0.578501 0.581682 0.607543 0.614589 0.623532 0.626 0.63 0.64


0.970722 0.972601 0.988118 0.99242 0.998 0.999 1 1
1.395954 1.397331 1.408752 1.411933 1.416 1.417 1.42 1.425
1.829093 1.830354 1.840826 1.843748 1.847 1.848 1.85. 1.86
2.264339 2.265705 2.277062 2.280231 2.284 2.285 2.285 2.293
2.701287 2.702849 2.71583 2.719454 2.724 2.725 2.725 2.734
3.141099 3.142831 3.157223 3.161241 3.166 3.166 3.168 3.178
3.584298 3.586117 3.601244 3.605468 3.611 3.612 3.612 3.622
4.030378 4.032206 4.047402 4.051647 4.057 4.058 4.58 4.069
4.47844 4.480221 4.495039 4.49917 4.481 4.506 4.5.5 4.515

Graph between Wsp/Wt vrs K in 3D of .5A radius of KF


in different medium

epoxy resine

Neoprene
6 Mica
Wsp/Wt-------

4 Quartz

2 Lice
0 Bee Wax
1 2
3 4 Transformer
5 6
7 Vacuum
8
9
10
11
K----------

Fig. 5.2

115
Calculation

0.74 0.7373 0.7636 0.7708 0.7799 0.7819 0.7869 0.7989


1.2145 1.2164 1.2324 1.2368 1.2425 1.2437 1.2468 1.2544
1.7398 1.7413 1.753 1.7163 1.7605 1.7615 1.7638 1.7694
2.2769 2.2782 2.2891 2.2921 2.2959 2.2968 2.2989 2.3041
2.8178 2.8192 2.8309 2.8342 2.8384 2.8393 2.8416 2.8473
3.3612 3.3628 3.3762 3.3799 3.3848 3.3858 3.3885 3.3949
3.908 3.9098 3.9247 3.9288 3.9341 3.9353 3.9383 3.9454
4.4586 4.4605 4.4761 4.4805 4.4861 4.4874 4.4905 4.4979
5.0124 5.0143 5.03 5.0343 5.04 5.0413 5.0444 5.0519
5.5684 5.5703 5.5856 5.5898 5.5966 5.5996 5.7069

Graph between Wsp/Wt vrs K in 3D of .5A radius of


MgO in different medium

Epoxy resen
10 Neoprene
Wsp/Wt------

Mica
5 Quartz
Lice
0
1 2 Wax
3 4
5 6 Trasformer oil
7 8
9 Vacuume
K---------- 10

Fig. 5.3

116
Calculation

0.798947 0.731606 0.615327 0.320792 0.248437


1.254347 1.192797 1.056934 1.001527 0.997161 0.996888
1.769384 1.690038 1.609697 1.598266 1.597522 1.597475
2.304098 2.214776 2.178956 2.175835 2.17564 2.175628
2.847247 2.761879 2.746706 2.745623 2.745556 2.745552
3.394872 3.318774 3.311976 3.311528 3.3115 3.311498
3.94537 3.878741 3.875435 3.875224 3.875211 3.87521
4.497908 4.439395 4.437656 4.437547 4.43754 4.437539
5.051902 4.999995 4.999017 4.998956 4.998953 4.998952
5.606916 5.560347 5.559765 5.559729 5.559727 5.559727

Graph between Wsp/Wt vrs K in 3D of different radius


of MgO in Epoxy resine

10
Wsp/Wt--------

.5A
5
1A

0 2A
1 2 4A
3 4
5 6 7 8A
8
9
10 16A
K----------

Fig. 5.4

117
Calculation

0.734022 0.737243 0.763559 0.770767 0.779936 0.781959 0.786993 0.798947


1.214465 1.216394 1.23235 1.23678 1.242454 1.243711 1.246849 1.254347
1.739829 1.741248 1.753026 1.75631 1.760523 1.761458 1.763793 1.769384
2.276939 2.278239 2.289049 2.292067 2.295941 2.296801 2.298949 2.304098
2.817777 2.819187 2.830913 2.834187 2.838392 2.839325 2.841657 2.847247
3.361179 3.362791 3.376195 3.379938 3.384746 3.385813 3.38848 3.394872
3.908005 3.909793 3.924656 3.928807 3.934139 3.935322 3.93828 3.94537
4.458626 4.460505 4.476127 4.480492 4.486097 4.487342 4.490452 4.497908
5.012422 5.014309 5.030007 5.034394 5.040028 5.041279 5.044406 5.051902
5.568406 5.570246 5.585554 5.589833 5.596551 5.599601 5.606916

Graph between Wsp/Wt vrs K in 3D of .5A radius of InP


in different medium
Wsp/Wt---------

epoxy
neopren
mica
quartz
1 2
3 lice
4
5
6 beewax
7
8 trance oil
9
vacuume
10
K----------

Fig. 5.5

118
Calculation

0.731606 0.615327 0.320792 0.248437 0.242957


1.192797 1.056934 1.001527 0.997161 0.996888
1.690038 1.609697 1.598266 1.597522 1.597475
2.214776 2.178956 2.175835 2.17564 2.175628
2.761879 2.746706 2.745623 2.745556 2.745552
3.318774 3.311976 3.311528 3.3115 3.311498
3.878741 3.875435 3.875224 3.875211 3.87521
4.439395 4.437656 4.437547 4.43754 4.437539
4.999995 4.999017 4.998956 4.998953 4.998952
5.560347 5.559765 5.559729 5.559727 5.559727

Graph between Wsp/Wt vrs K in 3D of different radius


of InP in Epoxy resine

10
Wsp/Wt---------

1A

5
2A

0
4A
1 2 3 4
5
6
7
8
9
10

K------------------

Fig. 5.6

119
5.3 Special dispersion relation three for mode coupling

The dispersion relation for three mode coupling can be obtained

form of FS Qz given by the equation (5.48) for polar semiconductor. this
from (5.131) by substituting the frequency and wave vector dependent

substitution leads to

} 
B∞ KDΩ BU KD V
R{' (γkR) | ~
} 
E
} 
Ω  V
} 
E

Q 
F∞ zQΩ Fq zQ
QR 
F̅ zQ € Q ‚ Ω ƒ
Ω  
QR

.„… z„′† `z„  FG zQΩ „† `z„′ … z„0 I 


1s ‡z„… z„ .F̅ zQFG zQ + 0 (5.152)

So RX1 (‡z„ FG zQΩ Fy zQ 


F̅ zQ  Ω 
D  DV
D R DE

F∞ zQΩ F zQ  Ω  † `z„. „… ‡z„′  Ω


D V  
D E

Ω FG zQ „† `z„′ … z„0  Ω V  I I 


DV D
DE 
 D  E

1F̅ zQ FG zQ{ ‡z„† `z„† `z„. … `z„ + 0


(5.153)

The equation (5.153) is the required dispersion relation for the

dispersion relation polar semi-conductor sphere for KJ 0 embeded in


surface Plasmon phonon - polaritan coupled modes in the case of spatial

abounding. Non dispersive dielectric medium for dielectric constant FG


(kω). None we will take the case when k→o then from eqn(5.39) become
as

120
ˆYrl (‰ + WA rA (pr)

=A ŠA (‡‰

Because Ml =0

Nl = 0

Then † ‡z„ → I1 (‡„) (5.154)

from eqn (5.81) Y1 (`z„ → r αR (5.155)

from eq (5.156)we get k → 0

Z1(a„ →h1(„) (5.156)

And F̅ (kω) → F̅ (W) = F̅ (5.157)

F̅ G (kω) → F̅ G (W) = F̅ (5.158)

and M2 = M3 = N2 = N3 = 0 (5.159)

After putting the values of { ‡z„, Y1(`z„ Œp Z1(z„ from


equation (5.154), (5.155), and (5.156) respectively in eq (5.153) we get

RI’(‡„)(F∞ Ω

Fy 
F̅ Ω  F∞ Ω Fy V  Ω  „m „′ Š ‡„ 
D V D  D
D E D R
 D E

FG Ω Ω  „r `„ I I  1F F̅ G Ω D V  r ‡„h „ + 0


D V D
D E E

(5.160)

n (5.160) is the dispersion relation for spherical surface Plasmon and

[150] for K → ∞.
polariton coupled models for polar semiconductors in the case of K = 0

