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 Bendungan Lengkung (Arch Dam).

Bendungan lengkung yaitu bendungan yang


berbentuk melengkung dengan lengkungan mengarah ke hulu sungai. Distribusi beban
pada bendungan lengkung yaitu, pada dinding bendungan berfungsi mendorong beban
ke bagian tumpuan bendungan lalu mendistribusikannya ke bagian tumpuan dan
pondasi.Bendungan lengkung umumnya terbuat dari beton pratekan, jadi bendungan ini
bisa menghemat volume beton dari pada jenis bendungan lainnya. Bendungan lengkung
adalah tipe bendungan yang baik untuk daerah yang sempit di daerah pegunungan
dengan dinding batu yang terjal. Bendungan lengkung terdapat dua jenis yaitu lengkung
tunggal dan lengkung ganda, perbedaannya yaitu pada jumlah tumpuan pada lengkung
ganda lebih banyak dari pada lengkung tunggal

Bendungan tipe *engkung ( urved gravity Dams)

+pabila panjang as bendungan sempit, maka sebagian dari gaya


yang bekerja pada bendungan ialihkan ke tebing (abutment)! 7ntuk menghindariterjad
inya gaya tarik pada tubuh Bendungan beton, maka bentuk
bendungand i s e s u a i k a n d e n g a n p e n y e b a r a n a r a h g a y a y a n g t e r j a d i , d a n
y a n g p a l i n g mendekati kea rah tegak lurus ke abutment adalah membuat bentuk
lengkung( urved) atau busur
(+rch)!c ! B e n d u n g a n t i p e B u s u r ( + r c h D a m s ) + p a b i l a b e n d u n g t i p e l e
n g k u n g ( u r v e d D a m s ) t e r j a d i d e n g a n pengalihan beban ke abutment
lebih besar, akibat bentuk topografi yang lebihcuram dan lebih sempit, maka untuk
memperoleh bentuk Bendungan
yangl e b i h s e s u a i d e n g a n p e n y e b a r a n g a y a y a n g t e r j a d i
dengan arah tekan ked i n d i n g a b u t m e n t , m a k a b e n t u k s t r u k t u r m
e n j a d i l e n g k u n g b u s u r a t a u Bendungan tipe Busur (+rch
Dams)!d ! B e n d u n g a n d e n g a n 1 e n y a n g g a ( B u t t r e s s D a m s )
An arch dam transfers loads to the abutments and foundations both by cantilever
action and through horizontal arches, and a method of distribution was developed by
Stucky in Switzerland and the USBoR.

The assumptions made are not strictly true so the effect of each must be understood
before accepting the design.

 The concrete in the dam and the rock foundations are homogeneous and
isotropic;
 Stresses within the elastic limit for both concrete and the rock formations and
that stress will be proportional to strain;
 That plane sections before bending remain plane after bending;
 That direct stresses vary linearly between the upstream and downstream faces,
in both arch and cantilever elements;
 That the modulus of elasticity of concrete and the modulus of deformation of
the foundation are the same in tension as in compression;
 That temperature stresses and strains are proportional to temperature changes;
 That water load on the reservoir walls does not cause differential movements at
the damsite;
 That foundation deformations are independent of the shape of the foundation;
 That tensions are relieved by cracking so that all loads are carried by
compression and shear in the uncracked portions;
 That the dam acts as a monlith, i.e. that contraction joints or slots have been
tightly grouted and that all shrinkage of the concrete has taken place before
this.

The parameters controlling design, other than actual geometry include:

 The loads on the dam; Loading and Factor of Safety


 The degree of fixity to foundation and abutments;
 The properties of the component materials of the dam and the foundations.

Steel reinforcement can reduce the thickness of the dam but at a cost. If reinforcement
was not used then cracking in the faces of an arch dam may result from:

 Excessive tensile stress due to dam geometry;


 Secondary tension resulting from high compressive forces in thin members;
 Secondary tensile stresses at the arch haunches and parallel to the abutments;
 'Hang up' of concrete adjacent to a near vertical abutment;
 Temperature effects - either due to hydration of the cement or climatic
conditions.

