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CHAPTER II

THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

A. The Description of Theory

1. Vocabulary

a. Definition of Vocabulary

English is very important foreign language for education.

English is also essential to the field of education.At the university

level, students in many countries study almost all their subjects in

English in order to make the material more accessible to

international students. Without a proportional amount of

vocabulary anyone will get trouble in her speaking, reading,

listening, and writing. In learning English, vocabulary has an

important role.

There are many definition of vocabulary proposed by some

expert because vocabulary is very important to language learners.

According to Richards (2002:255), vocabulary is the core

component of language proficiency and provides much of the basis

for how well learners speak, listen, read, and write.

Vocabulary can be defined as '' words we must know to

communicate effectively; words in speaking (expressive

vocabulary) and words in listening (receptive vocabulary)''

(Neuman&Dwyer, 2009, p. 385)

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Wilkins in Thornbury (2002: 13) summed up that without

vocabulary nothing can be conveyed. Vocabulary refers to all

words in the whole language used in a particular variety.

According to Kridalaksana, vocabulary is a component of a

language that maintains all of information about meaning and

using word in a language.

Vocabulary is an obvious area for language variation (Celce

and Olshtain, 2000: 78). It means that the vocabulary is a key of

language, because without vocabulary the language cannot convey.

Skills language is like speaking, writing, reading and listening will

not convey with other people. In speaking and listening, we cannot

speak and listen if we do not know the words or the meaning of the

words to we speak or listen. In reading and writing, we cannot read

write then if we do not know the words or the meaning of the

words to we read or write. Well, the vocabulary so important part

of the language.

Based on above, we can conclude that vocabulary is

important part of language especially in all foreign language and

language itself consist of words and vocabulary consist of words as

well. Vocabulary is the collection of words that an individual

knows (Linse, 2005: 129). Without vocabulary we can’t say

anything or we feel difficult to do it. So that ways, vocabulary is

basic over all.

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Based on expert opinion, it could be summarized that

vocabulary is one of important English aspects which need to use

suitable vocabulary instruction or strategy to get attention the

learners. Vocabulary is very important to encourage students’

ability in English. Therefore, learning vocabulary is a crucial

matter in developing their English.

b. Kinds of Vocabulary

According to Miller (2000:178) there are several different

types of vocabulary, such as listening vocabulary, speaking

vocabulary, reading vocabulary, and writing vocabulary.

a. Listening vocabulary

Listening vocabulary is all the words that can recognize

when listening to speech. This vocabulary is aided in size by

context and tone of voice.

b. Speaking vocabulary

Speaking vocabulary is all the words which can use in

speech. Due to the spontaneous nature of the speaking

vocabulary, words are often misused. This misused though

slight and unintentional may be compensated by facial

expressions, tone of voice, or hand gestures.

c. Reading vocabulary

Reading vocabulary is all the words that can recognize

when reading.

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d. Writing vocabulary

Writing vocabulary is all that words that can employ in

writing.

Nation (2001:11) states that we can distinguish four kinds

ofvocabulary in the text: high-frequency words, academic

words, technical words, and low-frequency words.

a. High-frequency words

There is a small group of high frequency which very

important because these words cover a very large proportion of

the running words in spoken and written texts and occur in all

kinds of uses of the language.

b. Academic words

The text is from academic textbook and contains many

words that are common in different kinds of academic text:

policy, phase, adjusted, sustained. Typically these words make

up about 9% of the running words in the text.

c. Technical words

The text contains some words that are very closely related

to the topic and subject of the text. These words include

indigenous, regeneration, pod carp, beech, rimy, and timber.

These words are reasonably common in this topic area but no so

common elsewhere. As soon as we see them we know that topic

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is being dealt with. Technical words like this typically cover

about 5% of the running words in a text.

d. Low-frequency words

This group included words like zoned, pioneering and

perpetuity, aired and pastoral. They make up over 5 % of the

words in an academic text. There are thousands of them in the

language, by far the biggest group of words. They consist of the

technical words for other subject areas, proper nouns, words that

almost got the high – frequency list and words that we rarely

meet in our use in the language.

Meanwhile, Hedge (2003:116) divides vocabulary into two

kinds of vocabulary, they are: active vocabulary, is a number of

words which students use in speaking and writing. Passive

vocabulary is a number of words which students should be able

to recognize and understand when they are listening to someone

or when they are reading.

c. Teaching Vocabulary

Vocabulary is very importance in learning language. It needs a

serious attention in learning vocabulary from both learners and

teachers. It becomes a great challenging act for the teacher to teach

vocabulary, what kind of methods they use, what kind of

vocabulary that they give, of how many vocabularies that they

should teach.