121
The dispersion relation for surface plasma, polaritons and phonons
including spatial dispersion effect as given.

}  } 
B∞ MDΩ Bc MD V B∞ MDΩ B∞ MD V
~ .'F̅ zQ | ~
}  } 
E E
}  } 
Ω  V Ω  V
RX1(γkr)|
}  } 
E E

( { ‡z„† `a„  FG zQΩ <„{ ‡z„“ … z„ I I 


Ω
N‘ ’MN

1“{ ‡z„† `z„… z„FG zQF̅ zQ + 0


(5.161)

Further study of the dispersion relation for surface Plasmon,

taking limit ‡„ → ∞ and F → 0, then eqn (5.161) become in new form


phonon, polaritan for non-spatially dispersion case, from eq (5.161) by

DE 
Ω”   _-F∞ [Fy  'F̅ 1  F∞ a  (  0 Ω1 
'1  Fy  
DE
D V D V

F̅   * z   F̅0 Ω F̅z  + 0
D
E
D V
(5.162)

For InAs F + 1.49, F∞ + 12.3, F̅ + 13.6 Q + 4.1 š 10k , ›œ  ,


QR + 4.77 š 10k , ›œ 

Then eqn(5.162) becomes into new form

16.65Ω” 33.3 18z  Ω1  34.3z   13.6Ω

13.6z  + 0 (5.163)

The eqn (5.163) gives three values of Ω Ω Œp Ωk for different


values of K.

then eqn(5.162) can also be written as

D
> = \Ÿ
a
DV  V
w= and

122
Then F∞ W6-[F̅( ) - Fy +(1+F∞  K12] W4 + [(1+Fy  K12+
 E
 V

F̅  0 W2- F̅ 
 E   E 
 V  V
K12 = 0 (5.164)

Now putting values we get

12.3W6- (14.9+13.3K12) W4+(34.33K12+18.4)W2 - 18.4K12 = 0 (5.165)

Now equation (5.165) gives three values of Q, Q, &Qk, for
different value of a .

Explanation of graph between w and k for Cscl & InP

We observe from the graph that the frequencies w1, w2 and w3 vary
with respect to propagation constant K. At high value of K, w1 & w2 are
always constant but the third coupling frequency w3 always increases with
respect to K.

Thus we observe that coupling frequency varies with K for cylindrical


surface of Cscl. When coupling frequency is low than with K. It shows
contant variation [as shows in fig. 5.7] but for high value of coupling
frequency. It always increases with K.

If we take InP substance to study the surface behavior. It is


observed that as propagation constant K increases there is no variation in
w1 and w2 but w3 varies very slowly till K = 20 but sharply above K
=20(as shown in fig,5.8).

This shows that frequency of polariton depends upon the


propagation constant K but phonon and plasmon frequency does not vary
against propagation constant K in the case of cylindrical surface of cscl.

123
Calculation

10 0.6501 1.1607 10.6681


20 0.6486 1.1575 23.3565
30 0.6483 1.03818 33.034
40 0.6482 1.03798 45.932
50 0.8481 1.03789 57.6918

100
w--------

50
w3
0 w2
10 20 w1
30
40
50

10 20 30 40 50
w1 0.6501 0.6486 0.6483 0.6482 0.8481
w2 1.1607 1.1575 1.03818 1.03798 1.03789
w3 10.6681 23.3565 33.034 45.932 57.6918

Graph between W and K of CsCl

Fig. 5.7

124
Calculation

10 0.90419 1.06 10.1384


20 2.858 1.05215 20.7643
30 0.903706 1.05092 31.5085
40 0.9036 1.0505 38.2408
50 0.903667 1.0503 50.8616

100
w-------

0
10 20 w3
30 40 w2
50 w1

10 20 30 40 50
w1 0.90419 2.858 0.903706 0.9036 0.903667
w2 1.06 1.05215 1.05092 1.0505 1.0503
w3 10.1384 20.7643 31.5085 38.2408 50.8616

Graph between K and w for InP

Fig. 5.8

125
5.4 Local Theory approximation

The system of Coordinates such that the polar semiconductor -


dielectric Interface is situated at z=0. The Z¢0 space is filled by polar
semiconductor (medium-1) and z<0 space is filled by the dielectric
medium (medium-2) which is taken as vacuum.

Considering the local approximation i.e. kl<<1, where K is wave

the polar semiconductor (medium-1) is given by F Q


vector and l is the electronic mean free path, the dielectric function for

The dielectric function at frequency ω is

F £ +
¤ D ¦ ω §¨
Bc ¥ Bc ¥ ©ω
=1+ P= - E

F Q + 1
§¨
Bc ©ª
So that

Let plasma frequency ωp is defined as

§¨
Bc h
ωp 2 =

Thus F Q=1-
ω
ω
(5.166)

By consideration of local theory approximation. It is

FS Q=1 for metal

FS Q + F∞ For Non polar crystal

Now Dielectric function for polar semiconductor

F Q=FS Q -
ω 
ω
(5.167)

126
FS Q is dielectric constant of Lattice vibration. The coupling of
the electric field E of the photon with the dielectric polarisation P of the
transverse optical phonon is described by Electromagnetic wave eqn

C2k2E=ω2 (E+4πP)

or (ω2-C2k2) E + 4πω2P = 0 (5.168)

At Small wave vectors the transverse optical phonon frequency ωt


is independent of k. the polarisation is proportional to the displacement of
the positive ions relative to the negative ions. So eqn of motion of the
polarization is like of an oscillator and may be written as

E + (ω2-ωt2) P = 0
«¬
­
(5.169)

When we neglect the electric contribution to the polarization for


simplicity, then from (5.168) & (5.169) eqn we get

ω c  k  4πω

®® ®®
= 0 (5.170)
ω ω 
«¬
©

1㮪
­
At k=0 there are two roots ω=0 for photon and ω2 = ωt 2 +
for polarization the dielectric function obtained from eqn (5.168)

F Q = F∞ +
1𫬠/­
ω  ω
(5.171)

By definition of F∞ as the optical dielectric constant obtained as the


square of the optical refractive index.

At w=0 the static dielectric function

127
Fy = F∞ +
1㮪
­ω 

Which is Combined with (5.171) to obtain in terms of

FS Q + F∞ + .FS F∞ 0
ω 
ω  ω

B∞ ω
BU ω; 
By LST Relation =

So F∞ ω@  = Fy ω 

FS (ω) = F∞ + .ω@  ω  0
B∞
ω  ω
Then

= F∞ 71  8
ω;   ω 
ω   ω 

FS (ω)=
B∞ D± B∞ D
ω  ω

FS (ω)=
B∞ ω  Bc ω 
ω ω 
or (5.172)

Fq ² Static dielectric function

F∞ + High limit dielectric function

Fy and F∞ correspond to low frequency and high frequency dielectric


Which gives the Background dielectric function of the lattice.

constant respectively. In case of metals FS ω + 1 and in the case of non


polar crystals FS ω + F∞ . This shows that the lattice dielectric function
is constant for metals and non polar semi-conductors but is frequency
dependent for polar semiconductors.

128
5.5 Dielectric function on the surface materials

A plasma is a medium with equal concentration of positive charges


and negative charges, in a negative charges of the conduction electrons
are balanced by an equal concentration of positive of the ion cores. If the
positive ion core background has a dielectric constant.

F Q = F (∞) - = F (∞)71 8
1𫨠ω
©ω ω
(5.173)

QR =
1π«¨
Where
ε ∞©

So ε =0 at ω=ωp

In a nonmagnetic isotropic medium the electromagnetic wave eqn is

= c2µ2E
³ ´
³

Now solution E∝exp(-iwt) exp(i.k6.r)

> = F E(ω, k) >


and D E , then we have the dispersion relation for
electromagnetic waves

ε ω, k=
¸ ¬
ω

This relation gives conclusion

¹ º»¼½ ¼¾¿ ¢ À: for ω+ real, K is real and transverse EMW


Â
√ε
propagate with the phase velocity Vp=

¹ º»¼½ ¼¾¿ à À: for ω- real, K is imaginary and the wave is



damped with a characteristic length |Å|

129
¹ Complex :- for ω real, K is Complex and the waves are
damped in space.

¹ +O :- only longitudinally polarized waves are


possible only at the Zeros of ε.

¹ + ∞ ∶
an applied force, thus the poles of ε ω, K
System has infinite response in the absence of

define the frequency of the free oscillations of

the medium.

