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Engineering Material Standard and Designation

„ Standard : a reference document for properties


measurement and procedures.

„ Standard types :
… Specification, Testing Methods, and Recommended
Practice

„ Specification : engineering and commercial


requirements of a product

„ Testing Methods : procedures to identify,


measured, and evaluate material properties

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„ Recommended Practice : a guidance to conduct good
operation and maintenance

„ Standards are issued by :


… Country : ASTM, JIS, DIN, BS, AFNOR, AS, GOST, NORSOK,
SII
… Professional Organization : AISI, ASME, API, NACE, SAE,
AWS, AWWA

„ UNS (Unified Numbering System) : to combine/correlating


many nationally used metal and alloy numbering system currently
administered by societies, trade association, and those individual
users and producers of metals and alloys

UNS Series Metals and Alloys

Axxxxx Aluminum and aluminum alloys


Cxxxxx Copper and copper alloys
Fxxxxx Cast iron
Gxxxxx AISI and SAE carbon and alloy steel
Hxxxxx AISI and SAE H-steel
Jxxxxx Cast steel (except tool steel)
Kxxxxx Miscellaneous steel and ferrous alloys
Lxxxxx Low melting metals and alloys
Mxxxxx Miscellaneous nonferrous metals and alloys
Nxxxxx Nickel and nickel alloys
Pxxxxx Precious metals and alloys
Rxxxxx Reactive and refractory metals and alloys
Sxxxxx Heat and corrosion resistant steels
Txxxxx Tool steels, wrought and cast
Wxxxxx Welding filler metals
Zxxxxx Zinc and zinc alloys

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Code : a standard or rules that must be adopted.

Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code


Section Title
I Power Boiler

II Material Specifications :
A. Ferrous
B. Non-Ferrous
C. Welding rod, electrodes, and filler metal
III Nuclear Power Plant Components
IV Heating Boiler

V Non Destructive Examination

VI Recommended Rule for Care and Operation on Heating Boiler


VII Recommended Rule for Care and Operation on Power Boiler

VIII Pressure Vessel

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ASTM Specification Material Product

ASTM A 53 Carbon steel Welded and seamless pipe

ASTM A 106 Carbon steel Seamless pipe

ASTM A 105 Carbon steel Forged pipe

ASTM A 181 Carbon steel Forged flange

ASTM A 234 Carbon steel Fitting


ASTM B 167 Inconel 600 Seamless pipe

ASTM B 241 Aluminum Seamless pipe

ASTM B 43 Copper Seamless pipe


ASTM B 337 Titanium Seamless pipe

FERROUS ALLOYS

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Classifications of
Metallic Materials

„ Steel and its alloys are the most widely used metallic material in
industries

„ General types :
… PLAIN CARBON STEEL :
„ Low Carbon Steel : C < 0.2%

„ Medium Carbon Steel : C = 0.2 – 0.5%

„ High Carbon Steel : C > 0.5%

… LOW ALLOY STEEL :


„ Alloying elements < 8%

… HIGH ALLOY STEEL :


„ Alloying elements > 8% :

„ Corrosion Resistant Steel

„ Heat Resistant Steel

„ Wear Resistant Steel

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Type of Steels based on De-oxidation Practice

„ Killed Steel : fully deoxidized


„ Rimmed Steel : no deoxidizer is added
„ Capped Steel : deoxidizer, quality between Killed and
Rimmed

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„ Killed steel :
… High quality steel, no porosities
… Slight evolution of gas during solidification after pouring
… More uniform chemical composition and properties
… De-oxidixers : Si, Al, Ti, V, Zr
„ Semi-killed steel :
… Medium quality, for structural shape steel
… More evolution of gas compare to killed steel but less than
capped and rimmed steels
„ Rimmed and capped steel :
… For steel sheet, porosities will be eliminated during cold rolling
… Non uniform chemical composition
… Low carbon and manganese content