Definition of different arch dams based on base thickness (h is height of the dam):
Thin arch <0.2h
Medium arch 0.2h - 0.3h
Thick arch >0.3h
Arch-gravity >0.5h

Reinforcement is not generally required in arch-gravity dams or thick arch dams. Its
use in thin arch dams is favoured, however for a 90m high dam the cost of
reinforcement will be many millions of dollars, which could mitigate the adoption of
such a dam.

Uplift - is not usually of importance in thin arch dams, but in thick arch dams
provision is made for internal drainage, as for gravity dams. If the design assumes that
the concrete will crack if tensions exceed say 0.4MPa, then it is consistent to assume
that full hydrostatic pressure can act in such cracks.

Tensile stresses - the aim of the designer is to eliminate tensile stresses, although this
is not always possible since an irregular cross-section can generate local stress
concentrations, and necessary excavation of abutments beyond the design limits will
alter the geometry of the dam, and possibly affect the degree of fixity.

http://community.dur.ac.uk/~des0www4/cal/dams/conc/concf13.htm

Construction[edit]
The dam was built by a consortium of Bouygues, Concor, Group 5, Hochtief, Impregilo, Kier
Group and Sterling International.[1] The dam was completed in 1996 and the reservoir filled with
water by 1997. The total cost of the project was US$8 billion.[2]

Environmental impact[edit]
The mass of water gave rise to induced seismicity.[3] Farmers who lost land to the project have had
trouble re-establishing new livelihoods. There is little arable land in the mountains to replace all that
was lost, and efforts to help them with new livelihoods have by no means been as successful as the
engineering works. A local group has documented the project's human legacy in the rural
communities directly affected by the project,[4] and the environmental and human-
rights NPO, International Rivers, produced a detailed account of the effects.[5]
Satellite view of the reservoir

As mitigation of the loss of habitat, plant rescue missions were conducted in the area to be flooded,
and Katse Botanical Gardens was established to house and propagate the plants rescued.[6]

Water delivery[edit]

Aerial video footage of the Katse Dam.

Water from the dam first travels through a 45 km, 4 m diameter tunnel, exiting at
a hydroelectricstation near Muela. The dam's high elevation allows a gravity flow delivery system to
South Africa, in addition to hydroelectric power for Lesotho, and was a prime reason behind the
choice of site.
Water delivery officially began on 22 January 1998. The dam currently supplies about 30 m³/s of
water to South Africa, which pays Lesotho $35 million per year, plus a variable royalty based on
calculated water usage benefits.
In recent years, water from the scheme has also been discharged into the Mohokare (Caledon) river
to provide water to Maseru in times of critical shortages. The new dams have filled as anticipated
and discharge of water from the dams into the downstream rivers continues in a scheme devised to
preserve ecological balances. This discharged water flows to the Senqu (Orange) and while
preserving the ecological status quo benefits only those communities along the rivers, and schemes
to provide water supplies to displaced Highlands farmers have not been very successful.[5]
The dam project has also been a source of widespread corruption,[7] which is not uncommon with
large dam projects. The Lesotho courts have taken the unusual step of prosecuting the large
companies involved in the scandal in addition to the Lesotho bureaucrat who took the bribes. Thus
far, there have been a number of convictions and at least one company debarred by the World Bank
for its role in the scandal.

Intake Tower Water transfer[edit]


The intake tower is located approximately 18 km north of Katse Dam and has been designed to
accommodate 70 m³/s which was the maximum transfer originally envisaged for full implementation
of the LHWP. The intake tower is 23m in diameter and 98m high to accommodate the large range in
reservoir storage elevation as well as to facilitate the draw-off at four distinct lake levels. This will
enable the quality of the transferred water to be controlled at all times. Due to the position and
design of the intake tower, there is a certain volume of water in the reservoir that cannot be
accessed via the transfer tunnels. This dead storage is approximately 430 million m³, with the result
that the effective live storage behind Katse Dam is reduced from the total storage capacity of 1 950
million m³ to 1 520 million m³.

Dam features[edit]
Alternative view of Katse Dam

 Height - 185 m (second largest in Africa)


 Crest length - 710 m
 Design - double arch, concrete
 Concrete - 2,320,000 cubic meters
 1993 meters above sea level (highest dam in Africa)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katse_Dam