The dielectric function ε ω, Kof the electron gas, with is strong

for the physical properties of solids. In first limit ε ω, O describes the


dependence on frequency and wave vectors, has signifies consequences

phonons. In second limit ε O, K describes the electrostatic screening of


collective excitations of the Fermi electron gas for surface Plasmon's and

the electron-electron, electron-phonon and electron impurity interaction


in crystals.

ε ω, O=1- and ε O, K = 1+
ωÉ  Ê9 
ω Å
So

same limit as Q → O. Thus great care must be taken with the dielectric
Where VS is screening potential but k→ O does not approach the

function near the origin of the ω-k plane.

The Total dielectric function, lattice Plus electrons, but without the
electronic polarizability of the ion cores, is

¹ Ë, Ì=1- +
ËÍ Î ÏÐ Î
ËÎ ÌÎ
(5.174)

130
Above eqn is valid when we consider both frequency and
propagation constant k.

5.6 Expression for szigetti effective charge for kl¢¢1

ε@ (ω) is given as from equation (5.172)

ε∞ ω εU ω 
ε@ (ω) =
ω ω 

Dielectric function is frequency depended for polar semiconductors-

ε(W)= ε∞ 71  8-
Ω ωÉ 
ω  ω  ω
(5.175)

1π«¨9 ∗ ε∞  
Ω = 7 8
­ε∞ k
Where (5.176)

N= number of ions per unit cell

M= reduced mass of the ion

e∗ Ó = szigeti effective charges

Let eqn (5.172) can also be written ass

ε∞  εÔ
ω
ω

ε@ (ω) =
 
(5.177)
ω
ω

Using eqn (5.175) & (5.77) in eq4(5.167) we get


ε∞   εÔ
ε∞ 71  8=
Ω 
ω

ω  ω   
ω

ω
ω

using eqn(5.176) in above

131

ε∞   ε∞   εÔ
ε∞
1     =
 1Ω«¨9 ∗ 
ω

ω  ω ­ε∞ k   
ω

ω
ω

on simplifying


1  ω   ε∞ + =7ε ε∞   8
1Ω« ε∞  ¨9 ∗
kω  ­
ω ω
 ω
(5.178)

eqn (5.178) given relation between eÓ ∗ and  .


ω
ω

1Ω« ε∞  ¨9 ∗
= ε
kω  ­
So ε∞ +

1Ω« ε∞  ¨9 ∗
ε - ε∞ =
kω  ­

kω 
eÓ ∗ = 7 87 87 8
εÔ  ε∞ ­
1Ω « ε∞ 


kω
eÓ = 7 8 .MVØ 0 7 8
∗ εÔ  ε∞  Õ

1Ω ε∞ 
Or (5.179)


«
Va = , Va is volume of one unit cell. By eqn(5.179) Szigeti
effective charge calculated.

5.7 Band attenuation properties of materials without magnetic field


and with magnetic field

(a) Filtering properties without magnetics field [Ù»ÚÛ =o]

Let dielectric function for metal is given by equations (5.166) and


equation (5.167)

ωÉ 
ω
ε(ω) = 1-

132
None dielectric for polar semiconductor is as

ωÉ 
ε(ω) = ε@ (ω) -
ω

where ε@ (ω) is given by equation (5.172)

ω 
ε∞   ε3
ω
ε@ (ω) = ω 
  
ω

ω  ω 
ε∞   εÔ  
So eqn (5.167) become F Q =
ω ω
ω  ω 
    
ω ω

Where εÜ , ε∞ are low frequency dielectric constants and high


ωÉ
ω
frequency dielectric constant respectively. the values of chosen

corresponds to strongest coupling between surface plasman [SP] and


ωÉ
ω
surface optical phonon [SOP]. We can plot graph of ε(ω) versus . Form

graph we observed that there exit two SP-SOP models. These modes do
not propagate when ε(ω) is negative.

ω ω
ω ω
i.e <

but propagate when ε(ω) is positive.

Ã
ω& ω
ω ω
i.e <1.

(b) Effect of Dc magnetic field

In presence of dc magnetic field, the dielectric function not remains


scalar but becomes a tensor with non-Zero off diagonal element given by

133
F = ε@ δij - ε̅ .ω2δij - ωciωuj + iδijkωck]
ωÉ 
ω ω ωÝ  
(5.180)

1π§3 ¨
where ω¦  =
ε̅ ©∗

>
¨
©∗
and ωc =

ωp and ωc are plasma frequency and cyclotron frequency. m* is


effective mass of electric in solids. ε@ is background dielectric constant of
the polar semiconducting medium.

δij =Kronecker delta function

it's value δij = 1, i=j

= 0, iJj

and δijk = third rank antisymmetric tensor

Its value δijk = +1 If i, j,k is an even permutation

=-1 If i, j,k is an odd permutation

=o otherwise

Due to magnetic effect the crystal becomes anisotropic i.e.


dielectric function is different for different directions. Therefore, the
filtering properties of the substance vary with the direction of incident
beam with respect to the magnetic field. If we take the magnetic field in a
particulars direction out to be qualitatively similar to eqn (5.180). Hence
the filtering properties are also similar.

134
Calculation

0.5 0.244323 1.2659 2.307404


1 0.854315 1.41424 4.182
1.5 0.999795 1.602071 5.0349
2 0.999788 1.609127 5.308
2.5 0.834796 1.6123 6.4668
3 0.834796 1.414214 10.48595

20
w/wt-------

10

0
0.5 1
1.5 2
2.5
3

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3


w1/wt 0.244323 0.854315 0.999795 0.999788 0.834796 0.834796
w2/wt 1.2659 1.41424 1.6020712771.609127 1.6123 1.414214
w3/wt 2.307404 4.182 5.0349 5.308 6.4668 10.48595
Graph between K and w/wt of NaF tube in DC Magnetic field

Fig. 5.9

135
Calculation

0.1 0.070065 0.9 37.81063


0.15 0.23472 0.95 79.73133
0.2 0.470575 1 00.0000
0.25 0.783538 1.1 -43.5334
0.3 1.182149 1.2 -21.9022
0.35 1.678527 1.3 -14.0337
0.4 2.289935 1.4 -9.54597
0.45 3.041383 1.5 -6.36034
0.5 3.970033 1.6 -3.78135
0.55 5.131269 1.7 -1.49663
0.6 6.57654 1.8 0.428607
0.65 6.443071 1.9 2.537843
0.7 -2.89487 2 4.527956
0.75 10.54477 2.1 6.509414
0.8 15.96352 2.2 8.50802
0.85 23.50687 2.3 10.53935

Graph between evX2and x for InP


100

80

60

40
evX2-------

20
evX2
0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2
-20

-40

-60
X----------

Fig. 5.10

136
The variation of w/wt versus propagation constant K in presence of
DC magnetic filed for NaF tube shown in fig (5.9). It shows the
dispersion curves for the coupled SP and SoP waves in NaF cylindrical
tube radius 100A.. Thus dispersion curves shows that the frequency of the
upper mode (Ώ3) varies slowly with the wave rector K. when K is more
than 2 it increases rapidly.

Lower mode (Ώ1) varies very slowly and remains almost constant
when value of wave vector is equal to or greater than unit. But Ώ2
mediator mode lies in between upper and lower mode is exactly constant
for all value of wave vector (K). So there exist a band gap between the
two modes showing that the coupled modes with frequencies lying in this
region can not be excited.

Theoretical study of InP from graph between εvX2 and as X shown


in fig (5.10).

The author observes that there are four range of EM wave for
which cylindrical surface behaves as filtering property of InP cylinder.
These ranges are :-

i. For w/wt = X = 0.1 to 0.69 the surface of InP behaves as filter of


EM waves because εvX2 because positive and increases slowly and
becomes maximum at X = 0.65, εvX2 =6.443071 now after X =
0.65, εvX2 decrease and thus the filtering property of InP decreases.
ii. For X = 0.69 to 0.72 the surface of InP stops to pass EM waves and
holds penetrating property.
iii. For X = 0.72 to 1.00 value of εvX2 increases rapidly so that surface
of InP allows EM waves to pass with high frequency range because
at this range εvX2becomes positive. The frequency X = 0.95, high
EM wave passes as at this frequency range εvX2 = 79.73133. This is

137
third order filtering property of InP for EM waves. For 0.95 to 1.00
EM wave decreases.
iv. For range X = 1.00 to 1.79 the surfaces of InP does not allow to
pass EM waves because at this range X, εvX2 becomes negative and
at X = 1.1, εvX2 = - 43.5334.

