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7.

2 Fuily Devetoped Flow in pipes and Ducts 431

yol wish to bypass the Moody chart, the friction factor


-If can be
evaluated by successive approximation using the fono;i"g
scheme
based on the Colebrook formula:

1 Guess a value of l, The "fulry turbulent" value


for the given e/D
is usually a good guess if the pipe is rough. The Blasiui
Eq. (7.45), gives a good first guess for .-iotf, pffi. --* '
formula,
, Calculate an improved valuJof /from

f 0.25
/ncw -

Repeat the iteration until you are satisfied tha t


to /.ro (usually two iterations is sufficient). '"'-
fn"nis close enough

EXAM PLE 7.3 lllustrates the energy/pressure loss problem for


turbulent flow

A horizontal commercial steel pipe has an inside diameter of 1.0


m. water at
20'c flows through the pipe ar rhe rare of 1.0 m!/s. Fi"ait
;;;;;
the energy loss in a ?b"m length of the pipe. Assume fully develop.a
"
drop and
no*,.

Solution
Given
Commercial steel pipe
inside diameter 1.0 m
Length75m *
Il'ater flow rate 1.0 m9/s
Iater temperature 20oC
Find
Pressure drop
Inergy loss

Solution
We will solve this problem two ways. ?he first method will
use the Moody
:hart and the second method the Colebrook formula. fn both methods
the energy
.css is found from the Darcy-weisbach formula:

sh,:,(*)(#)
lhe relative roughness for the pipe founC using Fig. ?.12 i"s

:DV: 0.0000?.

lbtaining the kinematic viscosity from Table A.b, we have a Reynolds


number

4q : n( to{)
s/
R- nvD \ L.27 x 106
m2\
,( ,.oo x 10-6
\ T/ (1.0 m)
4gZ Steady lncompressible Flow in Pipes and Ducts

The Moody chart grves f


: 0.01??. Next we u$e Eq. (3.37a) to grve -
r-rL**ttr,i$
^-
F+m

i.l'r-t"F th I

4e a(r.o-\
U r!'rJ4 tdA* \

v a \ .+ : r.z7 m/s.
w"e b.p"re

The-Darcy'Weisbach formula gives


H,1,

.--{ ?5 m\ (r.zz m/s)2


ghr.:0.012?\rO*
)V, Answer p\ l,
J l:l

I Sht= 0'?? m'ls2' I { 5c'


'ri
- F ?fa!
"*-_"tl!''r"a

The pressure droP is +lt.orgl8+


.*lr d& 5
+!

bpa* Ap**T(at-zzl,
where
LPt: Pght, '\ '* II lulli{y
*,n
* E;
7 77 and Ap, * p(gh)' Table A'5 gives p =
$ince the pipe is horizontal, E1 --#
aildb -

998 ke/m3 ,so l'l'+


&#"{i-*
! !,
tr

qr

:770N/m"
"*;d

Ap, - (rnt *)(o'tt H Answcc


lAPr*ZZOFa. I r { {F
+ iql

To use the colebrook formula,'we frrst


ialcutate the relative roughness ald
the Beynolds number, obtaining

= O.OOOOZ, R = 1.2? x 105'


f
,-l;n*E_*J
Sincetheflowisturbulent,theBlasiuaformulacanbetrsedtomakea6c
guess for;f:

1-ffi= *ffffit"=o'ooe4' '


Iterating with Eq. (?.48) gives '*
$" llr
0'25 lffifri'* $I

rl, :-
L
Itl -t,
0.0129'
It ;,
gives
using this value of / on the right side
0.25
c
Fn.* = f
L,out-f
* i:bi
70:0000? \lt
)J
: 0'0127,

and, rePeating the Process'


€ ,, .,, .,,, ,, .' ' "- " "' "' "a'=r, rl
/ ncw -- ,,t-,,,, /0.00007 '0"'?l 2.51
llogf-+ 3.? ' l.w ['
L'-' \ "106@
"lfuumc
itrmx
: 0.0127' :uuuM
7.2 Fully Developed Flow in Pipes and Ducts 433

Convergence has occurred,. IJsing this value of f (the same value we obtained
5om the Moody chart) with the Darcy-Weisbach and pressure drop equatio_qr,
we have
Answer
I sh, - 0.77 N'm/kg I r{
snd
Answer
I AP, = 770 Pa. I

Discussion
Note that pfessure drop and pressure loss are equal because the pipe is
iorizontal and the fow ig fully developed. How would the pressure drop and
iressnre loss change ifthe pipe were vertical (e, - zz* L)?

Velocity/Flow Rate Problem. This problem turns out to be very


:asy using the Colebrook formula but more difficult with the Moody
::art. Recalling that ght, E, and D are given, we define a new Reynolds
-'rmber,

R' = tfR'
r:d write the Colebrook formula,
0.25
f: (7.62)

['"*(9.ff)]'
Ivaluating Ry in terms of dimensional pararneters, we have

Rr: (7.63)

&. does not contain velocity and can be calcr"rlated from the given data.
'fr'e
can solve the velocity/flow rate Broblem as follows:
r Compute R1 by substituting given values of gh1, D, v, and tr into
Eq. (7.63).
r Compute / from Eq. (?.62).
r Compute V from the Darcy-Weisbach equation,
z{ehL)D
(?.64)
fL'
or from
us!.
v - DJ7 (7.65)

r If desired, calculate Q from Eq. (?.55).


),, lte that no iteration is requirerl if the Colebrook formula is used.

-:enation is required if the Moody chart is used because R contains the


rr:k'own velocity.