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According to Schmitt (1997) there are scene key principles

of teaching vocabulary :

1. Build a large sight of vocabulary.

2. Integrated new words with previous words.

3. Provide a number of encounters with a word.

4. Promotes deep level of processing (p.146)

It needs a serious attention in learning vocabulary from both

learners and teachers. It becomes a great challenging act for the

teacher to teach vocabulary, what kind of methods they use, what

kind of vocabulary that they give, or how many vocabularies that

they should teach.

d. Assessing Vocabulary

Vocabulary assessment seems straightforward in the sense

that wordlists are readily available to provide a basis for selecting a

set of words to be tested.

According to Read (2000 : 17) “A basic assumption in

vocabulary testing is that we are assessing knowledge of words”. It

means that assessing vocabulary is used for measure the size of the

student’s vocabulary.

These three of components of word above researcher make

assessment in form of multiple choices. Multiple choice can be

scoring by formula scoring without correction. Which is way of

scoring each item on the answered correctly gets the value of one (

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depending on the weight of items, so that total score obtained by

the learner is to count the number of items are answeres correctly.

It is line with Read (2000:2)

e. Vocabulary Mastery

Mastering vocabularies is very important for language

learner because without mastering vocabulary, language learners

will get some difficulties in developing four language skill.

Willis (2008:80) said that when students build vocabulary mastery,

they can more effectively communicate their ideas, knowledge and

voive. With mastering vocabulary students will be good in

communicate.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher

summarizing that vocabulary mastery is component of language

that important to understand the word.

2. Mind Mapping

a. Definition of Mind Mapping

Sebagai penemu dari metode ini, Buzan (2012:4)

mengungkapkan “Mind Mapping adalah cara termudah untuk

menempatkan informasi kedalam otak dan mengambil informasi

keluar dari otak. Mind Mapping adalah cara mencatat yang kreatif,

efektif, dan secara harfiah akan memetakan pikiran kita. Mind

Mapping juga sangat sederhana”.

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Sebagai penemu dari metode ini, Buzan (2012:4)

mengungkapkan “Mind Mapping adalah cara termudah untuk

menempatkan informasi kedalam otak dan mengambil informasi

keluar dari otak. Mind Mapping adalah cara mencatat yang kreatif,

efektif, dan secara harfiah akan memetakan pikiran kita. Mind

Mapping juga sangat sederhana”.

Metode Mind Mapping membantu kita mengingat

perkataan dan bacaan, meningkatkan pemahaman terhadap materi,

membantu mengorganisasi materi, dan memberikan wawasan baru

(Deporter, 2010:225).

Suyatno (2009: 73) menyebutkan bahwa pembelajaran

Mind Mapping sangat cocok untuk me_review pengetahuan awal

siswa.

Disamping itu, Buzan (2012:8) mengungkapkan bahwa

simbol dan gambar seringkali lebih berdaya untuk mengungkapkan

pikiran maupun mengingat suatu hal. Karena menurutnya “otak

memiliki kemampuan alami untuk pengenalan visual, bahkan

sebenarnya pengenalan yang sempurna”. Oleh karena itu, simbol-

simbol dan ilustrasi-ilustrasi dapat ditambahkan pada Mind

Mapping yang dibuat untuk menambatkan ingatan yang lebih baik.

Selain itu Mind Mapping yang baik dibuat dengan

mengkombinasikan beberapa warna sehingga terkesan berwarna-

warni dan tidak monoton.

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Berdasarkan pendapat di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa

Mind Mapping adalah sebuah diagram yang mempresentasikan

kata-kata, ide-ide (pikiran), tugastugas atau hal lain untuk

memudahkan kita dalam mengingat banyak informasi.

Peta pikiran tersebut, peta informasi yang panjang dapat

dibuat menjadi diagram warna-warni, sangat teratur, dan mudah

diingat yang bekerja selaras dengan cara kerja alami otak dalam

melakukan berbagai hal.

b. Teaching English Using Mind Mapping

Sebelum membuat sebuah peta pikiran diperlukan beberapa

bahan, yaitu kertas kosong tak bergaris, pena, dan pensil warna.

Buzan (2012:15) mengemukakan ada tujuh langkah untuk

membuat Mind Map (peta pikiran). Tujuh langkah tersebut adalah

sebagai berikut:

1. memulai dari bagian tengah kertas kosong yang sisi panjangnya

diletakkan mendatar. Hal itu dikarenakan apabila dimulai dari

tengah akan memberi kebebasan kepada otak untuk menyebar

ke segala arah dan untuk mengungkapkan dirinya secara lebih

bebas dan alami.

2. menggunakan gambar atau foto untuk ide sentral. Karena sebuah

gambar atau foto akan mempunyai seribu kata yang membantu

otak dalam menggunakan imajinasi yang akan diungkapkan.