For X = 1.79 and above it becomes transparent for EM waves


because εvX2 becomes positive. Thus it allows to pass EM waves. The
cylindrical surface of InP used as switch on and switch off property for
electronic signal in electronic communication in science & technology

5.8 comparative study of filtering properties

The comparative study of cylindrical surface of substances like KF,


InP &Mgo Polar semiconductors at different radius. When radius of
cylinder increases then Propagates more wave through it. Only KF,
substance show non linear variation, at Lower value of k and at higher
value of radius it becomes zero. This comparative Study of different polar
semiconducting compounds is useful in communication, Travelling wave
tubes(TWT) backward wave oscillator(BWO).

Conclusion of the graph as shown fig (5.11)

 In this graph we are comparing variation of wsp/wt with wave rector


K for different substances KF, InP & Mgo.
 wsp/wt in all substances increases from top to bottom when K
increases.
 wsp/wt is lower for KF but in other two substances InP & Mgo
wsp/wt increases rapidly [slightly greater value].
 When we plot comparative graph for cylindrical surface of
different substance like KF, InP & Mgo with respect to wave

138
vector K at same radius 1 A., then all substances have same linear
variation.
 This dispersion curves shows that the frequency of the lower mode
changes slowly and frequency of the upper mode varies rapidly
with the wave vector K.

Thus wsp/wt verses K is almost linear increment of substances KF, InP &
Mgo at same radius cylindrical surface (1 A.) these behaves like same
nature.

Conclusion of the graph as shown in fig. no. (5.12)

 In this graph we are comparing variation of wsp/wt versus K for


different substances KF, InP & Mgo.
 When we plot comparative graph for cylindrical surface of
different substances at equal radius 2A.. then all substances have
same linear variation.
 wsp/wt increases with increment in value of K.
 For KF variation of wsp/wt with K varies with lesser effect where
as for other two substances InP Mgo show more effective linear
variation. At this radius (2 A.) both InP & Mgo having nearly same
value of wsp/wt in comparison to radius (1 A.).

Conclusion of the graph as shows fig No. (5.13)

 In this graph we are comparing variation of wsp/wt with wave


vector K for same substances KF, InP & Mgo but his time at higher
radius (16 A.) of cylindrical surface.
 At this radius KF substances has lower value of wsp/wt even starts
from Zero. At this radius cylindrical surface has lower value.
 For KF substance it has lower effect, it means lesser wave
propagate through the surface.

139
 At this radius (16 A.) both InP & Mgo have same value of wsp/wt so
both have same type (kind) and equal linear variation.

Thus for these comparative study we observe that when radius of


cylinder increases then KF has lower linear variation and InP & Mgo
have greater liner variation.

The frequency of surface plasmon has very small variation in KF


compared to InP & Mgo with respect to radius and propagation constant
(K). The reason is that KF is not a good conductor and it behaves like
polar semiconductor. Thus study is important in nanotechnology and
electronic communication.

But at higher electronic concentrations the frequency of this mode


become almost constant. It is clear that at the higher concentrations, the
lower mode become like pure SP mode and upper mode becomes like
pure sop mode. The coupling between SP and sop mode is stronger when
wsp = wsop i.e. where two uncoupled modes intersect. The stronger
coupling is observed at wsp/wt = 1.

Thus wsp and wt both are equal then coupling is stronger.

Calculation
0.576112 0.731606 0.798947
0.945957 1.192797 1.254347
1.344748 1.690038 1.769384
1.768659 2.214776 2.304098
2.210058 2.761879 2.847247
2.660146 3.318774 3.394872
3.112725 3.878741 3.94537
3.565661 4.439395 4.497908
4.018341 4.999995 5.051902
4.470037 5.560347 5.606916
KF Inp MgO

140
Comparative study of 1A radius cylidrical substances

Wsp/Wt-------
10
5
0
1 2 3 4 5 KF
6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
KF 0.5761 0.9459 1.3447 1.7686 2.2100 2.6601 3.1127 3.5656 4.0183 4.4700
InP 0.7316 1.1928 1.6900 2.2147 2.7618 3.3187 3.8787 4.4393 5 5.5603
MgO 0.7989 1.2543 1.7693 2.3041 2.8472 3.3948 3.9453 4.4979 5.0519 5.6069

Fig. 5.11

Comparative study of 2A radius cylidrical substances


Axis Title

10
5
0
1 2 3 4 5 Series1
6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Series1 0.5761 0.9459 1.3447 1.7686 2.2100 2.6601 3.1127 3.5656 4.0183 4.4700
Series2 0.7989 1.2543 1.7693 2.3041 2.8472 3.3948 3.9453 4.4979 5.0519 5.6069
Series3 0.7316 1.1928 1.6900 2.2147 2.7618 3.3187 3.8787 4.4393 5 5.5603

Fig. 5.12

141
Calculation

0.242957 0.242957
0.753417 0.996888 0.996888
1.25648 1.597475 1.597475
1.730408 2.175628 2.175628
2.19416 2.745552 2.745552
2.653076 3.311498 3.311498
3.109299 3.87521 3.87521
3.563862 4.437539 4.437539
4.01733 4.998952 4.998952
4.470036 5.559727 5.559727

KF Inp MgO

Comparative study of 16A radius cylidrical substances


Wsp/wt------

6
4
2
0
1 2 3 4 KF
5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
KF 0 0.7534 1.2564 1.7304 2.1941 2.6530 3.1093 3.5638 4.0173 4.4700
InP 0.2429 0.9968 1.5974 2.1756 2.7455 3.3115 3.8752 4.4375 4.9989 5.5597
MgO 0.2429 0.9968 1.5974 2.1756 2.7455 3.3115 3.8752 4.4375 4.9989 5.5597

Fig. 5.13

142
5.9 Variation of the width of allowed band of polarized
materials with Szigeti effective charge

The dielectric function can be written as by eqn (5.180)

ωÉ à
 ω 
  εÔ
ε(ω) = ε∞ Þ 
ß
ω

ω  ωÕ
  
ω
(5.181)
ω ω 

After putting values of constant for different polar semiconductors


in above eqn. We observe that there exist two coupling modes (SP&SOP).

and are roots of equation ε(ω) = 0


ω ω
ω
Here
ω

for this we get

ωä     /
 ω  = 
ε  ε  ω  ä
    
 ε3   ε3  ωÉ  ωÉ
1 ε∞
ω
  ω ω
(5.182)
∞ ∞ ε∞ ε∞

Thus the surface acts as band pass filter [BPF]. Agian their is no
propagation when ε(ω) is negative.

¢
ω ω#
ω ω
for , the surface become transparent again act as High pass

filter (HPF). from graph we observe band width (∆) of band pass filter is
given by

∆ ¦æ + 1
ω&
ω
(5.183)

thus the allowed band ∆ will also be differed for different


conounds.

Similarly ∆ç¦æ + 1
ω#
ω
(5.184)

143
study of Szigeti effective charge eÓ∗ versus ∆ with the help of data in
gives values at which the surface will act as high pass filter. from

between eÓ∗ and ∆ as


table. from this the best fit of data we find the following relationship

∆ =0.074+0.099 
¨9∗
¨
(5.185)

The values of ∆ can be estimated for different compounds with the


¨9∗
¨
help of graphs. from these values can be calculated by using equation.

from table our calculated values agree well with the experimental values
of Hass and Henvis.

pass filter for ω- <ω<ωt and as high Pass Filter for Qw¢ω+. The es2 is
We can conclude that polar semiconductor surface acts as a band

measure of iconicity of polar semiconductors. thus width of band (∆)


increases with increase in ionicity. If there is more ionic character, band
of allowed frequency is wider and surface becomes high pass filter at
higher value of frequency ω.

¨9∗
¨
When we plot graph between band gap (∆) and , we obtain we

that various polar semiconductor shows linear variation(as shown in fig


5.14) . different polar semiconductors like Mgo , Agcl , Kcl , Cscl , KF ,
NaF , & RbF value of szigetti effective charge increases from mgo to cscl
respectively . Let value of band gap (∆) also increases from Mgo to Cscl.

From the graph we observe that the band width (∆) of the band
depends on єy , єê , QR and Q . thus, the width
è&
è
pass filter is given by 1-

of allowed band (∆) will be different for different compounds. similarly

144
è#
è
, which gives the value at which the surface will act as high on the

szigelti effective charge.