Effect of Alloying Elements in Steels

„ CARBON ( C ) :
… Main strengthening element
… Carbide forming element, crack initiation site

„ MANGANESE (Mn) :
… Pick-up S to form MnS (%Mn = 1.7(%S) + 0.15)
… Strengthening element
… Increase impact value

„ SILICON (Si) :
… Deoxidizer
… Increase Yield Strength
… Increase impact value

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„ ALUMINUM (Al) :
… Deoxidizer
… To refine the grain (AlN precipitates on the grain boundary)
… Increase impact value

„ COPPER (Cu) :
… Increase strength
… Increase atmospheric corrosion resistance ( > 0.2%)

„ CHROMIUM (Cr) :
… Corrosion and oxidation resistance
… Carbide forming element (secondary hardening)
… Increase strength

„ NICKEL (Ni) :
… Increase impact value
… Austenite stabilizer
… Increase strength

„ MOLYBDENUM (Mo) :
… Carbide forming element (secondary hardening)
… Increase strength

„ TITANIUM (Ti), VANADIUM (V), NIOBIUM (Nb) :


… Deoxidizer
… Carbide and nitride forming elements

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„ ZIRCONIUM (Zr) :
… Modified sulphide inclusions

„ BORON (B) :
… Improve harddenability
… Small amount (0.0005 – 0.003%)

„ LOW CARBON STEELS


… Low carbon (< 0.25%), unresponsive to heat treatment
… Strengthening by alloying and cold working
… Low strength, high ductility, good weldability, good machine
ability, high toughness, cheap
… Typical application : structural shape, automobile body, pipe, tin
plate

… Plain carbon steel : alloying elements C, Si, Mn, Cu

… High Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA) :


„ additional alloying elements of : V, Ni, Mo; B
„ strengthened by heat treatment
„ Higher strength than plain carbon steel, better weldability, better
formability

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Chemical Composition of
Plain Carbon Steel and High Strength Low Alloy Steel
ASTM UNS C Si Mn
Number Number

1010 G10100 0.08 – 0.30 –


0.13 0.60
1020 G10200 0.18 – 0.30 –
0.23 0.60
A36 K02600 < 0.26 < 0.40 0.18 – Cu > 0.20
1.20
A516 Gr K02700 < 0.27 0.15 – 0.85 –
70 0.40 1.20

A440 K12810

A633 K12002
Gr E
A656 K11804 < 0.18 < 0.60 < 1.65 V = 0.008 – 0.15, Nb < 0.008, N
Gr 70 < 0.020

Mechanical Properties
Material Tensile Yield Elongation Applications
Strength Strength (%)
(MPa) (MPa
1010

1020

A36 400 - > 250 > 23 Structural (bridges and


550 building)
A516 Gr 485 - > 260 > 21 Low temperature pressure
70 620 vessel
A440

A633
Gr E
A656 > 550 > 485 ¾17 Truck frames, rail cars,
Gr 70 crane booms

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Medium Carbon Steel

„ Carbon content : 0.25 – 0.60 %


„ Heat treated by Q and T to improve mechanical
properties
„ Alloy addition (Cr, Mo, Ni) to improve hardenability

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High Carbon Steel

„ Carbon content : 0.60 – 1.4%


„ The hardest, strongest carbon steel
„ The lowest ductility
„ Is used under heat treated conditions
„ Alloying addition (Cr, W, Mo, V) to increase hardenability
„ Excellent wear resistance

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Stainless Steel

„ Corrosion resistant by addition of Cr > 10.5%


„ There are five types :
… Ferritic stainless steel
… Austenitic stainless steel
… Martensitic stainless steel
… Duplex stainless steel
… Precipitation hardened stainless steel

The Effect of Alloying Elements


„ Chromium :
… To form Cr2O3 pasivation layer on the surface
… Minimum content for corrosion resistance, Cr > 10.5%
… Layer stability is achieved at Cr = 18 – 20%