Sebuah gambar sentral akan lebih menarik, membuat otak tetap

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terfokus, membantu otak berkonsentrasi, dan mengaktifkan

otak.

3. menggunakan warna yang menarik. Karena bagi otak, warna

sama menariknya dengan gambar. Warna membuat Mind Map

(peta pikiran) lebih hidup, menambah energi pada pemikiran

yang kreatif dan menyenangkan.

4. menghubungkan cabang-cabang utama ke gambar pusat dan

hubungkan cabang-cabang tingkat dua dan tingkat tiga ke

tingkat satu dan dua dan seterusnya. Karena otak bekerja

menurut asosiasi. Otak senang mengaitkan dua (atau tiga atau

empat) hal sekaligus. Apabila cabang-cabang dihubungkan

akan lebih mudah diingat dan dimengerti.

5. membuat garis hubung yang melengkung, bukan garis lurus.

Karena garis lurus akan membosankan otak. Cabang-cabang

yang melengkung dan organis seperti cabang-cabang pohon

jauh lebih menarik bagi mata.

6. menggunakan satu kata kunci utnuk setiap garis. Karena dengan

kata kunci tunggal member lebih banyak daya dan fleksibilitas

kepada peta pikiran.

7. menggunakan gambar. Karena setiap gambar sentral bermakna

seribu kata. Dengan memperhatikan cara-cara membuat Mind

Mapping dan menerapkannya dalam pembelajaran itu siswa

dapat berlatih mengembangkan otaknya secara maksimal, siswa

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akan lebih mudah berkonsentrasi karena setiap catatan yang

dibuat oleh masing-masing siswa bersifat unik dan mudah

dipahami.

c. Advantages of Mind Mapping

Metode pembelajaran mind mapping digunakan dalam

kegiatan mencatat, meringkas dan menghafalkan suatu materi.

Mind mapping sebagai metode pembelajaran memiliki kelebihan

dan kekurangan. DePorter (2013: 171-172) menyatakan bahwa

kelebihan mind mapping adalah fleksibel, dapat memusatkan

perhatian, meningkatkan pemahaman, dan menyenangkan.

Sedangkan kekurangan mind mapping adalah tidak semua detail

informasi dapat dimuat, hanya siswa aktif yang dapat terlibat, dan

memerlukan waktu yang cukup banyak untuk membuat mind

mapping. Menurut Kurniasih dan Berlin (2015: 54) kelebihan dan

kekurangan mind mapping adalah sebagai berikut.

a). Kelebihan mind mapping

1. Cepat dimengerti dan cepat juga dalam menyelesaikan

persoalan.

2. Mind mapping terbukti dapat digunakan untuk

mengorganisasikan ide-ide yang muncul di kepala.

3. Proses menggambar diagram bisa memunculkan ide-ide yang

lain.

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4. Diagram yang sudah dibentuk bisa menjadi panduan untuk

menulis.

b). Kekurangan mind mapping

1. Hanya siswa yang aktif yang terlibat.

2. Tidak sepenuhnya siswa yang belajar.

3. Jumlah detail informasi tidak dapat dimasukkan.

Berdasarkan pendapat di atas, peneliti menyimpulkan bahwa

mind mapping memiliki beberapa kelebihan dan kekurangan.

Kelebihan mind mapping antara lain dapat memacu kreativitas

siswa, meningkatkan pemahaman, lebih mudah diingat, serta

menyenangkan bagi siswa.

Adapun kelemahan mind mapping yaitu cenderung hanya siswa

yang aktif saja yang terlibat dan detail informasi tidak dapat dimuat

semua, dan memerlukan waktu yang lama.

B. Relevan of the study

C. Conceptual Framework

Vocabulary mastery is the knowledge in understanding the words.

Vocabulary is one of the basic elements in mastering English, such us,

listening, speaking, reading, and writing. However, many students are not

able to answer the question because usually the teachers only teach about

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materials without focus on student’s vocabulary and also there are many

students do not interesting in learning English. To help the students could

be easier the researcher used vocabulary lists in this research is a technique

in teaching in which students helping other students who lack of ability.

When lessons, teacher teach antonym and synonym, them teacher

give students vocabulary list to make students’ vocabulary mastery will be

more easily achieve than using conventional method.

D. Hypothesis of the Research

The hypothesis of this research can be stated as follow :

1. Research hypothesis of Pre Test

H0 : there is no significant difference of the students’ vocabulary

mastery result in control class and experimental class.

H1 : there is significant difference of the students’ vocabulary mastery

result in control class and experimental class.

2. Research hypothesis of Post Test

H0 : there is no significant difference of the students’ vocabulary

mastery result between using vocabulary lists and without vocabulary

list.

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H1 : there is significant difference of the students’ vocabulary mastery

result between using vocabulary lists and without vocabulary lists.

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