The simultaneous existence of surface plasmons [SP] and surface


optical phonons[sop] leads to a strong coupling between them . These
coupled modes do not propagate when the dielectric function is negative
so surface waves exist. When the dielectric function is positive .The
surface waves do not exist and wave can propagate through the matter
.when dielectric function of positive values the surface acts as a band pass
filter[BPF] as well a high pass filter[HPF].The band width has been found
to be different for different compounds. In the presence of a dc magnetic
field the number of allowed band increases .It gives useful information
about the application of semiconductor in filter circuits as the range of
allowed frequencies by variation in the compounds.

145
Calculation

Compound e*/e Band Gap ∆


MgO 0.6 0.1334
AgCl 0.69 0.1423
KCl 0.83 0.1562
CsCl 0.84 0.1572
KF 0.91 0.1641
NaF 0.93 0.1661
RbF 0.95 0.1681

Graph between Bandgap∆ and e*/e for different compounds


0.18
0.16
0.14
0.12
Bandgap∆------

0.1
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
e*/e---------

Fig. 5.14

146
5.10 Advantage of szigetti effective charge study and its application

Crystals with the triatomic and cubic structure, these properties


indicate that they are essentially ionic. Szigetti calculated the effective
ionic charge es for the alkaline earth materials using eqn (10). In this
equation the reduce mass M for this system as

(1/M) = 1/m1 + 1 / 2 m2

mass of ion with lesser valency. The value of t∗ obtained by szigetti [2]
Where m1 is the mass of ion with higher valency and m2 is the

for CaF2 type crystals. These value of es are of the same order as but
systematically lower than those for the highly ionic alkali halides.

The long wave lattice dynamics of the fluorite lattice was studies
by Axe [73]. For he obtained the same relation [(eqn) as obtained by
szigeti [3] except that the definition of the reduced mass used by Axe
[73]. The value of es obtained by Axe and his coworkers for several
crystals with caF2 structure. The es values for tow oxides with CaF2
structure are distinctly low and indicate ‘Increased covalency’ [75].

Szegeti’s [2,3] theory is by far the most comprehensive theory of


dielectric. It is applicable to diatomic as well as polyatomic crystals to
ionic as well as covalent crystal. Though the original theory assumed a
harmonic cystal szigetti [4,5] modified it to make it applicable to
anharmonic crystal. The most important contribution of szigeti’s theory is
the concept of the eefiective ionic charge, it has found applications, the
most important being its utility as an ionicity parameters.

Several theoretical models have been proposed to account for the


deviation of the effective ionic change from unity. These models have

147
provided an insight in the complex polarization mechanisms in solids.
Some new results have been discussed. There are : -

i. Szigeti’s second relation relating the compressibility to the


absorption frequency. It is useful as a consistency check on
compressibility date.
ii. Axe’s modification [75] of szigett’s theory theory has lead to a
method to estimate the mode Gruneisen parameter of fluorite type
crystals.
iii. Systematic calculation of the anharmonic correction for the alkali
halides with Nacl structure has revealed that only LiBr has a
negative correction.
iv. Two equations for the effective ionic charge by Havinga have been
systematically applied to a number of alkali halides.

In order to study the effect of szigeti effective charge on optical


parameters of coherent Raman scattered mode it shows behavior of
absorption coefficient α with excitation intensity Io. We have plotted
excitation intensity in absence and presence of szigeti effective charge es.
It may notice that increase in excitation intensity (I) decreases and
saturates at high excitation intensity. This is quite obvious because
increase in the transmitted power should decreases absorption.

In the absence of szigeti effective charge the results are well in


agreement with Dubey & Ghosh [24]. It infers that weakly polar
semiconductor plasma can be a potential candidate nonlinear medium for
the fabrication of cubic non linear optical devices as compared to highly
polar semiconductor plasmas.

148
it shows behavior of refractive index with excitation intensity Io. In
this figure it shows variation of excitation intensity in absence and
presence of szigetti effective charge.

An analytical investigation of non linear absorption coefficient and


refractive index of Raman Scattered stokes mode resulting from the non
linear interaction of an intense pumping light beam with molecular
vibrations of polar semiconductor [like InSb].

The szigeti effective charge contributes that Raman susceptibility


at moderate excitation intensity. At high excitation intensity the
contribution of szigetti effective charge is wiped off and non linearity in
the medium is only due to differential polarizability.

In the absence of szigetti effective charge the magnitude of Raman


susceptibility is found to agree with the other theoretical models. The
analysis establishes that a small absorption coefficient and large
refractive index can easily obtained under moderate excitation intensity in
weakly polar semiconductors, crystals which proves its potential as
candidate material for fabrication of cubic non linear devices.

149
CHAPTER 6
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Surface Polariton waves are the electromagnetic couple modes of


the Surface Elementary excitations and Photons. These Coupled modes
propagate in a wave like manner along the interface of two medial, but
decay in a non-oscillatory exponential manner in a direction
perpendicular to the interface. In order to study the Polariton waves
sustained by Polar Semiconductor Surfaces, the interface is considered to
be formed by Polar Semiconductor bounded by a non dispersive dielectric
medium can be taken to vaccum. The dielectric medium of Polar
semiconductor sustains Surface Elementary excitation is termed as the
surface active medium, whereas the bounding medium is termed as the
surface inactive medium. The Properties of the Surface Polariton waves
are thus determined by the type of elementary excitations that are
sustained by the Surface active medium.

The predominent elementary excitations sustained by polar


semiconductor surfaces are the Surface Plasmons and Surface Phonons.
In this regard, Polar semiconductor differ from metals and non polar
compounds which do not sustain Surface Phonon modes.

Surface Phonon arises in the case of Polar Semiconductor as result


of frequency dependence of lattice dielectric function ε(w) which is
constant in the case of metals and non-polar Compounds. The Surface
Optical Phonon (SOP) waves in Polar Semiconductors have frequencies
so that their Simultaneous existance at the Surface may lead to the
interaction between SP-SOP coupled modes. The Surface Polariton
waves that may exist at the Surface of Polar Semiconductor are Surface
Plasmon-Polariton, Surface-Phonon-Polariton and Surface Plasmon-

150
Phonon-Polariton for k≠o. The effect of Spatial dispersion on the
Properties of Surface Polariton wave have also been studied by
comparing the result obtained when Spatial dispersion is taken into
account, with those obtained in the local limit i.e. when spatial dispersion
is neglected.

If electromagnetic radiation of appropriate frequency is incident on


the surface of metal or semiconductor then surface plasmons may couple
with photons giving rise to surface plasmons- polariton modes. In the
case of polar semiconductor (i.e. compounds like Inas, Insb, Mgo, Inp
etc) the dielectric function is frequency dependent and for certain
frequency ranges they can sustain surface optical phonons along with
plasmons.

When the dipole moment density and also the displacement field
depends not only on the value of electric field at a particular point but
also on the value assumed by the electric field in the near vicinity of that
point, then material is said to be exhibit “spatial dispersion”. The
inclusion of spatial dispersion in the study of surface polaritons leads to
important conclusion like the finite life time of the surface modes even
collision less plasma system. The properties of surface polaritons can be
studied by the help of their dispersion relation. The non local dielectric
function is both frequency and wave vector dependent although in local
limit it becomes wave vector independent and depends only on
frequency. The non local dielectric function can be calculated either by
using the quantum mechanical or classical approach. The dispersion
relation for surface plasmon, surface optical phonon & surface polariton,
all modes has been obtained and an attempt to study the effect of spatial
dispersion on surface plasmon surface optical phonon modes of polar
semiconductor.
151
These modes indicate the type of elementary excitations that give
rise to the polariton waves. The incident electromagnetic radiation can
couple to more than one type of elementary excitations simultaneously if
their frequencies are comparable. These waves arise as a result of
coupling of the EM radiation and those elementary surface excitations of
the medium that may couple on linear manner to the incident EM field by
virtue of their electric of magnetic character. The predominant surface
excitations in the case of dielectric media are surface plasmons, surface
phonon, surface excitons etc. The fact that surface EM waves at a metal
surface involves the coupling of EM radiation .with surface plasmons was
first explain by Stern . Also surface of optical lattice vibrations that exist
at the surface of ionic and polar materials have a great tendency to couple
with electromagnetic radiation. These vibrations lead to surface phonon,
polariton modes . In case of polar semiconductors, surface Plasmon
modes and surface Phonon modes have comparable frequencies so that
there is a possibility of interaction between the two leading modes i.e.
surface plasmon & surface polariton modes.