„ Nickel :
… To obtain austenitic structure at room temperature (6 – 8%)
… To increase toughness
… To increase the SCC resistance (Ni = 30%)

„ Manganese :
… To obtain austenitic structure at room temperature
… To increase the strength

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„ Molybdenum :
… To increase pitting corrosion resistance ( 3% )
… To stabilize passivation layer

„ Carbon :
… To increase strength, especially for martensitic group
… Reducing toughness of the ferritic group
… Reducing weldability
… Reducing corrosion resistance by carbide formation
(Cr23C6, Cr3C7, CrC)

„ Nitrogen :
… Increase pitting corrosion resistance of austenitic group
… Reduce strength of the ferritic group

„ Ferritic Stainless Steel :


… Microstructure : ferrite
… High strength compare to Austenitic Grade
… Poor Weldability
… Excellent SCC resistance
… Widely used : 409, 430

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Typical Chemical Composition of
Ferritic Stainless Steel

Type C Cr Mn Si Other Elements


405 ≤ 0.08 11.5-14.5 ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0 Al = 0.10 – 0.30
409 ≤ 0.08 10.5 – ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0 Ti = 6 x C/0.75 max.
11.8
429 ≤ 0.12 14 - 16 ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0
430 ≤ 0.12 16 - 18 ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0
430F ≤ 0.12 16 - 18 ≤ 1.25 ≤ 1.0 S > 0.15, Mo < 0.60
430FSe ≤ 0.12 16 - 18 ≤ 1.25 ≤ 1.0 Se > 0.15
434 ≤ 0.12 16 - 18 ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0 Mo = 0.75 – 1.25
436 ≤ 0.12 16 - 18 ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0 Mo = 0.75 – 1.25,
(Nb + Ta) = 5 x C (0.70
442 ≤ 0.20 18 - 23 ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0 max.)

446 ≤ 0.20 23 - 27 ≤ 1.50 ≤ 1.0 N < 0.25

„ Austenitic Stainless Steel :


… Microstructure : austenite
… Lower strength than ferritic group
… Excellent Weldability
… Poor SCC resistance
… Widely used : 304, 304L, 316, 316L

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Typical Chemical Composition of
Austenitic Stainless Steel
Type C Cr Ni Mo N Ti Nb
304 ≤ 0.08 18 - 20 8 - 15
304L ≤ 0.03 18 - 20 8 - 15
310 ≤ 0.25 24 - 26 19 – 22
316 ≤ 0.08 16 - 18 10 - 14 2–3
316L ≤ 0.03 16 - 18 10 - 14 2–3
321 ≤ 0.08 17 - 19 9 - 12 5 x %C
347 ≤ 0.08 17 - 19 9 - 13 10 x %
C
904L ≤ 19 - 23 23 - 28 4-5
0.020
254SMo ≤ 19.5 – 17.5 – 6 – 6.5 0.18 –
0.020 20.5 18.5 0.22
654SMo ≤ 24 - 26 21 - 23 7-8 0.45 –
0.020 0.55

„ Martensitic Stainless Steel :


… Highest strength and wear resistance
… Minimum corrosion resistance
… Not recommended above 500 oC
… Prone to temper embrittlement
… Prone to quenched cracking

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Typical Chemical Composition of
Martensitic Stainless Steel
Type C Cr Mn Si Other Elements
410 ≤ 0.15 11.5 – ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0
13.5
414 ≤ 0.15 11.5 – ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0 Ni = 1.25 – 2.5
13.5
416 ≤ 0.15 12 - 14 ≤ 1.25 ≤ 1.0 S > 0.15, Mo > 0.60
416Se ≤ 0.15 12 - 14 ≤ 1.25 ≤ 1.0 Se > 0.15
420 > 0.15 12 - 14 ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0
420F > 0.15 12 - 14 ≤ 1.25 ≤ 1.0 S > 0.15
431 > 0.20 15 - 17 ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0 Ni = 1.25 – 2.50
440A 0.60 - 16 - 18 ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0 Mo > 0.75
0.75
440B 0.75 - 16 - 18 ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0 Mo > 0.75
0.95
440C 0.95 - 16 - 18 ≤ 1.0 ≤ 1.0 Mo > 0.75
1.20