The properties of surface polariton waves are dependent strongly


on the nature and geometry of the interface and the bounding medium.
The phase velocity of these waves is less than the velocity of light in
vaccum and the parallel component of wave vector for these waves is
greater than that of low wave vector, so that for given frequency of the
incident radiation, the condition for the conservation of energy and
momentum cannot be simultaneously satisfied at the interface. As a
result, it is not possible to excite surface polariton modes by directly
irradiating smooth surfaces. Special techniques like attenuated total
reflection method (ATR) and periodic grating method are employed to
study these modes experimentally.

152
The above mentioned techniques have been successfully employed
by several workers to study surface polariton modes in metal,
semiconductors and polar semiconductors for different interface
geometries. The theoretical study of these modes has also recently
received great attention. The properties of the surface modes can be
studied by deriving their effect on the reflection and refraction of incident
EM waves plays a fundamental role in the Physics of surfaces.

The basic requirement for derivation of the dispersion relation is


the dielectric function of the dispersion relation is the dielectric function
of the dispersive dielectric media that sustain these modes. The frequency
dependent dielectric function for metals and semiconductors are well
known and have been recently employed by several workers to study
these waves. The most widely used effective methods that have been
employed for obtaining the dispersion relation, are the Maxwell’s
equation method and the quantum mechanical Random Phase
Approximation [RPA]. Spatial dispersion effects play an important role in
the study of surface plasmon, polariton modes. Although its effect on
long wavelength has not been observed. The inclusion of spatial
dispersion relation in the study leads to important conclusions like finite
life time, time of surface polaritons even in collision less system, and
radius dependence of surface modes in the case of finite geometries of
interface.

In order to study the interaction of surface plasmons with surface


phonons, one has to select a polar semiconducting material, since in these
materials the surface plasmons and surface phonons exist simultaneously
at the surface. Srivastava and Tondon for the first time modified the
Bloch’s hydrodynamical equations for metals to study the interaction

153
between these two modes in se miconductor. The dispersion for surface
Plasmon and polariton is given as below

ε 1 ( k ω ) l 2Yl (α kR )  X l (γ kR ) ( − i 2δ 2 z (δ kR ) − 0 ) 
 [ RYl (α kR ) ] ( − i 2δ 2 z (δ kR ) ) 
− ε 1 ( k ω ) X l' (γ kR )  
 − [ Rz l (δ kR ) ] iα Yl (α kR ) 
' 2
 
−ε B (kω)l 2 zl (δ kR) 0 − Xl (γ kR) × iα 2Yl (α kR) = 0 (6.1)

The solution of the dispersion relation will be complicated even


when the dielectric function of the medium is real as the solution will
contain the modified Bessel’s function terms. This implies that the
surface polariton modes are radiative in the case of cylindrical surface.
The case of cylindrical surface differs markedly from the plane interface
case where both radiative and non-radiative modes exist. The surface
polariton in the cylindrical geometry thus have finite lifetime due to
radioactive decay even in a collision less system. The surface polariton
modes can therefore couple to the electromagnetic waves in the
surrounding medium and as a consequence the surface modes of
cylindrical particles can easily be studied experimentally by absorption
and scattering of electromagnetic radiation.

For the Insb cylindrical bounding by vaccum, we have

 = 17.70, ∞ = 15.60, ̅ =   ∞ = 16.65

ωt = 1.39x1012sec-1

n= 2.0x1017/CC(at room temp 300o K) and Wp = 6.18x1012

154


Z=( = (4.46)2 = 19.89, = 3.7 x 10-2/A


from eqn(6.1) We get

Y2 = (az+b)Y-az (6.2)

Using the above data and the dispersion relation, we have


calculated the frequency of two coupled mode SP-SOP modes arise on
the surface of polar semiconductor as a result of frequency and wave -
vector dependence of the lattice dielectric surface function of polar
semiconductor. These coupled SP-SOP modes, a coupling with the
incident EM radiation of comparable frequency lead to the coupled
surface plasmon, polariton - phonon modes on the surface. Now the
author study the surface of different materials(polar semiconductors)for
different parameters by using the relation given by equation(6.2).

 Author plot graph between wsp/wt with propagation constant k for


KFsubstance in 3D.
 Graph plotted for different radius ranges from 1A. to 16A. as
shown in fig(5.1)
 In this graph along one axis wsp/wt taken along other axis k taken
while variation of different radius taken along third axis.
 We observe that graph between wsp/wt versus k is nearly linear.
When value of k increases from o to 9 than its linear variation
changes.
 For lower value of k nearly linear variation with wsp/wt for radius
1A. & 2A.
 When radius increases then variation of wsp/wt with respect to K
shown lesser linear variation.

155
 Thus for higher value K it shows non linear variation. Hence for
higher value of K, it shows non linear agreement.
 Again linear variation between wsp/wt versus K disturb for radius
16A. for high value of K.
 Variation of wsp/wt versus K for different radius observe that
variation is either perfectly linear or not perfectly linear.
 When radius increases then it’s linear variation changes with
wsp/wt versus K, thus for high radius linear variation changes.

When radius increases,ratio of wsp/wt decreases. wsp/wt inceases


with increment in value of K. It mean for larger value of wave vector K,
more prominent wave passes through the substance KF in epoxy resine
medium.

Thus we conclude that with K Ratio of wsp/wt increases. It shows


linear variation for low radius but it deviates for high value of radius.

The author observed that

 In this graph we use different medium in 3D having constant radius


0.5 A. for KF substance.
 In this we take wsp/wt along one axis, wave vector K along another
axis and variation of different medium along different axis.
 In epoxy resine wsp/wt increases linearly with K but for transoil it is
not linear variation.
 All medium except transformer oil shows linear variation for KF
substance.
 wsp/wt increases linearly with increase in value of K.

156
 For same radius neoprene use a medium variation of wsp/wt initially
increases but as K=5, it changes abnormally again at K=7 it fallow
similar path as in epoxy resine medium follow.
 When we increase K more than 9 (K > 9) than it increases rapidly.
 Except trans oil medium other medium like mica, quartz, Bee wax,
transformer oil and vacuum shows linear increment of wsp/wt with
K.
 Thus wsp/wt increases with increment in value of K
 For KF substance at .5A.radius. It is observed that trans oil
medium show different variation otherwise other seven medium
shows same kind of linear variation.

Ratio of wsp/wt increases for same value of K for when we consider


different medium [Epoxy resine, Neoprene, Mica, quarz, lice, Bee wax,
Transformer Oil & vaccum] i.e. minimum value for Epoxy resine and
maximum value for vaccum.

Thus we obverse that all medium shows same type of variation


only transoil shows different type of variation.

The author again observed that

 In this graph we use different medium in 3D having constant radius


.5A. for Mgo substance.
 In this we take wsp/wt along one axis, wave vector K along another
axis and variation of different medium along different axis.
 In this graph we take different medium like Epoxy Resine,
Neoprene, Mica, Quartz, Lice, Bee Wax, Transformer Oil &
Vaccum.

157
 Ratio of wsp/wt increases when we move left to right for different
medium with constant value of K.
 For same medium wsp/wt increases when K increases.
 All medium like Epoxy Resine, Neoprene, Mica, Quartz, Lice, Bee
Wax, Transformer Oil & Vaccum share linear variation between
wsp/wt versus K. Thus for different medium variation are same.
 For lice medium Ratio of wsp/wt increases with increase in K but
when K>8 then decreases rapidly.
 Ratio of wsp/wt becomes constant at K = 9 or greater value for lice
medium.
 Even at wave vector K = 0 all medium have same value of wsp/wt.
 But when value of wave vector is higher (i.e. K>8) then for lice
medium its linear variation vanishes.

Thus for low value of K all medium shows linear variation while
for high value of K only lice shows different variation when we plot 3D
graph between wsp/wt versus K for different medium.

So we observe that all medium shows linear variation while lice


medium not shows linear variation.

The other observe for epoxy resine that

 We plot graph between wsp/wt with propagation constant K for


Mgo substance in 3D for Epoxy resine medium. Graph plotted for
different radius of .5A. to 16 A. .
 In this 3D graph we take wsp/wt along one axis K, along other axis
while variation of different radius taken along new axis.
 We plot graph between wsp/wt versus K is exactly linear for
different radius for Mgo substances in Epoxy resine medium.