„ Duplex Stainless Steel :


… Microstructure: austenite + ferrite
… Strength between austenitic and ferritic
… Good Weldability
… Good SCC resistance

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Phase Balance

„ PRE (Pitting Resistance „ Ideal austenite to ferrite ratio =


Equivalent) = % Cr + 3.3 50 : 50
(%Mo+%W) + 16 (%N)
„ Austenite stabilizer : Ni, N, Cu

„ DSS : PRE < 40 „ Ferrite stabilizer : Cr, Mo, Si

„ SDSS : PRE > 40 „ Ferrite content of 70 – 80% will


give maximum BM strength at
RT
„ Resistance to pitting
corrosion, PRE > 30 „ The toughness of BM will
decrease when ferrite content
> 60%

Chemical Composition of DSS dan SDSS


UNS UNS UNS UNS UNS
S32304 S31803 S32750 S32550 S39274
(2304) (2205) (2507) (255)
C, max. 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.03
Mn, max. 2.50 2.0 1.20 1.50 1.0
Si, max. 1.0 1.0 0.8 1.0 0.80
Ni 3.0 – 5.5 4.5 – 6.5 6.0 – 8.0 4.5 – 6.50 6–8
Cr 21.5 – 24.5 21 – 23 24 - 26 24 - 27 24 – 26
Mo 0.05 – 0.6 2.5 – 3.5 3.0 – 5.0 2.90 – 3.90 2.50 – 3.50
N 0.05 – 0.20 0.08 – 0.24 – 0.10 – 0.25 0.24 – 0.32
0.20 0.32
Cu 0.05 - 0.60 -- ≤ 0.50 1.5 – 2.5 0.20 – 0.80
W, max. --- -- 1.50 – 2.50
PREN 22 - 30 31 - 38 38 - 48 35 - 44 41 - 51

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CAST IRON (Besi Cor, Besi Tuang)

„ Alloying of Fe and C, C > 1.7%


„ There are two types of carbon present :
… Compound of Fe3C (cementite)
… Free carbon (graphite)
„ Classification based on fractured surface :
… White cast iron
… Gray cast iron
„ Classification based on graphite morphology :
… Flake
… Nodular
… Compacted
… Tempered

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Copper Alloys

„ The oldest material „ Commercial copper conductor


„ There are two types : contains 99.9% Cu, and was
called oxygen free high
… Pure copper conductivity (OFHC)
… Copper alloys „ One of the impurities is Cu2O
(0.45 – 0.55%). This type of
conductor is called tough pitch
„ Pure Copper : conductor. Cu2O will not affect
… High electrical conductivity conductivity
… Resistance to atmospheric „ The impurities will decrease
corrosion, seawater conductivity
corrosion, „ Alloyed with 0.5% As to
increase high temperature
… Resistance to microbial strength but will not reduce
corrosion conductivity
… Soft and good formability „ Machinabaility is improved by
… Mechanical properties can addition of 0.5% Pb or Te
be improved by alloying

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Copper Alloys

1. Brass (Cu-Zn)
2. Bronze (Cu-Sn)
3. Tin Brass (Cu-Zn-Sn)
4. Aluminium Brass (Cu-Zn-Al)
5. Free Cutting Brass (Cu-Zn-Pb)
6. Phosphor Bronze (Cu-Sn-P)
7. Aluminum Bronze (Cu-Sn-Al)
8. Copper Nickel (Cu-Ni)
9. Nickel Silver (Ni-Ag)
10. Copper Silicon (Cu-Si)

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