158
 When value of K increases then wsp/wt increases Radius of cylinder
increases then wsp/wt also increases.
 Ratio of wsp/wt is lowest at 5A. radius and wsp/wt is maximum are
in cylindrical shape increases then more space to pass waves. Thus
wsp/wt increases with increases in radius.
 For Mgo substance in epoxy resine medium there is constent
variation, It is free from radius.
 It has only single effect when radius is more then large amount of
wave pass trough it easily otherwise less amount of wave pass
trough it.
 When K = 0 then there is no propagation of waves value of K
increases then wave propagation also increases.
 wsp/wt has max value at 16A. means at this radius waves passes
easily through the cylindrical geometry. It cappers for highest value
of K = 10.

Thus for low value of K, wave propagation is not significant but


when radius and K both increases then significant wave passes through it.

In this graph at all radius wsp/wt verses K shows linear variation.

The author observe for different medium but at constant radius as

 The author plot graph between wsp/wt with propagation constant k


for InP in different medium having radius of cylinder is 0.5 A..
 In 3D graph we take wsp/wt along one axis K along other axis while
different medium along third dimensional.
 For fixed value of K the ratio of the frequency of surface plasmon
to transverse medium is minimum in epoxy resin and very high in
vaccum medium.

159
 wsp/wt versus K is almost linear increment in all medium except
lice medium.
 Value of wsp/wt is high in vaccum medium and low in epoxy resine
but the range is nearly equal for same value of K.
 When we plot graph wsp/wt versus K. Then InP substance for
cylindrical surface of 0.5 A. radius of different medium, then all
medium shows linear variation but lice shows different variation.
 In lice medium wsp/wt increases but its value remains constant at
5.040028. So for lice, wsp/wt increases with increment in K but for
K = 7 or more then this, wsp/wt deceases rapidly.

Thus for InP at lone value of K all medium including lice shows
linear variation but for higher value of K, only lice shows different
variation also for high value of K.

Author observe at different radius of InP in epoxy resine as

 We plot graph for InP at different radius of 1 A. & 2 A. in epoxy


resine medium for cylindrical surface.
 We plot graph between wsp/wt with propagation constant K for
InP in epoxy resine medium having different radius.
 In 3D graph we take wsp/wt along one axis. Wave vector K along
other axis while different radius consider along third dimension.
 The wsp/wt varies linearly with respect to K (1 A. - 10 A.) for
cylindrical surface of InP at different radius.
 At different radius InP medium shows same linear variation.
 wsp/wt increases vertically when we move from top to bottom,
while this ratio is decreases when we move Horizontally from left
to right.

160
Author observe that for InP in epoxy resine medium variation of
wsp/wt is linear with K at different radius such that 1 A. & 2 A., Both
shows linear variation in the epoxy resine medium as in fig. no. 6.

Coupled SP-SOP modes arise on the surface of a polar


semiconductor as a result of frequency and wave vector dependence of
the dielectric surface function of the lattice dielectric surface function of
polar semiconductor. These coupled SP-SOP modes on coupling with the
incident EM radiation of comparable frequency lead to the coupled
surface plasmon, polariton phonon modes on the surface. The dispersion
relation for these modes can be obtained from equation (6.2) by
substituting the frequency and wave vector dependent form of ε1 ( kω ) we
get three mode coupling

12.3W6- (14.9+13.3K12) W4+(34.33K12+18.4)W2 - 18.4K12 = 0 (6.3)

Now equation (6.3)gives three values of w1 ,w2 and w3 for different


value of k1.

Explanation of graph between w and k for cscl & InP

The author observe from the graph that the frequencies w1, w2 and
w3 vary with respect to propagation constant K. At high value of K, w1 &
w2 are always constant but the third coupling frequency w3 always
increases with respect to K.

Thus author observe that coupling frequency varies with K for


cylindrical surface of cscl. When coupling frequency is low than with K.
It shows constant variation [as shows in fig 5.7] but for high value of
coupling frequency, it always increases with K.

161
If author take InP substance to study the surface behavior. It is
observed that as propagation constant K increases there is no variation in
w1 and w2 but w3 varies very slowly till K = 20 but sharply above K
=20[as shown in fig 5.8].

This shows that frequency of polariton depends upon the


propagation constant K but phonon and plasmon frequency does not vary
against propagation constant K in the case of cylindrical surface of cscl.

In a nonmagnetic isotropic medium the electromagnetic wave eqn is


= c2 2
E


Now solution  .r)


E exp(-iwt) exp(i.k

 =є(ω,k)E
and D , then we have the dispersion relation for
 
electromagnetic εw, k =


This relation gives conclusion

   ! " #: % for ω+ real, K is real and transverse EMW


&
propagate with the phase velocity Vp=
√ε

   ! " #: % for ω- real, K is imaginary and the wave is


(
damped with a characteristic length
|*|

 Complex :- for ω real, K is Complex and the waves are


damped in space.
 +O :- only longitudinally polarized waves are
possible only at the Zeros of .

162
 + ∞ ∶ % System has infinite response in the absence of
an applied force, thus the poles of εW, K
define the frequency of the free oscillations of
the medium.

The dielectric function εW, K of the electron gas, with is strong


dependence on frequency and wave vectors, has signifies consequences
for the physical properties of solids. In first limit εW, O describes the
collective excitations of the Fermi electron gas for surface Plasmon's and
phonons. In second limit εO, K describes the electrostatic screening of
the electron-electron, electron-phonon and electron impurity interaction
in crystals.

01 23
So εW, O =1- and εO, K = 1+
 *

Where VS is screening potential but K O does not approach the

same limit as W O. Thus great care must be taken with the dielectric
function near the origin of the W-K plane.

The Total dielectric function, lattice Plus electrons, but without the
electronic polarizability of the ion cores, is

01 23
εW, K =1- 
+
*
(6.4)

Above eqn is valid when we consider both frequency and


propagation constant K.


7 7=
ε∞ 6 7 9 :ε; < 78 >
So eqn become 5 = 8
%
(6.5)
7 7
6 9 :( 6 9
78 78

163
Where ε? , ε∞ are low frequency dielectric constants and high
01
frequency dielectric constant respectively. the values of chosen
08

corresponds to strongest coupling between surface plasman [SP] and


01
surface optical phonon [SOP]. we can plot graph of (W) versus .
08

Form graph we observed that there exit two SP-SOP models. These
modes do not propagate when (W) is negative.

0 0@
i.e <
08 08

but propagate when (W) is positive.

0@ 0
i.e
08
A 0 <1
8

In presence of dc magnetic field, the dielectric function not remains


scalar but becomes a tensor with non-Zero off diagonal element given by

01
 = εB ij - ε DW2 ij - WciWuj + i ijkWck] (6.6)
0  0 :0C



FπGH I
where WE =
εJ∗


IL
and Wc =
J∗

Wp and Wc are plasma frequency and cyclotron frequency. m* is


effective mass of electric in solids. εB is background dielectric constant of
the polar semiconducting medium.

ij =Kronecker delta function

164
it's value ij = 1, i=j

= 0, i j

and ijk = third rank antsymmetric tensor

Its value ijk = +1 If i, j,k is an even permutation

=-1 If If i, j,k is an odd permutation

=o otherwise

Due to magnetic effect the crystal becomes anisotropic i.e.


dielectric function is different for different directions. Therefore, the
filtering properties of the substance vary with the direction of incident
beam with respect to the magnetic field. If we take the magnetic field in a
particulars direction out to be qualitatively similar to eqn (5.180). Hence
the filtering properties are also similar.

The variation of w/wt versus propagation constant K in


presence of DC magnetic filed for NaF tube shown in fig (5.9). It shows
the dispersion curves for the coupled SP and SoP waves in NaF
cylindrical tube radius 100A.. Thus dispersion curves shows that the
frequency of the upper mode (Ώ3) varies slowly with the wave rector K.
when K is more than 2 it increases rapidly.

Lower mode (Ώ1) varies very slowly and remains almost constant
when value of wave vector is equal to or greater than unit. But Ώ2
mediator mode lies in between upper and lower mode is exactly constant
for all value of wave vector (K). So there exist a band gap between the

165
two modes showing that the coupled modes with frequencies lying in this
region can not be excited.

Theoretical study of InP from graph between εvX2 and as X shown


in fig (5.10).

The author observes that there are four range of EM wave for
which cylindrical surface behaves as filtering property of InP cylinder.
These ranges are :-

i. For w/wt = X = 0.1 to 0.69 the surface of InP behaves as filter of


EM waves because εvX2 because positive and increases slowly and
becomes maximum at X = 0.65, εvX2 =6.443071 now after X =
0.65, εvX2 decrease and thus the filtering property of InP decreases.
ii. For X = 0.69 to 0.72 the surface of InP stops to pass EM waves and
holds penetrating property.
iii. For X = 0.72 to 1.00 value of εvX2 increases rapidly so that surface
of InP allows EM waves to pass with high frequency range because
at this range εvX2becomes positive. The frequency X = 0.95, high
EM wave passes as at this frequency range εvX2 = 79.73133. This is
third order filtering property of InP for EM waves. For 0.95 to 1.00
EM wave decreases.
iv. For range X = 1.00 to 1.79 the surfaces of InP does not allow to
pass EM waves because at this range X, εvX2 becomes negative and
at X = 1.1, εvX2 = - 43.5334.

For X = 1.79 and above it becomes transparent for EM waves


because εvX2 becomes positive. Thus it allows to pass EM waves. The
cylindrical surface of InP used as switch on and switch off property for
electronic signal in electronic communication in science & technology.

166
Now comparing the filtering properties of different substances as

The author observe that comparative study of 1A0 radius of cylindrical


substances as

 In this graph we are comparing variation of wsp/wt with wave rector


K for different substances KF, InP & Mgo.
 wsp/wt in all substances increases from top to bottom when K
increases.
 wsp/wt is lower for KF but in other two substances InP & Mgo
wsp/wt increases rapidly [slightly greater value].
 When we plot comparative graph for cylindrical surface of
different substance like KF, InP & Mgo with respect to wave
vector K at same radius 1 A., then all substances have same linear
variation.
 This dispersion curves shows that the frequency of the lower mode
changes slowly and frequency of the upper mode varies rapidly
with the wave vector K.

Thus wsp/wt verses K is almost linear increment of substances KF,


InP & Mgo at same radius cylindrical surface (1 A.) these behaves like
same nature.

The author observe that comparative study of 2A0 radius of cylindrical


substances as

 In this graph we are comparing variation of wsp/wt versus K for


different substances KF, InP & Mgo.
 When we plot comparative graph for cylindrical surface of
different substances at equal radius 2A.. then all substances have
same linear variation.

167
 wsp/wt increases with increment in value of K.
 For KF variation of wsp/wt with K varies with lesser effect where
as for other two substances InP Mgo show more effective linear
variation. At this radius (2 A.) both InP & Mgo having nearly same
value of wsp/wt in comparison to radius (1 A.).

The author observe that comparative study of 16A0 radius of


cylindrical substances as

In this graph we are comparing variation of wsp/wt with wave vector K


for same substances KF, InP & Mgo but his time at higher radius (16 A.)
of cylindrical surface.

 At this radius KF substances has lower value of wsp/wt even starts


from Zero. At this radius cylindrical surface has lower value.
 For KF substance it has lower effect, it means lesser wave
propagate through the surface.
 At this radius (16 A.) both InP & Mgo have same value of wsp/wt so
both have same type (kind) and equal linear variation.

Thus for these comparative study we observe that when radius of


cylinder increases then KF has lower linear variation and InP & Mgo
have greater liner variation.

The frequency of surface plasmon has very small variation in KF


compared to InP & Mgo with respect to radius and propagation constant
(K). The reason is that KF is not a good conductor and it behaves like
polar semiconductor. Thus study is important in nanotechnology and
electronic communication.

But at higher electronic concentrations the frequency of this mode


become almost constant. It is clear that at the higher concentrations, the
168
lower mode become like pure SP mode and upper mode becomes like
pure sop mode. The coupling between SP and sop mode is stronger when
wsp = wsop i.e. where two uncoupled modes intersect. The stronger
coupling is observed at wsp/wt = 1.Thus wsp and wt both are equal then
coupling is stronger.

Thus the surface acts as Band Pass Filter [BPF]. Agian their is no
0 0M
propagation when (W) is negative for " , the surface become
08 08

transparent again act as High pass filter (HPF). from graph we observe
band width ( ) of band pass filter is given by

0@
∆LEO + 1 % (6.7)
08

Thus the allowed band will also be differed for different


compounds.

0M
Similarly ∆QEO + 1 % (6.8)
08

Gives values at which the surface will act as high pass filter. from
study of Szigeti effective charge eS∗ versus with the help of data in
table. from this the best fit of data we find the following relationship
between eS∗ and as

I3∗
=0.074+0.099< > (6.9)
I

The values of can be estimated for different compounds with the


I3∗
help of graphs. from these values can be calculated by using equation.
I

169
from table our calculated values agree well with the experimental values
of Hass and Henvis.

We can conclude that polar semiconductor surface acts as a band


pass filter for ω- <ω<ωt and as high Pass Filter for ω ω+. The es* is

measure of iconicity of polar semiconductors. thus width of band ( )


increases with increase in ionicity. If there is more ionic character, band
of allowed frequency is wider and surface becomes high pass filter at
higher value of frequency ω.

Crystals with the triatomic and cubic structure, these properties


indicate that they are essentially ionic. Szigetti calculated the effective
ionic charge es for the alkaline earth materials using eqn (6.10). In this
equation the reduce mass M for this system as

(1/M) = 1/m1 + 1 / 2 m2 (6.10)

Where m1 is the mass of ion with higher valency and m2 is the


mass of ion with lesser valency. The value of es obtained by szigetti for
CaF2 type crystals. These value of es are of the same order as but
systematically lower than those for the highly ionic alkali halides.

The long wave lattice dynamics of the fluorite lattice was studies
by Axe. For es he obtained the same relation [(eqn) as obtained by szigeti
except that the definition of the reduced mass used by Axe . The value of
es obtained by Axe and his coworkers for several crystals with caF2
structure. The es values for tow oxides with CaF2 structure are distinctly
low and indicate ‘Increased covalency’. Szegeti’s theory is by far the
most comprehensive theory of dielectric. It is applicable to diatomic as
well as polyatomic crystals to ionic as well as covalent crystal. Though

170
the original theory assumed a harmonic cystal szigetti modified it to make
it applicable to anharmonic crystal. The most important contribution of
szigeti’s theory is the concept of the eefiective ionic charge, it has found
applications, the most important being its utility as an ionicity parameters.

Several theoretical models have been proposed to account for the


deviation of the effective ionic change from unity. These models have
provided an insight in the complex polarization mechanisms in solids.
Some new results have been discussed. There are: -

i. Szigeti’s second relation relating the compressibility to the


absorption frequency. It is useful as a consistency check on
compressibility date.
ii. Axe’s modification of szigetti’s theory theory has lead to a method
to estimate the mode Gruneisen parameter of fluorite type crystals.
iii. Systematic calculation of the anharmonic correction for the alkali
halides with Nacl structure has revealed that only LiBr has a
negative correction.

Two equations for the effective ionic charge by Havinga have been
systematically applied to a number of alkali halides.

This is new recent theory of condensed material Science. This


theory can be utilized In electronic communication system and is a
measure of iconicity of polar semi conductors. Thus width of band
increases with increase in iconicity.

171
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183
PUBLICATIONS

1. Study of frequency of plasmons and polaritons on the cylindrical


surface of carbon nano tubes, Indian science congress-2011

2. Nanotechnology: Benefits and Applications, CVPI-NTAMST,


November-2011, Kanpur,

3. Effect of Szigeti effective charge on filtering properties of nano


polar semiconductor, N.C.M.S, Jalandhar, Punjab, March-2012

4. Study of electronic properties of CNT in the electric field,


N.C.M.S, Jalandhar, Punjab,March-2012

5. Surface polariton interaction on surface of condensed nano


materials, ISCA-ISC-2012-11 Mat S-22

6. Radiative and non Radiative Properties of semiconducting surface,


ISABNM, November-2013, LUCKNOW

7. Surface study of Agcl in presence of Dielectric medium, March-


2014, Gorakhpur, U.P

8. Szigeti effective charge interaction on the surface of condensed


nano materials, ISABMS-2014, Lucknow, University (Under
consideration)

184